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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted forEstimation of Gas Leak

2

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It discusses how pressure/flow controllers, variable speed and variable displacement compressors, automation, and addressing critical plant pressures allow plant personnel to lower the header pressure, which eliminates artificial demand and controls the leak...

Beals, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Saving Money with Air and Gas Leak Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uncorrected air leaks and gas leaks cost your businesses time and money as well as being environmentally unfriendly. ? Air Leak Surveys ? Nitrogen Leak Surveys ? Gas Leak Survey (H2, O2, Natural Gas) ? Steam Leak Surveys ? Steam Trap Surveys ? Safe... costly problems ? Are caused by dozens, perhaps hundreds of hard to pinpoint outflows which are caused by vibrations and a corrosive atmosphere. ?We can find your leaks in areas that that would be unnoticed and undetected to the human ear ? Details...

Woodruff, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for carbon dioxide geologic sequestration protecting the sources of potable water.

Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

6

Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,, * Adrian Down, Nathan G increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic

Jackson, Robert B.

8

Imaging Gas Leaks using Schlieren Optics by Gary S. Settles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-intrusive, and capable of remote observation of leaks as small as milliliters/minute. For example, natural gas leaking. The schlieren technique is highly sensitive, non- intrusive, optical, and remote. However, since it needs only with a special schlieren arrangement that visualizes gas flows in color (Settles, International Journal of Heat

Settles, Gary S.

9

Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report.

Clinton, J.H.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

Jerry Myers

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson Joseph A for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson,a Joseph A. Shaw,a Rick Lawrence,b Paul W. Nugent,a Laura M of these calibrated imagers is imaging of vegetation for CO2 gas leak detection. During a four-week period

Shaw, Joseph A.

13

Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas Justin A. Hogan,1 sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self

Shaw, Joseph A.

14

allowable leak rates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A; Provot, N 2011-01-01 36 Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, Vol. 31, No. 5, 1999 Mitochondrial Proton Leak and the Uncoupling Proteins Biology and Medicine Websites...

15

Is the situation and immediate threat to life and health? Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor? Possible Fire / Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Possible Fire / Natural Gas (including chemicals and bio agents") (not including chemicals or bio agents Fire or Flammable Gas Spill/Leak/Release Medical Emergency Fire or Flammable Gas Chemical Odor

16

if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas leak gas leak if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material! 1. If you discover a Gas Leak, shout and check that the nearest gas isolator switch is off. 4. Evacuate the building immediately, avoiding

Hickman, Mark

17

Unaccounted-for gas project. Leak Task Force. Volume 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study was aimed at determining unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes resulting from operating Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s transmission and distribution systems during 1987. The Leak Task Force quantified unintentional gas losses (leakage and dig-ins). Results show that 1987 gas leakage accounted for less than 5% of the operating UAF.

Cowgill, R.M.; Robertson, J.L.; Grinstead, J.R.; Luttrell, D.J.; Walden, E.R.

1990-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

18

Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Assessment of crack opening area for leak rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines the background to recommended crack opening area solutions given in a proposed revision to leak before break guidance for the R6 procedure. Comparisons with experimental and analytical results are given for some selected cases of circumferential cracks in cylinders. It is shown that elastic models can provide satisfactory estimations of crack opening displacement (and area) but they become increasingly conservative for values of L{sub r} greater than approximately 0.4. The Dugdale small scale yielding model gives conservative estimates of crack opening displacement with increasing enhancement for L{sub r} values greater than 0.4. Further validation of the elastic-plastic reference stress method for up to L{sub r} values of about 1.0 is presented by experimental and analytical comparisons. Although a more detailed method, its application gives a best estimate of crack opening displacement which may be substantially greater than small scale plasticity models. It is also shown that the local boundary conditions in pipework need to be carefully considered when evaluating crack opening area for through-wall bending stresses resulting from welding residual stresses or geometry discontinuities.

Sharples, J.K.; Bouchard, P.J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

1994-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Estimation of Leak Rate from the Emergency Pump Well in L-Area Complex Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an estimate of the leak rate from the emergency pump well in L-basin that is to be expected during an off-normal event. This estimate is based on expected shrinkage of the engineered grout (i.e., controlled low strength material) used to fill the emergency pump well and the header pipes that provide the dominant leak path from the basin to the lower levels of the L-Area Complex. The estimate will be used to provide input into the operating safety basis to ensure that the water level in the basin will remain above a certain minimum level. The minimum basin water level is specified to ensure adequate shielding for personnel and maintain the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' concept of radiological exposure. The need for the leak rate estimation is the existence of a gap between the fill material and the header pipes, which penetrate the basin wall and would be the primary leak path in the event of a breach in those pipes. The gap between the pipe and fill material was estimated based on a full scale demonstration pour that was performed and examined. Leak tests were performed on full scale pipes as a part of this examination. Leak rates were measured to be on the order of 0.01 gallons/minute for completely filled pipe (vertically positioned) and 0.25 gallons/minute for partially filled pipe (horizontally positioned). This measurement was for water at 16 feet head pressure and with minimal corrosion or biofilm present. The effect of the grout fill on the inside surface biofilm of the pipes is the subject of a previous memorandum.

Duncan, A

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Tracer Gas as a Practical Field Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Duct System Leaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diagnostic tools for detecting and locating leaks in the air distribution system. The tracer gas tests described are a good complement to these tools in the detection, location, and measurement of duct leakage. Testing for house infiltration once with the air...

Cummings, J. B.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

David Cist; Alan Schutz

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Combustible Gas Management Leak Test Acceptance Criteria (OCRWM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to support the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's combustible gas management strategy while avoiding the need to impose any requirements for oxygen free atmospheres within storage tubes that contain multi-canister overpacks (MCO). In order to avoid inerting requirements it is necessary to establish and confirm leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs that are adequte to ensure that, in the unlikely event the leak test results for any MCO were to approach either of those criteria, it could still be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the SNF Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCOs or within their surroundings. To support that strategy, this document: (1) establishes combustible gas management functions and minimum functional requirements for the MCO's mechanical seals and closure weld(s); (2) establishes a maximum practical value for the minimum required initial MCO inert backfill gas pressure; and (3) based on items 1 and 2, establishes and confirms leak test acceptance criteria for the MCO's mechanical seal and final closure weld(s).

SHERRELL, D.L.

2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.

Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

States nor the L'nited states 'rl:clczr 1tcgl;l;:cry Cornmiszion. :or ally c their e m p i o y e , nor any of chcrr contractors, subcontraaor, a . tlveir rrninvct?t-,...

31

Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

Jerry Myers

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

Jerry Myers

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

34

Diffusion Coefficient of Tritium Through Molten Salt Flibe and Rate of Tritium Leak from Fusion Reactor System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffusion coefficients of hydrogen isotopes in Flibe were correlated with making reference to previous relating data of F{sup -} ion self-diffusivity and Flibe viscosity and so on. Rates of tritium permeation through structural materials in a fusion reactor system with Flibe blanket were estimated comparatively under conditions with or without a Flibe permeation barrier. A way to lower the tritium leak rate below a level regulated by law was proposed, and its effectiveness was discussed.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan); Anderl, Robert A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

Jerry Myers

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

36

Leak detection/verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) experiments performed as part of a Leak Before Break (LBB) analysis are very briefly summarized. The aim of these experiments was to postulate the leak rates of the coolant. Through-wall cracks were introduced into pipes by fatigue cycling and hydraulically loaded in a test device. Measurements included coolant pressure and temperature, quantity of leaked coolant, displacement of a specimen, and acoustic emission. Small cracks were plugged with particles in the coolant during testing. It is believed that plugging will have no effect in cracks with leak rates above 35 liters per minute. The leak rate safety margin of 10 is sufficient for cracks in which the leak rate is more than 5 liters per minute.

Krhounek, V.; Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Long-life leak standard assembly. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a portable leak standard assembly which is capable of providing a stream of high-purity reference gas at a virtually constant flow rate over an extensive period of time. The leak assembly comprises a high pressure reservoir coupled to a metal leak valve through a valve-controlled conduit. A reproducible leak valve useful in this assembly is provided by a metal tube crimped with a selected pressure loading for forming an orifice in the tube with this orifice being of a sufficient size to provide the selected flow rate. The leak valve assembly is formed of metal so that it can be baked-out in a vacuum furnace to rid the reservoir and attendent components of volatile impurities which reduce the efficiency of the leak standard.

Basford, J.A.; Mathis, J.E.; Wright, H.C.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Studies into the Initial Conditions, Flow Rate, and Containment System of Oil Field Leaks in Deep Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to contain an oil leak in the field. The dome was found to have satisfactory entrapment in the designed position....

Holder, Rachel

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

39

Improved gaseous leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, F.E. Jr.

1983-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

40

Gaseous leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Saving Money with Steam Leak and Steam Trap Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sonic equipment. o Having uncorrected steam leaks and faulty traps cost your businesses time and money as well as being environmentally unfriendly. SERVICES ? Air Leak Surveys ? Nitrogen Leak Surveys ?Gas Leak Survey (H2, O2, Natural Gas) ? Steam Leak... productivity ? Processing efficiency ?Provide recommendations for improvement ?Stop profit loss by conserving wasted energy Undetected Steam leaks ? Rob efficiency in manufacturing and processing ? Lose millions of dollars annually ? Add up to very costly...

Woodruff, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

Clark, E.

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

News Framing of the 1984 Bhopal Gas Leak in India and the 2010 BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico: A Content Analysis of The New York Times and The Washington Post Coverage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The methyl isocynate (MIC) gas leak from a U.S. multinational corporation Union Carbide's plant killed an estimated total of 15,000 people and injured tens of… (more)

Lou, Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Methodology to quantify leaks in aerosol sampling system components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and that approach was used to measure the sealing integrity of a CAM and two kinds of filter holders. The methodology involves use of sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas with the device being tested operated under dynamic flow conditions. The leak rates...

Vijayaraghavan, Vishnu Karthik

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Optimization of well rates under gas coning conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production rates under gas caning conditions. This new method applies to an oil reservoir overlain by a large gas cap containing multiple wells. The cases consider have a limit on the maximum field production rate for both oil and gas. It was found... that the optimal p~ion rates are achieved when Eq. 1 is satisfied for any pair of wells i and j: ) I = constant i = 1, . . . , n dqo This condition minimizes the f ield gas production rate when the maximum field production rate for oil is met, and maximizes...

Urbanczyk, Christopher Henry

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analysis of SX farm leak histories -- Historical leak model (HLM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report uses readily available historical information to better define the volume, chemical composition, and Cs-137/Sr-90 amounts for leaks that have occurred in the past for tanks SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112. In particular a Historical Leak Model (HLM) is developed that is a month by month reconciliation of tank levels, fill records, and calculated boil-off rates for these tanks. The HLM analysis is an independent leak estimate that reconstructs the tank thermal histories thereby deriving each tank`s evaporative volume loss and by difference, its unaccounted losses as well. The HLM analysis was meant to demonstrate the viability of its approach, not necessarily to establish the HLM leak estimates as being definitive. Past leak estimates for these tanks have invariably resorted to soil wetting arguments but the extent of soil contaminated by each leak has always been highly uncertain. There is also a great deal of uncertainty with the HLM that was not quantified in this report, but will be addressed later. These four tanks (among others) were used from 1956 to 1975 for storage of high-level waste from the Redox process at Hanford. During their operation, tank waste temperatures were often as high as 150 C (300 F), but were more typically around 130 C. The primary tank cooling was by evaporation of tank waste and therefore periodic replacement of lost volume with water was necessary to maintain each tank`s inventory. This active reflux of waste resulted in very substantial turnovers in tank inventory as well as significant structural degradation of these tanks. As a result of the loss of structural integrity, each of these tanks leaked during their active periods of operation. Unfortunately, the large turnover in tank volume associated with their reflux cooling has made a determination of leak volumes very difficult. During much of these tanks operational histories, inventory losses because of evaporative cooling could have effectively masked any volume loss due to leak. However, careful comparison with reported tank levels during certain periods clearly show unaccounted volume losses for many tanks. As a result of the HLM analysis, SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112 all show clear evidence of unaccounted volume losses during the period 1958 to 1975. Likewise, the HLM does not show similar unaccounted volume losses for tank SX-105, a tank with no reported leak history, verifying that the HLM is consistent with SX-105 not leaking. These unaccounted volume losses establish the leak start date and rate, and when propagated over time show that SX-108 lost 203 kgal followed by SX-109 at 111. SX-111 at 55, and SX-112 at 44 kgal.0664 These leak volumes represent maximum or upper bounds estimates of each leak and are in total volume about six times the previous leak estimates.

Fredenburg, E.A.

1998-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

49

gas rates | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place:ReferenceEditWisconsin:YBR SolarZe-gen JumpZincZoomZougas rates

50

Study of the 1991 unaccounted-for gas volume at the Southern California Gas Company. Final report, January 1991-December 1992. Volume 4. Leakage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a study of unaccounted-for gas (UAF) at the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), volume IV of the six-volume set reports on the UAF leakage volumes associated with the transmission and distribution piping systems, each analyzed separately. Unplanned gas releases in SoCalGas distribution and transmission operations contributed approximately 871,900 thousand cubic feet to the 1991 UAF volume. The study indicated that SoCalGas' current leak detection program has been successful in reducing the number of leaks throughout the distribution system, with the sensitive detection equipment finding leaks earlier in their development and reducing the average leakage rate.

Meshkati, S.; Groot, J.; Bruni, J.; Crebs, S.; Law, E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure at the inner boundary. He combined a back-pressure gas rate equation (Eq 2.9) with the materials balance equation Eq 2.10 onto a rate-time equation for gas wells as described in Eq 2.11, and then he generated the new set of type curves as shown.......................................................................................... 10 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................10 2.2 Decline Curve Analysis...

Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

52

Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MIGRATION DMITRIY SILIN, TAD PATZEK, AND SALLY M. BENSONphysics at di?erent scales. Tad Patzek is a professor ofEngineering. DMITRIY SILIN, TAD PATZEK, AND SALLY M. BENSON

Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Leak Testing and Implications of Operations to Locate Leak Horizons at West Hackberry Well 108  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana has historically experienced casing leaks. Numerous West Hackberry oil storage caverns have wells exhibiting communication between the interior 10 3/4 x 20-inch (oil) annulus and the ''outer cemented'' 20 x 26-inch annulus. Well 108 in Cavern 108 exhibits this behavior. It is thought that one, if not the primary, cause of this communication is casing thread leaks at the 20-inch casing joints combined with microannuli along the cement casing interfaces and other cracks/flaws in the cemented 20 x 26-inch annulus. An operation consisting of a series of nitrogen leak tests, similar to cavern integrity tests, was performed on Cavern 108 in an effort to determine the leak horizons and to see if these leak horizons coincided with those of casing joints. Certain leaky, threaded casing joints were identified between 400 and 1500 feet. A new leak detection procedure was developed as a result of this test, and this methodology for identifying and interpreting such casing joint leaks is presented in this report. Analysis of the test data showed that individual joint leaks could be successfully identified, but not without some degree of ambiguity. This ambiguity is attributed to changes in the fluid content of the leak path (nitrogen forcing out oil) and possibly to very plausible changes in characteristics of the flow path during the test. These changes dominated the test response and made the identification of individual leak horizons difficult. One consequence of concern from the testing was a progressive increase in the leak rate measured during testing due to nitrogen cleaning small amounts of oil out of the leak paths and very likely due to the changes of the leak path during the flow test. Therefore, careful consideration must be given before attempting similar tests. Although such leaks have caused no known environmental or economic problems to date, the leaks may be significant because of the potential for future problems. To mitigate future problems, some repair scenarios are discussed including injection of sealants.

SATTLER, ALLAN R.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; PIECHOCKI, ALAN

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Single-Shell Tanks Leak Integrity Elements/ SX Farm Leak Causes and Locations - 12127  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-91F Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal 1-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX- 111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and dry-wells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching. (authors)

Girardot, Crystal [URS- Safety Management Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Harlow, Don [ELR Consulting Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Venetz, Theodore; Washenfelder, Dennis [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Johnson, Jeremy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design - working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching.

VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

Data Bias in Rate Transient Analysis of Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ......................................................................................................... 10 6 Rate and time relationship developed by Gentry (1972) ............................ 11 7 Fetkovich type-curves ................................................................................ 13 8 Gas type-curves developed by Carter (1985... the production data analyst to the proper use of superposition diagnostic plots ? To program a VBA program that performs proper use of superposition time functions according to the proposed work flow. 5 1.4 Organization of the thesis This report...

Agnia, Ammar Khalifa Mohammed

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

57

Design of a Novel In-Pipe Reliable Leak Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leakage is the major factor for unaccounted losses in every pipe network around the world (oil, gas, or water). In most cases, the deleterious effects associated with the occurrence of leaks may present serious economical ...

Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris

58

Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin BasinRates in California Oil and Gas District 4 – Update andoccurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the

Benson, Sally M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Rapid communication Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapid communication Mapping urban pipeline leaks: Methane leaks across Boston Nathan G. Phillips a of methane (CH4) in the United States. To assess pipeline emissions across a major city, we mapped CH4 leaks extraction and pipeline transmission are the largest human-derived source of emissions (EPA, 2012). However

Jackson, Robert B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Leak checker data logging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

62

Leak checker data logging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Aspects of leak detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

CSNI specialist meeting on leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping: proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 1 and 2, 1983, the CSNI subcommittee on primary system integrity held a special meeting in Monterey, California, on the subject of leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping systems. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, positions, and research results; to identify areas requiring additional research and development; and to determine the general attitude toward acceptance of the leak-before-break concept. The importance of the leak-before-break issue was evidenced by excellent attendance at the meeting and through active participation by the meeting attendees. Approximately 125 people representing fifteen different nations attended the meeting. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions addressing the following areas: Application of Piping Fracture Mechanics to Leak-Before Break, Leak Rate and Leak Detection, Leak-Before-Break Studies, Methods and Results, Current and Proposed Positions on Leak-Before-Break.

Not Available

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Deregulation in Japanese gas industries : significance and problems of gas rate deregulation for large industrial customers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the circumstances surrounding Japanese City gas industries have been changing drastically. On one hand, as energy suppliers, natural gas which has become major fuel resource for city gas, as public utilities, ...

Inoue, Masayuki

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

225-B Pool Cell 5 Liner Leak Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the actions taken to confirm and respond to a very small (0.046 ml/min) leak in the stainless steel liner of Hanford`s Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) storage pool cell 5 in Building 225-B. Manual level measurements confirmed a consistent weekly accumulation of 0.46 liters of water in the leak detection grid sump below the pool cell 5 liner. Video inspections and samples point to the capsule storage pool as the source of the water. The present leak rate corresponds to a decrease of only 0.002 inches per week in the pool cell water level, and consequently does not threaten any catastrophic loss of pool cell shielding and cooling water. The configuration of the pool cell liner, sump system, and associated risers will limit the short-term consequences of even a total liner breach to a loss of 1 inch in pool cell level. The small amount of demineralized pool cell water which has been in contact with the concrete structure is not enough to cause significant structural damage. However, ongoing water-concrete interaction increases. The pool cell leak detection sump instrumentation will be modified to improve monitoring of the leak rate in the future. Weekly manual sump level measurements continue in the interim. Contingency plans are in place to relocate the pool cell 5 capsules if the leak worsens.

Rasmussen, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

67

Investigating leaking underground storage tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATING LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS A Thesis by DAVID THOMPSON UPTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989... Major Subject: Geology INVESTIGATING LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS A Thesis by DAVID THOMPSON UPTON Approved as to sty)e and content by: P. A, Domenico (Chair of Committee) jj K. W. Brown (Member) C. C Mathewson (Member) J. H. S ng Head...

Upton, David Thompson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

None

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

An investigation into the inflow performance characteristics of high-rate gravel-packed gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-RATE GRAVEL-PACKED GAS WELLS A Thesis by DOUGLAS LEE JORDAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in par'tial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December, 1984 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-RATE GRAVEL-PACKED GAS WELLS A Thesis by DOUGLAS LEE JORDAN Approved as to style and content by...

Jordan, Douglas Lee

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Investigation of the rate sensitivity of pseudo relative permeabilities for gas-oil systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Master of Science May 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Approved as to style and content by: R. A, Wattenbarger...

Smith, Carl Kevin

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The effects of production rate and gravitational segregation on gas injection performance of oil reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Approved as. to style...

Ferguson, Ed Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

HEY, B.E.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

The effects of production rates and some reservoir parameters on recovery in a strong water drive gas reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 11 12 17 23 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Reservoir Configuration and the Cell Break-up . . . 2 Relative Permeability Data 3 Capillary Pressure Data 4 Compressibility (Z) Factor Vs Pressure . . 5a P/Z Vs Cumulative Gas Produced for Cases 1, 2... Cumulative Gas Produced for Cases 16, 17, 18 g P/Z Vs Cumulative Gas Produced for Cases 19, 20, 21 6a Gas Production Rate Vs Time for Cases I, 2, 3 b Gas Production Rate Vs Time for Cases 4, 5, 6 c Gas Production Rate Vs Time for Cases 7, 8, 9 . . . . d...

Soemarso, Christophorus

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

MAY TH

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during crystallization from gas mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during crystallization from gas mixtures Jean-Michel Herri* and Matthias Kwaterski Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint- Etienne, France Abstract Gas Hydrates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Rate impacts and key design elements of gas and electric utility decoupling: a comprehensive review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Opponents of decoupling worry that customers will experience frequent and significant rate increases as a result of its adoption, but a review of 28 natural gas and 17 electric utilities suggests that decoupling adjustments are both refunds to customers as well as charges and tend to be small. (author)

Lesh, Pamela G.

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

Hansen, René Rydhof

79

Rate constants for the homogeneous gas-phase Al/HCl combustion chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rate constants for the homogeneous gas-phase Al/HCl combustion chemistry Mark T. Swiharta Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY 14260-4200, USA b Laboratoire de Combustion et Syste Orleans cedex 2, France c Laboratoire de Combustion et Syste`mes Re´actifs (LCSR), CNRS, 1C, av. de la

Swihart, Mark T.

80

Gas temperature profiles at different flow rates and heating rates suffice to estimate kinetic parameters for fluidised bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental work on estimation kinetic parameters for combustion was conducted in a bench-scale fluidised bed (FB: 105x200mm). Combustion medium was obtained by using an electrical heater immersed into the bed. The ratio of heating rate (kJ/s) to molar flow rate of air (mol/s) regulated by a rheostat so that the heat of combustion (kJ/mol) can be synthetically obtained by an electrical power supply for relevant O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration (C{sub 0}). O{sub 2}-restriction ratio ({beta}) was defined by the ratio of O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration to O{sub 2}-air concentration (C{sub O{sub 2}-AIR}) at prevailing heating rates. Compressed air at further atmospheric pressure ({approx_equal}102.7kPa) entered the bed that was alumina particles (250{mu}m). Experiments were carried out at different gas flow rates and heating rates. FB was operated with a single charge of (1300g) particles for obtaining the T/T{sub 0} curves, and than C/C{sub 0} curves. The mathematical relationships between temperature (T) and conversion ratio (X) were expressed by combining total energy balance and mass balance in FB. Observed surface reaction rate constants (k{sub S}) was obtained from the combined balances and proposed model was also tested for these kinetic parameters (frequency factor: k{sub 0}, activation energy: E{sub A}, and reaction order: n) obtained from air temperature measurements. It was found that the model curves allow a good description of the experimental data. Thus, reaction rate for combustion was sufficiently expressed. (author)

Suyadal, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ankara University, 06100-Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

Pryor, Jeff M [ORNL] [ORNL; Walker, William C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Rates and rites of passage: The use of natural gas in power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many advantages to the use of natural gas in new or repowered electric generating facilities. These include lower capital costs, positive environmental impacts, the use of proven technology, and an adequate resource base with a highly reliable and flexible transportation system. However, it is also clear that FERC`s regulation of pipeline rates and operating practices has a direct impact on the bottom line of electric generators. a sober understanding of these rules, a careful integration of the rules into project documents, and a more commercial approach to transportation contracts will enhance the revenues and control the risks of the financially successful gas-fired electric generators.

Bloom, D.I. [Mayer, Brown & Platt, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Leak detection on an ethylene pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model-based leak detection system has been in operation on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline from Antwerp to Jemeppe on Sambre since 1989. The leak detection system, which is the commercial product PLDS of Modisette Associations, Inc., was originally installed by the supplier. Since 1991, all system maintenance and configuration changes have been done by Solvay et Cie personnel. Many leak tests have been performed, and adjustments have been made in the configuration and the automatic tuning parameters. The leak detection system is currently able to detect leaks of 2 tonnes/hour in 11 minutes with accurate location. Larger leaks are detected in about 2 minutes. Leaks between 0.5 and 1 tonne per hour are detected after several hours. (The nominal mass flow in the pipeline is 15 tonnes/hour, with large fluctuations.) Leaks smaller than 0.5 tonnes per hour are not detected, with the alarm thresholds set at levels to avoid false alarms. The major inaccuracies of the leak detection system appear to be associated with the ethylene temperatures.

Hamande, A.; Condacse, V.; Modisette, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cocurrent gas - liquid flow at high rates in small particle beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas liquid cocurrent flow at high pressure drop often occurs near the well bore and in grabel filled perforations during production of oil and geothermal energy. Available studies have, however, emphasized large particles and low pressure drops. Here, results for air-water flows to high fluxes in beds of small glass spheres and in 0.44 mm sand, show the influence of particle size, and flow composition and rate, on pressure drop enhancement and flow regime extent.

Wilemon, M.; Torrest, R.S. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Economic viability of shale gas production in the Marcellus Shale; indicated by production rates, costs and current natural gas prices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The U.S. natural gas industry has changed because of the recent ability to produce natural gas from unconventional shale deposits. One of the largest… (more)

Duman, Ryan J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Cost Benefit Analysis of California's Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks (LUFTs)”. Submitted to theCalifornia’s Underground Storage Tank Program”. Submitted tos Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks” by Samantha Carrington

Carrington-Crouch, Robert

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Leak-Tight Welding Experience from the Industrial Assembly of the LHC Cryostats at CERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The assembly of the approximately 1700 LHC main ring cryostats at CERN involved extensive welding of cryogenic lines and vacuum vessels. More than 6 km of welding requiring leak tightness to a rate better than 1.10-9 mbar.l.s-1 on stainless steel and aluminium piping and envelopes was made, essentially by manual welding but also making use of orbital welding machines. In order to fulfil the safety regulations related to pressure vessels and to comply with the leak-tightness requirements of the vacuum systems of the machine, welds were executed according to high qualification standards and following a severe quality assurance plan. Leak detection by He mass spectrometry was extensively used. Neon leak detection was used successfully to locate leaks in the presence of helium backgrounds. This paper presents the quality assurance strategy adopted for welds and leak detection. It presents the statistics of non-conformities on welds and leaks detected throughout the entire production and the advances in the use...

Bourcey, N; Chiggiato, P; Limon, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Musso, G; Poncet, A; Parma, V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Rate of decoherence for an electron weakly coupled to a phonon gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of an electron weakly coupled to a phonon gas. The initial state of the electron is the superposition of two spatially localized distant bumps moving towards each other, and the phonons are in a thermal state. We investigate the dynamics of the system in the kinetic regime and show that the time evolution makes the non-diagonal terms of the density matrix of the electron decay, destroying the interference between the two bumps. We show that such a damping effect is exponential in time, and the related decay rate is proportional to the total scattering cross section of the electron-phonon interaction.

Riccardo Adami; Laszlo Erdos

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

90

A numerical investigation of high-rate gas flow for gravel-packed completions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-RATE GAS FLOW FOR GRAVEL-PACKED COMPLETIONS A Thesis by JAMES KENYON FORREST Approved as to style and content by: C. . WU ( Chairman of Coamittee) R... used a radius of 30rw. In order to investigate this, several runs were made with various model radii. Three runs were made to determine the effect of radial discretization and model radius on the simulation results. One run used a radius of 30r...

Forrest, James Kenyon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A new modified-rate approach for gas-grain chemical simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding grain-surface processes is crucial to interpreting the chemistry of the ISM. However, accurate surface chemistry models are computationally expensive and are difficult to integrate with gas-phase simulations. A new modified-rate method for solving grain-surface chemical systems is presented. Its purpose is accurately to model highly complex systems that can otherwise only be treated using the sometimes inadequate rate-equation approach. In contrast to previous rate-modification techniques, the functional form of the surface production rates was modified, and not simply the rate coefficient. This form is appropriate to the extreme "small-grain" limit, and can be verified using an analytical master-equation approach. Various further modifications were made to this basic form, to account for competition between processes, to improve estimates of surface occupation probabilities, and to allow a switch-over to the normal rate equations where these are applicable. The new method was tested against systems solved previously using exact techniques. Even the simplest method is quite accurate, and a great improvement over rate equations. Further modifications allow the master-equation results to be reproduced exactly for the methanol-producing system, within computational accuracy. Small discrepancies arise when non-zero activation energies are assumed for the methanol system, which result from complex reaction-competition processes that cannot be resolved easily without using exact methods. Inaccuracies in computed abundances are never greater than a few tens of percent, and typically of the order of one percent, in the most complex systems tested. Implementation of the method in simple networks, including hydrogen-only systems, is trivial, whilst the results are highly accurate.

R. T. Garrod

2008-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

92

2009-01-0366 In-cylinder Burned Gas Rate Estimation and Control on VVA Diesel Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the combustion cham- bers of turbocharged Diesel engines equipped with low pressure EGR loop and VVA actuator. We engine. Using a high Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate along with advanced combustion timing allows Monoxides (CO) emissions. To compensate the exhaust temperature reduction, an Internal Exhaust Gas

93

A study of the distribution and production rates of ethylene within the cotton plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or non-existence of a physio- logical role. The purpose of' this study was to determine the actual rates of production and internal concentration of ethylene in vegetative cotton tissue using three different . echniques. REVIEW OF LITERATURE... that ilium-inating gas caused epinastic bending of leaf petioles. Usi. ng plants sensizive to ethyjene, such as potato, tomato, ancl mimosa, this bio- assay was used o detect gas leaks. gine:e the bioassay did not show complete specificity for ethy] en...

McAfee, James A

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Adversaries and Information Leaks Geoffrey Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adversaries and Information Leaks (Tutorial) Geoffrey Smith School of Computing and Information-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008 #12;384 G. Smith ­ The program c has direct access to the sensitive information

Smith, Geoffrey

95

Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed. Similarly, if a fire were to break out anywhere in the D-ZERO Hall, fire sensors would stop the output of all flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed, by unpowering electrically controlled solenoid valves that are normally closed in the event of a power failure. Fire sensor contacts have not yet been installed.

Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

1991-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

96

Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to determine where the breach occurred. The breach can be detected using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas injected into the conduit. After injection, maintenance personnel walk the path of the steam line with an SF6 detector that precisely locates the leak...

Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

97

STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

HU TA

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

MEACHAM JE

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

99

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

MEACHAM JE

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide, Environmental Geology ,

Benson, Sally M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Detection of gas leakage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

Thornberg, Steven (Peralta, NM); Brown, Jason (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

ALFALFA HI Data Stacking III. Comparison of environmental trends in HI gas mass fraction and specific star formation rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well known that both the star formation rate and the cold gas content of a galaxy depend on the local density out to distances of a few Megaparsecs. In this paper, we compare the environmental density dependence of the atomic gas mass fractions of nearby galaxies with the density dependence of their central and global specific star formation rates. We stack HI line spectra extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey centered on galaxies with UV imaging from GALEX and optical imaging/spectroscopy from SDSS. We use these stacked spectra to evaluate the mean atomic gas mass fraction of galaxies in bins of stellar mass and local density. For galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^10.5 M_sun, the decline in mean atomic gas mass fraction with density is stronger than the decline in mean global and central specific star formation rate. The same conclusion does not hold for more massive galaxies. We interpret our results as evidence for ram-pressure stripping of atomic gas from the outer disks of low ...

Fabello, Silvia; Catinella, Barbara; Li, Cheng; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Managing an Effective Leak Sealing Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An on-line leak sealing program is an extremely effective method of cost savings to industrial plants. The dollars a plant saves can be direct and dramatic as in an avoided system shut-down or subtle and analytical as in a long term maintenance...

Rinz, W. H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

New system pinpoints leaks in ethylene pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model-based leak detection, PLDS, developed by Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston has been operating on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline since 1989. The 6-in. pipeline extends from Antwerp to Jemeppe sur Sambre, a distance of 73.5 miles and is buried at a depth of 3 ft. with no insulation. Except for outlets to flares, located every 6 miles for test purposes, there are no injections or deliveries along the pipeline. Also, there are block valves, which are normally open, at each flare location. This paper reviews the design and testing procedures used to determine the system performance. These tests showed that the leak system was fully operational and no false alarms were caused by abrupt changes in inlet/outlet flows of the pipeline. It was confirmed that leaks larger than 2 tonnes/hr. (40 bbl/hr) are quickly detected and accurately located. Also, maximum leak detection sensitivity is 1 tonne/hr. (20 bbl/hr) with a detection time of one hour. Significant operational, configuration, and programming issues also were found during the testing program. Data showed that temperature simulations needed re-examining for improvement since accurate temperature measurements are important. This is especially true for ethylene since its density depends largely on temperature. Another finding showed the averaging period of 4 hrs. was too long and a 1 to 2 hr. interval was better.

Hamande, A. [Solvay et Cie, Jemeppe sur Sambre (Belgium); Condacse, V.; Modisette, J. [Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Evaluating an experimental setup for pipe leak detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental setup with 4 inch inner diameter PVC pipe modules is designed to mimic a real life piping system in which to test possible leak detection mechanisms. A model leak detection mechanism is developed which ...

Garay, Luis I. (Luis Ignacio)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

acoustic leak detection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PLoS ONE 9(10): e Lawrence, Rick L. 8 Design and fabrication of a maneuverable robot for in-pipe leak detection MIT - DSpace Summary: Leaks in pipelines have been causing...

108

ESTIMATION OF RADIOLYTIC GAS GENERATION RATE FOR CYLINDRICAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES - APPLICATION TO SPENT ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste packages containing water and/or organic substances have the potential to radiolytically generate hydrogen and other combustible gases. Typically, the radiolytic gas generation rate is estimated from the energy deposition rate and the radiolytic gas yield. Estimation of the energy deposition rate must take into account the contributions from all radionuclides. While the contributions from non-gamma emitting radionuclides are relatively easy to estimate, an average geometry factor must be computed to determine the contribution from gamma emitters. Hitherto, no satisfactory method existed for estimating the geometry factors for a cylindrical package. In the present study, a formulation was developed taking into account the effect of photon buildup. A prototype code, called PC-CAGE, was developed to numerically solve the integrals involved. Based on the selected dimensions for a cylinder, the specified waste material, the photon energy of interest and a value for either the absorption or attenuation coefficient, the code outputs values for point and average geometry factors. These can then be used to estimate the internal dose rate to the material in the cylinder and hence to calculate the radiolytic gas generation rate. Besides the ability to estimate the rates of radiolytic gas generation, PC-CAGE can also estimate the dose received by the container material. This is based on values for the point geometry factors at the surface of the cylinder. PC-CAGE was used to calculate geometry factors for a number of cylindrical geometries. Estimates for the absorbed dose rate in container material were also obtained. The results for Ontario Power Generation's 3 m3 resin containers indicate that about 80% of the source gamma energy is deposited internally. In general, the fraction of gamma energy deposited internally depends on the dimensions of the cylinder, the material within it and the photon energy; the fraction deposited increases with increasing dimensions of the cylinder and decreases with increasing photon energy.

Husain, A.; Lewis, Brent J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanford’s Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program.

Washenfelder, Dennis J.

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

OHL, P.C.

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks Youjun Deng a , James B. Harsh a handling by M. Gascoyne Abstract Highly-alkaline waste solutions have leaked from underground tanks mimicking tank leak conditions at the US DOE Hanford Site. In batch experiments, Si-rich solutions

Flury, Markus

112

The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

Ryutov, D.D.

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

113

Low natural gas prices may drive up FY 2014-2015 power rates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

natural gas prices? Production Much has been written over the past few years about "fracking," the technology of hydraulic fracturing in horizontally drilled wells that has made...

114

Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

HU, T.A.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Parameters for landfill-liner leak-rate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C. CHAPTER II HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL OVERVIEW The passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by Congress in 1976 signaled an official recogn1tion of the shortcomings of then current hazardous waste... in industrial waste streams. The Clean Water Act of 1972 had already imposed technology-forcing standards on industrial polluters of surface waters (OTA, 1983). Under the authority of RCRA, the United States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) 1ssued...

Bahrt, Steven Carlton

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Management of vacuum leak-detection processes, standards, and calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum leak detection requires integrated management action to ensure the successful production of apparatus having required leak tightness. Implementation of properly planned, scheduled, and engineering procedures and test arrangements are an absolute necessity to prevent unexpected, impractical, technically inadequate, or unnecessarily costly incidents in leak-testing operations. The use of standard procedures, leak standards appropriate to the task, and accurate calibration systems or devices is necessary to validate the integrity of any leak-test procedure. In this paper, the need for implementing these practices is discussed using case histories of typical examples of large complex vacuum systems. Aggressive management practices are of primary importance throughout a project's life cycle to ensure the lowest cost; this includes successful leak testing of components. It should be noted that the opinions and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the author and are not those of the Los Alamos National Laboratory or the Department of Energy.

Wilson, N.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Detecting Air Leaks | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005Department ofDOE AccidentWasteZoneEnergyDetecting Air Leaks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

HU TA

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Galaxy Pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - X: Does gas content alter star formation rate enhancement in galaxy interactions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New spectral line observations, obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a sample of 34 galaxies in 17 close pairs are presented in this paper. The sample of galaxy pairs is selected to contain galaxies in close, major interactions (i.e., projected separations $ 3\\sigma$. We compare the HI gas fraction of the galaxies with the triggered star formation present in that galaxy. When compared to the star formation rates (SFRs) of non-pair galaxies matched in mass, redshift, and local environment, we find that the star formation enhancement is weakly positively correlated ($\\sim 2.5\\sigma$) with HI gas fraction. In order to help understand the physical mechanisms driving this weak correlation, we also present results from a small suite of binary galaxy merger simulations with varying gas fractions. The simulated galaxies indicate that larger initial gas fractions are associated with lower levels of interaction-triggered star formation (relative to an identical galaxy in isolation), but also show that hi...

Scudder, Jillian M; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R; Mendel, J Trevor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Leak locating microphone, method and system for locating fluid leaks in pipes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A leak detecting microphone inserted directly into fluid within a pipe includes a housing having a first end being inserted within the pipe and a second opposed end extending outside the pipe. A diaphragm is mounted within the first housing end and an acoustic transducer is coupled to the diaphragm for converting acoustical signals to electrical signals. A plurality of apertures are provided in the housing first end, the apertures located both above and below the diaphragm, whereby to equalize fluid pressure on either side of the diaphragm. A leak locating system and method are provided for locating fluid leaks within a pipe. A first microphone is installed within fluid in the pipe at a first selected location and sound is detected at the first location. A second microphone is installed within fluid in the pipe at a second selected location and sound is detected at the second location. A cross-correlation is identified between the detected sound at the first and second locations for identifying a leak location.

Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL); Spevak, Lev (Highland Park, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydrogen Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andof Energy Embrittlement Fundamentals,Slides |Infrastructureof

125

Hydrogen leak detection - low cost distributed gas sensors  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department of Energy and the Federalas ain the Heavy

126

A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable, the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.

Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Leaks in distribution systems are caused by a number of factors, including pipe corrosion, high system pressure, construction disturbances, frost damage, damaged joints, and...

129

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND LEAK TESTING FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide step-by-step instructions for the annual helium leak test certification and maintenance of the 9975 Shipping Package.

Trapp, D.

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

Supernova matter at subnuclear densities as a resonant Fermi gas: Enhancement of neutrino rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At low energies nucleon-nucleon interactions are resonant and therefore supernova matter at subnuclear densities has many similarities to atomic gases with interactions dominated by a Feshbach resonance. We calculate the rates of neutrino processes involving nucleon-nucleon collisions and show that these are enhanced in mixtures of neutrons and protons at subnuclear densities due to the large scattering lengths. As a result, the rate for neutrino pair bremsstrahlung and absorption is significantly larger below 10^{13} g cm^{-3} compared to rates used in supernova simulations.

A. Bartl; C. J. Pethick; A. Schwenk

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

131

SEVENTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 54-72 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 30 - 36 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51 – 96%. This is greater than seen to date for any packages inspected during KAC field surveillance (24% average). For GLT O-rings, separate service life estimates have been made based on the O-ring fixture leak test data and based on compression stress relaxation (CSR) data. These two predictive models show reasonable agreement at higher temperatures (350 – 400 ºF). However, at 300 ºF, the room temperature leak test failures to date experienced longer aging times than predicted by the CSRbased model. This suggests that extrapolations of the CSR model predictions to temperatures below 300 ºF will provide a conservative prediction of service life relative to the leak rate criterion. Leak test failure data at lower temperatures are needed to verify this apparent trend. Insufficient failure data exist currently to perform a similar comparison for GLT-S O-rings. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV O-ring fixtures.

Daugherty, W.

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated gas tonometric Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement Techniques Jennifer McWilliams Summary: at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine... duct leakage...

134

INFORMAL REPORT DETECTION OF INTERSTATE LIQUIDS PIPELINE LEAKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BNL-65970 INFORMAL REPORT DETECTION OF INTERSTATE LIQUIDS PIPELINE LEAKS: FEASIBILITY EVALUATION R PIPELINE LEAKS: FEASIBILITY EVALUATION A Concept Paper Russell N. Dietz, Head Gunnar I. Senum Tracer with Battelle Memorial Institute and the Colonial Pipeline Company #12;ABSTRACT The approximately 200,000-mile

135

A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advancesA new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

Marquez, Horacio J.

136

241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A new technique to analyze simultaneous sandface flow rate and pressure measurements of gas wells with turbulence and damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the problems associated with conventional gas well test are related to the nonlinearity of the equations describing real gas flow, the presence of the rate dependent (non-Darcy) skin, and the long shut-in time periods required to collect the data for the analysis in tight reservoirs in which the wellbore storage period can be excessively long. This paper presents a new pressure buildup technique that reduces the wellbore storage effects, eliminates the long shut-in periods experienced with conventional tests by using afterflow rate and pressure data, and most importantly provides a direct method to estimate non-Darcy skin. The proposed technique uses normalized pseudofunctions to avoid the nonlinearities of the governing equations and involves using two different plots. The formation permeability is obtained from the slope of the first plot. The mechanical and non-Darcy skin factors are obtained respectively from the slope and intercept of the second plot. A field example and two simulated cases are presented to illustrate the application of the new technique.

Nashawi, I.S. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Mehaideb, R.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A feasibility study of the determination of mass transfer rates from perturbation gas chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and be given as ** ? '". , "-- **. * ? '". . "--( ? '". - *, :, ? ". , 'I. i=1, 2, . . . , (n-l) (4) where " indicates steady-state value and ~y-y-y* 1 i i AX = X ? X * 1 1 1 Por the local equilibrium case, if the flowing phase rate is slow.... (6) into Eq. (4), a set of linearized chro- matographic relations for the multicomponent case including the sorption effects will be obtained. This is well de- monstz'ated in Glover and Lau (19$3). For the non-equilibrium case, finite mass...

Huang, Wei-Yih

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Development of an Artificial ExpertSystem for Estimating the Rate ofGrowth of Gas Cone.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Oil bearing zones are often accompanied by a gas cap which may enhance oil recovery by gas cap drive mechanism. As the well starts producing,… (more)

Sharma, Shashank

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Water and gas coning: two and three phase system correlations for the critical oil production rate and optimum location of the completion interval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the perforations which optimizes the critical oil production rate (xopt). Correlation for Two Phase Problem For. the two phase problem, the dimensionless critical oil production rate is correlated as a funct. ion of the dimensionless effective drainage radius...WATER AND GAS COMING: TWO AND THREE PHASE SYSTEM CORRELATIONS FOR THE CRITICAL OIL PRODUCTION RATE AND OPTIMUM LOCATION OF THE COMPLETION INTERVAL A Thesis by FRANCISCO MANUEL GONZALEZ, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...

Gonzalez, Francisco Manuel

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Some Fundamental Experiments on Apparent Dissolution Rate of Gas Phase in the Groundwater Recovery Processes of the Geological Disposal System - 12146  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The apparent dissolution rates of gas phase in the co-presence of solid phase were examined by in-room experiments in this study. The apparent dissolution rate of gas phase q (mol/m{sup 3}.s) was generally defined by q=aK{sub L}(?P{sub g}-c), where a (1/m) is specific surface area of the interface between gas and liquid phases, K{sub L} (m/s) is overall mass transfer coefficient, ? (mol/(Pa.m{sup 3})) is reciprocal number of Henry constant, P{sub g} (Pa) is partial pressure of gas phase, and c (mol/m{sup 3}) is the concentration of gas component in liquid phase. As a model gas, CO{sub 2} gas was used. For evaluating the values of K{sub L}, this study monitored pH or the migration rate of the interface between water/gas phases, using some experiments such as the packed beds and the micro channel consisting of granite chip and rubber sheet including a slit. In the results, the values of K{sub L} were distributed in the range from 5.0x10{sup -6} m/s to 5.0x10{sup -7} m/s. These values were small, in comparison with that (7.8x10{sup -4} m/s) obtained from the bubbling test where gas phase was continually injected into deionized water without solid phase. This means that the solid phase limits the local mixing of water phase near gas-liquid interfaces. (authors)

Yoshii, Taiki; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki, Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Statistical approaches to leak detection for geological sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geological sequestration has been proposed as a way to remove CO? from the atmosphere by injecting it into deep saline aquifers. Detecting leaks to the atmosphere will be important for ensuring safety and effectiveness of ...

Haidari, Arman S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The feasibility of electrophoretic repair of impoundment leaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

finding, repairing and testing the leaks, are tedious, expensive, and dangerous to workers. Electrophoretic repair technique is an innovative, economic, and safe method to repair the leakage of impoundments. A suspension of clay particles is induced...

Han, Ji-Seok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Robot design for leak detection in water-pipe systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaks are major problem that occur in the water pipelines all around the world. Several reports indicate loss of around 20 to 30 percent of water in the distribution of water through water pipe systems. Such loss of water ...

Choi, Changrak

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The liquefied natural gas pipeline: a system study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/hr-ft -'F. Norrie [11] also predicted a leak much less than Carbonnell's. Decreasing the 17 Table 2. 1 Optimum Diameter of a LNG Pipeline and Distance Between Two Refrigerated Stations [14] Flow rate, 1000 MMcf/day Optimum diameter, inch Distance...THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE: A SYSTEM STUDY A Thesis by THOMAS RAY HAZEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...

Hazel, Thomas Ray

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-cost, durable, and reliable Hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle, stationary, and infrastructure applications. A new zirconia, electrochemical-based sensor technology is being transitioned out of the laboratory and into an advanced testing phase for vehicular and stationary H{sub 2} safety applications. Mixed potential sensors are a class of electrochemical devices that develop an open-circuit electromotive force due to the difference in the kinetics of the redox reactions of various gaseous species at each electrode/electrolyte/gas interface, referred to as the triple phase boundary (TPB). Therefore, these sensors have been considered for the sensing of various reducible or oxidizable gas species in the presence of oxygen. Based on this principle, a unique sensor design was developed by LANL and LLNL. The uniqueness of this sensor derives from minimizing heterogeneous catalysis (detrimental to sensor response) by avoiding gas diffusion through a catalytically active material and minimizing diffusion path to the TPB. Unlike the conventional design of these devices that use a dense solid electrolyte and porous thin film electrodes (similar to the current state-of-the-art zirconia-based sensors and fuel cells), the design of this sensor uses dense electrodes and porous electrolytes. Such a sensor design facilitates a stable and reproducible device response, since dense electrode morphologies are easy to reproduce and are significantly more stable than the conventional porous morphologies. Moreover, these sensors develop higher mixed potentials since the gas diffusion is through the less catalytically active electrolyte than the electrode. Lastly, the choice of electrodes is primarily based on their O2 reduction kinetics and catalytic properties vis-a-vis the target gas of interest.

Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Stochastic Programming Approaches for the Placement of Gas Detectors in Process Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these detectors is required in order to have a well-functioning gas detection system. However, the uncertainty in leak locations, gas composition, process and weather conditions, and process geometries must all be considered when attempting to determine...

Legg, Sean W

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

150

Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device are disclosed for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe. 2 figures.

Trapp, D.J.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

151

Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe.

Trapp, Donald J. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

RPP-ENV-39658 Revision 0 Hanford SX-Farm Leak Assessments Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Department of Energy developed a process to reassess selected tank leak estimates (volumes and inventories), and to update single-shell tank leak and unplanned release volumes and inventory estimates as emergent field data is obtained (RPP-32681, Process to Assess Tank Farm Leaks in Support of Retrieval and Closure Planning). This process does not represent a formal tank leak assessment in accordance with procedure TFC-ENG-CHEM-D-42, “Tank Leak Assessment Process. ” This report documents reassessment of past leaks in the 241-SX Tank Farm. Tank waste loss events were reassessed for tanks 241-SX-104, 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108,

M. E. Johnson; J. G. Field; Revision Rpp-env

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

2008 San Diego Gas & Electric Company. All copyright and trademark rights reserved. Smart Meters, Rates and the Customer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2008 San Diego Gas & Electric Company. All copyright and trademark rights reserved. Smart Meters, OR #12;2 SDG&E Smart Meter Goals · Install AMI/smart metering for all SDG&E electric and gas business're starting to recreate our relationship with customers and transform our company #12;Smart Meter Business

155

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The influence of free gas saturation on water flood performance - variations caused by changes in flooding rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1971) Anil Kumar Dandona, B. S. , Indian School of Mines Directed by: Dr. R. A. Morse It has been recognised that the presence of a free gas satura- tion prior to water flooding can have an important influence on oil recovery. The published results... studies such as the disappearance of part or all of the free gas by solution in the oil bank. Also, it has been realised that gravity forces make it impossible to initiate and maintain a uniforxn gas saturation fram top to bottom of the production...

Dandona, Anil Kumar

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and competency. The results from these investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological, deep subsurface CO2 storage and sequestration.

Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

159

Leak Testing the DMT Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saudi Arabia field project was funded by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through a contract with Weather housing. Don't try to tighten the metal fitting on the pump housing. #12;Hard Places to Find Leaks Saudi Operator Manual Rev D page 45. March 22, 2009 Saudi Arabia Down to 450 mb, climb to 500 mb took 311 seconds

Delene, David J.

160

T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The W-259 project will provide upgrades to the 2706-T/TA Facility to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. The project provides decontamination activities supporting the environmental restoration mission and waste management operations on the Hanford Site.

Carlson, T.A.

1995-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Unloading using auger tool and foam and experimental identification of liquid loading of low rate natural gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-pressure, low-producing natural gas wells commonly encounter liquid loading during production. Because of the decline in the reservoir pressure and the flow capacity, wells can fall below terminal velocity. Identifying and predicting the onset...

Bose, Rana

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

162

Design and fabrication of a maneuverable robot for in-pipe leak detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaks in pipelines have been causing a significant amount of financial losses and serious damages to the community and the environment. The recent development of in-pipe leak detection technologies at Massachusetts Institute ...

Wu, You, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Analysis and design of an in-pipe system for water leak detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaks are a major factor for unaccounted water losses in almost every water distribution network. Pipeline leak may result, for example, from bad workmanship or from any destructive cause, due to sudden changes of pressure, ...

Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mathematical Properties of Pump-Leak Models of Cell Volume Control and Electrolyte Balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mathematical Properties of Pump-Leak Models of Cell Volume Control and Electrolyte Balance Yoichiro using pump-leak models, a system of differential algebraic equations that de- scribes the balance and stability of steady states for a general class of pump-leak models. We treat two cases. When the ion channel

Weinberger, Hans

165

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-B Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-B Tank Farm (B Farm) leak cause and locations for the 100 series leaking tank (241-B-107) identified in RPP-RPT-49089, Hanford B-Farm Leak Inventory Assessments Report. This document satisfies the B Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harlow, Donald G. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Predicting Worker Exposure from a Glovebox Leak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is difficult to predict immediate worker radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident. This is recognized in DOE safety analysis guidance and the reason such guidance does not call for quantitative determinations of such consequences. However, it would be useful to at least have a means of systematically and formally quantifying worker dose to be able to identify the relative risks of various processes and to provide an order-of-magnitude impression of absolute consequences. In this report, we present such a means in the form of a simple calculation model that is easily applied and generates reasonable, qualitative dose predictions. The model contains a scaling parameter whose value was deduced from extensive laboratory ventilation flow rate measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) over the last several years and from recent indoor radioactive contamination dispersion measurements, also at LANL. Application of the model is illustrated with the aid of two example calculations.

H. Jordan; D. J. Gordon; J. J. Whicker; D. L. Wannigman

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Pipeline safety. Information on gas distribution system operators reporting unaccounted for gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to Department of Transportation records, 92 of the 1491 gas distribution system operators reported high levels of unaccounted for gas (unaccounted for gas is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and sold) for 1984, the latest year for which data were available. Of the 92 gas system operators, 64 were municipals (gas systems owned by a governmental entity, such as a city or county) and 28 were nonmunicipals. Based on the data we reviewed, these 92 gas systems did not report any accidents during calendar year 1984. Part I provides more details on the unaccounted for gas of municipal gas systems. Federal and industry officials consider that unaccounted for gas in excess of 15% of gas purchases high and worthy of investigation. High levels of unaccounted for gas can occur for a number of reasons, including errors in metering and billing, not accounting for gas used by city or company facilities, and leaking gas pipelines. While it may, a leak does not always indicate a safety problem. For example, a slow leak in an open area may not be a safety hazard. The Secretary has the authority to regulate any liquid deemed hazardous when transported by pipeline, and therefore could regulate hazardous liquids not currently regulated including methanol and carbon dioxide. However, the Department of Transportation has no plans to regulate any additional liquids. Part II provides more details. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Target-rate Tracking for Shale-gas Multi-well Pads by Scheduled Shut-ins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

horizontal wells and stimulation with multistage hydraulic fracturing. This practice normally leads with hydraulic fracturing (HF) is therefore crucial for draining reasonable amounts of gas from the low permeable shale. Horizontal wells together with multistage hydraulic fracturing is by far the most common

Foss, Bjarne A.

169

INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Apparatus to measure permeation of a gas through a membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an apparatus to measure permeation of a gas through a membrane. The membrane is mounted on a flange with two sealing areas. The region between the sealing areas defines an annular space. The annular space is swept with a gas in order to carry away any of the permeating gas which may leak through the sealing areas.

Nunes, Geoffrey

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

171

Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

HERTZEL, J.S.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 k? trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

Schwartz, J. A., E-mail: jschwart@pppl.gov; Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Leake County, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville, MN)Lauderhill,5. ItLea Hill,Leake County,

175

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-A Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-A Tank Farm (A Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-A-104 and 241-A-105) identified in RPP-ENV-37956, Hanford A and AX Farm Leak Assessment Report. This document satisfies the A Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-T Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-T Tank Farm (T Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-T-106 and 241-T-111) identified in RPP-RPT-55084, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-T Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the T Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hanford Single Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-TX Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-TX Tank Farm (TX Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-TX-107 and 241-TX-114) identified in RPP-RPT-50870, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-TX Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the TX Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D> G.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-U Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-U Tank Farm (U Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-U-104, 241-U-110, and 241-U-112) identified in RPP-RPT-50097, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-U Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the U-Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

179

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-C Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-C Tank Farm (C Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-C-101 and 241-C-105) identified in RPP-RPT-33418, Rev. 2, Hanford C-Farm Leak Inventory Assessments Report. This document satisfies the C Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105, and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

Myneni, G.R.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

T-726:Linux-2.6 privilege escalation/denial of service/information leak  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Vulnerabilities have been discovered in the Linux kernel that may lead to a privilege escalation, denial of service or information leak.

184

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pub/oil/ Data_Catalog/Oil_and_Gas/Oil_?elds/CA_oil?elds.DAT.1993) A history of oil- and gas-well blowouts in California,Health Administration (2007), Oil and gas well drilling and

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A Measurement of the Rate of Muon Capture in Hydrogen Gas and Determination of the Proton's Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling gP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the hydrogen gas of Z > 1 impurities COMET COMpressor forhydrogen gas using a model 75-32 Whatman Figure 5.11: CHUPS schematic diagram, including the compressors,

Banks, Thomas Ira

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Noble gas magnetic resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

Donna Post Guillen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Improved gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, sealed as tags in different cladding nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Cladding failure allows fission gases and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas. The isotopes are Ne/sup 20/, Ne/sup 21/ and Ne/sup 22/ and Ar/sup 36/, Ar/sup 38/ and Ar/sup 40/, and the cover gas is He. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between 0 and -25/sup 0/C to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags, and the second or tag recovery system bed between -170 and -185/sup 0/C to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be determined.

Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

Gross, Kenny C. (Lemont, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Leak detection systems for uranium mill tailings impoundments with synthetic liners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluated the performance of existing and alternative leak detection systems for lined uranium mill tailings ponds. Existing systems for detecting leaks at uranium mill tailings ponds investigated in this study included groundwater monitoring wells, subliner drains, and lysimeters. Three alternative systems which demonstrated the ability to locate leaks in bench-scale tests included moisture blocks, soil moisture probes, and a soil resistivity system. Several other systems in a developmental stage are described. For proper performance of leak detection systems (other than groundwater wells and lysimeters), a subgrade is required which assures lateral dispersion of a leak. Methods to enhance dispersion are discussed. Cost estimates were prepared for groundwater monitoring wells, subliner drain systems, and the three experimental systems. Based on the results of this report, it is suggested that groundwater monitoring systems be used as the primary means of leak detection. However, if a more responsive system is required due to site characteristics and groundwater quality criteria, subliner drains are applicable for ponds with uncovered liners. Leak-locating systems for ponds with covered liners require further development. Other recommendations are discussed in the report.

Myers, D.A.; Tyler, S.W.; Gutknecht, P.J.; Mitchell, D.H.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects leak rate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

American Waste to Energy Conference May 23-25, 2005, Orlando, Florida USA Summary: turbine and steam cycle issues affecting performance. Several low cost methods were used to...

193

7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

Boyer, Edmond

194

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) lead causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105 and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-SX Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document identifies 241-SX Tank Farm (SX Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114, and 241-SX-115) identified in RPP-ENV-39658, Rev. 0, Hanford SX-Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the SX Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Harlow, Donald G. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States)

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

196

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Further development of an in-pipe leak detection sensor's mobility platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water leakage is a major global problem and smaller sized leaks are difficult to find despite their prevalence in most water distribution systems. Previous attempts to develop a mobility platform for a sensor in use in ...

Moore, Frederick M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon leak detector Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the NEMO experiment Summary: problem like very small leaks between the air-facility and the radon detector. On the average the amount... mixture, it has been necessary...

200

BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4840' - June 3 2010...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

40' - June 3 2010 (1 of 4) BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4840' - June 3 2010 (1 of 4) Addthis Description Footage of the BP Oil Spill Duration 0:15...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4850' - June 3 2010...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2 of 4) BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4850' - June 3 2010 (2 of 4) Addthis Description Footage of the BP Oil Spill Duration 0:13...

202

BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4850' - June 3 2010...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 of 4) BP Oil Spill Footage (High Def) - Leak at 4850' - June 3 2010 (3 of 4) Addthis Description Footage of the BP Oil Spill Duration 0:19...

203

Thermal Imaging of Canals for Remote Detection of Leaks: Evaluation in the United Irrigation District  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report summarizes our initial analysis of the potential of thermal imaging for detecting leaking canals and pipelines. Thermal imagery (video format) was obtained during a fly over of a portion of the main canal of United Irrigation District...

Huang, Yanbo; Fipps, Guy

204

U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

KOCH, M.R.

2001-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

206

Accuracy of Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensing for Use in Leak Detection of Subsea Pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subsea pipeline is shown in figure 1. This oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico was widely publicized and resulted in both environmental damage and losses to the pipeline operator. The need for accurate and reliable leak detection systems is great... which has a lower frequency than the original signal. Similarly the Anti-Stokes component describes backscattered light with higher frequency. Raman scattering can be understood as the absorption or emission of quanta of energy as the material changes...

Madabhushi, S.; Elshafie, M. Z. E. B.; Haigh, S. K.

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

207

Risks from Past, Current, and Potential Hanford Single Shell Tank Leaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to significant delays in constructing and operating the Waste Treatment Plant, which is needed to support retrieval of waste from Hanford’s single shell tanks (SSTs), SSTs may now be required to store tank waste for two to three more decades into the future. Many SSTs were built almost 70 years ago, and all SSTs are well beyond their design lives. Recent examination of monitoring data suggests several of the tanks, which underwent interim stabilization a decade or more ago, may be leaking small amounts (perhaps 150–300 gallons per year) to the subsurface environment. A potential leak from tank T-111 is estimated to have released approximately 2,000 gallons into the subsurface. Observations of past leak events, recently published simulation results, and new simulations all suggest that recent leaks are unlikely to affect underlying groundwater above regulatory limits. However, these recent observations remind us that much larger source terms are still contained in the tanks and are also present in the vadose zone from historical intentional and unintentional releases. Recently there have been significant improvements in methods for detecting and characterizing soil moisture and contaminant releases, understanding and controlling mass-flux, and remediating deep vadose zone and groundwater plumes. To ensure extended safe storage of tank waste in SSTs, the following actions are recommended: 1) Improve capabilities for intrusion and leak detection. 2) Develop defensible conceptual models of intrusion and leak mechanisms. 3) Apply enhanced subsurface characterization methods to improve detection and quantification of moisture changes beneath tanks. 4) Maintain a flux-based assessment of past, present, and potential tank leaks to assess risks and to maintain priorities for applying mitigation actions. 5) Implement and maintain effective mitigation and remediation actions to protect groundwater resources. These actions will enable limited resources to be applied to the most beneficial actions. A systems-based approach will support extended safe storage of tank waste, reduce the risks from tank leaks, and protect human health and the environment.

Triplett, Mark B.; Watson, David J.; Wellman, Dawn M.

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

A mathematical model for air brake systems in the presence of leaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR AIR BRAKE SYSTEMS IN THE PRESENCE OF LEAKS A Thesis by SRIVATSAN RAMARATHNAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2008 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR AIR BRAKE SYSTEMS IN THE PRESENCE OF LEAKS A Thesis by SRIVATSAN RAMARATHNAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Ramaratham, Srivatsan

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

209

Model based detection of hydrogen leaks in a fuel cell stack Ari Ingimundarson and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise McKay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model based detection of hydrogen leaks in a fuel cell stack Ari Ingimundarson and Anna G. Stefanopoulou and Denise McKay Abstract-- Hydrogen leaks are potentially dangerous faults in fuel cell systems detection, leak detection, hydrogen leak- age. I. INTRODUCTION A common safety concern for fuel cell systems

Stefanopoulou, Anna

210

Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development for Hydrogen Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are: (1) Develop a low cost, low power, durable, and reliable hydrogen safety sensor for a wide range of vehicle and infrastructure applications; (2) Continually advance test prototypes guided by materials selection, sensor design, electrochemical R&D investigation, fabrication, and rigorous life testing; (3) Disseminate packaged sensor prototypes and control systems to DOE Laboratories and commercial parties interested in testing and fielding advanced prototypes for cross-validation; (4) Evaluate manufacturing approaches for commercialization; and (5) Engage an industrial partner and execute technology transfer. Recent developments in the search for sustainable and renewable energy coupled with the advancements in fuel cell powered vehicles (FCVs) have augmented the demand for hydrogen safety sensors. There are several sensor technologies that have been developed to detect hydrogen, including deployed systems to detect leaks in manned space systems and hydrogen safety sensors for laboratory and industrial usage. Among the several sensing methods electrochemical devices that utilize high temperature-based ceramic electrolytes are largely unaffected by changes in humidity and are more resilient to electrode or electrolyte poisoning. The desired sensing technique should meet a detection threshold of 1% (10,000 ppm) H{sub 2} and response time of {approx_equal}1 min, which is a target for infrastructure and vehicular uses. Further, a review of electrochemical hydrogen sensors by Korotcenkov et.al and the report by Glass et.al suggest the need for inexpensive, low power, and compact sensors with long-term stability, minimal cross-sensitivity, and fast response. This view has been largely validated and supported by the fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure industries by the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop held on June 8, 2011. Many of the issues preventing widespread adoption of best-available hydrogen sensing technologies available today outside of cost, derive from excessive false positives and false negatives arising from signal drift and unstable sensor baseline; both of these problems necessitate the need for unacceptable frequent calibration.

Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

AUTOMATED LEAK DETECTION OF BURIED TANKS USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington State, the Department of Energy oversees the containment, treatment, and retrieval of liquid high-level radioactive waste. Much of the waste is stored in single-shelled tanks (SSTs) built between 1943 and 1964. Currently, the waste is being retrieved from the SSTs and transferred into newer double-shelled tanks (DSTs) for temporary storage before final treatment. Monitoring the tanks during the retrieval process is critical to identifying leaks. An electrically-based geophysics monitoring program for leak detection and monitoring (LDM) has been successfully deployed on several SSTs at the Hanford site since 2004. The monitoring program takes advantage of changes in contact resistance that will occur when conductive tank liquid leaks into the soil. During monitoring, electrical current is transmitted on a number of different electrode types (e.g., steel cased wells and surface electrodes) while voltages are measured on all other electrodes, including the tanks. Data acquisition hardware and software allow for continuous real-time monitoring of the received voltages and the leak assessment is conducted through a time-series data analysis. The specific hardware and software combination creates a highly sensitive method of leak detection, complementing existing drywell logging as a means to detect and quantify leaks. Working in an industrial environment such as the Hanford site presents many challenges for electrical monitoring: cathodic protection, grounded electrical infrastructure, lightning strikes, diurnal and seasonal temperature trends, and precipitation, all of which create a complex environment for leak detection. In this discussion we present examples of challenges and solutions to working in the tank farms of the Hanford site.

CALENDINE S; SCHOFIELD JS; LEVITT MT; FINK JB; RUCKER DF

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and/or changes in the safety culture in the oil and gasand/or changes in safety culture in the oil and gasand/or changes in safety culture in the oil and gas

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Emergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-492-6025. For Non-Emergency Fire and Natural Gas Questions call the CU Fire Marshall @ 303-492-4042. AdditionalEmergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas leaks, the following actions should be taken: 1) Life Safety First 2) Evacuate Immediate Area 3

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

215

Determination of leakage and unaccounted-for gas distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence, we have unaccounted-for gas. Unaccounted-for gas is truly accounted-for gas--but it is missing! It is the difference between the amount of gas accounted into a system and the amount of gas accounted out. Many factors cause unaccounted-for gas. Each should be examined before the missing gas is all attributed to leakage--a single cause of unaccounted-for gas. Factors I would suggest evaluating are the following: (1) Measured conditions; (2) Accounting methods; (3) Meter errors; (4) Gas used for construction and operations; (5) Major damage and relief valve trips; (6) Meter reading errors, stolen gas, etc.; and (7) Leakage.

Spriggs, C.M. [Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

WHITE, K.A.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

The leak resistance of 2-inch N-80 API treaded tubular connection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KATIONS DISCUSSION RECOMMENDED FUTURE TESTS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS TEST E@JIPMENT Page 10 10 12 23 TKE LEAK RESISTANCE OF 2-INCH N-80 API THREADED TUBULAR CONNECTION ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 2-INCH HJE API TUBING CONNECTION 2 KODAK CCMPARATOR 10...-UPS OF 2-INCH N-80 EUE TUBING 15 17 13 FRONTAL VIEW OF TEST TANK 14 TEST TA1K 15 PRESSURE TEST DATA SHEET 16 LONG DURATION TANK 18 19 21 22 THE LEAK RESISTANCE OF 2-INCH N-80 API ~ED TUBULAR CONNECTION INTROI3UCTION In recent years, well depths...

Weiner, Peter Douglas

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

219

Isotopic exchange measurements of the rates of adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ over chromia-promoted magnetite: implications for water-gas shift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic exchange measurements were used to investigate the adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ on chromia-promoted magnetite at 565 and 627 K. The interconversion between CO and CO/sub 2/ was shown to take place through surface adsorbed species. Furthermore, the rate of interconversion was limited by the rates of adsorption/desorption, indicating either that adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ are in equilibrium on the surface or that the adsorption of CO and CO/sub 2/ leads to the same surface species, e.g., a surface carbonate species. A kinetic model for the water-gas shift over magnetite is proposed, and the results of the isotopic exchange measurements and volumetric adsorption data are used to estimate the rate and equilibrium constants for this model.

Tinkle, M.; Dumesic, J.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Carbon Dioxide Sorption Isotherms and Matrix Transport Rates for Non-Powdered Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For enhanced coalbed methane/carbon dioxide sequestration field projects, carbon dioxide isotherms and the rate of diffusion of the carbon dioxide from the cleats into the matrix are important parameters for predicting how much carbon dioxide actually will be sequestered under various operating conditions. Manometric (or pressure swing) experiments on powdered coal provide a quick, simple, and relatively inexpensive method for measuring sorption isotherms. However, determination of the rate of transport from cleat into matrix from the rate of gas pressure drop is difficult, if not impossible. (The characteristic time constant for the transport depends on the cleat spacing as well as the rate of diffusion.) Manometric measurements often yield isotherms that are extremely problematic in the region of the carbon dioxide critical point; perhaps even worse, available data seem to indicate that the sorption isotherms measured for powders are much larger than the isotherms of coal cores. Measurements on centimeter-sized samples can take weeks or months to reach equilibrium; for such equilibration times gas leakage rates that would be of no significance in powdered-coal measurements can completely invalidate manometric measurements on coal cores. We have tested and used a simple, inexpensive method for measuring isotherms and carbon dioxide transport rates in coal cores. One or more cores are placed in a simple pressure vessel, and a constant pressure is maintained in the vessel by connecting it to a gas supply (which contains a very large amount of gas compared to amount that could leak over the course of the experiment). From time to time the gas supply is shut off, the sample is removed, and its weight is recorded at ambient pressure at frequent time intervals for a period of about one hour. The sample is then returned to the pressure vessel, the carbon dioxide pressure restored to its previous value, and the equilibration resumed until the next sample weighing. For a point on the isotherm, the process is repeated until the sample weight reaches a constant value (i.e., typically equilibration times of several weeks). The slope of a plot of sample weight vs. square root of elapsed desorption time gives a measurement for the rate of diffusion. In order to advance all three experimental methods, results from this “ambient-pressure gravimetry” method were compared with data obtained by conventional manometry and by computer tomography. The isotherm and “diffusion” rate measured for the core can be directly used in simulators for reservoir engineering studies of coalseam sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production.

Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.; Seshadri, K.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

Marquez, Horacio J.

222

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrate accumulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coexistence of aqueous, gas and hydrate phases, indicatingIntrinsic Rate of Methane Gas Hydrate Decomposition”, Chem.Makogon, Y.F. , “Gas hydrates: frozen energy,” Recherche

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Oil spill nears the beaches of Florida, and the leak may not be plugged before Christmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil spill nears the beaches of Florida, and the leak may not be plugged before Christmas By David Gardner Last updated at 11:32 AM on 3rd June 2010 BP's giant oil slick was bearing down on Florida holidaymakers a year visit Florida and state leaders fear the oil will devastate a tourist industry

Belogay, Eugene A.

224

Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Fully conservative leak-proof treatment of thin solid structures immersed in compressible fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, embedded moving solid structures. The scheme works by coupling together a high order flux-based methodFully conservative leak-proof treatment of thin solid structures immersed in compressible fluids cells and partial volumes that arise near a thin solid structure. The conservative semi

Fedkiw, Ron

226

What are the potential impacts of a leak? a) To the aquifer,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and irrigation wells, c) In the sandhills geology, d) In the Platte River valley geology, e) In southern Nebraska pollution in the sandhills region, j) Financially (How much would remediation cost?). Response by Professor that a leak from this pipeline would not be a great amount and would be localized to an area of 10's to 100's

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

227

Rigorous Simulation of Accidental Leaks from High-Pressure Storage Vessels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nature. The released chemical can form and disperse as vapor cloud leading to fire, explosion, or toxic exposure. The resulting leak could be single phase or multiphase release, choked or non-choked. These releases could result in liquid spills, vapor...

Alisha, -

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Supporting Documentation: Miscellaneous Reports, Letters, Memoranda, And Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains reference materials cited in RPP-ASMT -53793, Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, that were obtained from the National Archives Federal Records Repository in Seattle, Washington, or from other sources including the Hanford Site's Integrated Data Management System database (IDMS).

Engeman, J. K.; Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D. G.; Rosenkrance, C. L.

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

Tennessee, University of

230

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abandoned or idle/shut-in at this time, and the reservoirabandoned-well blowout rate was not calculated on a ?uid volume basis, because estimates of the in-reservoir ?

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study.

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Geologic controls influencing CO2 loss from a leaking well.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injection of CO2 into formations containing brine is proposed as a long-term sequestration solution. A significant obstacle to sequestration performance is the presence of existing wells providing a transport pathway out of the sequestration formation. To understand how heterogeneity impacts the leakage rate, we employ two dimensional models of the CO2 injection process into a sandstone aquifer with shale inclusions to examine the parameters controlling release through an existing well. This scenario is modeled as a constant-rate injection of super-critical CO2 into the existing formation where buoyancy effects, relative permeabilities, and capillary pressures are employed. Three geologic controls are considered: stratigraphic dip angle, shale inclusion size and shale fraction. In this study, we examine the impact of heterogeneity on the amount and timing of CO2 released through a leaky well. Sensitivity analysis is performed to classify how various geologic controls influence CO2 loss. A 'Design of Experiments' approach is used to identify the most important parameters and combinations of parameters to control CO2 migration while making efficient use of a limited number of computations. Results are used to construct a low-dimensional description of the transport scenario. The goal of this exploration is to develop a small set of parametric descriptors that can be generalized to similar scenarios. Results of this work will allow for estimation of the amount of CO2 that will be lost for a given scenario prior to commencing injection. Additionally, two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations are compared to quantify the influence that surrounding geologic media has on the CO2 leakage rate.

Hopkins, Polly L.; Martinez, Mario J.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Klise, Katherine A.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Plugging Side-Channel Leaks with Timing Information Flow Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cloud model's dependence on massive parallelism and resource sharing exacerbates the security challenge of timing side-channels. Timing Information Flow Control (TIFC) is a novel adaptation of IFC techniques that may offer a way to reason about, and ultimately control, the flow of sensitive information through systems via timing channels. With TIFC, objects such as files, messages, and processes carry not just content labels describing the ownership of the object's "bits," but also timing labels describing information contained in timing events affecting the object, such as process creation/termination or message reception. With two system design tools-deterministic execution and pacing queues-TIFC enables the construction of "timing-hardened" cloud infrastructure that permits statistical multiplexing, while aggregating and rate-limiting timing information leakage between hosted computations.

Ford, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update - 15302  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank AY-102 was the first of 28 double-shell radioactive waste storage tanks constructed at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, near Richland, WA. The tank was completed in 1970, and entered service in 1971. In August, 2012, an accumulation of material was discovered at two sites on the floor of the annulus that separates the primary tank from the secondary liner. The material was sampled and determined to originate from the primary tank. This paper summarizes the changes in leak behavior that have occurred during the past two years, inspections to determine the capability of the secondary liner to continue safely containing the leakage, and the initial results of testing to determine the leak mechanism.

Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

Hookfin, J.D.

1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

236

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

Discovery of the First Leaking Double-Shell Tank - Hanford Tank 241-AY-102  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A routine video inspection of the annulus space between the primary tank and secondary liner of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 was performed in August 2012. During the inspection, unexpected material was discovered. A subsequent video inspection revealed additional unexpected material on the opposite side of the tank, none of which had been observed during inspections performed in December 2006 and January 2007. A formal leak assessment team was established to review the tank's construction and operating histories, and preparations for sampling and analysis began to determine the material's origin. A new sampling device was required to collect material from locations that were inaccessible to the available sampler. Following its design and fabrication, a mock-up test was performed for the new sampling tool to ensure its functionality and capability of performing the required tasks. Within three months of the discovery of the unexpected material, sampling tools were deployed, material was collected, and analyses were performed. Results indicated that some of the unknown material was indicative of soil, whereas the remainder was consistent with tank waste. This, along with the analyses performed by the leak assessment team on the tank's construction history, lead to the conclusion that the primary tank was leaking into the annulus. Several issues were encountered during the deployment of the samplers into the annulus. As this was the first time samples had been required from the annulus of a double-shell tank, a formal lessons learned was created concerning designing equipment for unique purposes under time constraints.

Harrington, Stephanie J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Sams, Terry L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

Aerosol penetration of leak pathways : an examination of the available data and models.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data and models of aerosol particle deposition in leak pathways are described. Pathways considered include capillaries, orifices, slots and cracks in concrete. The Morewitz-Vaughan criterion for aerosol plugging of leak pathways is shown to be applicable only to a limited range of particle settling velocities and Stokes numbers. More useful are sampling efficiency criteria defined by Davies and by Liu and Agarwal. Deposition of particles can be limited by bounce from surfaces defining leak pathways and by resuspension of particles deposited on these surfaces. A model of the probability of particle bounce is described. Resuspension of deposited particles can be triggered by changes in flow conditions, particle impact on deposits and by shock or vibration of the surfaces. This examination was performed as part of the review of the AP1000 Standard Combined License Technical Report, APP-GW-GLN-12, Revision 0, 'Offsite and Control Room Dose Changes' (TR-112) in support of the USNRC AP1000 Standard Combined License Pre-Application Review.

Powers, Dana Auburn

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Leaking Interleavers for UEP Turbo Codes Abdul Wakeel, David Kronmueller, Werner Henkel, and Humberto Beltr~ao Neto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaking Interleavers for UEP Turbo Codes Abdul Wakeel, David Kronmueller, Werner Henkel to Turbo coding's exceptional performance. An interleaver provides bit-permutation designed to ensure deterministic randomness. When applying interleavers to unequal error protecting (UEP) Turbo codes, typically

Henkel, Werner

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optimization of condensing gas drive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- cal, undersaturated reservoir with gas being injected into the crest and oil being produced from the base of the structure. Fractional oil re- covery at gas breakthrough proved to be less sensitive to changes in oil withdrawal rates as the gas... injection pressure was increased. The validity of the model was established by accurately simulating several low pressure gas drives conducted in the laboratory. Oil recoveries at gas breakthrough using the model compared closely with those recoveries...

Lofton, Larry Keith

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

EIGHTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 61 - 85 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KArea Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leaktight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 41 - 45 months. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures.

Daugherty, W. L.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

243

DOE to Launch Collaborative Effort with Industry to Improve Natural Gas Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE will launch a collaborative effort with industry to evaluate and scope high-impact manufacturing R&D to improve natural gas systems efficiency and leak reduction. The goal of this effort is to establish an advanced manufacturing initiative. AMO will lead this effort.

244

NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 54 - 57 months. No additional O-ring failures have been observed since the last interim report was issued. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures. Additional irradiation of several fixtures is recommended to maintain a balance between thermal and radiation exposures similar to that experienced in storage, and to show the degree of consistency of radiation response between GLT and GLT-S O-rings.

Daugherty, W.

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

CIA Leaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epistemic modals are standardly taken to be context-dependent quantifiers over possibilities. Thus sentences containing them get truth-values with respect to both a context and an index. But some insist that this relativization ...

Gillies, Anthony S.

246

Determination of leakage and unaccounted-for gas-distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was leakage from ill fitting pipes and the resultant danger of explosions, fires, and asphxiation that delayed for a long time the use of gas in private homes. The industry has solved the problem of ill fitting pipes but safety, profits, and the conservation of a natural resource still demands a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted-for gas. The generally accepted definition of unaccountedfor gas is simple. It is the difference between the amount of gas supplied to and taken out of a piping system. By this definition, leakage is only a part of unaccounted-for gas, although the terms are sometimes used synonymously. It is the need to determine the ''tightness'' or freedom from leaks of the distribution system that requires an operator to evaluate all other components of unaccounted-for gas.

Wallace, J.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described.

Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A probabilistic method for leak-before-break analysis of CANDU reactor pressure tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A probabilistic code for the prediction of the cumulative probability of pressure tube ruptures in CANDU type reactors is described. Ruptures are assumed to result from the axial growth by delayed hydride cracking. The BLOOM code models the major phenomena that affect crack length and critical crack length during the reactor sequence of events following the first indications of leakage. BLOOM can be used to develop unit-specific estimates of the actual probability of pressure rupture in operating CANDU reactors and supplement the existing leak before break analysis.

Puls, M.P.; Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L. [Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa (Canada)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

TACIS 91: Application of leak-before-break concept in VVER 440-230  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of the leak-before-break (LBB) concept for primary piping in the first generation of WWER type plants in Russia is investigated. The procedures for LBB behavior used in France and Germany are applied, and the evaluation is discussed within the framework of the European Technical Assistance for the Community of Independent States (TACIS) project. Emphasis is placed on experimental validation of national and international engineering practice for evaluating and optimizing existing installations. Design criteria of WWER plants are compared to western standard design.

Bartholome, G.; Faidy, C.; Franco, C. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

251

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Antonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Anotonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Penn Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

254

Rate Schedules  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

255

Proceedings of the seminar on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the seminar was to present the current state of the art in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology development, validation, and application in an international forum. With particular emphasis on industrial applications and regulatory policies, the seminar provided an opportunity to compare approaches, experiences, and codifications developed by different countries. The seminar was organized into four topic areas: status of LBB applications; technical issues in LBB methodology; complementary requirements (leak detection and inspection); LBB assessment and margins. As a result of this seminar, an improved understanding of LBB gained through sharing of different viewpoints from different countries, permits consideration of: simplified pipe support design and possible elimination of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) mechanical consequences for specific cases; defense-in-depth type of applications without support modifications; support of safety cases for plants designed without the LOCA hypothesis. In support of these activities, better estimates of the limits to the LBB approach should follow, as well as an improvement in codifying methodologies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Faidy, C. [ed.] [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France); Gilles, P. [ed.] [Framatome, Paris (France)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Gas intrusion into SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A new chemodynamical tool to study the evolution of galaxies in the local Universe: a quick and accurate numerical technique to compute gas cooling rate for any chemical composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a quick and accurate numerical tool to compute gas cooling whichever its chemical composition.

Nicolas Champavert; Hervé Wozniak

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Habitat reclamation plan to mitigate for the loss of habitat due to oil and gas production activities under maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities associated with oil and gas development under the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) from 1975 to 2025 will disturb approximately 3,354 acres. Based on 1976 aerial photographs and using a dot grid methodology, the amount of land disturbed prior to MER is estimated to be 3,603 acres. Disturbances on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) were mapped using 1988 aerial photography and a geographical information system. A total of 6,079 acres were classified as disturbed as of June, 1988. The overall objective of this document is to provide specific information relating to the on-site habitat restoration program at NPRC. The specific objectives, which relate to the terms and conditions that must be met by DOE as a means of protecting the San Joaquin kit fox from incidental take are to: (1) determine the amount and location of disturbed lands on NPR-1 and the number of acres disturbed as a result of MER activities, (2) develop a long term (10 year) program to restore an equivalent on-site acres to that lost from prior project-related actions, and (3) examine alternative means to offset kit fox habitat loss.

Anderson, D.C.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as background'' gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a fuzzy'' set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements. 14 figs.

Gross, K.C.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement of mass flow rate of flare gas, in spite of the hostile environment. Its use for initiating control of flare steam flow rate and the addition of molecular weight compensation, using specific gravity (relative density) measurement to achieve...

Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Practical applications of the R6 leak-before-break procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A forthcoming revision to the R6 Leak-before-Break Assessment Procedure is briefly described. Practical application of the LbB concepts to safety-critical nuclear plant is illustrated by examples covering both low temperature and high temperature (>450{degrees}C) operating regimes. The examples highlight a number of issues which can make the development of a satisfactory LbB case problematic: for example, coping with highly loaded components, methodology assumptions and the definition of margins, the effect of crack closure owing to weld residual stresses, complex thermal stress fields or primary bending fields, the treatment of locally high stresses at crack intersections with free surfaces, the choice of local limit load solution when predicting ligament breakthrough, and the scope of calculations required to support even a simplified LbB case for high temperature steam pipe-work systems.

Bouchard, P.J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Specialist meeting on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of research projects sponsored by the Federal Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology, Bonn are summarized and compared to utility, manufacturer, and vendor tests. The purpose of the evaluation was to experimentally verify Leak-before-Break behavior, confirm the postulation of fracture preclusion for piping (straight pipe, bends and branches), and quantify the safety margin against massive failure. The results are applicable to safety assessment of ferritic and austenitic piping in primary and secondary nuclear power plant circuits. Moreover, because of the wide range of the test parameters, they are also important for the design and assessment of piping in other technical plant. The test results provide justification for ruling out catastrophic fractures, even on pipes of dimensions corresponding to those of a main coolant pipe of a pressurized water reactor plant on the basis of a mechanical deterministic safety analysis in correspondence with the Basis Safety Concept (Principle of Fracture Exclusion).

Bartholome, G.; Bazant, E.; Wellein, R. [Siemens KWU, Stuttgart (Germany)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO{sub 2} aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO{sub 2} particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling.

Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Revised paper Leak NED 1997.doc 8:53 25.10.2002 1 Submitted to Nuclear Engineering and Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Revised paper Leak NED 1997.doc 8:53 25.10.2002 1 Submitted to Nuclear Engineering and Design in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors comprise most of the reactor coolant pressure wall thickness were allowed (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1986). Therefore, all tubes

Cizelj, Leon

268

Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

Shoemaker, H.D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 201-Residential Service Rate or 221-Residential Service...

270

Piedmont Natural Gas- Residential Equipment Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Piedmont Natural Gas offers rebates on high-efficiency natural gas tankless water heaters, tank water heaters and furnaces. Customers on the 101-Residential Service rate are eligible for these...

271

Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

Cozzi, Guido, E-mail: guido.cozzi@istitutotumori.mi.it; Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Pulvirenti, Andrea [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Salvetti, Monica [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Romito, Raffaele [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum: Part I. Thermal Behavior Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which are summarized below: 1. Gas composition is moree?ective than gas pressure on in?uencing cooling rate for app. 210–11. 37. J.E.A. John: Gas Dynamics, Allyn and Bacon,

Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

274

MathematicalGeology, Vol. 11,No. I,1979 Modeling and Optimizing a Gas-Water Reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of gas in psia pressure of gas in psia at time t constant production rate of gas in moles per year production rate at time t in moles per year ideal gas constant constant rate of water injection in cubic feet of the reservoir in cubic feet, below which gas production ceases initial reservoir volume in cubic feet reservoir

Waterman, Michael S.

275

Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10% Figure A-3. Annual Natural Gas Heat Rates, by Study UCSBarret, C. 1992. “U.S. Natural Gas Market: A DisequilibriumCalifornia’s Reliance on Natural Gas. Santa Monica, Calif. :

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Comparison of Kinetic and Equilibrium Reaction Models in Simulating the Behavior of Gas Hydrates in Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rate constant of methane gas hydrate decomposition, CanadianAdvances in the Study of Gas Hydrates, C. Taylor , J. Qwan,International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Trondheim, Norway,

Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Intelligent Coatings for Location And Detection of Leaks (IntelliCLAD...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

restrooms, manufacturing plants, etc. Hydrogen fuel cells and storage containers Personal, wearable, economical gas detectors Hydrogen-enabled electronic devices Benefits:...

279

DETECTION OF HISTORICAL PIPELINE LEAK PLUMES USING NON-INTRUSIVE SURFACE-BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE WASHINGTON USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historical records from the Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in eastern WA) indicate that ruptures in buried waste transfer pipelines were common between the 1940s and 1980s, which resulted in unplanned releases (UPRs) of tank: waste at numerous locations. A number of methods are commercially available for the detection of active or recent leaks, however, there are no methods available for the detection of leaks that occurred many years ago. Over the decades, leaks from the Hanford pipelines were detected by visual observation of fluid on the surface, mass balance calculations (where flow volumes were monitored), and incidental encounters with waste during excavation or drilling. Since these detection methods for historic leaks are so limited in resolution and effectiveness, it is likely that a significant number of pipeline leaks have not been detected. Therefore, a technology was needed to detect the specific location of unknown pipeline leaks so that characterization technologies can be used to identify any risks to groundwater caused by waste released into the vadose zone. A proof-of-concept electromagnetic geophysical survey was conducted at an UPR in order to image a historical leak from a waste transfer pipeline. The survey was designed to test an innovative electromagnetic geophysical technique that could be used to rapidly map the extent of historical leaks from pipelines within the Hanford Site complex. This proof-of-concept test included comprehensive testing and analysis of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and made use of supporting and confirmatory geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, magnetics, and electrical resistivity characterization (ERC). The results for this initial proof-of-concept test were successful and greatly exceeded the expectations of the project team by providing excellent discrimination of soils contaminated with leaked waste despite the interference from an electrically conductive pipe.

SKORSKA MB; FINK JB; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

Joel Morrison

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies Science Subject Feed Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. From sealed...

282

340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection Project W-302 Functional Design Criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This functional design criteria for the upgrade to the 340 radioactive liquid waste storage facility (Project W-302) specifically addresses the secondary containment issues at the current vault facility of the 340 Complex. This vault serves as the terminus for the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS). Project W-302 is necessary in order to bring this portion of the Complex into full regulatory compliance. The project title, ``340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection``, illustrates preliminary thoughts of taking corrective action directly upon the existing vault (such as removing the tanks, lining the vault, and replacing tanks). However, based on the conclusion of the engineering study, ``Engineering Study of the 300 Area Process Wastewater Handling System``, WHC-SD-WM-ER-277 (as well as numerous follow-up meetings with cognizant staff), this FDC prescribes a complete replacement of the current tank/vault system. This offers a greater array of tanks, and provides greater operating flexibility and ease of maintenance. This approach also minimizes disruption to RLWS services during ``tie-in``, as compared to the alternative of trying to renovate the old vault. The proposed site is within the current Complex area, and maintains the receipt of RLWS solutions through gravity flow.

Stordeur, R.T.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The criteria of fracture in the case of the leak of pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to forecast the break of the high pressure vessels and the network of pipes in a nuclear reactor, according to the concept of leak before break of pressure vessels, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of project, production, and mounting quality as well as of exploitation. It is also necessary to evaluate the process of break by the help of the fracture criteria. In the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant of, in Lithuania, the most important objects of investigation are: the highest pressure pipes, made of Japanese steel 19MN5 and having an anticorrosive austenitic: coal inside, the pipes of distribution, which arc made of 08X1810T steel. The steel of the network of pipes has a quality of plasticity: therefore the only criteria of fragile is impossible to apply to. The process of break would be best described by the universal criteria of elastic - plastic fracture. For this purpose the author offers the criterion of the double parameter.

Habil; Ziliukas, A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Leak before break behaviour of austenitic and ferritic pipes containing circumferential defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several research projects carried out at MPA Stuttgart to investigate the Leak-before-Break (LBB) behavior of safety relevant pressure bearing components are summarized. Results presented relate to pipes containing circumferential defects subjected to internal pressure and external bending loading. An overview of the experimentally determined results for ferritic components is presented. For components containing postulated or actual defects, the dependence of the critical loading limit on the defect size is shown in the form of LBB curves. These are determined experimentally and/or by calculation for through-wall slits, and represent the boundary curve between leakage and massive fracture. For surface defects and a given bending moment and internal pressure, no fracture will occur if the length at leakage remains smaller than the critical defect length given by the LBB curve for through-wall defects. The predictive capability of engineering calculational methods are presented by way of example. The investigation programs currently underway, testing techniques, and initial results are outlined.

Stadtmueller, W.; Sturm, D.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Conceptual design report for the project to install leak detection in FAST-FT-534/548/549  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides conceptual designs and design recommendations for installing secondary containment and leak detection systems for three sumps at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST), CPP-666. The FAST facility is located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The three sumps receive various materials from the FAST water treatment process. This project involves sump upgrades to meet appropriate environmental requirements. The steps include: providing sump modifications or designs for the installation of leak chases and/or leakage accumulation, coating the sump concrete with a chemical resistant sealant (except for sump VES-FT-534 which is already lined with stainless steel) to act as secondary containment, lining the sumps with a primary containment system, and providing a means to detect and remove primary containment leakage that may occur.

Galloway, K.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V. [Institute for Problems of Strength, Kiev (Ukraine); Kutovoy, O.L. [Institute of Structure Integrity, Kiev (Ukraine)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

292

Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

Roussel, G. [AIB Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

User’s Guide for Getter Rate Test System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This User’s Guide describes the operation and maintenance of the Getter Rate Test System, including the mechanical equipment, instrumentation, and datalogger/computer components. The Getter Rate Test System includes equipment and instrumentation to conduct two getter rate tests simultaneously. The mechanical equipment comprises roughing and high-vacuum pumps, heated test chambers, standard hydrogen leaks, and associated piping and valves. Instrumentation includes thermocouples, pressure (vacuum) transducers, panel displays, analog-to-digital signal converter, and associated wiring. The datalogger/computer is a stand-alone computer with installed software to allow the user to record data input from the pressure transducers to data files and to calculate the getter rate from the data in an Excel® spreadsheet.

Elmore, Monte R.

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

294

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Gas release during salt-well pumping: Model predictions and laboratory validation studies for soluble and insoluble gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid from the tanks into the surrounding soil. Salt-well pumping, or interim stabilization, is a well-established operation for removing drainable interstitial liquid from SSTs. The overall objective of this ongoing study is to develop a quantitative understanding of the release rates and cumulative releases of flammable gases from SSTs as a result of salt-well pumping. The current study is an extension of the previous work reported by Peurrung et al. (1996). The first objective of this current study was to conduct laboratory experiments to quantify the release of soluble and insoluble gases. The second was to determine experimentally the role of characteristic waste heterogeneities on the gas release rates. The third objective was to evaluate and validate the computer model STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases) used by Peurrung et al. (1996) to predict the release of both soluble (typically ammonia) and insoluble gases (typically hydrogen) during and after salt-well pumping. The fourth and final objective of the current study was to predict the gas release behavior for a range of typical tank conditions and actual tank geometry. In these models, the authors seek to include all the pertinent salt-well pumping operational parameters and a realistic range of physical properties of the SST wastes. For predicting actual tank behavior, two-dimensional (2-D) simulations were performed with a representative 2-D tank geometry.

Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Rate schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermal Growth Factor. |INCIDENCET3PACI-T3Rate

297

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION DEVELOPING NONINVASIVE TOOLS TO MONITOR PAST LEAKS AROUND HANFORD TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A characterization program has been developed at Hanford to image past leaks in and around the underground storage tank facilities. The program is based on electrical resistivity, a geophysical technique that maps the distribution of electrical properties of the subsurface. The method was shown to be immediately successful in open areas devoid of underground metallic infrastructure, due to the large contrast in material properties between the highly saline waste and the dry sandy host environment. The results in these areas, confirmed by a limited number of boreholes, demonstrate a tendency for the lateral extent of the underground waste plume to remain within the approximate footprint of the disposal facility. In infrastructure-rich areas, such as tank farms, the conventional application of electrical resistivity using small point-source surface electrodes initially presented a challenge for the resistivity method. The method was then adapted to directly use the buried infrastructure as electrodes for both transmission of electrical current and measurements of voltage. For example, steel-cased wells that surround the tanks were used as long electrodes, which helped to avoid much of the infrastructure problems. Overcoming the drawbacks of the long electrode method has been the focus of our work over the past seven years. The drawbacks include low vertical resolution and limited lateral coverage. The lateral coverage issue has been improved by supplementing the long electrodes with surface electrodes in areas devoid of infrastructure. The vertical resolution has been increased by developing borehole electrode arrays that can fit within the small-diameter drive casing of a direct push rig. The evolution of the program has led to some exceptional advances in the application of geophysical methods, including logistical deployment of the technology in hazardous areas, development of parallel processing resistivity inversion algorithms, and adapting the processing tools to accommodate electrodes of all shapes and locations. The program is accompanied by a full set of quality assurance procedures that cover the layout of sensors, measurement strategies, and software enhancements while insuring the integrity of stored data. The data have been shown to be useful in identifying previously unknown contaminant sources and defining the footprint of precipitation recharge barriers to retard the movement of existing contamination.

MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT; CUBBAGE B; NOONAN GE; MCNEILL M; HENDERSON C

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondoteam and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using theoil-gas system. The flow of oil and gas was simulated using

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

he e-mails leaked from the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of greenhouse-gas pollution.Theuncertaintiesdo,however,ham- pereffortstoplanforthefuture.Andunlikethe myths four areas -- regional climate forecasts, precipitation forecasts, aerosols and palaeoclimate data forecast climate changes for the twenty- first century at the local and regional level. The basic tools

Nizkorodov, Sergey

302

Application of the leak-before-break concept to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-year Finnish-Russian cooperation program has been initiated in 1995 to demonstrate the applicability of the leak-before-break concept (LBB) to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP. The program includes J-R curve testing of authentic pipe materials at full operating temperature, screening and computational LBB analyses complying with the USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, and exchange of LBB-related information with emphasis on NDE. Domestic computer codes are mainly used, and all tests and analyses are independently carried out by each party. The results are believed to apply generally to RBMK type plants of the first generation.

Eperin, A.P.; Zakharzhevsky, Yu.O.; Arzhaev, A.I. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Gas Storage Technology Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

Robert W. Watson

2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

305

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

Robert W. Watson

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

307

Assessing the Effectiveness of California's Underground Storage Tank Annual Inspection Rate Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaks from Underground Storage Tanks by Media Affected Soilfrom Underground Storage Tank Facilities Cities CountiesCities Counties Leaks per Underground Storage Tank Facility

Cutter, W. Bowman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Flammable gas project topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

Johnson, G.D.

1997-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

310

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS MSc. Hans in an oil production system is developed. Each well may be manipulated by injecting lift gas and adjusting in the maximum oil flow rate, water flow rate, liquid flow rate, and gas flow rate. The wells may also

Johansen, Tor Arne

311

Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiative feedback from ionized gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H2 formation in metal-free gas occurs via the intermediate H- or H2+ ions. Destruction of these ions by photodissociation therefore serves to suppress H2 formation. In this paper, I highlight the fact that several processes that occur in ionized primordial gas produce photons energetic enough to photodissociate H- or H2+ and outline how to compute the photodissociation rates produced by a particular distribution of ionized gas. I also show that there are circumstances of interest, such as during the growth of HII regions around the first stars, in which this previously overlooked form of radiative feedback is of considerable importance.

S. C. O. Glover

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing negotiations of the four sub-awards working toward signed contracts with the various organizations involved. Second, an Executive Council meeting was held at Penn State September 9, 2004. And third, the GSTC participated in the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting in Charleston, West Virginia, on September 16th and 17th. We hosted a display booth with the Stripper Well Consortium.

Robert W. Watson

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

314

Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressures )( p by conventional well tests due to very low permeabilities. Decline curves for conventional gas, when applied on shale gas reservoirs, can not be validated by material balance due to unavailability of average reservoir pressure. However...* variable rate gas BDF including adsorbed gas exhibiting exponential decline (b = 1)................. 25 4.6 Plot of [m(pi )? m(pwf )] / qg(t) vs material balance pseudo time tca*, xii FIGURE...

Mengal, Salman Akram

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

315

Natural Gas Utility Restructuring and Customer Choice Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations apply to natural gas utilities that have restructured in order to acquire rate-based facilities. The regulations address customer choice offerings by natural gas utilities, which...

316

Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models in simulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Diapirism and Gas Hydrates at the Head of the Cape FearSea-Level Low Stands Above Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments.rate constant of methane gas hydrate decomposition. Canadian

Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

A New Series of Rate Decline Relations Based on the Diagnosis of Rate-Time Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

functional for the b-parameter. The next step of this procedure is to test and validate each of the rate decline relations by applying them to various numerical simulation cases (for gas), as well as for field data cases obtained from tight/shale gas...

Boulis, Anastasios

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

319

In-Situ Leak Testing And Replacement Of Glovebox Isolator, Or Containment Unit Gloves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A test plug for in-situ testing a glove installed in a glovebox is provided that uses a top plate and a base plate, and a diametrically expandable sealing mechanism fitting between the two plates. The sealing mechanism engages the base plate to diametrically expand when the variable distance between the top plate and the bottom plate is reduced. An inlet valve included on the top plate is used to introducing a pressurized gas to the interior of the glove, and a pressure gauge located on the top plate is used to monitor the interior glove pressure.

Castro, Julio M. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM); Steckle, Jr., Warren P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

320

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 was enacted by Congress to move the nation toward increased energy independence by increasing the production of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law establishes a new renewable fuel standard (RFS) that requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons annually (2.3 million barrels per day) of renewable fuel in its vehicles by 2022. Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the US, and its production has grown dramatically over the past decade. According to EISA and RFS, ethanol (produced from corn as well as cellulosic feedstocks) will make up the vast majority of the new renewable fuel requirements. However, ethanol use limited to E10 and E85 (in the case of flex fuel vehicles or FFVs) will not meet this target. Even if all of the E0 gasoline dispensers in the country were converted to E10, such sales would represent only about 15 billion gallons per year. If 15% ethanol, rather than 10% were used, the potential would be up to 22 billion gallons. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10, that is, gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85, a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in FFVs. Although DOE remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Given this reality, DOE and others have begun assessing the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as one way to transition to higher volumes of ethanol. In October of 2010, the EPA granted a partial waiver to the Clean Air Act allowing the use of fuel that contains up to 15% ethanol for the model year 2007 and newer light-duty motor vehicles. This waiver represents the first of a number of actions that are needed to move toward the commercialization of E15 gasoline blends. On January 2011, this waiver was expanded to include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a relatively short timeframe. Initially, these material studies included test fuels of Fuel C,

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Reservoir oil bubblepoint pressures revisited; solution gasoil ratios and surface gas specific gravities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reservoir oil bubblepoint pressures revisited; solution gas­oil ratios and surface gas specific, for bubblepoint pressure and other fluid properties, require use of stock-tank gas rate and specific gravity in estimating stock-tank vent gas rate and quality for compliance purposes. D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All

Valkó, Peter

323

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 ?g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 ?g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 ?g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of the samples containing high concentrations of water-leachable uranium also contained high pore water corrected alkalinity (3.26E+03 mg/L as CaCO3), indicating that the elevated water-leachable uranium could be an artifact of uranyl-carbonate complexation of naturally occurring labile uranium. However, a mass scan of the water extract containing the highest concentration of uranium was performed via inductively coupled mass spectrometry over the range of 230 to 240 atomic mass units, and a discernable peak was observed at mass 236. Although the data is considered qualitative, the presence of uranium-236 in the 1:1 sediment:water extract is a clear indication that the sample contains contaminant uranium [Hanford reprocessed fuel waste]. After evaluating all the characterization and analytical data, there is no question that the vadose zone surrounding the C-152 pipeline leak site has been contaminated by waste generally sent to tanks. The two zones or regions that contained the largest amount of contaminants, either in concentration or by occurrence of several key constituents/contaminants of concern, were located: 1) between the 241-C-151 and 241-C-152 Diversion Boxes (near the location of UPR-200-E-82) and 2) directly across the C-152 waste site near the C-153 Diversion Box (near where a pipeline, which connects the two diversion boxes, is shown on old blue prints . Without the use of more sophisticated analytical techniques, such as isotope signature analysis of ruthenium fission product isotopes, it is impossible to determine if the contamination observed at these two locations are from the same waste source or are a result of different leak events.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

325

Double-Shell Tank Visual Inspection Changes Resulting from the Tank 241-AY-102 Primary Tank Leak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Program, remote visual inspections are utilized to perform qualitative in-service inspections of the DSTs in order to provide a general overview of the condition of the tanks. During routine visual inspections of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) in August 2012, anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. Following identification of the tank AY-102 probable leak cause, evaluations considered the adequacy of the existing annulus inspection frequency with respect to the circumstances of the tank AY-102 1eak and the advancing age of the DST structures. The evaluations concluded that the interval between annulus inspections should be shortened for all DSTs, and each annulus inspection should cover > 95 percent of annulus floor area, and the portion of the primary tank (i.e., dome, sidewall, lower knuckle, and insulating refractory) that is visible from the annulus inspection risers. In March 2013, enhanced visual inspections were performed for the six oldest tanks: 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101,241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103, and no evidence of leakage from the primary tank were observed. Prior to October 2012, the approach for conducting visual examinations of DSTs was to perform a video examination of each tank's interior and annulus regions approximately every five years (not to exceed seven years between inspections). Also, the annulus inspection only covered about 42 percent of the annulus floor.

Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

326

Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years of research data and cause thousands of dollars of damage to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years. To help prevent this common accident, wire or clamp all hose connections, secure the condenser outlet tubes into the inlet and outlet of the condenser. After fitting the tubes into the condenser (a

Brody, James P.

328

Avista Utilities (Gas)- Prescriptive Commercial Incentive Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Avista Utilities offers Natural Gas saving incentives to commercial customers on rate schedule 420 and 424. This program provides rebates for a variety of equipment and appliances including cooking...

329

Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

Sherrill, David

330

INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups. For the last group a self-propelled system with an onboard self-contained power and welding system is required. (4) Pipe size range requirements range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.) in diameter. The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.) diameter, with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe.

Ian D. Harris

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses. Depending on the value of gas, simple, low-cost measures, such as adjusting leaking equipment components, or larger-scale measures, such as installing dry seals on compressors, can be applied.

Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or natural gas on a retail rate basis for the applicable technology. Interest rates for financing range from 0% - 6.9%. The maximum loan amount under this program is...

334

Program solves for gas well inflow performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Windows-based program, GasIPR, can solve for the gas well inflow performance relationship (IPR). The program calculates gas producing rates at various pressures and is applicable for both turbulent and non-turbulent flow. It also has the following capabilities: computes PVT properties {gamma}{sub g}, P{sub c}, T{sub c}, heating value, Z, {mu}{sub g}, B{sub g}, and {rho}{sub g} from input gas composition data; calculates the Reynolds number (N{sub Re}) and shows the gas flow rates at the sandface at which the turbulence effect must be considered; helps the user to optimize the net perforation interval (h{sub p}) so that the turbulence effect can be minimized; and helps the user to evaluate the sensitivity of formation permeability on gas flow rate for a new play. IPR is a critical component in forecasting gas well deliverability. IPRs are used for sizing optimum tubing configurations and compressors, designing gravel packs, and solving gas well loading problems. IPR is the key reference for nodal analysis.

Engineer, R. [AERA Energy LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Grillete, G. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

1997-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P o l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

337

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P O L I C Y M A K E R G U I D E #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

338

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

340

The Interest Rate Conundrum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Practical guide: Tools and methodologies for an oil and gas industry emission inventory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the preparation of Title V Permit applications, the quantification and speciation of emission sources from oil and gas facilities were reevaluated to determine the {open_quotes}potential-to-emit.{close_quotes} The existing emissions were primarily based on EPA emission factors such as AP-42, for tanks, combustion sources, and fugitive emissions from component leaks. Emissions from insignificant activities and routine operations that are associated with maintenance, startups and shutdowns, and releases to control devices also required quantification. To reconcile EPA emission factors with test data, process knowledge, and manufacturer`s data, a careful review of other estimation options was performed. This paper represents the results of this analysis of emission sources at oil and gas facilities, including exploration and production, compressor stations and gas plants.

Thompson, C.C. [C-K Associates, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Killian, T.L. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

About OGEL OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law, regulation, treaties, judicial and arbitral cases, voluntary guidelines, tax and contracting, including the oil-gas- energy geopolitics. For full Terms & Conditions and subscription rates

Dixon, Juan

345

Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

Lee, Dongwon

346

NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

Sheen, S. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Study Guide for Calculus for Technology I, MA 16010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spherical balloon is inflated with gas at a rate of 5 cubic centimeters per minute. ..... At 1:00 P.M., oil begins leaking from a tank at a rate of 2 + 0.8t gallons per ...

2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

348

Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Gas Storage Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

350

Gas Utilities (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

351

Industrial Gas Turbines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

352

Gas Utilities (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

353

Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Variable rate analysis of transient well test data using semi-analytical methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 4. 2. 1 Fetkovich and Vienot Data. . 4. 2. 2 Streltsova Data . 4. 2. 3 Low Productivity Gas Well DS-1 4. 2. 4 Low Productivity Gas Well CSW-1. 4. 2. 5 Low Productivity Gas Well AC-6. . 4. 2. 6 Low Productivity Gas Well TGA-21 4. 2. 7 Low... with the Material Balance Deconvolution Method and Calculated Sandface Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4. 1 Reservoir and Fluid Properties and Comparison of Analysis Results for Rate Normalization and Material Balance Deconvolution - Fetkovich...

Johnston, Jennifer L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

Rogers, Rudy E. (Starkville, MS); Zhong, Yu (Brandon, MS)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Gas Production Tax (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

358

Natural gas dehydration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

360

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

362

Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the gases or vapors, liquids with volatility need sensors near the potential sources of release, nature and concentration of gas releases, natural and mechanical ventilation, detector installation locations not vulnerable to mechanical or water damage from normal operations, and locations that lend themselves to convenient maintenance and calibration. The guidance also states that sensors should be located in all areas where hazardous accumulations of gas may occur. Such areas might not be close to release points but might be areas with restricted air movement. Heavier than air gases are likely to accumulate in pits, trenches, drains, and other low areas. Lighter than air gases are more likely to accumulate in overhead spaces, above drop ceilings, etc. In general, sensors should be located close to any potential sources of major release of gas. The paper gives data on monitor sensitivity and expected lifetimes to support the monitor selection process. Proper selection of indoor and outdoor locations for monitors is described, accounting for the vapor densities of hydrogen and oxygen. The latest information on monitor alarm setpoint selection is presented. Typically, monitors require recalibration at least every six months, or more frequently for inhospitable locations, so ready access to the monitors is an important issue to consider in monitor siting. Gas monitors, depending on their type, can be susceptible to blockages of the detector element (i.e., dus

Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Automated soil gas monitoring chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate Arnaud Réveillère, Jérémy Rohmer, Frédéric Wertz / contact the leak, and of CO2,g as a first approach. Compared to the state of the art, it adds the possibility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

On the maximum pressure rise rate in boosted HCCI operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with ...

Wildman, Craig B.

366

Turbulent Compressibilty of Protogalactic Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The star formation rate in galaxies should be related to the fraction of gas that can attain densities large enough for gravitational collapse. In galaxies with a turbulent interstellar medium, this fraction is controlled by the effective barotropic index $gamma = dlog P/dlog (rho)$ which measures the turbulent compressibility. When the cooling timescale is smaller than the dynamical timescale, gamma can be evaluated from the derivatives of cooling and heating functions, using the condition of thermal equilibrium. We present calculations of gamma for protogalaxies in which the metal abundance is so small that H_2 and HD cooling dominates. For a heating rate independent of temperature and proportional to the first power of density, the turbulent gas is relatively "hard", with $gamma >= 1$, at large densities, but moderately "soft", $gamma <= 0.8$, at densities below around $10^4 cm^(-3)$. At low temperatures the density probability distribution should fall ra pidly for densities larger than this value, which corresponds physically to the critical density at which collisional and radiative deexcitation rate s of HD are equal. The densities attained in turbulent protogalaxies thus depend on the relatively large deuterium abundance in our universe. We expect the same physical effect to occur in higher metallicity gas with different coolants. The case in which adiabatic (compressional) heating due to cloud collapse dominates is also discussed, and suggests a criterion for the maximum mass of Population III stars.

John Scalo; Anirban Biswas

2001-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effective Rate Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

368

Ruling on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax Rate Sparks Debate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials:Bill Wilcox andFederalIRS Ruling

369

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main objectives of this study are to determine the most suitable type of gas for a water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection scheme, the WAG cycle time, and gas injection rate to increase oil production rate and recovery from the San Francisco field...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

Gas exchange measurements in natural systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Process and system for removing impurities from a gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Compressed gas manifold  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

Mottram, Nigel

374

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher plume propagation estimates in a high-permeability conduit like a vertical fracture.

Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Control apparatus for hot gas engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fission gas release restrictor for breached fuel rod  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the event of a breach in the cladding of a rod in an operating liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the rapid release of high-pressure gas from the fission gas plenum may result in a gas blanketing of the breached rod and rods adjacent thereto which impairs the heat transfer to the liquid metal coolant. In order to control the release rate of fission gas in the event of a breached rod, the substantial portion of the conventional fission gas plenum is formed as a gas bottle means which includes a gas pervious means in a small portion thereof. During normal reactor operation, as the fission gas pressure gradually increases, the gas pressure interiorly of and exteriorly of the gas bottle means equalizes. In the event of a breach in the cladding, the gas pervious means in the gas bottle means constitutes a sufficient restriction to the rapid flow of gas therethrough that under maximum design pressure differential conditions, the fission gas flow through the breach will not significantly reduce the heat transfer from the affected rod and adjacent rods to the liquid metal heat transfer fluid flowing therebetween.

Kadambi, N. Prasad (Gaithersburg, MD); Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA); Spencer, Daniel R. (Unity Twp., PA); Schwallie, Ambrose L. (Greensburg, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

GROUNDWATER/LEAK DETECTION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545*. . : '* FEB1f\l p :.;LIST OFKAttachment

380

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Pressure Transient Analysis and Production Analysis for New Albany Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and approaches special for estimating rate decline and recovery of shale gas wells were developed. As the strategy of the horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures (MTFHW) was discovered and its significance to economic shale gas production...

Song, Bo

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

383

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

384

Natural Gas & Local Governments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-trailers New business ventures Frac services Water hauling Brine water remediation Pipeline Group #12;2. Sublette County, Wyoming Largest gas-producing county in Wyoming (44% of states gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

385

Microminiature gas chromatograph  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Microminiature gas chromatograph  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

Yu, C.M.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

388

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

390

Gas and Oil (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

391

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

393

COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

394

Residual gas analysis device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

396

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

UK now claims world's top discovery rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UK explorers are a bit more cheerful these days even though no one has discovered a giant field or anything elephant-sized. The reason is a benign tax regime and a growing confidence among industry explorers. This last has resulted in discovery of many smaller fields - particularly gas, some potentially commercial. It is claimed that the UK's discovery rate is now the highest in the world.

Not Available

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Gas Cylinders: Proper Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

399

Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey

400

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Valve for gas centrifuges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hydrodynamics and flue gas desulfurization characteristics of a three-phase, gas-continuous, cocurrent semifluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrodynamic characteristics of a gas-liquid-solid, gas-continuous, cocurrent semifluidized bed were defined. Five different particle types were used to characterize the hydrodynamics. Air and water were used as the gas and liquid streams, respectively. Six flow regimes were observed in the constrained gas-continuous, three-phase bed. These regimes are described in terms of the solids properties and the gas and liquid superficial velocities. The heights of the packed and fluidized beds and the solids holdup in the fluidized section of the semifluidized bed are discussed in terms of the superficial gas and liquid velocities, the solids density and diameter and the initial quantity of particles in the bed. The desulfurization characteristics of the gas-liquid-solid semifluidized bed were determined using a calcium carbonate slurry. Gas side mass transfer coefficients and the ratio of liquid side to gas side mass transfer coefficients were measured and correlated in terms of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, bed height, calcium carbonate concentration and sulfur dioxide pressure for both the fluidized and packed sections of the semifluidized bed. The hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics were used to construct a mathematical model that predicted overall removal of sulfur dioxide from the simulated flue gas.

Beaver, L.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Shale-Gas Experience as an Analog for Potential Wellbore Integrity Issues in CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shale-gas development in Pennsylvania since 2003 has resulted in about 19 documented cases of methane migration from the deep subsurface (7,0000) to drinking water aquifers, soils, domestic water wells, and buildings, including one explosion. In all documented cases, the methane leakage was due to inadequate wellbore integrity, possibly aggravated by hydrofracking. The leakage of methane is instructive on the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration operations. Although there are important differences between the two systems, both involve migrating, buoyant gas with wells being a primary leakage pathway. The shale-gas experience demonstrates that gas migration from faulty wells can be rapid and can have significant impacts on water quality and human health and safety. Approximately 1.4% of the 2,200 wells drilled into Pennsylvania's Marcellus Formation for shale gas have been implicated in methane leakage. These have resulted in damage to over 30 domestic water supplies and have required significant remediation via well repair and homeowner compensation. The majority of the wellbore integrity problems are a result of over-pressurization of the wells, meaning that high-pressure gas has migrated into an improperly protected wellbore annulus. The pressurized gas leaks from the wellbore into the shallow subsurface, contaminating drinking water or entering structures. The effects are localized to a few thousands of feet to perhaps two-three miles. The degree of mixing between the drinking water and methane is sufficient that significant chemical impacts are created in terms of elevated Fe and Mn and the formation of black precipitates (metal sulfides) as well as effervescing in tap water. Thus it appears likely that leaking CO{sub 2} could also result in deteriorated water quality by a similar mixing process. The problems in Pennsylvania highlight the critical importance of obtaining background data on water quality as well as on problems associated with previous (legacy) oil and gas operations. The great majority of the leakage issues in Pennsylvania are due to improperly abandoned wells, however in the media there is no clear distinction between past and present problems. In any case, significant analytical work is required to attribute differing sources of methane (or CO{sub 2} in the case of sequestration). In Pennsylvania, a relatively lax regulatory environment appears to have contributed to the problem with inadequate oversight of well design and testing to ensure well integrity. New rules were adopted at the end of 2010, and it will be interesting to observe whether methane leakage problems are significantly reduced.

Carey, James W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simpson, Wendy S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ziock, Hans-Joachim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

405

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services,...

406

E-Print Network 3.0 - agroecosystem greenhouse gas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Research and Demonstration Project Summary: rates of energy return, greater soil carbon sequestration, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions... and belowground pools and...

407

Gas Network Optimization: A comparison of Piecewise Linear Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aXM, Compañía de Expertos en Mercados, Colombian Power System Operator, Medellín, ...... rate of heat transfer per unit time and unit mass of the gas [W/kg].

2014-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

408

Montana Oil and Natural Gas Production Tax Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The State of Montana imposes a quarterly tax on the gross taxable value of oil and natural gas production. This tax replaces several previous taxes, simplifying fees and rates as well as compliance...

409

Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

410

Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

411

June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage Johnson, A.B. Jr. (1977) 78 Estimation of gas leak rates...

412

July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies Science Subject Feed Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. From sealed PuO...

413

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Study of Flow Regimes in Multiply-Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various analytical, semi-analytical, and empirical models have been proposed to characterize rate and pressure behavior as a function of time in tight/shale gas systems featuring a horizontal well with multiple hydraulic fractures. Despite a small...

Freeman, Craig M.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Heart Rate Artifact Suppression.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Motion artifact strongly corrupts heart rate measurements in current pulse oximetry systems. In many, almost any motion will greatly diminish the system’s ability to extract… (more)

Dickson, Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Residential Solar Valuation Rates  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

418

Effective Rate Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

419

LCC Guidance Rates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

420

Method for controlling gas metal arc welding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Smartt, H.B.; Einerson, C.J.; Watkins, A.D.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method for controlling gas metal arc welding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections.

Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Einerson, Carolyn J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Previous Power Rates (rates/current)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentations Presentations SortConferences PreviousRates

425

Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006PhotovoltaicSeptember 22,ReactorAbout Power > FinancialPowerRates

426

Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006PhotovoltaicSeptember 22,ReactorAbout Power > FinancialPowerRates

427

Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermal Growth Factor. |INCIDENCET3PACI-T3Rate

428

Gas permeability of carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

Non-equilibrium Lorentz gas on a curved space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The periodic Lorentz gas with external field and iso-kinetic thermostat is equivalent, by conformal transformation, to a billiard with expanding phase-space and slightly distorted scatterers, for which the trajectories are straight lines. A further time rescaling allows to keep the speed constant in that new geometry. In the hyperbolic regime, the stationary state of this billiard is characterized by a phase-space contraction rate, equal to that of the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas. In contrast to the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas where phase-space contraction occurs in the bulk, the phase-space contraction rate here takes place at the periodic boundaries.

Felipe Barra; Thomas Gilbert

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

431

Valve for gas centrifuges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

Yun Soo Myung

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

components, charge reduction, or an alternative refrigerant,refrigerant system. However, more recent work suggests low-leak, reduced charge,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

components, charge reduction, or an alternative refrigerant,refrigerant system. However, more recent work suggests low-leak, reduced charge,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ammonia synthesis gas purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes the purification of a reformed gas mixture following water gas shift conversion to produce a purified ammonia synthesis gas stream. The improved processing sequence consisting essentially of: (A) Selectively catalytically oxidizing the residual carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to carbon dioxide so as to reduce the carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to less than about 20 ppm, the selective catalytic oxidation being carried out with an excess of air, with the excess oxygen being catalytically reacted with a small amount of hydrogen so that the residual oxygen level is reduced to less than about 3 ppm; (B) removing the bulk of the carbon dioxide content of the gas mixture by liquid absorption; (C) Removing residual amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water by selective adsorption on the fixed beds of a thermal swing adsorption system, a dry, purified ammonia ammonia synthesis gas stream containing less than a total of 10 ppm of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide being recovered from the thermal swing adsorption system; (D) Passing the resulting dry, purified ammonia synthesis gas stream having a low content of methane to an ammonia production operation without intermediate passage of the ammonia synthesis gas stream to a methanation unit or to a cryogenic unit for removal of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide therefrom; whereby the efficiency of the overall purification operation and the effective utilization of hydrogen are enhanced.

Fuderer, A.

1986-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

436

Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

437

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

439

String Gas Baryogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

G. L. Alberghi

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

440

Polyport atmospheric gas sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

,"Colorado Natural Gas Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","112014","1151989" ,"Release Date:","1302015"...

442

Oil and Gas (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

443

Oil and Gas Outlook  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Outlook For Independent Petroleum Association of America November 13, 2014 | Palm Beach, FL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Recent...

444

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Gas venting system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

446

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

Skogestad, Sigurd

447

Evaluation of fracture treatment type on the recovery of gas from the cotton valley formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Every tight gas well needs to be stimulated with a hydraulic fracture treatment to produce natural gas at economic flow rates and recover a volume of gas that provides an acceptable return on investment. Over the past few decades, many different...

Yalavarthi, Ramakrishna

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Modeling of Gas Extraction from Closed Coal Mines C. Lagny & Z. Pokryszka  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of Gas Extraction from Closed Coal Mines C. Lagny & Z. Pokryszka Direction des risques du gas flow rate. Validations were made for several years. This model is able to evaluate firedamp of indus- trial gas drainage from the surface. In this aim, a specific mathematical model has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

International Conference on Gas Hydrates May 19-23, 2002, Yokohama  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrates for transport and storage of natural gas and in cold flow technology. In a continuous stirred tank. The same conditions are relevant in cold flow technology where oil, gas and water are passed through4th International Conference on Gas Hydrates May 19-23, 2002, Yokohama Hydrate Formation Rate

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

450

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Rollbuhler, R.J.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Consideration of Grain Size Distribution in the Diffusion of Fission Gas to Grain Boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the accumulation of fission gas on grain boundaries in a polycrystalline microstructure with a distribution of grain sizes. The diffusion equation is solved throughout the microstructure to evolve the gas concentration in space and time. Grain boundaries are treated as infinite sinks for the gas concentration, and we monitor the cumulative gas inventory on each grain boundary throughout time. We consider two important cases: first, a uniform initial distribution of gas concentration without gas production (correlating with post-irradiation annealing), and second, a constant gas production rate with no initial gas concentration (correlating with in-reactor conditions). The results show that a single-grain-size model, such as the Booth model, over predicts the gas accumulation on grain boundaries compared with a polycrystal with a grain size distribution. Also, a considerable degree of scatter, or variability, exists in the grain boundary gas accumulation when comparing all of the grain boundaries in the microstructure.

Paul C. Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

454

The Differential Lifetimes of Protostellar Gas and Dust Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a protostellar disk model that takes into account the combined effect of viscous evolution, photoevaporation and the differential radial motion of dust grains and gas. For T Tauri disks, the lifetimes of dust disks that are mainly composed of millimeter sized grains are always shorter than the gas disks' lifetimes, and become similar only when the grains are fluffy (density 10 AU), without strong signs of gas accretion nor of millimeter thermal emission from the dust. For Herbig AeBe stars, the strong photoevaporation clears the inner disks in 10^6 yr, before the dust grains in the outer disk migrate to the inner region. In this case, the grains left behind in the outer gas disk accumulate at the disk inner edge (at 10-100 AU from the star). The dust grains remain there even after the entire gas disk has been photoevaporated, and form a gas-poor dust ring similar to that observed around HR 4796A. Hence, depending on the strength of the stellar ionizing flux, our model predicts opposite types of products around young stars. For low mass stars with a low photoevaporation rate, dust-poor gas disks with an inner hole would form, whereas for high mass stars with a high photoevaporation rate, gas-poor dust rings would form. This prediction should be examined by observations of gas and dust around weak line T Tauri stars and evolved Herbig AeBe stars.

Taku Takeuchi; C. J. Clarke; D. N. C. Lin

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase "gas generationtesting" shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

Carlsbad Field Office

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fission gas detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Illinois Natural Gas Summary  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

458

Montana Natural Gas Summary  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

459

Gas Kick Mechanistic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

Zubairy, Raheel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Imaging Molecular Gas in the Luminous Merger NGC 3256 : Detection of High-Velocity Gas and Twin Gas Peaks in the Double Nucleus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular gas in the merging starburst galaxy NGC 3256 has been imaged with the Submillimeter Array at a resolution of 1'' x 2'' (170 x 340 pc at 35 Mpc). This is the first interferometric imaging of molecular gas in the most luminous galaxy within z=0.01. There is a large disk of molecular gas (r > 3 kpc) in the center of the merger with a strong gas concentration toward the double nucleus. The gas disk having a mass of ~3*10^9 Msun in the central 3 kpc rotates around a point between the two nuclei that are 850 pc apart on the sky. The molecular gas is warm and turbulent and shows spatial variation of the intensity ratio between CO isotopomers. High-velocity molecular gas is discovered at the galactic center. Its velocity in our line of sight is up to 420 km/s offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy; the terminal velocity is twice as large as that due to the rotation of the main gas disk. The high-velocity gas is most likely due to a molecular outflow from the gas disk, entrained by the starburst-driven superwind in the galaxy. The molecular outflow is estimated to have a rate of ~10 Msun/yr and to play a significant role in the dispersal or depletion of molecular gas from the galactic center. A compact gas concentration and steep velocity gradient are also found around each of the twin nuclei. They are suggestive of a small gas disk rotating around each nucleus. If these are indeed mini-disks, their dynamical masses are ~10^9 Msun within a radius of 170 pc.

Kazushi Sakamoto; Paul T. P. Ho; Alison B. Peck

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas leak rates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian

Moridis, G.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Supersonic gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

466

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

467

Field tests of probes for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. Results and interpretation will be reported from four different field tests. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different orientations at a natural gas plant. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of 2 different levels of humidified natural gas/organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Meidinger, Brian (RMOTC-DOE)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

469

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

470

Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...

471

Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

472

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors, 2008 U.S. Natural Gas Transporation Corridors out of Major...

473

Review of {sup 222}Rn in natural gas produced from unconventional sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the literature on trace radioactivity in natural gas and natural gas products has been performed and the consequent radioactivity concentrations and dose rates due to natural radioactive elements in natural gas produced from Devonian shale wells, western tight gas sands, geo-pressurized aquifiers and coal beds have been studied. Preliminary data on {sup 222}Rn concentrations from these energy sources fall within the range observed for more conventional sources. Gas produced from reservoirs with higher than average natural /sup 238/U higher than average levels of {sup 222}Rn. Massive fracturing techniques do not appear to raise the relative concentration of radon in natural gas.

Gogolak, C.V.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

477

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

478

,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

479

Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....

480

Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...

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