National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas hydrate field

  1. 2012 Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate field trial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate field trial August 2, 2013 - Project operations are complete. Read the Final Project Technical Report [PDF-44.1MB] February 19, 2013 - Data from the 2011/2012 field test is now available! Click here to access data. Status Report - May 7, 2012 Photo of the Ignik Drilling Pad Ignik Sikumi #1 "Fire in the Ice" Video Project Background Participants Ignik Sikumi Well Review CO2-CH4 Exchange Overview Final abandonment of Ignik Sikumi #1 wellsite has been

  2. Guest Molecule Exchange Kinetics for the 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Lee, Won Suk

    2014-05-14

    A commercially viable technology for producing methane from natural gas hydrate reservoirs remains elusive. Short-term depressurization field tests have demonstrated the potential for producing natural gas via dissociation of the clathrate structure, but the long-term performance of the depressurization technology ultimately requires a heat source to sustain the dissociation. A decade of laboratory experiments and theoretical studies have demonstrated the exchange of pure CO2 and N2-CO2 mixtures with CH4 in sI gas hydrates, yielding critical information about molecular mechanisms, recoveries, and exchange kinetics. Findings indicated the potential for producing natural gas with little to no production of water and rapid exchange kinetics, generating sufficient interest in the guest-molecule exchange technology for a field test. In 2012 the U.S. DOE/NETL, ConocoPhillips Company, and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation jointly sponsored the first field trial of injecting a mixture of N2-CO2 into a CH4-hydrate bearing formation beneath the permafrost on the Alaska North Slope. Known as the Ignik Sikumi #1 Gas Hydrate Field Trial, this experiment involved three stages: 1) the injection of a N2-CO2 mixture into a targeted hydrate-bearing layer, 2) a 4-day pressurized soaking period, and 3) a sustained depressurization and fluid production period. Data collected during the three stages of the field trial were made available after an extensive quality check. These data included continuous temperature and pressure logs, injected and recovered fluid compositions and volumes. The Ignik Sikumi #1 data set is extensive, but contains no direct evidence of the guest-molecule exchange process. This investigation is directed at using numerical simulation to provide an interpretation of the collected data. A numerical simulator, STOMP-HYDT-KE, was recently completed that solves conservation equations for energy, water, mobile fluid guest molecules, and hydrate guest

  3. CONTENTS Gas Hydrate Assessment in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at the upcoming International Conference on Gas Hydrates, to be held in Beijing, China. ... Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH8- 2014), Beijing, ...

  4. CONTENTS Concentrated Gas Hydrate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Schoderbek, D., Martin, K., Howard, J., Silpngarmlert, S., and Hester, K., 2012. North Slope hydrate field trial: CO 2 -CH 4 exchange. Paper OTC-23725, presented at Offshore ...

  5. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work

  6. Methane Hydrate Field Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2001, DOE has conducted field trials of exploration and production technology in the Alaska North Slope. Although Alaska methane hydrate resources are smaller than marine deposits and...

  7. Review of the findings of the Ignik Sikumi CO2-CH4 gas hydrate exchange field trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Boswell, Ray; Collett, Tim S.; Farrell, Helen; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; White, Mark D.

    2014-08-01

    The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Trial was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) during 2011 and 2012. The 2011 field program included drilling the vertical test well and performing extensive wireline logging through a thick section of gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs that provided substantial new insight into the nature of ANS gas hydrate occurrences. The 2012 field program involved an extended, scientific field trial conducted within a single vertical well (“huff-and-puff” design) through three primary operational phases: 1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; 2) flowback conducted at down-hole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4-hydrate, and 3) extended (30-days) flowback at pressures below the stability threshold of native CH4-hydrate. Ignik Sikumi represents the first field investigation of gas hydrate response to chemical injection, and the longest-duration field reservoir response experiment yet conducted. Full descriptions of the operations and data collected have been fully reported by ConocoPhillips and are available to the science community. The 2011 field program indicated the presence of free water within the gas hydrate reservoir, a finding with significant implications to the design of the exchange trial – most notably the use of a mixed gas injectant. While this decision resulted in a complex chemical environment within the reservoir that greatly tests current experimental and modeling capabilities – without such a mixture, it is apparent that injection could not have been achieved. While interpretation of the field data are continuing, the primary scientific findings and implications of the program are: 1) gas hydrate destabilizing is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for

  8. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  9. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gabitto, Jorge F.; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Memore » thane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 10 16   m 3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.« less

  10. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  11. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  12. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  13. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  14. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  15. CONTENTS Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTENTS Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sand Reservoir Systems in the Offshore of India: Results of the India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 ..............1 The Potential for Abiotic Methane in Arctic Gas Hydrates .................9 Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Chemo- Mechanical (THCM) Models for Hydrate-Bearing Sediments ....13 Emerging Issues in the Development of Geologic Models for Gas Hydrate Numerical Simulation ................19 Announcements ...................... 23 * DOE/NETL FY2016 Methane

  16. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review Methane gas hydrates in ...

  17. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been ...

  18. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  19. Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 2000-2002

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates research and development (R&D) activity expanded significantly during the 2000-2002.

  1. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  2. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  3. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Many countries have begun to explore alternative energy sources, including so- called ... What Role Do Gas Hydrates Play in Nature? Theme 2 Gas Hydrates as a Potential Energy ...

  4. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  5. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  6. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  7. gas-hydrate-global-assessment | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas-hydrate-global-assessment Frozen Heat: A Global Outlook on Methane Hydrate cover of executive summary The United Nations Environmental Programme released this new, two-volume report in March 2015. Frozen Heat: A Global Outlook on Methane Hydrate details the science and history of gas hydrates, evaluates the current state of gas hydrate research, and explores the potential impact of this untapped natural gas source on the future global energy mix. An executive summary of report is also

  8. Videos of Experiments from ORNL Gas Hydrate Research

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gas hydrate research performed by the Environmental Sciences Division utilizes the ORNL Seafloor Process Simulator, the Parr Vessel, the Sapphire Cell, a fiber optic distributed sensing system, and Raman spectroscopy. The group studies carbon sequestration in the ocean, desalination, gas hydrates in the solar system, and nucleation and dissociation kinetics. The videos available at the gas hydrates website are very short clips from experiments.

  9. Oil & Natural Gas Technology Temporal Characterization of Hydrates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Natural Gas Technology Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics ... the northern GOM (http:www.boem.govOil-and-Gas-Energy-ProgramMapping- and-Data...

  10. The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

    2008-06-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the

  11. Geologic interrelations relative to gas hydrates within the North Slope of Alaska: Task No. 6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Magoon, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    The five primary objectives of the US Geological Survey North Slope Gas Hydrate Project were to: (1) Determine possible geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate; (2) locate and evaluate possible gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs; (3) estimate the volume of gas within the hydrates; (4) develop a model for gas-hydrate formation; and (5) select a coring site for gas-hydrate sampling and analysis. Our studies of the North Slope of Alaska suggest that the zone in which gas hydrates are stable is controlled primarily by subsurface temperatures and gas chemistry. Other factors, such as pore-pressure variations, pore-fluid salinity, and reservior-rock grain size, appear to have little effect on gas hydrate stability on the North Slope. Data necessary to determine the limits of gas hydrate stability field are difficult to obtain. On the basis of mud-log gas chromatography, core data, and cuttings data, methane is the dominant species of gas in the near-surface (0--1500 m) sediment. Gas hydrates were identified in 34 wells utilizing well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were actually recovered in a core by an oil company. A possible scenario describing the origin of the interred gas hydrates on the North Slope involves the migration of thermogenic solution- and free-gas from deeper reservoirs upward along faults into the overlying sedimentary rocks. We have identified two (dedicated) core-hole sites, the Eileen and the South-End core-holes, at which there is a high probability of recovering a sample of gas hydrate. At the Eileen core-hole site, at least three stratigraphic units may contain gas hydrate. The South-End core-hole site provides an opportunity to study one specific rock unit that appears to contain both gas hydrate and oil. 100 refs., 72 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Technologies | Department of Energy and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies May 2, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the completion of a successful, unprecedented test of technology in the North Slope of Alaska that was able to safely extract a steady flow of natural gas from methane hydrates -

  13. New Project To Improve Characterization of U.S. Gas Hydrate Resources |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Project To Improve Characterization of U.S. Gas Hydrate Resources New Project To Improve Characterization of U.S. Gas Hydrate Resources October 22, 2014 - 10:02am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of a multi-year, field-based research project designed to gain further insight into the nature, formation, occurrence and physical properties of methane hydrate-bearing sediments for the purpose of methane hydrate

  14. An Integrated Study Method For Exploration Of Gas Hydrate Reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    based on the analysis of geochemical anomalies to the main components, such as methane and hydrocarbon series, an integrated assessment of prospective gas hydrate...

  15. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  16. Methane Hydrates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrates 2016 Methane Hydrates Funding Opportunity Announcement The objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to select projects in FY16 that will further ongoing programmatic efforts to characterize naturally occurring gas hydrate deposits as well as their role in the natural environment and that will: Support fundamental laboratory and numerical simulation studies of gas hydrate reservoir response to potential production activities Support fundamental field, laboratory and

  17. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Rudy E.; Zhong, Yu

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  18. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOEs National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETLs 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  19. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  20. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  1. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid; Joudi, Khalid A.

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  2. Gas hydrate detection and mapping on the US east coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Dillon, W.P.

    1993-12-31

    Project objectives are to identify and map gas hydrate accumulations on the US eastern continental margin using remote sensing (seismic profiling) techniques and to relate these concentrations to the geological factors that-control them. In order to test the remote sensing methods, gas hydrate-cemented sediments will be tested in the laboratory and an effort will be made to perform similar physical tests on natural hydrate-cemented sediments from the study area. Gas hydrate potentially may represent a future major resource of energy. Furthermore, it may influence climate change because it forms a large reservoir for methane, which is a very effective greenhouse gas; its breakdown probably is a controlling factor for sea-floor landslides; and its presence has significant effect on the acoustic velocity of sea-floor sediments.

  3. Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is

  4. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-6-2015 Detection of Hydrates on Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection of Hydrates on Gas Bubbles during a Subsea OilGas Leak 22 July 2015 Office of ... of Hydrates on Gas Bubbles during a Subsea OilGas Leak; NETL-TRS-6- 2015; EPAct Technical ...

  5. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.

    2011-07-01

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate

  6. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  7. Unconventional gas hydrate seals may trap gas off southeast US. [North Carolina, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillion, W.P.; Grow, J.A.; Paull, C.K.

    1980-01-07

    Seismic profiles have indicated to the US Geological Survey that an unconventional seal, created by gas hydrates that form in near-bottom sediments, may provide gas traps in continental slopes and rises offshore North and South Carolina. The most frequently cited evidence for the presence of gas hydrate in ocean sediments is the observation of a seismic reflection event that occurs about 1/2 s below and parallel with the seafloor. If gas-hydrate traps do exist, they will occur at very shallow sub-bottom depths of about 1600 ft (500m). Exploration of such traps will probably take place in the federally controlled Blake Ridge area off the coast of South Carolina where seismic data suggest a high incidence of gas hydrates. However, drilling through the gas-hydrate-cemented layer may require new engineering techniques for sealing the casing.

  8. The effect of reservoir heterogeneity on gas production from hydrate accumulations in the permafrost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M. T.; Kowalsky, M B.; Moridis, G. J.; Silpngarmlert, S.

    2010-05-01

    The quantity of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations is enormous, leading to significant interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from methane hydrate accumulations in the permafrost by means of depressurization-induced dissociation combined with conventional technologies and horizontal or vertical well configurations. Initial studies on the possibility of natural gas production from permafrost hydrates assumed homogeneity in intrinsic reservoir properties and in the initial condition of the hydrate-bearing layers (either due to the coarseness of the model or due to simplifications in the definition of the system). These results showed great promise for gas recovery from Class 1, 2, and 3 systems in the permafrost. This work examines the consequences of inevitable heterogeneity in intrinsic properties, such as in the porosity of the hydrate-bearing formation, or heterogeneity in the initial state of hydrate saturation. Heterogeneous configurations are generated through multiple methods: (1) through defining heterogeneous layers via existing well-log data, (2) through randomized initialization of reservoir properties and initial conditions, and (3) through the use of geostatistical methods to create heterogeneous fields that extrapolate from the limited data available from cores and well-log data. These extrapolations use available information and established geophysical methods to capture a range of deposit properties and hydrate configurations. The results show that some forms of heterogeneity, such as horizontal stratification, can assist in production of hydrate-derived gas. However, more heterogeneous structures can lead to complex physical behavior within the deposit and near the wellbore that may obstruct the flow of fluids to the well, necessitating revised production strategies. The need for fine discretization is crucial in all cases to

  9. Method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate located on the ocean floor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate on the ocean floor includes a flexible cover, a plurality of steerable base members secured to the cover, and a steerable mining module. A suitable source for inflating the cover over the gas hydrate deposit is provided. The mining module, positioned on the gas hydrate deposit, is preferably connected to the cover by a control cable. A gas retrieval conduit or hose extends upwardly from the cover to be connected to a support ship on the ocean surface.

  10. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: define a rational approach for inhibitor design, using the most probable molecular mechanism; improve the performance of inhibitors; test inhibitors on Colorado School of Mines apparatuses and the Exxon flow loop; and promote sharing field and flow loop results. This report presents the results of the progress on these four goals.

  11. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, T.S.; Riedel, M.; Cochran, J.R.; Boswell, R.M.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sathe, A.V.

    2008-07-01

    Studies of geologic and geophysical data from the offshore of India have revealed two geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences: the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 was designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. NGHP Expedition 01 established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. The expedition discovered one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented (Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin), documented the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known (Site 17 in Andaman Sea), and established the existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin (Site 19).

  12. Anomalous porosity preservation and preferential accumulation of gas hydrate in the Andaman accretionary wedge, NGHP-01 site 17A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Kelly K.; Johnson, Joel E.; Torres, Marta E.; Hong, WeiLi; Giosan, Liviu; Solomon, E.; Kastner, Miriam; Cawthern, Thomas; Long, Philip E.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to well established properties that control the presence or absence of the hydrate stability zone, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity, additional parameters appear to influence the concentration of gas hydrate in host sediments. The stratigraphic record at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, illustrates the need to better understand the role pore-scale phenomena play in the distribution and presence of marine gas hydrates in a variety of subsurface settings. In this paper we integrate field-generated datasets with newly acquired sedimentology, physical property, imaging and geochemical data with mineral saturation and ion activity products of key mineral phases such as amorphous silica and calcite, to document the presence and nature of secondary precipitates that contributed to anomalous porosity preservation at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea. This study demonstrates the importance of grain-scale subsurface heterogeneities in controlling the occurrence and distribution of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations in marine sediments, and document the importance that increased permeability and enhanced porosity play in supporting gas concentrations sufficient to support gas hydrate formation. The grain scale relationships between porosity, permeability, and gas hydrate saturation documented at Site 17A likely offer insights into what may control the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate in other sedimentary settings.

  13. Gas Hydrate Characterization in the GoM using Marine EM Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constable, Steven

    2012-03-31

    while the surface of the gas hydrate grains are not intrinsically conductive, the presence of sand does increase their conductivity. In the field component of this project, we carried out an 18day cruise on the R.V. Roger Revelle in the Gulf of Mexico from 7th-26th October 2008 to collect controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data over four hydrate prospects; blocks AC 818, WR 313, GC 955, and MC 118. During these surveys we deployed 30 ocean bottom electromagnetic (OBEM) recorders a total of 94 times at four survey areas and towed the Scripps Undersea Electromagnetic Source Instrument (SUESI) a total of 103 hours. SUESI transmission was 200 A on a 50 m dipole antenna at heights of 70-100 m above the seafloor. We also towed a neutrally buoyant 3-axis electric field recorder behind the SUESI antenna at a constant offset of 300 m. The use of a towed receiver that is "flown" above the seafloor allowed us to operate in areas where seafloor infrastructure such as wellheads, pipelines, and installed scientific equipment existed. We reduced the data to apparent resistivity psuedosections. The most compelling results come from the hydrate observatory at MC 118, where a localized resistivity anomaly is clearly identified under the southeast crater in an otherwise uniform 1 {Ohm}m background. The data from MC 118 also show that authigenic carbonate does not necessarily express itself as a confounding resistor, as was feared at the start of this project. While the results from the other prospects are much more complicated, the data are well correlated with known geology, and line to line agreement is good. Although these data are not amenable to 1D inversion as was initially hoped, we expect to use a newly developed 2D CSEM inversion code to continue to get useful information from this rich data set.

  14. DOE Leads National Research Program in Gas Hydrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today told Congress the agency is leading a nationwide program in search of naturally occurring natural gas hydrates - a potentially significant storehouse of methane--with far reaching implications for the environment and the nation's future energy supplies.

  15. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-10-07

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  16. Expedition Provides New Insight on Gas Hydrates in Gulf of Mexico...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will be used to refine estimates of the nature, distribution and concentration of gas ... "Understanding the nature and setting of deepwater gas hydrates is central to the National ...

  17. Dynamics of lysozyme and its hydration water under electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favi, Pelagie M; Zhang, Qiu; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Mamontov, Eugene; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Palmer, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The effects of static electric field on the dynamics of lysozyme and its hydration water have been investigated by means of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Measurements were performed on lysozyme samples, hydrated respectively with heavy water (D2O) to capture the protein dynamics, and with light water (H2O), to probe the dynamics of the hydration shell, in the temperature range from 210 < T < 260 K. The hydration fraction in both cases was about 0.38 gram of water per gram of dry protein. The field strengths investigated were respectively 0 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm ( 2 106 V/m) for the protein hydrated with D2O and 0 kV and 1 kV/mm for the H2O-hydrated counterpart. While the overall internal protons dynamics of the protein appears to be unaffected by the application of electric field up to 2 kV/mm, likely due to the stronger intra-molecular interactions, there is also no appreciable quantitative enhancement of the diffusive dynamics of the hydration water, as would be anticipated based on our recent observations in water confined in silica pores under field values of 2.5 kV/mm. This may be due to the difference in surface interactions between water and the two adsorption hosts (silica and protein), or to the existence of a critical threshold field value Ec 2 3 kV/mm for increased molecular diffusion, for which electrical breakdown is a limitation for our sample.

  18. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  19. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ``lower bound`` solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir.

  20. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: continue both screening and high pressure experiments to determine optimum inhibitors; investigate molecular mechanisms of hydrate formation/inhibition, through microscopic and macroscopic experiments; begin controlled tests on the Exxon pilot plant loop at their Houston facility; and continue to act as a forum for the sharing of field test results. Progress on these objectives are described in this report.

  1. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    ; (7) Design, construction, and successful deployment of an in situ pore-water sampling device; (8) Improvements to the original Raman spectrometer (methane sensor); (9) Laboratory demonstration of the impact of bacterially-produced surfactants' rates of hydrate formation; (10) Construction and sea floor emplacement and testing--with both watergun and ship noise sources--of the prototypal vertical line array (VLA); (11) Initiation of studies of spatial controls on hydrates; (12) Compilation and analyses of seismic data, including mapping of surface anomalies; (13) Additional field verification (bottom samples recovered), in support of the site selection effort; (14) Collection and preliminary analyses of gas hydrates from new sites that exhibit variant structures; (15) Initial shear wave tests carried out in shallow water; (16) Isolation of microbes for potential medicinal products development; (17) Preliminary modeling of occurrences of gas hydrates.

  2. Geochemical and geologic factors effecting the formulation of gas hydrate: Task No. 5, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of our work has been to determine the primary geochemical and geological factors controlling gas hydrate information and occurrence and particularly in the factors responsible for the generation and accumulation of methane in oceanic gas hydrates. In order to understand the interrelation of geochemical/geological factors controlling gas hydrate occurrence, we have undertaken a multicomponent program which has included (1) comparison of available information at sites where gas hydrates have been observed through drilling by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) on the Blake Outer Ridge and Middle America Trench; (2) regional synthesis of information related to gas hydrate occurrences of the Middle America Trench; (3) development of a model for the occurrence of a massive gas hydrate as DSDP Site 570; (4) a global synthesis of gas hydrate occurrences; and (5) development of a predictive model for gas hydrate occurrence in oceanic sediment. The first three components of this program were treated as part of a 1985 Department of Energy Peer Review. The present report considers the last two components and presents information on the worldwide occurrence of gas hydrates with particular emphasis on the Circum-Pacific and Arctic basins. A model is developed to account for the occurrence of oceanic gas hydrates in which the source of the methane is from microbial processes. 101 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL

  4. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  5. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  6. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  7. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  8. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  9. U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methane Hydrates May Exceed the Energy Content of All Other Fossil Fuels Combined; Could Ensure Decades of Affordable Natural Gas and Cut America’s Foreign Oil Dependence

  10. Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-07-15

    A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

  11. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources: Annual report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, G.D.; Kamath, V.A.; Godbole, S.P.; Patil, S.L.; Paranjpe, S.G.; Mutalik, P.N.; Nadem, N.

    1987-10-01

    Solid ice-like mixtures of natural gas and water in the form of natural gas hydrated have been found immobilized in the rocks beneath the permafrost in Arctic basins and in muds under the deep water along the American continental margins, in the North Sea and several other locations around the world. It is estimated that the arctic areas of the United States may contain as much as 500 trillion SCF of natural gas in the form of gas hydrates (Lewin and Associates, 1983). While the US Arctic gas hydrate resources may have enormous potential and represent long term future source of natural gas, the recovery of this resource from reservoir frozen with gas hydrates has not been commercialized yet. Continuing study and research is essential to develop technologies which will enable a detailed characterization and assessment of this alternative natural gas resource, so that development of cost effective extraction technology.

  12. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing operations. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds which form when molecules smaller than n-butane contact molecules of water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures, both above and below the ice point. Because these crystalline compounds plug flow channels, they are undesirable. In this project the authors proposed an alternate approach of controlling hydrate formation by preventing hydrate growth into a sizeable mass which could block a flow channel. The authors call this new technique kinetic inhibition, because while it allows the system to exist in the hydrate domain, it prevents the kinetic agglomeration of small hydrate crystals to the point of pluggage of a flow channel. In order to investigate the kinetic means of inhibiting hydrate formation, they held two consortium meetings, on June 1, 1990 and on August 31, 1990. At subsequent meetings, the authors determined the following four stages of the project, necessary to reach the goal of determining a new hydrate field inhibitor: (1) a rapid screening method was to be determined for testing the hydrate kinetic formation period of many surfactants and polymer candidates (both individually and combined), the present report presents the success of two screening apparatuses: a multi-reactor apparatus which is capable of rapid, high volume screening, and the backup screening method--a viscometer for testing with gas at high pressure; (2) the construction of two high, constant pressure cells were to experimentally confirm the success of the chemicals in the rapid screening apparatus; (3) in the third phase of the work, Exxon volunteered to evaluate the performance of the best chemicals from the previous two stages in their 4 inch I.D. Multiphase flow loop in Houston; (4) in the final phase of the work, the intention was to take the successful kinetic inhibition chemicals from the previous three stages and then test them in the field in gathering lines and wells from member companies.

  13. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.; Latham, T.; McConnell, D.; Frye, M.; Hunt, J.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Ruppel, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Collett, T.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand

  14. Gas hydrates on the Atlantic Continental Margin of the United States - controls on concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, W.P.; Fehlhaber, K.; Coleman, D.F. ); Lee, M.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Large volumes of gas hydrates exist within ocean-floor deposits at water depths exceeding about 300 to 500 m. They cement a surface layer of sediments as much as about 1,000 m thick, limited at its base by increasing temperature. Gas hydrates are identified by drilled samples and by their characteristic responses in seismic reflection profiles. These seismic responses include, at the base of the hydrate-cemented surface layer, a marked velocity decrease and a sea-floor-paralleling reflection (known as the bottom-simulating reflection, or BSR), and, within the hydrate-cemented layer, a reduction in amplitude of seismic reflections (known as blanking), which is apparently caused by cementation of strata. By using seismic-reflection data we have mapped the volume of hydrate and thickness of the hydrate-cemented layer off the US East Coast. The sources of gas at these concentrations are probably bacterial generation of methane at the locations of rapid deposition, and possibly the migration of deep, thermogenic gap up faults near diapirs. The thickness of the gas-hydrate layer decreases markedly at landslide scars, possibly due to break-down of hydrate resulting from pressure reduction caused by removal of sediment by the slide. Gas traps appear to exist where a seal is formed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer. Such traps are observed (1) where the sea floor forms a dome, and therefore the bottom-paralleling, hydrate-cemented layer also forms a dome; (2) above diapirs, where the greater thermal conductivity of salt creates a warm spot and salt ions act as antifreeze, both effects resulting in a local shallowing of the base of the hydrate; and (3) at locations where strata dip relative to the sea floor, and the updip regions of porous strata are sealed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer to form a trap. In such situations the gas in the hydrate-sealed trap, as well as the gas that forms the hydrate, may become a resource. 32 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-01-01

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  16. Investigation of gas hydrate-bearing sandstone reservoirs at the "Mount Elbert" stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.M.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.; Digert, S. Inc., Anchorage, AK); Hancock, S.; Weeks, M. Inc., Anchorage, AK); Mt. Elbert Science Team

    2008-01-01

    In February 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc., and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive data collection effort at the "Mount Elbert #1" gas hydrates stratigraphic test well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The 22-day field program acquired significant gas hydrate-bearing reservoir data, including a full suite of open-hole well logs, over 500 feet of continuous core, and open-hole formation pressure response tests. Hole conditions, and therefore log data quality, were excellent due largely to the use of chilled oil-based drilling fluids. The logging program confirmed the existence of approximately 30 m of gashydrate saturated, fine-grained sand reservoir. Gas hydrate saturations were observed to range from 60% to 75% largely as a function of reservoir quality. Continuous wire-line coring operations (the first conducted on the ANS) achieved 85% recovery through 153 meters of section, providing more than 250 subsamples for analysis. The "Mount Elbert" data collection program culminated with open-hole tests of reservoir flow and pressure responses, as well as gas and water sample collection, using Schlumberger's Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool. Four such tests, ranging from six to twelve hours duration, were conducted. This field program demonstrated the ability to safely and efficiently conduct a research-level openhole data acquisition program in shallow, sub-permafrost sediments. The program also demonstrated the soundness of the program's pre-drill gas hydrate characterization methods and increased confidence in gas hydrate resource assessment methodologies for the ANS.

  17. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of gas hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.; Bockrath, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    A method for converting methane hydrates to methanol, as well as hydrogen, through exposure to light. The process includes conversion of methane hydrates by light where a radical initiator has been added, and may be modified to include the conversion of methane hydrates with light where a photocatalyst doped by a suitable metal and an electron transfer agent to produce methanol and hydrogen. The present invention operates at temperatures below 0.degree. C., and allows for the direct conversion of methane contained within the hydrate in situ.

  18. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

    2011-06-01

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

  19. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-11-29

    In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.

  20. DOE Expedition Discovers the First Gulf of Mexico Resource-Quality Gas Hydrate Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has established that gas hydrate can and does occur at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beaudoin, Y. C., Boswell, R., Dallimore, S. R., and Waite, W. (eds), 2014. Frozen Heat: A UNEP Global Outlook on Methane Gas Hydrates. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal. © United Nations Environment Programme, 2014 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the

  2. Status of DOE Research Efforts in Gas Hydrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of DOE Research Efforts in Gas Hydrates Status of DOE Research Efforts in Gas Hydrates July 30, 2009 - 1:38pm Addthis Statement of Dr. Ray Boswell, National Energy Technology Laboratory before the Committee on Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources, U.S. House of Representatives. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee. I appreciate this opportunity to provide testimony on the status of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) research

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of methane hydrate using polarizable force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, H.N.; Jordan, K.D.; Taylor, C.E.

    2007-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of methane hydrate have been carried out using the AMOEBA and COS/G2 polarizable force fields. Properties examined include the temperature dependence of the lattice constant, the OC and OO radial distribution functions and the vibrational spectra. Both the AMOEBA and COS/G2 models are found to successfully account for the available experimental data, with overall slightly better agreement with experiment being found for the AMOEBA model. Several properties calculated using the AMOEBA and COS/G2 models differ appreciable from the corresponding results obtained previously using the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. This appears to be due to the inadequacy of the treatment of polarization, especially, the restriction of polarization to in-plane only, in the TIP4P-FQ model.

  4. GAS METHANE HYDRATES-RESEARCH STATUS, ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND ENERGY IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Sorensen; Jaroslav Solc; Bethany Bolles

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this task as originally conceived was to compile an assessment of methane hydrate deposits in Alaska from available sources and to make a very preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of producing methane from these deposits for remote power generation. Gas hydrates have recently become a target of increased scientific investigation both from the standpoint of their resource potential to the natural gas and oil industries and of their positive and negative implications for the global environment After we performed an extensive literature review and consulted with representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Canadian Geological Survey, and several oil companies, it became evident that, at the current stage of gas hydrate research, the available information on methane hydrates in Alaska does not provide sufficient grounds for reaching conclusions concerning their use for energy production. Hence, the original goals of this task could not be met, and the focus was changed to the compilation and review of published documents to serve as a baseline for possible future research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). An extensive annotated bibliography of gas hydrate publications has been completed. The EERC will reassess its future research opportunities on methane hydrates to determine where significant initial contributions could be made within the scope of limited available resources.

  5. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 2 of 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate

  6. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 1 of 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate

  7. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, Tim; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta; Myers, Greg; Divins, David; Morell, Margo

    2013-12-31

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  8. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.

    2009-09-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  9. Methane Hydrate | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  10. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Everett, S. Michelle; Rawn, Claudia J.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Keffer, David J.; Huq, Ashfia; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2015-05-12

    The exchange of carbon dioxide for methane in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to harvesting CH4 for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x·5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. In this paper, high-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules thatmore » form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit-cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. Finally, these results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for the structure of mixed CH4/CO2 gas hydrate.« less

  11. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    An obvious consequence of hydrate dissociation is the compression of reservoir matrix causing displacements in the surrounding area. The reservoir compression is a time-dependent process which depends on the production rate. The ground movements cause additional stresses in the overburden which may result in rock mass fracture and failure. Rock failure may cause rubble formation or bulking in the fracture zone. This in turn can cause an increase in permeability for gas flow which may offset the reduction in permeability caused by closure of existing fractures during reservoir compression. The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  12. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned

  13. Fundamentals of Natural Gas and Species Flows from Hydrate Dissociation - Applications to Safety and Sea Floor Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2006-09-30

    Semi-analytical computational models for natural gas flow in hydrate reservoirs were developed and the effects of variations in porosity and permeability on pressure and temperature profiles and the movement of a dissociation front were studied. Experimental data for variations of gas pressure and temperature during propane hydrate formation and dissociation for crushed ice and mixture of crushed ice and glass beads under laboratory environment were obtained. A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase liquid-gas flows trough porous media was developed. Numerical models for hydrate dissociation process in one dimensional and axisymmetric reservoir were performed. The computational model solved the general governing equations without the need for linearization. A detail module for multidimensional analysis of hydrate dissociation which make use of the FLUENT code was developed. The new model accounts for gas and liquid water flow and uses the Kim-Boshnoi model for hydrate dissociation.

  14. CO{sub 2} HYDRATE PROCESS FOR GAS SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Deppe; R. Currier; D. Spencer

    2004-01-01

    Modifications were implemented to the hydrogen flow test rig per safety review comments, and the apparatus was tested for leaks. Tests were then done using Helium/CO{sub 2} mixtures to re-verify performance prior to hydrogen testing. It was discovered that hydrate formation was more difficult to initiate, and new initiation methods were developed to improve the tests. Delivery of ETM hardware continued and buildup of the ETM system continued, the ETM is now mechanically complete. The STU (pilot plant) site selection process was resumed because Tennessee Eastman declined to participate in the program. Two potential sites were visited: The Global Energy/Conoco-Phillips Wabash River Plant, and the Tampa Electric Polk Power Plant.

  15. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  16. Pathways through equilibrated states with coexisting phases for gas hydrate formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Under ambient conditions, water freezes to either hexagonal ice or a hexagonal/cubic composite ice. The presence of hydrophobic guest molecules introduces a competing pathway: gas hydrate formation, with the guests in clathrate cages. Here, the pathways of the phase transitions are sought as sequences of states with coexisting phases, using a generalized replica exchange algorithm designed to sample them in equilibrium, avoiding nonequilibrium processes. For a dilute solution of methane in water under 200 atm, initializing the simulation with the full set of replicas leads to methane trapped in hexagonal/cubic ice, while gradually adding replicas with decreasing enthalpy produces the initial steps of hydrate growth. Once a small amount of hydrate is formed, water rearranges to form empty cages, eventually transforming the remainder of the system to metastable β ice, a scaffolding for hydrates. It is suggested that configurations with empty cages are reaction intermediates in hydrate formation when more guest molecules are available. Furthermore, free energy profiles show that methane acts as a catalyst reducing the barrier for β ice versus hexagonal/cubic ice formation.

  17. Pathways through equilibrated states with coexisting phases for gas hydrate formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Under ambient conditions, water freezes to either hexagonal ice or a hexagonal/cubic composite ice. The presence of hydrophobic guest molecules introduces a competing pathway: gas hydrate formation, with the guests in clathrate cages. Here, the pathways of the phase transitions are sought as sequences of states with coexisting phases, using a generalized replica exchange algorithm designed to sample them in equilibrium, avoiding nonequilibrium processes. For a dilute solution of methane in water under 200 atm, initializing the simulation with the full set of replicas leads to methane trapped in hexagonal/cubic ice, while gradually adding replicas with decreasing enthalpy produces themore » initial steps of hydrate growth. Once a small amount of hydrate is formed, water rearranges to form empty cages, eventually transforming the remainder of the system to metastable β ice, a scaffolding for hydrates. It is suggested that configurations with empty cages are reaction intermediates in hydrate formation when more guest molecules are available. Furthermore, free energy profiles show that methane acts as a catalyst reducing the barrier for β ice versus hexagonal/cubic ice formation.« less

  18. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  19. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  20. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Keffer, David J.; Huq, Ashfia; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of CO2 for CH4 in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to methane for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x 5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. High-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules that form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. These results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for exchanging CH4 and CO2.

  1. Geomechanical response of permafrost-associated hydrate deposits to depressurization-induced gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.; Moridis, G.J.; Grover, T.; Collett, T.

    2009-02-01

    In this simulation study, we analyzed the geomechanical response during depressurization production from two known hydrate-bearing permafrost deposits: the Mallik (Northwest Territories, Canada) deposit and Mount Elbert (Alaska, USA) deposit. Gas was produced from these deposits at constant pressure using horizontal wells placed at the top of a hydrate layer (HL), located at a depth of about 900 m at the Mallik and 600 m at the Mount Elbert. The simulation results show that general thermodynamic and geomechanical responses are similar for the two sites, but with substantially higher production and more intensive geomechanical responses at the deeper Mallik deposit. The depressurization-induced dissociation begins at the well bore and then spreads laterally, mainly along the top of the HL. The depressurization results in an increased shear stress within the body of the receding hydrate and causes a vertical compaction of the reservoir. However, its effects are partially mitigated by the relatively stiff permafrost overburden, and compaction of the HL is limited to less than 0.4%. The increased shear stress may lead to shear failure in the hydrate-free zone bounded by the HL overburden and the downward-receding upper dissociation interface. This zone undergoes complete hydrate dissociation, and the cohesive strength of the sediment is low. We determined that the likelihood of shear failure depends on the initial stress state as well as on the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. The Poisson's ratio of the hydrate-bearing formation is a particularly important parameter that determines whether the evolution of the reservoir stresses will increase or decrease the likelihood of shear failure.

  2. DOE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A METHANE HYDRATE DEPOSIT AND GAS RESERVOIR, BLAKE RIDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Steven Holbrook

    2004-11-11

    This report contains a summary of work conducted and results produced under the auspices of award DE-FC26-00NT40921, ''DOE Three-Dimensional Structure and Physical Properties of a Methane Hydrate Deposit and Gas Reservoir, Blake Ridge.'' This award supported acquisition, processing, and interpretation of two- and three-dimensional seismic reflection data over a large methane hydrate reservoir on the Blake Ridge, offshore South Carolina. The work supported by this project has led to important new conclusions regarding (1) the use of seismic reflection data to directly detect methane hydrate, (2) the migration and possible escape of free gas through the hydrate stability zone, and (3) the mechanical controls on the maximum thickness of the free gas zone and gas escape.

  3. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2010-03-01

    When maintained under hydrate-stable conditions, methane hydrate in laboratory samples is often considered a stable and immobile solid material. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies in which the long-term redistribution of hydrates in sediments has been investigated in the laboratory. These observations are important because if the location of hydrate in a sample were to change over time (e.g. by dissociating at one location and reforming at another), the properties of the sample that depend on hydrate saturation and pore space occupancy would also change. Observations of hydrate redistribution under stable conditions are also important in understanding natural hydrate deposits, as these may also change over time. The processes by which solid hydrate can move include dissociation, hydrate-former and water migration in the gas and liquid phases, and hydrate formation. Chemical potential gradients induced by temperature, pressure, and pore water or host sediment chemistry can drive these processes. A series of tests were performed on a formerly natural methane-hydrate-bearing core sample from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, in order to observe hydrate formation and morphology within this natural sediment, and changes over time using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Long-term observations (over several weeks) of methane hydrate in natural sediments were made to investigate spatial changes in hydrate saturation in the core. During the test sequence, mild buffered thermal and pressure oscillations occurred within the sample in response to laboratory temperature changes. These oscillations were small in magnitude, and conditions were maintained well within the hydrate stability zone.

  4. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  5. Methane Hydrates R&D Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  6. Entropic description of gas hydrate ice/liquid equilibrium via enhanced sampling of coexisting phases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom

    2015-04-28

    Metastable β ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid/liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal/liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new MD algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized NPT ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. Furthermore, with replicas spanning the range between β ice and liquid water we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions.

  7. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  8. Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting ConocoPhillips test results and data analysis (8.24 MB) Methane Hydrate Workshop as part of the FY 2013 Methane Hydrate Field Program (904.56 KB) Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting: Program Funding (292.15 KB) Update on BOEM Lower 48 Assessment: A presentation to the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (9.13 MB) Gas Hydrate Program Activities in

  9. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  10. Benchmarking the performance of density functional theory and point charge force fields in their description of sI methane hydrate against diffusion Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Michaelides, Angelos; Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ ; Towler, Michael D.; Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE ; Alf, Dario; Department of Earth Sciences, University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT

    2014-05-07

    High quality reference data from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are presented for bulk sI methane hydrate, a complex crystal exhibiting both hydrogen-bond and dispersion dominated interactions. The performance of some commonly used exchange-correlation functionals and all-atom point charge force fields is evaluated. Our results show that none of the exchange-correlation functionals tested are sufficient to describe both the energetics and the structure of methane hydrate accurately, while the point charge force fields perform badly in their description of the cohesive energy but fair well for the dissociation energetics. By comparing to ice I{sub h}, we show that a good prediction of the volume and cohesive energies for the hydrate relies primarily on an accurate description of the hydrogen bonded water framework, but that to correctly predict stability of the hydrate with respect to dissociation to ice I{sub h} and methane gas, accuracy in the water-methane interaction is also required. Our results highlight the difficulty that density functional theory faces in describing both the hydrogen bonded water framework and the dispersion bound methane.

  11. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  12. Evaluation of a deposit in the vicinity of the PBU L-106 Site, North Slope, Alaska, for a potential long-term test of gas production from hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.; Boyle, K.L.; Zhang, K.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the technical feasibility of gas production from hydrate deposits, a long-term field test (lasting 18-24 months) is under consideration in a project led by the U.S. Department of Energy. We evaluate a candidate deposit involving the C-Unit in the vicinity of the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska. This deposit is stratigraphically bounded by impermeable shale top and bottom boundaries (Class 3), and is characterized by high intrinsic permeabilities, high porosity, high hydrate saturation, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The C-unit deposit is composed of two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30-ft-thick shale interlayer, and its temperatrure across its boundaries ranges between 5 and 6.5 C. We investigate by means of numerical simulation involving very fine grids the production potential of these two deposits using both vertical and horizontal wells. We also explore the sensitivity of production to key parameters such as the hydrate saturation, the formation permeability, and the permeability of the bounding shale layers. Finally, we compare the production performance of the C-Unit at the PBU-L106 site to that of the D-Unit accumulation at the Mount Elbert site, a thinner, single-layer Class 3 deposit on the North Slope of Alaska that is shallower, less-pressurized and colder (2.3-2.6 C). The results indicate that production from horizontal wells may be orders of magnitude larger than that from vertical ones. Additionally, production increases with the formation permeability, and with a decreasing permeability of the boundaries. The effect of the hydrate saturation on production is complex and depends on the time frame of production. Because of higher production, the PBU-L106 deposit appears to have an advantage as a candidate for the long-term test.

  13. Strategies for gas production from hydrate accumulations under various geologic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.; Collett, T.

    2003-04-29

    In this paper we classify hydrate deposits in three classes according to their geologic and reservoir conditions, and discuss the corresponding production strategies. Simple depressurization appears promising in Class 1 hydrates, but its appeal decreases in Class 2 and Class 3 hydrates. The most promising production strategy in Class 2 hydrates involves combinations of depressurization and thermal stimulation, and is clearly enhanced by multi-well production-injection systems. The effectiveness of simple depressurization in Class 3 hydrates is limited, and thermal stimulation (alone or in combination with depressurization) through single well systems seems to be the strategy of choice in such deposits.

  14. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is

  15. Pressurized subsampling system for pressured gas-hydrate-bearing sediment: Microscale imaging using X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yusuke Konno, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    A pressurized subsampling system was developed for pressured gas hydrate (GH)-bearing sediments, which have been stored under pressure. The system subsamples small amounts of GH sediments from cores (approximately 50 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height) without pressure release to atmospheric conditions. The maximum size of the subsamples is 12.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. Moreover, our system transfers the subsample into a pressure vessel, and seals the pressure vessel by screwing in a plug under hydraulic pressure conditions. In this study, we demonstrated pressurized subsampling from artificial xenon-hydrate sediments and nondestructive microscale imaging of the subsample, using a microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) system. In addition, we estimated porosity and hydrate saturation from two-dimensional X-ray CT images of the subsamples.

  16. DOE Gas Hydrate R&D: Shale Gas Déjà Vu?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    More than 30 years ago, DOE looked into the future and saw the potentially large benefit of developing promising but difficult-to-extract unconventional natural gas resources, particularly those from shale formations. As a result, it began sponsoring research and development (R&D), partnering with industry and academia, and, among other things, invested about $137 million in the Eastern Gas Shale Program between 1978 and 1992.

  17. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field ... New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  18. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field ... New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  19. Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, John

    2012-12-31

    Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.

  20. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    The grantee will evaluate the influence of hydrate production on ground subsidence near the wellbore and the surface. The objective of this research will be achieved by using computer simulations of what is expected in a hydrate reservoir during the production stage as reported by hydrate production models and available data. The model will be based on theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanics of hydrate production, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics, and special features of geomaterials under cold temperatures such as those found in permafrost regions. The research work involved in the proposed investigation will be divided into three major tasks; mechanics of subsidence in permafrost regions, modeling of subsidence, and parametric studies.

  1. DPF-"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreenPower muffler uses hydrated exhaust gas recirculation to reduce NOx and improve fuel efficiency

  2. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  3. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    then used TOUGH + Hydrate to simulate the observed gas production and reservoir pressure field data at Messoyakha. We simulated various scenarios that help to explain the field behavior. We have evaluated the effect of reservoir parameters on gas recovery from hydrates. Our work should be beneficial to others who are investigating how to produce gas from a hydrate capped gas reservoir. The results also can be used to better evaluate the process of producing gas from offshore hydrates. The Schlumberger PETREL model is used in industry to the description of geologic horizons and the special distribution of properties. An interface between FLAC3D and Petrel was built by Schlumberger to allow for efficient data entry into TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D.

  4. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves New ... New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  5. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-12-31

    The grantee will evaluate the influence of hydrate production on ground subsidence near the wellbore and the surface. The objective of this research will be achieved by using computer simulations of what is expected in a hydrate reservoir during the production stage as reported by hydrate production models and available data. The model will be based on theories of continuum mechanics, thermomechanics of hydrate production, principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics, and special features of geomaterials under cold temperatures such as those found in permafrost regions. The research work involved in the proposed investigation will be divided into three major tasks: (1) Mechanics of subsidence in permafrost regions; (2) modeling of subsidence; and (3) parametric studies. Progress reports are presented for tasks 1 and 2.

  6. Estimating the upper limit of gas production from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 2. Alternative well designs and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.T.

    2011-01-15

    In the second paper of this series, we evaluate two additional well designs for production from permafrost-associated (PA) hydrate deposits. Both designs are within the capabilities of conventional technology. We determine that large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates (several MMSCFD) for long times using either well design. The production approach involves initial fluid withdrawal from the water zone underneath the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL). The production process follows a cyclical pattern, with each cycle composed of two stages: a long stage (months to years) of increasing gas production and decreasing water production, and a short stage (days to weeks) that involves destruction of the secondary hydrate (mainly through warm water injection) that evolves during the first stage, and is followed by a reduction in the fluid withdrawal rate. A well configuration with completion throughout the HBL leads to high production rates, but also the creation of a secondary hydrate barrier around the well that needs to be destroyed regularly by water injection. However, a configuration that initially involves heating of the outer surface of the wellbore and later continuous injection of warm water at low rates (Case C) appears to deliver optimum performance over the period it takes for the exhaustion of the hydrate deposit. Using Case C as the standard, we determine that gas production from PA hydrate deposits increases with the fluid withdrawal rate, the initial hydrate saturation and temperature, and with the formation permeability.

  7. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-6-2015 Detection of Hydrates on Gas Bubbles during a Subsea Oil Gas Leak.20150722.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection of Hydrates on Gas Bubbles during a Subsea Oil/Gas Leak 22 July 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-6-2015 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  8. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.

    2009-09-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  9. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  10. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct

  11. About the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    About the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1 April 30, 2012 About the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List The U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code ...

  12. Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields April 25, 2016 9:00AM ...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2001.07.11 - 2001.07.25 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer Data Availability Data are being processed for inclusion in ARM Archive. For data sets, see below. Summary July, 2001: Three systems were deployed in four fields during a

  14. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption Title: Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption Gases are stored, ...

  15. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: ...

  16. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC) Meeting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... International gas hydrate research programs were also discussed. While investments in gas hydrates are being made in Japan, South Korea, India, Germany and China, it is the U.S. ...

  17. TOUGH-Fx/Hydrate

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-02-01

    TOUGH-Fx/HYORATL can model the non-isothermal gas release. phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat in complex geologic media. The code can simulate production from natural gas hydrate deposits in the subsurtace (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments), as well as laboratory experiments of hydrate dissociation/formation in porous/fractured media. T006H-Fx/HYDRATE vi .0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate Ibmiation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and upmore » to four mass components-- i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dIssociation or formation, phase changes, and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects, and inhibItor-Induced effects.« less

  18. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, Timothy S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  19. Balanced-activity improved inverse emulsion to inhibit brittle lutite hydration in oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, E. P.; de J. Hernandez Alvarez, R.; Barrera, C. D.; Ramos, J. D. G.

    1984-10-02

    An improved inverse emulsion for use as a drilling fluid that inhibits brittle lutite hydration. The emulsion includes a heavy oil; brine; a viscosity agent with thermostabilizing properties; an emulsifying agent; a thickening agent; a gelatinizing additive; and an alkaline earth metal hydroxide. The emulsion avoids hole collapsing and improves well gage stability.

  20. methane hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methane hydrates methane-hydrates.jpg Maintaining a focused vision on what's next is one trait that makes NETL a lab of the future, and methane hydrates are one "cool" part of that vision. Found in Arctic and deep-water marine environments, methane hydrates are an untapped abundant source of natural gas. A hydrate comprises a crystal structure in which frozen water creates a cage that traps molecules of primarily methane (natural gas). NETL researchers are exploring and developing

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2004.04.15 - 2004.12.15 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2005.03.01 - 2006.01.08 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2007.01.01 - 2007.12.31 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns PGS Validation 2011-2013 2011.03.01, Fischer, SGP PGS Validatation 2010 2010.03.01, Fischer, SGP PGS Validatation 2009.03.01, Fischer, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2008.01.01 - 2008.12.31 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets,

  5. Application of the carbon dioxide-barium hydroxide hydrate gas-solid reaction for the treatment of dilute carbon dioxide-bearing gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The removal of trace components from gas streams via irreversible gas-solid reactions in an area of interest to the chemical engineering profession. This research effort addresses the use of fixed beds of Ba(OH)/sub 2/ hydrate flakes for the removal of an acid gas, CO/sub 2/, from air that contains approx. 330 ppM/sub v/ CO/sub 2/. Areas of investigation encompassed: (1) an extensive literature review of Ba(OH)/sub 2/ hydrate chemistry, (2) microscale studies on 0.150-g samples to develop a better understanding of the reaction, (3) process studies at the macroscale level with 10.2-cm-ID fixed-bed reactors, and (4) the development of a model for predicting fixed-bed performance. Experimental studies indicated fixed beds of commercial Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O flakes at ambient temperatures to be capable of high CO/sub 2/-removal efficiencies (effluent concentrations <100 ppB), high reactant utilization (>99%), and an acceptable pressure drop (1.8 kPa/m at a superficial gas velocity of 13 cm/s). Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O was determined to be more reactive toward CO/sub 2/ than either Ba(OH)/sub 2/.3H/sub 2/O or Ba(OH)/sub 2/.1H/sub 2/O. A key variable in the development of this fixed-bed process was relative humidity. Operation at conditions with effluent relative humidities >60% resulted in significant recrystallization and restructuring of the flake and subsequent pressure-drop problems.

  6. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik; Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi

    2013-06-18

    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  7. Geology of Ziliujing gas field - The gas field developed earliest in the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Chuanbai )

    1991-03-01

    Ziliujing gas field, located in Zigong municipality, Sichuan, is an asymmetric anticline, and well depth is generally less than 1,300 m. There are eight gas- and brine-producing intervals. Tc-3 of the Lower Triassic is the main gas-producing horizon, which is a carbonate with a combination of fracture and intergranular porosities. As early as 1,500 years ago, the production of brine and natural gas was started; over 13,000 wells were drilled of which over 1,000 wells were gas wells. The total area of different producing zones is about 22 km{sup 2}. The distribution and production of natural gas are controlled by structural faults. The gas sources supplied are beyond the limit of the structure. Tc-3 reservoir is a typical fissured reservoir, and most of the wells have the characteristics of (1) high initial production rate; (2) rapid depletion; and (3) long producing life. Owing to the favorable geological conditions; the great number of wells; outstanding ancient technologies in drilling, production, and transportation; comprehensive utilization; and very long production history, tremendous success is achieved in the development of gas fields. The total cumulative gas production by the end of 1985 was 33 billion cubic meters in which 17.2 billion cubic meters were contributed by Tc-3 reservoir; maximum gas and brine recoveries have been achieve. So far the gas reservoirs have not been depleted and new discoveries have been found in recent years. The brilliant achievements of the ancestors remain.

  8. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Plant Field Production" "Sourcekey","MNGFPUS1","MPPFPUS1","MLPFPUS1","METFPUS1","MPRFPUS1","MBNFPUS1","MBIFPUS1" "Date","U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids ...

  9. Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009 Introduction This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's summary of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved ...

  10. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1984--September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-31

    During the reported year we have enhanced our knowledge on and gained considerable experience in assessment of the gas hydrate resources in the offshore environments. Specifically, we have learned and gained experience in the following: Efficiently locating data sources, including published literature and unpublished information. We have established personal communication extremely critical in data accessability and acquisition. We have updated information pertinent to gas hydrate knowledge, also based on thorough study and evaluation of most Russian literature and additional publications in languages other than English. Besides critical evaluation of widely spread literature, in many cases our reports include previously unpublished information (e.g. BSRs from the Gulf of Mexico). The assessment of the gas resources potential associated with the gas hydrates, although in most cases at a low level of confidence, appears also very encouraging for further, more detailed, study. We are also confident that, because of the present reports` format, new data and a concept-oriented approach, the result of our study will be of strong interest to various industries, research institutions and numerous governmental agencies.

  11. Florida Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ... Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  12. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  13. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  14. Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009 Introduction This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's summary of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, 2009 ranks the United States' largest oil and gas fields by their estimated 2009 proved reserves. The Top 100's Share of U.S. Proved Reserves in 2009 The Top 100 oil fields and Top 100 gas fields each accounted for about 60 percent of the respective total proved reserves of the United States. The Top 100 oil

  15. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearingsediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy; Waite, W.F.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2008-06-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed at least briefly to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes and speeds are compared between the original and depressurized/repressurized samples. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands due to the depressurization/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  16. International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil & Gas » Methane Hydrate » International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates In 1982 the multi-national Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) recovered the first subsea substantial methane hydrate deposits, which spurred methane hydrate research in the US and other countries. The successor programs, the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampled hydrate deposits off Oregon (ODP 204, 2002) and in the Cascadia

  17. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  18. Methane Hydrates and Climate Change | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrates and Climate Change Methane Hydrates and Climate Change Methane hydrates store huge volumes of methane formed by the bacterial decay of organic matter or leaked from underlying oil and natural gas deposits. The active formation of methane hydrates in the shallow crust prevents methane, a greenhouse gas, from entering the atmosphere. On the other hand, warming of arctic sediments or ocean waters has the potential to cause methane hydrate to dissociate, releasing methane into the deepwater

  19. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  20. A Soil Gas Survey Over Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New Zealand Abstract Soil gases have been used as an exploration tool for minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy, through the detection...

  1. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields",8,"Monthly","42016","01151994" ,"Release ...

  2. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than Salt Caverns",8,"Monthly","42016","01151994" ...

  3. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  4. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  5. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and ...

  6. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and prevention.

  7. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in

  8. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays

  9. Michigan Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  10. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  11. Ohio Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  12. Montana Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  13. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  14. Alabama Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  15. Colorado Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  16. Virginia Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  17. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  18. Utah Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  19. Alaska Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  20. Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ...

  1. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  2. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  3. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

  4. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

  5. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report discusses a field demonstration to analyze the energy savings for one of these ... Louis, MO. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters (2.28 MB) More Documents & ...

  6. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Gas Field Code Master List With Data for 2015 | Release Date: February 24, 2016 | Next Release Date: February 2017 Previous Issues Year: 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go Comprehensive listing of U.S. oil and gas field names. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2015 Definition of a Field A field is defined as "an area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same

  7. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Committee Meeting | Department of Energy March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting International Gas Hydrate Research (5.5 MB) DOE's Natural Gas Hydrates Program (8.75 MB) Gas Hydrates as a Geohazard: What Really Are the Issues? (2.58 MB) Quantifying Climate-Hydrate Interactions: A Progress Report (616.36 KB) More Documents & Publications May 21, 2014 Committee Recommendations to

  8. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting PDF icon International Gas ...

  9. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped natural gas. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped

  11. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  12. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  13. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  14. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 102,401 96,538 108,784 105,106 111,388 108,530 1981-2016 PADD 1

  15. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suharmoko, G.R. )

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

  16. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2003.04.02 - 2003.09.02 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Ecosystem-atmosphere ...

  18. Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Gas Fields March 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Top 100 U.S. Oil ...

  19. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  20. Gas characterization system 241-AN-105 field acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    This document details the field Acceptance Testing of a gas characterization system being installed on waste tank 241-AN-105. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  1. Gas characterization system 241-AW-101 field acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    This document details the field Acceptance Testing of a gas characterization system being installed on waste tank 241-AW-101. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  2. PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES The VBA code below calculates the area percent of a first polygon layer (e.g. oil/gas field outlines) that are within a second polygon layer (e.g. federal land) and writes out the fraction as an attribute for the first polygon layer. If you make buffered well field outline polygons using the VBA code in BUFFERED_WELL_FIELD_OUTLINES.doc, you will have a feature class with the attribute PCTFEDLAND to use as the first polygon layer. If not, add the

  3. METHANE HYDRATE STUDIES: DELINEATING PROPERTIES OF HOST SEDIMENTS TO ESTABLISH REPRODUCIBLE DECOMPOSITION KINETICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Winters, William J.

    2004-12-01

    The use of methane hydrate as an energy source requires development of a reliable method for its extraction from its highly dispersed locations in oceanic margin sediments and permafrost. The high pressure (up to 70 MPa) and low temperature (272 K to 278 K) conditions under which hydrates are stable in the marine environment can be mimicked in a laboratory setting and several kinetic studies of pure methane hydrate decomposition have been reported. However, the effect of host sediments on methane hydrate occurrence and decomposition are required to develop reliable hydrate models. In this paper, we describe methods to measure sediment properties as they relate to pore-space methane gas hydrate. Traditional geotechnical techniques are compared to the micrometer level by use of the synchrotron Computed Microtomography (CMT) technique. CMT was used to measure the porosity at the micrometer level and to show pore-space pathways through field samples. Porosities for three sediment samples: one from a site on Georges Bank and two from the known Blake Ridge methane hydrate site, from different depths below the mud line were measured by traditional drying and by the new CMT techniques and found to be in good agreement. The integration of the two analytical approaches is necessary to enable better understanding of methane hydrate interactions with the surrounding sediment particles.

  4. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  5. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  6. Rehabilitation program eyed for big gas field in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    CER Corp., Las Vegas, has recommended a rehabilitation program it believes could boost deliverability by 20% in a major gas field in China. This paper reports that the recommendations resulted from a 4 year, multimillion dollar study of Weiyuan field in Central China's Sichuan province. Sichuan province is China's major gas producing province, with current flow of about 671 MMcfd and potential recovery pegged at 280 tcf. China's government recently announced a shift in its exploration and development emphasis to natural gas (OGJ, Jan. 6, p. 30). Funded by World Bank, CER's study found that a workover program, infill drilling, and wellbore dewatering program could significantly increase reserves.

  7. Power Plays: Geothermal Energy In Oil and Gas Fields

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The SMU Geothermal Lab is hosting their 7th international energy conference and workshop Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields May 18-20, 2015 on the SMU Campus in Dallas, Texas. The two-day conference brings together leaders from the geothermal, oil and gas communities along with experts in finance, law, technology, and government agencies to discuss generating electricity from oil and gas well fluids, using the flare gas for waste heat applications, and desalinization of the water for project development in Europe, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and the US. Other relevant topics include seismicity, thermal maturation, and improved drilling operations.

  8. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Alan

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  9. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E. E-mail: tesla@ucolick.or

    2010-05-20

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L {sub X}-L {sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  10. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retamal, María J. Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  11. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  12. Lithium bromide absorption chiller passes gas conditioning field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, M.J.; Huey, M.A.

    1995-07-31

    A lithium bromide absorption chiller has been successfully used to provide refrigeration for field conditioning of natural gas. The intent of the study was to identify a process that could provide a moderate level of refrigeration necessary to meet the quality restrictions required by natural-gas transmission companies, minimize the initial investment risk, and reduce operating expenses. The technology in the test proved comparatively less expensive to operate than a propane refrigeration plant. Volatile product prices and changes in natural-gas transmission requirements have created the need for an alternative to conventional methods of natural-gas processing. The paper describes the problems with the accumulation of condensed liquids in pipelines, gas conditioning, the lithium bromide absorption cycle, economics, performance, and operating and maintenance costs.

  13. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-06-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  14. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids ",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel

  15. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  16. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  17. Methane Hydrate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... of which aid in the characterization of the geology and hydrate occurrence at the site. ... Laboratories scaled up basin and regional scale models to simulate hydrate ...

  18. Multi-property characterization chamber for geophysical-hydrological investigations of hydrate bearing sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo Choi, Jeong-Hoon; Dai, Sheng

    2014-08-01

    With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and morphological characterization of specimens. Samples of hydrate-bearing sediments are held within a rubber sleeve inside the chamber. The thick sleeve is more durable and versatile than thin membranes while also being much softer than oedometer-type chambers that are incapable of enabling flow tests. Bias introduced by the rubber sleeve during large deformation tests are also calibrated both theoretically and experimentally. This system provides insight into full characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments in the laboratory, as well as pressure core technology in the field.

  19. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes

  20. MethaneHydrateRD_FC.indd

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Last Updated: June 2011 www.fossil.energy.gov Gas Hydrate test well; Alaska North Slope, ... acti vely with researchers in Japan, Korea, India, China, Canada, and other nati ons. ...

  1. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  2. Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Supplement from: U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields With Data for 2013 | Release Date: April 2, 2015 | Next Release Date: January 2016 Previous Issues (pdf): Year: 2009 2008 2007 (Appendix B) 2006 (Appendix B) 2005 (Appendix B) 2004 (Appendix B) 2003 (Appendix B) 2002 (Appendix B) 2001 (Appendix B) 2000 (Appendix B) 1999 (Appendix B) 1998 (Appendix B) 1997 (Appendix B) 1996 (Appendix B) Go Introduction This supplement to the U.S. Energy Information

  3. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Pederson, Bjorn O. (Chelmsford, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  4. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 772 7 16 23 17 1990's 3 68 75 5 25 63 13 11 57 44 2000's 45 27 68 12 18 6 27 0 191 257 2010's 48 47 5 17 57 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  5. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 115 47 48 1980's 33 18 16 15 30 42 65 90 96 30 1990's 39 16 7 0 0 10 76 0 6 0 2000's 15 50 8 0 0 11 1 0 4 19 2010's 2 14 7 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  6. SMOOTH OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES MADE FROM BUFFERED WELLS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The VBA code provided at the bottom of this document is an updated version (from ArcGIS 9.0 to ArcGIS 9.2) of the polygon smoothing algorithm described below. A bug that occurred when multiple wells had the same location was also fixed. SMOOTH OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINE POLYGONS MADE FROM BUFFERED WELLS Why smooth buffered field outlines? See the issues in the figure below: [pic] The smoothing application provided as VBA code below does the following: Adds area to the concave portions; doesn't

  7. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 155 197 1980's 168 412 376 53 53 94 14 11 26 91 1990's 50 10 0 25 0 23 30 2 4 0 2000's 20 13 14 6 8 1 0 6 21 0 2010's 51 47 44 2 135 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  8. Methane Hydrate Research and Modeling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Modeling Methane Hydrate Research and Modeling Research is focused on understanding the physical and chemical nature of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. These studies advance the understanding of the in situ nature of GHBS and their potential response in terms of fluid flow and geomechanical response to destabilizing forces. The latest research results from DOE projects, both current and completed, can be found on the NETL website. These include: Gas Hydrate Characterization in the

  9. Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Slope | Department of Energy Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope October 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and ConocoPhillips will work together to test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits on the Alaska North Slope. The collaborative testing will

  10. Saga of coal bed methane, Ignacio Blanco gas field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, B.C.; Harr, C.L.; Burch, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Prior to the 1977 discovery of the Cedar Hill Basal Fruitland pool (the first officially designated coal-bed methane field in the western US) 28.5 bcf of gas had been produced from Fruitland Formation coal seams in the Ignacio Blanco Fruitland-Pictured Cliffs field, Northern San Juan basin, Colorado. The discovery well for the field, Southern Ute D-1, was drilled and completed in 1951 on the Ignacio anticline, La Plata County, Colorado. Initial completion was attempted in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The well was plugged back after making water from the Pictured Cliffs and was completed in the lower coal-bearing section of the Fruitland Formation. The well produced 487,333 mcf of gas in nine years and was abandoned in 1959 due to water encroachment. Additionally, 52 similarly completed Ignacio anticline Fruitland wells were abandoned by the early 1970s due to the nemesis of If it's starting to kick water, you're through. Under today's coal-bed methane technology and economics, Amoco has twinned 12 of the abandoned wells, drilled five additional wells, and is successfully dewatering and producing adsorbed methane from previously depleted coal sections of the Ignacio structure. Field-wide drilling activity in 1988 exceeded all previous annual levels, with coal-seam degasification projects leading the resurgence. Drilling and completion forecasts for 1989 surpass 1988 levels by 50%.

  11. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  12. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  13. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buric, M.; Chorpening, B.; Mullem, J.; Ranalli, J.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-01-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  14. Hydrates Annual FY13 Format (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 03 NATURAL GAS; 58 GEOSCIENCES natural gas hydrates; reservoir ...

  15. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokshin, Konstantin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2008-05-13

    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  16. Field test comparison of natural gas engine exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bicknell, W.B.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N.; Statler, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a product improvement program, an extensive spark-ignited, turbocharged, natural gas engine exhaust valve test program was conducted using laboratory and field engines. Program objectives were to identify a valve and seat insert combination that increased mean time between overhauls (MTBO) while reducing the risk of premature valve cracking and failure. Following a thorough design review, a large number of valve and seat insert configurations were tested in a popular 900 RPM, 166 BHP (0.123 Mw) per cylinder industrial gas engine series. Material, head geometry, seat angle and other parameters were compared. Careful in-place measurements and post-test inspections compared various configurations and identified optimal exhaust valving for deployment in new units and upgrades of existing engines.

  17. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  18. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3 0 1 1980's 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2000's 5 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  19. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 98 53 17 1980's 359 45 15 9 17 10 0 1 20 25 1990's 21 12 5 10 4 14 0 0 0 0 2000's 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2010's 0 1 1 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  20. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 5 60 1980's 8 48 13 3 0 0 6 0 0 0 1990's 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2000's 0 33 0 21 0 0 13 7 61 128 2010's 50 165 414 36 7 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  1. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4 1 3 1980's 5 17 7 4 2 13 0 0 0 0 1990's 3 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 2000's 0 0 24 0 4 4 7 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  2. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 31 25 12 1980's 4 2 1 10 13 1990's 2 1 22 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 7 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 2010's 1 0 4 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  3. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 31 9 22 1980's 15 16 20 12 12 22 0 7 2 8 1990's 2 2 5 2 3 80 0 2 0 123 2000's 0 4 1 1 171 32 14 15 17 8 2010's 22 18 9 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  4. Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sloan, Jr., Earle D.

    1995-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.

  5. Application of Phase-field Method in Predicting Gas Bubble Microstructure Evolution in Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-30

    Fission product accumulation and gas bubble microstructure evolution in nuclear fuels strongly affect thermo-mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, gas release, volumetric swelling and cracking, and hence the fuel performance. In this paper, a general phase-field model is developed to predict gas bubble formation and evolution. Important materials processes and thermodynamic properties including the generation of gas atoms and vacancies, sinks for vacancies and gas atoms, the elastic interaction among defects, gas re-solution, and inhomogeneity of elasticity and diffusivity are accounted for in the model. The simulations demonstrate the potential application of the phase-field method in investigating 1) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles at defects; 2) effect of elastic interaction, inhomogeneity of material properties, and gas re-solution on gas bubble microstructures; and 3) effective properties from the output of phase-field simulations such as distribution of defects, gas bubbles, and stress fields.

  6. Method for production of hydrocarbons from hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Patrick L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of recovering natural gas entrapped in frozen subsurface gas hydrate formations in arctic regions. A hot supersaturated solution of CaCl.sub.2 or CaBr.sub.2, or a mixture thereof, is pumped under pressure down a wellbore and into a subsurface hydrate formation so as to hydrostatically fracture the formation. The CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 solution dissolves the solid hydrates and thereby releases the gas entrapped therein. Additionally, the solution contains a polymeric viscosifier, which operates to maintain in suspension finely divided crystalline CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 that precipitates from the supersaturated solution as it is cooled during injection into the formation.

  7. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  8. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress July 2012 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | July 2012 FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report entitled U.S. Department of Energy FY 2011 Methane

  9. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  10. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-31

    This study introduces a new type of “cumulative seismic attribute” (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.