National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas flare capture

  1. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  2. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and ...

  3. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Date: 12312015 Next Release Date: 01292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and Flared...

  4. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: 03312016 Next Release Date: 04292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and ...

  6. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  7. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the

  8. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Vented ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas ...

  9. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  10. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6 15 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  11. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  12. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126,629 129,408 130,766 1970's 129,629 39,799 38,797 36,411 34,199 31,802 30,197 29,186 27,489 26,605 1980's 25,555 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release

  13. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 98 96 99 75 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  14. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 347 367 277 26 47 32 101 1980's 143 106 162 108 182 124 122 125 123 95 1990's 22 56 23 21 8 0 0 1 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  15. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 355 284 837 607 1980's 677 428 435 198 34 13 54 30 166 450 1990's 286 482 245 205 220 28 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  16. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126 102 93 1970's 122 3,997 1,806 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  17. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 408 180 165 376 585 339 156 117 126 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  18. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 - ...

  19. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 ArcelorMittal USA, Inc.'s Indiana Harbor steel ...

  20. Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li, Yuguang Ma, M. Colin McCarthy, Julian Sculley, Jiamei Yu,...

  1. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  2. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  9. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.13 4.08 4.19 3.17 3.89 3.76 3.48 4.95 4.83 2000's 4.48 -- 4.14 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  10. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2011 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 7 8 7 8 2012 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 7 8 7 8 2013 25 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2014 30 27 30 29 30 29 30 30 29 30 29 30 2015 8 8 8 8 8 27 30 30 29 30 29 30 2016 33 30 33 32 47 46

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  11. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2011 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2012 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2013 29 27 29 28 29 28 29 29 28 29 28 29 2014 34 31 34 33 34 33 34 34 33 34 33 34 2015 24 22 24 24 24 32 34 34 33 34 33 34 2016 38 35 38 37 44 43

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  12. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 16 14 16 15 16 15 16 16 15 16 15 16 2011 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2012 12 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2013 13 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 2014 15 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 2015 14 12 14 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 2016 17 15 17 17 16 15

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  13. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 25 23 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2011 25 23 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2012 25 24 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2013 26 24 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 2014 31 28 31 30 31 30 31 31 30 31 30 31 2015 28 26 28 27 28 29 31 31 30 31 30 31 2016 35 31 35 33 37 36 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

  14. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2014 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 2015 2 1 2 2 2 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 2016 10 9 10 9 21 20

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.29 4.11 4.35 4.63 5.69 5.08 5.49

  15. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 198 179 198 192 198 192 198 198 192 198 192 198 2011 187 169 187 181 187 181 187 187 181 187 181 187 2012 187 175 187 181 187 181 187 187 181 187 181 187 2013 255 230 255 247 255 247 255 255 247 255 247 255 2014 300 271 300 290 300 290 300 300 290 300 290 300 2015 210 190 210 203 210 276 300 300 290 300 290 300 2016 333 301 333 322 393 380

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price

  16. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2011 25 22 25 24 25 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 2012 24 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 2013 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2014 22 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 2015 28 25 28 27 28 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 2016 25 22 25 24 24 23

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  17. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2015 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.90 2.90 3.82 2.08 2.20

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2011 24 22 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 2012 24 22 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 2013 23 21 23 22 23 22 23 23 22 23 22 23 2014 27 24 27 26 27 26 27 27 26 27 26 27 2015 27 24 27 26 27 25 27 27 26 27 26 27 2016 30 27 30 29 31 30

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  19. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2011 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2012 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2013 15 13 15 14 15 14 15 15 14 15 14 15 2014 18 16 18 17 18 17 18 18 17 18 17 18 2015 8 7 8 8 8 16 18 18 17 18 17 18 2016 19 18 19 19 27 26

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2.75

  20. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2011 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2012 19 17 19 18 19 18 19 19 18 19 18 19 2013 17 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 2014 20 18 20 19 20 19 20 20 19 20 19 20 2015 21 19 21 20 21 19 20 20 19 20 19 20 2016 22 20 22 22 22 22

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  1. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 22 20 22 21 22 21 22 22 21 22 21 22 2011 28 25 28 27 28 27 28 28 27 28 27 28 2012 28 26 28 27 28 27 28 28 27 28 27 28 2013 29 26 29 28 29 28 29 29 28 29 28 29 2014 34 31 34 33 34 33 34 34 33 34 33 34 2015 32 29 32 31 32 32 34 34 33 34 33 34 2016 38 35 38 37 42 4

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  2. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 7 7 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.82 1.63 2.51 2.76 2.79 2.91

  3. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2012 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2013 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 2014 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2015 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2016 5 4 5 4 10 10

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.37 2.74 3.19 3.79 3.38 3.04 2000's

  4. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  5. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2011 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2012 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2013 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2014 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2015 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 2016 5 5 5 5 5 5

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.67 2010's 15.10 15.29 - = No Data

  6. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 71 64 71 69 71 69 71 71 69 71 69 71 2011 50 45 50 49 50 49 50 50 49 50 49 50 2012 50 47 50 48 50 48 50 50 48 50 48 50 2013 51 46 51 49 51 49 51 51 49 51 49 51 2014 60 54 60 58 60 58 60 60 58 60 58 60 2015 56 51 56 54 56 55 60 60 58 60 58 60 2016 66 60 66 64 92 89

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

  7. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 25 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 2011 21 19 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 2012 21 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 2013 13 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 2014 16 14 16 15 16 15 16 16 15 16 15 16 2015 24 22 24 23 24 14 16 16 15 16 15 16 2016 17 16 17 17 15 14

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

  8. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 305 275 305 295 305 295 305 305 295 305 295 305 2011 328 297 328 318 328 318 328 328 318 328 318 328 2012 326 305 326 316 326 316 326 326 316 326 316 326 2013 282 254 282 273 282 273 282 282 273 282 273 282 2014 331 299 331 320 331 320 331 331 320 331 320 331 2015 367 332 367 355 367 305 331 331 320 331 320 331 2016 367 332 367 356 347 33

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  10. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2012 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 2 2

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.66 5.74 5.66 4.62 5.34 5.24 5.56 6.30

  11. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 2 2 2 2 8 7

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.69 4.71 4.25 5.23 5.11 7.13 7.20 5.53

  12. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2014 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2015 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2016 3 2 3 3 4 4

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.78 5.30 4.62 5.10 5.54 6.68 6.75 6.68

  13. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2013 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2014 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 2015 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 2016 5 5 5 5 5 5

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.24 3.56 4.30 3.47 2.36 2.99 3.53 5.57

  14. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  15. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  17. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  18. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  20. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  2. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A. ...

  3. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Trucks | Department of Energy Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON D.C. --- U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced more than $300 million worth of investments that will boost a range of clean energy technologies - including carbon capture from coal, solar power, and high efficiency cars and trucks. The move reflects

  4. Fluidized bed and method and system for gas component capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krutka, Holly; Wilson, Cody; Starns, Travis

    2016-05-31

    The present disclosure is directed to a process that allows dry sorbents to remove a target constituent, such as carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from a gas stream. A staged fluidized bed separator enables gas and sorbent to move in opposite directions. The sorbent is loaded with target constituent in the separator. It is then transferred to a regenerator where the target constituent is stripped. The temperature of the separator and regenerator are controlled. After it is removed from the regenerator, the sorbent is then transferred back to the separator.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  6. In the field. Pilot project uses innovative process to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A pilot project at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant uses chilled ammonia to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 3 photos.

  7. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  8. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  9. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  10. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  11. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  12. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore » attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  13. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-06-21

    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  14. Regenerable sorbents for CO.sub.2 capture from moderate and high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    2008-01-01

    A process for making a granular sorbent to capture carbon dioxide from gas streams comprising homogeneously mixing an alkali metal oxide, alkali metal hydroxide, alkaline earth metal oxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, alkali titanate, alkali zirconate, alkali silicate and combinations thereof with a binder selected from the group consisting of sodium ortho silicate, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2O), alkali silicates, calcium aluminate, bentonite, inorganic clays and organic clays and combinations thereof and water; drying the mixture and placing the sorbent in a container permeable to a gas stream.

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation technology results of CO{sub 2} capture & disposal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audus, H.; Riemer, P.W.F.; Ormerod, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The Programme has examined, on a consistent basis, the options available for capturing and disposing of the CO{sub 2} product from a range of gas and coal fired power generation plant types, each with an output of 500MW(e). Systems under consideration include PF+FGD, IGCC, NGCC and a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} recycle scheme. CO{sub 2} capture technologies considered include chemical and physical absorption, solid adsorption, cryogenics, membrane separation and gas separation membranes. Carbon dioxide disposal options considered are; disposal in the oceans, in aquifers, in depleted gas reservoirs and terrestrial storage as a solid. In addition, a number of studies have evaluated the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery and the manufacture of chemicals, including a detailed investigation of dimethyl carbonate production. Comparison is also made with the alternative stance of compensatory forest plantations and substitution of fossil fuels with biomass. Emphasis has been placed on a requirement to determine the impact of the various technologies on the cost of electricity generation. This has been achieved by analysing the core of specific schemes, on a common basis, and comparative results are presented for various CO{sub 2} abatement options. A member of studies have also been carried out to evaluate transport options and the environmental impact of these technology combinations for carbon dioxide disposal. The results indicate that by combining the most favourable technologies for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal to efficient power generation technology, electricity generation costs could be increased by around 50%. Alternative schemes have similar or even greater cost penalties.

  16. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  17. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  18. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  19. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  20. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  1. The MuCap experiment: A measurement of the muon capture rate in hydrogen gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, T. I.

    2007-10-26

    We have recently measured the rate of nuclear muon capture by the proton, using a novel technique which involves a time projection chamber operating in ultraclean, deuterium-depleted hydrogen gas. The target's low gas density of 1% compared to liquid hydrogen is key to avoiding uncertainties that arise from the formation of muonic molecules. The capture rate from the hyperfine singlet ground state of the {mu}p atom was obtained from the difference between the {mu}{sup -} disappearance rate in hydrogen and the world average for the {mu}{sup +} decay rate, yielding {lambda}{sub S} = 725.0{+-}17.4 s{sup -1}, from which the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon, g{sub P}(q{sup 2} = 0.88m{sub {mu}}{sup 2}) = 7.3{+-}1.1, is extracted. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions for g{sub P} that are based on the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD.

  2. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon Dioxide Capture for Natural Gas and Industrial Applications Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas and Industrial Applications Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies Carbon Dioxide Storage Technologies Crosscutting Technologies in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial

  3. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  4. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  5. Silver-mordenite for radiologic gas capture from complex streams. Dual catalytic CH3I decomposition and I confinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Soelberg, Nick R.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2014-05-09

    The selective capture of radiological iodine (129I) is a persistent concern for safe nuclear energy. In these nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios, the gas streams to be treated are extremely complex, containing several distinct iodine-containing molecules amongst a large variety of other species. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for radioiodine capture, reacting with molecular iodine (I2) to form AgI. However the mechanisms for organoiodine capture is not well understood. Here we investigate the capture of methyl iodide from complex mixed gas streams by combining chemical analysis of the effluent gas stream with in depth characterization of the recovered sorbent.more » Tools applied include infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and pair distribution function analysis. Moreover, the MOR zeolite catalyzes decomposition of the methyl iodide through formation of surface methoxy species (SMS), which subsequently reacts with water in the mixed gas stream to form methanol, and with methanol to form dimethyl ether, which are both detected downstream in the effluent. The liberated iodine reacts with Ag in the MOR pore to the form subnanometer AgI clusters, smaller than the MOR pores, suggesting that the iodine is both physically and chemically confined within the zeolite.« less

  6. CO[sub 2] capture from the flue gas of conventional fossil-fuel-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J. )

    1994-08-01

    Research has been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the advantages and deficiencies of several technologies, both commercially available and alternative technologies, for capturing CO[sub 2] from the flue gas of utility boilers that use air as an oxidant (the current universal practice). The technologies include chemical solvent, cryogenic, membrane, physical absorption, and physical adsorption methods. In general, technologies for capturing CO[sub 2] are expensive and energy-intensive. Therefore, they result in a substantial overall increase in the cost of power generation. Research to improve the performance and economics of these technologies is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    18 Innovative Carbon Capture Projects Will Help Make Fossil Energy Use Cleaner, Safer and More Sustainable as Part of the Obama Administration’s Climate Action Plan

  8. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  9. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  10. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  11. Silver-Mordenite for Radiologic Gas Capture from Complex Streams: Dual Catalytic CH3I Decomposition and I Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tina M. Nenoff; Mark Rodriguez; Nick Soelberg; Karena W. Chapman

    2014-12-01

    The effective capture and storage of radiological iodine (129I) remains a strong concern for safe nuclear waste storage and safe nuclear energy. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for iodine capture. In nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios, complex gas streams will be present and the need for high selectivity of all iodine containing compounds is of the utmost importance for safety and the environment. In particular, a molecular level understanding of the sorption of organic iodine compounds is not well understood. Here we probe the structure and distribution of methyl iodide sorbed by silver-containing MOR using a combination of crystallographic and materials characterization techniques including: infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and pair distribution function analysis. The iodine is captured inside the MOR pore in the form of AgI nanoparticles, that is consistent with the pores sizes of the MOR, indicating that the molecule is both physically and chemically captured in the Ag-MOR. The organic component is surface catalyzed by the zeolite via the formation of Surface Methoxy Species (SMS) that result in downstream organics of dimethyl ether and methanol formation.

  12. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

  13. Measurement of the Muon Capture Rate in Hydrogen Gas and Determination of the Proton's Pseudoscalar Coupling g{sub P}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, V. A.; Ganzha, V. A.; Kravtsov, P. A.; Krivshich, A. G.; Maev, E. M.; Maev, O. E.; Petrov, G. E.; Schapkin, G. N.; Semenchuk, G. G.; Soroka, M. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vznuzdaev, M. E.; Banks, T. I.; Case, T. A.; Crowe, K. M.; Freedman, S. J.; Gray, F. E.; Lauss, B.; Chitwood, D. B.

    2007-07-20

    The rate of nuclear muon capture by the proton has been measured using a new technique based on a time projection chamber operating in ultraclean, deuterium-depleted hydrogen gas, which is key to avoiding uncertainties from muonic molecule formation. The capture rate from the hyperfine singlet ground state of the {mu}p atom was obtained from the difference between the {mu}{sup -} disappearance rate in hydrogen and the world average for the {mu}{sup +} decay rate, yielding {lambda}{sub S}=725.0{+-}17.4 s{sup -1}, from which the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon, g{sub P}(q{sup 2}=-0.88m{sub {mu}}{sup 2})=7.3{+-}1.1, is extracted.

  14. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  15. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Stevens, Robert W.

    2012-03-06

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

  16. Selective CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal–Organic Frameworks-A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  18. Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Production from Syngas. A Novel Process Combining CO Methanation, Water-Gas Shift, and CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.C.; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Liyu; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-07-08

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the opportunity for increasing coal utilization and reducing green house gas emission. CO methanation is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated which can lead to process thermal imbalance and deactivation of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is limited and substantial syngas recycle is employed in conventional processes. Furthermore, the conversion of syngas to SNG is typically performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C) to ensure high CH4 yields since this reaction is thermodynamically limited. In this study, the effectiveness of a novel integrated process for the SNG production from syngas at high temperature (i.e. 600°C) was investigated. This integrated process consists of combining a CO methanation nickel-based catalyst with a high temperature CO2 capture sorbent in a single reactor. Integration with CO2 separation eliminates the reverse-water-gas shift and the requirement for a separate water-gas shift (WGS) unit. Easing of thermodynamic constraint offers the opportunity of enhancing yield to CH4 at higher operating temperature (500-700ºC) which also favors methanation kinetics and improves the overall process efficiency due to exploitation of reaction heat at higher temperatures. Furthermore, simultaneous CO2 capture eliminates green house gas emission. In this work, sorption-enhanced CO methanation was demonstrated using a mixture of a 68% CaO/32% MgAl2O4 sorbent and a CO methanation catalyst (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/MgAl2O4, or Ni/SiC) utilizing a syngas ratio (H2/CO) of 1, gas-hour-space velocity (GHSV) of 22 000 hr-1, pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 600°C. These conditions resulted in ~90% yield to methane, which was maintained until the sorbent

  19. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Utah NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 West Virginia NA NA NA NA NA

  20. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    165,360 165,928 209,439 212,848 260,394 288,743 1936-2014 Alaska 6,481 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554 1967-2014 Alaska Onshore 5,271 8,034 9,276 9,244 5,670 5,779 1992-2014 Alaska State Offshore 1,210 2,139 1,690 2,525 1,549 776 1992-2014 Arkansas 141 425 494 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 2,501 2,790 2,424 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California Onshore 2,501 2,790 2,424 NA NA NA 1992-2014 California State Offshore 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2003-2014 Federal Offshore California NA NA 2003-2014 Colorado 1,411 1,242

  1. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 ...

  2. Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, T.G.; Greenhalgh, M.R.; Law, J.D.

    2013-07-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

  3. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  4. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  5. Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES’ capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES’ capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

  6. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  7. Silver-mordenite for radiologic gas capture from complex streams. Dual catalytic CH3I decomposition and I confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Soelberg, Nick R.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2014-05-09

    The selective capture of radiological iodine (129I) is a persistent concern for safe nuclear energy. In these nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios, the gas streams to be treated are extremely complex, containing several distinct iodine-containing molecules amongst a large variety of other species. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for radioiodine capture, reacting with molecular iodine (I2) to form AgI. However the mechanisms for organoiodine capture is not well understood. Here we investigate the capture of methyl iodide from complex mixed gas streams by combining chemical analysis of the effluent gas stream with in depth characterization of the recovered sorbent. Tools applied include infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and pair distribution function analysis. Moreover, the MOR zeolite catalyzes decomposition of the methyl iodide through formation of surface methoxy species (SMS), which subsequently reacts with water in the mixed gas stream to form methanol, and with methanol to form dimethyl ether, which are both detected downstream in the effluent. The liberated iodine reacts with Ag in the MOR pore to the form subnanometer AgI clusters, smaller than the MOR pores, suggesting that the iodine is both physically and chemically confined within the zeolite.

  8. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  9. A Measurement of the Rate of Muon Capture in Hydrogen Gas andDetermination of the Proton's Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling gP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, Thomas Ira

    2007-07-10

    This dissertation describes a measurement of the rate ofnuclear muon capture by the proton, performed by the MuCap Collaborationusing a new technique based on a time projection chamber operating inultraclean, deuterium-depleted hydrogen gas at room temperature and 1 MPapressure. The hydrogen target's low gas density of 1 percent compared toliquid hydrogen is key to avoiding uncertainties that arise from theformation of muonic molecules. The capture rate was obtained from thedifference between the mu- disappearance rate in hydrogen--as determinedfrom data collected in the experiment's first physics run in fall2004--and the world averagefor the mu+ decay rate. After combining theresults of my analysis with the results from another independent analysisof the 2004 data, the muon capture rate from the hyperfine singlet groundstate of the mu-p atom is found to be Lambda_S = 725.0 +- 17.4 1/s, fromwhich the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the nucleon, gP(q2 = -0.88m2mu)= 7.3 +- 1.1, is extracted. This result for gP is consistent withtheoretical predictions that are based on the approximate chiral symmetryof QCD.

  10. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  11. Analytical Method for the Detection of Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC) in Commercial Products Using a Gas Chromatograph with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Richard N.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Wright, Bob W.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes an analytical procedure that was developed for the trace level detection of residual ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) associated with the manufacture of selected commercial products. To ensure the United States meets it obligation under the Montreal Protocol, Congress enacted legislation in 1989 to impose an excise tax on electronic goods imported into the United States that were produced with banned chemicals. This procedure was developed to technically determine if residual ODC chemicals could be detected on electronic circuit boards. The analytical method utilizes a “purge and trap” technique followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection to capture and analyze the volatile chemicals associated with the matrix. The method describes the procedure, the hardware, operating conditions, calibration, and quality control measures in sufficient detail to allow the capability to be replicated. This document corresponds to internal Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) EFL-130A, Rev 4.

  12. Comparison of emission properties of two homologous flares in AR 11283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Haimin

    2014-05-20

    Large, complex, active regions may produce multiple flares within a certain period of one or two days. These flares could occur in the same location with similar morphologies, commonly referred to as 'homologous flares'. In 2011 September, active region NOAA 11283 produced a pair of homologous flares on the 6th and 7th, respectively. Both of them were white-light (WL) flares, as captured by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory in visible continuum at 6173 Å which is believed to originate from the deep solar atmosphere. We investigate the WL emission of these X-class flares with HMI's seeing-free imaging spectroscopy. The durations of impulsive peaks in the continuum are about 4 minutes. We compare the WL with hard X-ray (HXR) observations for the September 6 flare and find a good correlation between the continuum and HXR both spatially and temporally. In absence of RHESSI data during the second flare on September 7, the derivative of the GOES soft X-ray is used and also found to be well correlated temporally with the continuum. We measure the contrast enhancements, characteristic sizes, and HXR fluxes of the twin flares, which are similar for both flares, indicating analogous triggering and heating processes. However, the September 7 flare was associated with conspicuous sunquake signals whereas no seismic wave was detected during the flare on September 6. Therefore, this comparison suggests that the particle bombardment may not play a dominant role in producing the sunquake events studied in this paper.

  13. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Fact Sheet Key Contacts Carbon Capture Research & Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power generation is a critical component of realistic strategies for arresting the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but capturing substantial amounts of CO2 using current technology would result in a prohibitive rise in the cost of producing energy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development (NETL-ORD), in collaboration with researchers

  14. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  15. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2014-04-01

    A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  18. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Granite, Evan J.; Rupp, Erik C.; Stanko, Dennis C.; Howard, Bret; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  19. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  20. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  1. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  2. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon capture involves the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-based power plant ... are not ready for implementation on coal-based power plants because they have not ...

  3. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 1: Natural gas flaring associated with crude oil production ......as "lease and plant fuel" and for "pipeline and distribution use." 1 * Venting: The ...

  5. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  6. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  7. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  8. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Alabama NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Alaska NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Arizona NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Florida NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Louisiana

  9. Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 165,360 165,928 209,439 212,848 260,394 288,743 1936-2014 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 14,754 13,971 15,502 16,296 14,619 15,123 1997-2014 Alabama 2,495 2,617 3,491 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Alaska 6,481 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554 1967-2014 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 1971-2014 Arkansas 141 425 494 0 NA NA 1967-2014 California 2,501 2,790 2,424 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Colorado 1,411 1,242 1,291 0 NA NA 1967-2014 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1971-2014 Illinois 0 0 0 0 0 0

  10. How Carbon Capture Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    How Carbon Capture Works Nearly 70 percent of America's electricity is generated from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. And fossil fuels also account for almost...

  11. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However

  12. Helium (3) Rich Solar Flares

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Colgate, S. A.; Audouze, J.; Fowler, W. A.

    1977-05-03

    The extreme enrichment of {sup 3} He {sup 4} He greater than or equal to 1 in some solar flares as due to spallation and the subsequent confinement of the products in a high temperature, kT approx. = 200 keV, high density, n{sub e} approx. = 3 x 10{sup 15} cm {sup -3} plasma associated with the magnetic instability producing the flare is interpreted. The pinch or filament is a current of high energy protons that creates the spallation and maintains the temperature that produces the high energy x-ray spectrum and depletes other isotopes D, Li, Be, and B as observed. Finally the high temperature plasma is a uniquely efficient spallation target that is powered by the interaction of stellar convection and self generated magnetic field.

  13. Biogas, once flared, fuels cogen plant serving two hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.K.; McRae, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that digester gas from a wastewater treatment plant meets up to 40% of the fuel needs of this cogenerator. Steam is exported for heating the treatment plant`s digesters and for ice production by a second steam host. The Carson Ice-Gen Project promises to enhance the reliability of electric service to the Sacramento Regional Waste water Treatment Plant (SRWTP), to prevent effluent discharges to nearby water ways during power disruptions, and to reduce air emissions associated with flaring of digester gas. The project comprises a 95-MW combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant and a 300-ton/day ice-production plant. The powerplant features twin LM 6000 gas turbines (GTs). One, used as a 53-MW base-load unit, is paired with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) feeding an extraction/condensing steam turbine/generator (STG). The other GT is used as a 42-MW, simple-cycle peaking unit. Primary fuel is natural gas, which is supplemented by digester gas that is currently being flared at the wastewater treatment plant. Export steam extracted from the STG is used to heat the digesters and to drive ammonia compressors at the ice plant. Steam is also used on-site to chill water in absorption chillers that cool the GT inlet air for power augmentation.

  14. Staff Research Physicist (Experimental Research, FLARE) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Research, FLARE) Department: Research Staff: RM 02 Requisition Number: 1500503 The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory seeks to fill a staff research physicist...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GAS PRESSURIZED STRIPPING (GPS)-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM POST-COMBUSTION FLUE GASES Topical Report: Techno-Economic Analysis of GPS-based Technology for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references. In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.

  16. EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

  17. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  18. Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored September 11, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis Dr. Ken Friedman Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of ...

  19. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  20. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; ONeil, K.; Kervvan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  1. Pi-CO₂ aqueous post-combustion CO₂ capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO₂) capture system (Pi-CO₂) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO₂ has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO₂ from local industrial sources.

  2. Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO 2 Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf 2 N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin P.; Morsi, Badie I.

    2013-06-04

    The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO2 capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO2, H2, H2S, CO, and CH4 in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters (Δij and lij) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO2 solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO2 capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO2 up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO2 capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO2 was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H2 was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical

  3. U. S. EPA's flare policy: update and review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.C.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of flaring operations on the environment continues to be of concern to regulatory agencies and industry. Recent regulatory initiatives by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established regulatory performance and design standards for flare operations. It is recommended EPA change its flare policy to accept the more general concept of flame stability as an indicator of efficient flare operation.

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  5. Secretary Chu Announces $3 Billion Investment for Carbon Capture...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... retrofit a CO2 capture plant on a 160 megawatt flue gas stream at an existing coal-fired power plant, Alabama Power's Plant Barry, located north of Mobile, AL. The captured CO2 ...

  6. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  7. Carbon Capture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture Carbon Capture This GIF shows how CO2 emissions vary across the United States. Each bar represents a 50x50 kilometer grid. Bar height is proportional to total CO2 emissions and bar color represents the type of CO2 emissions. Red bars represent proportionately more CO2 emissions from electricity generation (coal, gas and oil). Green bars represent CO2 emissions by other sources (such as ethanol production, iron-steel production and cement manufacture). Yellow/orange bars signify a

  8. ON THE DURATION OF BLAZAR SYNCHROTRON FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichmann, B.; Schlickeiser, R.; Rhode, W.

    2012-01-10

    A semi-analytical model is presented that describes the temporal development of a blazar synchrotron flare for the case of a broadband synchrotron power spectrum. We examine three different injection scenarios and present its influence on the synchrotron flare. An accurate approximation of the half-life of a synchrotron flare is analytically computed and we give some illustrative examples of the time evolution of the emergent synchrotron intensity by using a numerical integration method. The synchrotron flare starts at all photon energies right after the injection of ultrarelativistic electrons into the spherical emission volume of radius R and its duration exceeds the light travel time 2R/c in the low energy regime. Furthermore, the flare duration extends by the period of injection of relativistic electrons into the emission knot. However, the energetic and spatial distribution of these injected electrons has no significant influence on the flare duration. We obtain a temporal behavior that agrees most favorably with the observations of PKS 2155-304 on 2006 July 29-30 and it differs considerably from the results that were recently achieved by using a monochromatic approximation of the synchrotron power.

  9. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States' energy security through reliable, clean, and affordable energy produced from coal. ... of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. ...

  10. Thermodynamic Complexity of Carbon Capture in Alkylamine-Functionalize...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamic Complexity of Carbon Capture in Alkylamine-Functionalized Metal-Organic ... of CO2 on an alkylamine-appended MOF, mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) employing gas ...

  11. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture R&D Carbon Capture R&D DOE's Carbon Capture Program, administered by the Office of Fossil Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is conducting research and development activities on Second Generation and Transformational carbon capture technologies that have the potential to provide step-change reductions in both cost and energy penalty as compared to currently available First Generation technologies. The Carbon Capture Program consists of two core research

  12. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  14. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  15. Utilization of a fuel cell power plant for the capture and conversion of gob well gas. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybylic, A.R.; Haynes, C.D.; Haskew, T.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    A preliminary study has been made to determine if a 200 kW fuel cell power plant operating on variable quality coalbed methane can be placed and successfully operated at the Jim Walter Resources No. 4 mine located in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The purpose of the demonstration is to investigate the effects of variable quality (50 to 98% methane) gob gas on the output and efficiency of the power plant. To date, very little detail has been provided concerning the operation of fuel cells in this environment. The fuel cell power plant will be located adjacent to the No. 4 mine thermal drying facility rated at 152 M British thermal units per hour. The dryer burns fuel at a rate of 75,000 cubic feet per day of methane and 132 tons per day of powdered coal. The fuel cell power plant will provide 700,000 British thermal units per hour of waste heat that can be utilized directly in the dryer, offsetting coal utilization by approximately 0.66 tons per day and providing an avoided cost of approximately $20 per day. The 200 kilowatt electrical power output of the unit will provide a utility cost reduction of approximately $3,296 each month. The demonstration will be completely instrumented and monitored in terms of gas input and quality, electrical power output, and British thermal unit output. Additionally, real-time power pricing schedules will be applied to optimize cost savings. 28 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory--Capture and Sequestration Support Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Capture and Sequestration Support Services Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is helping to develop technologies to capture, separate, and store carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to reduce green-house gas (GHG) emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)-the capture of CO 2 from large point sources and subsequent injection into deep

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  18. Compensation of flare-induced CD changes EUVL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkholm, John E. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Gullikson, Eric M. (Oakland, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA)

    2004-11-09

    A method for compensating for flare-induced critical dimensions (CD) changes in photolithography. Changes in the flare level results in undesirable CD changes. The method when used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography essentially eliminates the unwanted CD changes. The method is based on the recognition that the intrinsic level of flare for an EUV camera (the flare level for an isolated sub-resolution opaque dot in a bright field mask) is essentially constant over the image field. The method involves calculating the flare and its variation over the area of a patterned mask that will be imaged and then using mask biasing to largely eliminate the CD variations that the flare and its variations would otherwise cause. This method would be difficult to apply to optical or DUV lithography since the intrinsic flare for those lithographies is not constant over the image field.

  19. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  20. Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Carbon capture, utilization, and storage can provide a...

  1. A TRIO OF CONFINED FLARES IN AR 11087

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Forbes, Terry G. E-mail: freemler@kasi.re.kr E-mail: terry.forbes@unh.edu

    2015-01-10

    We investigate three flares that occurred in active region, AR 11087, observed by the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 July 13, in a span of three hours. The first two flares have soft X-ray class B3, whereas the third flare has class C3. The third flare not only was the largest in terms of area and brightness but also showed a very faint coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with it, while the earlier two flares had no associated CME. The active region, located at 27° N, 26° E, has a small U-shaped active region filament to the south of the sunspot, and a quiescent filament is located to its west. Hα observations from DOT, as well as extreme-ultraviolet images and magnetograms from the STEREO spacecraft and Solar Dynamics Observatory, are used to study the dynamics of the active region during the three flares. Our observations imply that the first two flares are confined and that some filament material drains to the surface during these flares. At the onset of the third flare downflows are again observed within the active region, but a strong upflow is also observed at the northern end of the adjacent quiescent filament to the west. It is at the latter location that the CME originates. The temporal evolution of the flare ribbons and the dynamics of the filaments are both consistent with the idea that reconnection in a pre-existing current sheet leads to a loss of equilibrium.

  2. Capturing Energy Upgrades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview of how to capture the value of energy efficiency upgrades in the real estate market, from CNT Energy.

  3. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the Energy Department's work to advance capture and safe, sustainable storage of carbon dioxide emissions in underground geologic formations.

  4. EA-1745: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project At The Arcelormittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

  5. EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc., Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

  6. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  7. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Draft fans, feedwater pumps, and a deaerator were also constructed to support the operation. High Efficiency Boiler Uses BFG for Steam, Power The boiler was connected to the high- ...

  8. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  9. System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

    2014-02-18

    A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

  10. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  11. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Calayag, Bon

    2014-03-05

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  13. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,788 1,684 1,571 1,593 1,807 1,690 2,042 1,781 1,437 1,867 1,649 1,505 1992 1,707 1,639 1,564 1,775 1,752 2,153 1,623 1,737 1,907 1,568 1,595 1,518 1993 1,588 1,460 1,500 1,708 1,614 1,590 1,778 1,711 2,014 1,500 1,482 1,636 1994 1,597 1,468 1,509 1,717 1,623 1,599 1,788 1,720 2,025 1,509 1,490 1,645 1995 1,519 1,396 1,435 1,633 1,544 1,521 1,701 1,636 1,926 1,435 1,418 1,565 1996 1,545 1,443 1,514 1,471 1,528 1,939 2,042 2,033 1,985

  14. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  15. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1997 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1998 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1999 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2000 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2001 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2002 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2003 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2004 277 277 277 277

  16. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 217 199 223 219 237 234 239 235 213 224 218 220 1997 214 202 214 209 221 223 218 242 235 258 250 256 1998 250 222 245 225 233 220 238 232 235 234 227 236 1999 230 217 247 232 239 233 234 231 226 223 214 219 2000 205 161 204 193 213 198 210 214 205 223 216 235 2001 236 216 234 241 248 236 265 266 242 260 251 267 2002 259 299 266 255 266 262 267 274 276 280 267 298 2003 293 261 282 277 284 285 244 304 306 323 305 337 2004 319 321 331 325

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  18. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 32 38 34 40 43 27 63 59 60 71 67 62 1997 67 60 71 62 66 83 72 92 47 118 186 195 1998 189 147 159 177 107 76 155 129 136 0 0 0 1999 47 54 50 52 56 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 43 39 41 44 49 44 44 36 36 39 43 28 2001 36 32 40 35 36 36 35 33 34 32 28 27 2002 30 25 27 31 31 30 28 32 30 29 28 27 2003 34 28 30 33 34 36 32 32 29 30 43 43 2004 49 41 37 81 85 91 97 125 135 150 125 55 2005 42 36 52 46 57 57 60 55 52 56 51 66 2006 74 75 73 86 111 99 94 87

  19. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2003 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2004 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2005 4 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 2006 5 2 2 1

  20. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 236 220 240 230 241 229 217 221 212 215 216 223 1997 241 220 245 236 243 225 235 239 231 240 217 213 1998 231 211 235 227 233 215 226 229 221 230 209 205 1999 232 210 231 226 225 229 230 235 224 235 229 212 2000 289 245 293 242 287 251 285 246 240 278 233 242 2001 249 226 245 237 213 175 179 384 317 237 505 288 2002 304 207 214 254 269 249 266 263 247 216 202 159 2003 179 154 198 210 234 226 221 285 199 193 127 121 2004 124 128 292 275

  2. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,000 2,906 2,802 1970's 2,852 2,926 5,506 7,664 5,259 1,806 1,048 691 469 560 1980's 2,439 2,740 3,682 1,572 1,766 1,161 1990's 1,338 1,625 1,284 2,153 3,363 35,069 27,277 16,790 19,365 13,835 2000's 1,941 1,847 955 705 688 595 585 1,005 1,285 1,398 2010's 2,080 1,755 0

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,630 2,529 2,666 1970's 2,713 2,669 2,681 2,377 889 846 831 783 861 801 1980's 737 641 431 436 467 514 450 458 578 509 1990's 557 628 642 670 715 723 716 680 605 555 2000's 527 481 456 420 398 378 365 363 373 353 2010's 323 307 0

  6. Louisiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 161,849 166,439 158,852 1970's 154,089 103,564 63,667 102,091 31,572 25,459 31,467 33,251 29,807 26,061 1980's 22,851 23,042 19,781 25,651 25,008 25,013 24,173 25,290 22,835 21,898 1990's 20,660 20,415 20,538 19,580 19,689 18,729 21,705 21,928 19,543 21,509 2000's 20,266 11,750 10,957 9,283 5,015 5,228 6,665 6,496 4,021 4,336 2010's 4,578 6,302 0 3,912 4,143

  7. Maryland Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,861 1,120 808 1970's 809 1,032 1,117 1,268 1,612 2,042 2,291 2,736 2,960 1980's 3,433 3,310 3,320 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,705 3,324 4,070 1990's 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 2000's 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 3,324 2010's 3,324 3,324 0

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 7,098 5,910 8,097 1970's 7,233 5,090 3,672 10,767 10,787 11,862 13,599 13,514 36,273 38,417 1980's 16,627 12,188 10,799 8,694 9,862 4,097 4,845 4,112 5,512 4,201 1990's 3,628 2,799 3,076 2,222 1,928 2,234 2,677 2,742 2,798 2,745 2000's 2,477 2,961 3,267 3,501 3,812 3,944 4,575 5,909 7,504 7,875 2010's 8,685 9,593 0

  10. Missouri Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0

  11. Montana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,022 12,551 26,458 1970's 5,203 4,917 4,222 3,691 3,901 3,202 2,070 1,095 1,408 1,689 1980's 1,705 1,896 1,667 1,549 1,285 1,460 1,468 1,181 1,146 1,099 1990's 886 772 763 758 551 417 596 1,120 1,274 317 2000's 488 404 349 403 1,071 629 1,173 3,721 6,863 7,001 2010's 5,722 4,878 0

  12. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,498 13,038 17,632 1970's 18,419 3,860 8,376 6,618 6,102 3,223 1,916 699 559 1,830 1980's 1,117 983 2,149 5,233 3,271 1,330 2,413 25,107 45,342 47,793 1990's 63,216 82,854 89,736 126,362 126,722 148,721 145,452 140,147 8,711 9,002 2000's 9,945 7,462 12,356 16,685 16,848 31,161 31,661 47,783 42,346 42,530 2010's 42,101 57,711 45,429 34,622 29,641

  13. Utah Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 646 1995 696 4,590 4,767 4,382 4,389 4,603 4,932 5,137 1996 5,088 4,788 2,269 2,009 2,564 1,687 1,695 1,724 1,229 1,255 1,547 1,422 1997 2,411 2,381 1,594 942 490 1,391 1,344 1,185 1,114 1,130 1,058 1,750 1998 909 697 700 689 1,194 1,161 2,299 2,625 2,235 2,226 2,258 2,373 1999 1,462 1,480 993 1,254 1,131 1,316 904 776 1,291 1,249 894 1,084 2000 158 65 69 100 91 626 87 119 185 220 123 99 2001 129 98 83 55 49 47 79 274 242 254 469 68 2002

  14. West Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  15. Wyoming Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5,712 5,109 6,529 6,408 6,948 6,430 7,035 7,792 7,475 7,837 7,649 7,930 1992 7,430 7,009 7,475 7,039 5,797 7,809 8,770 8,218 7,442 7,505 7,662 7,580 1993 10,674 10,789 10,568 10,480 11,572 12,350 10,996 8,163 9,912 10,526 9,870 10,463 1994 11,590 11,569 11,181 10,129 9,324 10,365 10,174 10,394 10,578 10,635 10,629 10,155 1995 13,046 11,867 11,628 12,102 14,419 12,911 12,917 10,472 12,302 12,592 11,896 12,569 1996 13,000 12,042 12,951

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 1,558 1,263 834 2,137 1,398 797 60 0 0 1980's 0 194 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 5 12 23 29 17 5 2 9 2010's 24 21 0

  17. Nevada Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  18. New Mexico Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,992 5,987 4,058 1970's 2,909 2,823 5,696 3,791 1,227 1,642 1,519 5,065 8,163 4,636 1980's 5,211 6,877 4,767 6,236 6,335 5,869 4,080 3,811 3,582 4,419 1990's 1,679 1,365 1,626 1,581 1,963 2,144 2,700 2,786 2,673 2,715 2000's 3,130 3,256 2,849 2,347 3,525 3,533 2,869 929 803 481 2010's 1,586 4,360 12,259 21,053 22,143

  19. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 2,926 2,883 3,744 2,400 3,773 3,720 2,802 4,012 5,036 1990's 375 1 13 14 11 0 3 5 5 5 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  20. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 25,795 22,050 22,955 1970's 19,862 2,686 20,786 22,533 17,860 2,155 2,737 1,116 6,788 26,932 1980's 7,975 698 1 996 2,018 2,984 6,853 2,771 2,771 2,050 1990's 3,642 2,603 2,197 2,337 2,492 4,300 2,957 3,534 4,371 2,693 2000's 3,290 3,166 2,791 2,070 2,198 3,260 7,460 10,500 25,700 26,876 2010's 24,582 49,652 79,564 102,855 129,384

  1. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 360 422 795 1970's 656 308 966 1,890 1,492 1,107 1,088 1,180 1,695 1,497 1980's 3,175 2,485 2,806 1,793 1,829 1,426 1,310 1,356 1,824 1,503 1990's 1,933 2,193 1,799 1,798 2,650 2,935 1,853 1,563 1,462 1,085 2000's 1,262 1,039 1,331 1,611 2,316 2,485 3,525 2,372 1,801 2,495 2010's 2,617 3,491 0

  3. Other States Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    654 1995 667 594 663 634 643 626 643 663 603 553 567 578 1996 549 538 625 620 693 703 709 715 676 708 682 690 1997 133 124 135 142 147 142 149 177 160 150 159 161 1998 147 134...

  4. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,390 24,258 32,543 1970's 34,808 33,880 21,590 4,979 11,524 10,401 6,554 15,644 8,492 4,526 1980's 4,820 5,630 6,946 5,027 11,670 6,296 8,862 15,603 9,018 9,786 1990's 10,727 10,784 14,097 22,485 13,240 8,736 7,070 8,269 8,171 7,098 2000's 7,546 7,686 7,312 6,345 6,088 6,429 7,125 6,458 10,023 6,481 2010's 10,173 10,966 11,769 7,219 6,554

  5. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 997 895 1,326 1970's 226 1,734 2,649 1,947 1,716 1,318 1,227 1,153 869 471 1980's 394 552 973 973 2,225 824 1,760 1,068 1,110 1,110 1990's 284 208 371 409 313 313 270 134 45 6,005 2000's 206 431 251 354 241 241 12 11 114 141 2010's 425 494 0

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 23 13 12 7 13 28 28 30 36 9 5 5 1992 33 29 32 31 30 29 30 30 30 32 32 33 1993 36 32 35 33 34 32 33 33 33 35 35 37 1994 27 25 27 25 26 25 25 26 25 27 27 28 1995 27 24 27 25 26 25 25 26 25 27 27 28 1996 17 23 8 0 31 45 28 29 25 19 25 21 1997 5 0 6 7 7 8 13 32 16 4 19 17 1998 2 0 2 2 2 3 4 11 5 1 6 6 1999 607 269 535 439 561 494 583 216 469 689 668 472 2000 1 0 1 16 21 17 23 23 27 23 24 30 2001 2 1 2 33 45 35 48 48 57 47 50 63 2002 12 15 29

  7. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 97 103 109 107 107 104 108 107 104 108 106 108 1997 111 113 85 88 213 140 121 108 122 171 175 144 1998 235 192 246 157 166 129 173 167 152 132 127 76 1999 165 135 173 110 116 91 121 117 106 92 89 53 2000 266 218 279 178 188 146 196 189 172 149 144 86 2001 207 169 217 138 146 114 152 146 134 116 111 67 2002 324 265 340 216 228 178 238 230 209 181 175 105 2003 266 228 237 343 405 431 342 333 276 316 593 170 2004 217 186 193 280 331 352 279

  8. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 112 77 78 91 100 89 100 106 97 121 155 102 1997 173 188 180 168 228 187 188 102 189 192 185 199 1998 92 166 98 92 98 115 222 83 82 92 95 10 1999 70 71 70 65 68 66 66 66 63 67 65 64 2000 67 64 68 65 68 66 67 68 65 69 69 70 2001 77 69 75 71 73 74 73 78 76 79 78 83 2002 83 75 84 79 79 77 79 80 72 80 72 75 2003 96 86 95 92 95 92 94 96 94 98 95 90 2004 99 89 98 94 98 95 97 99 97 101 98 93 2005 103 94 103 99 103 99 102 104 102 106 102 98 2006

  9. Indiana Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  10. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 63 63 63 61 62 57 57 55 56 58 59 61 1997 60 55 60 59 62 60 58 54 50 54 54 54 1998 55 50 54 52 52 52 45 48 48 51 49 50 1999 52 44 47 46 46 47 46 46 44 45 44 46 2000 47 43 45 50 45 44 45 45 42 42 41 41 2001 42 37 41 40 41 39 41 41 39 40 39 40 2002 40 36 40 38 40 39 39 39 36 37 36 37 2003 36 32 36 35 36 34 36 36 35 35 34 34 2004 34 32 34 33 34 33 35 34 33 33 32 32 2005 32 30 32 32 32 30 32 33 31 32 31 31 2006 30 27 30 30 30 30 31 32 31 30 31

  11. Alaska Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    514 674 605 615 1996 682 532 552 569 588 618 691 545 634 560 528 570 1997 798 623 646 666 687 723 808 637 741 654 618 666 1998 788 615 639 658 679 715 799 630 733 647 610 658...

  12. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,478 2,147 2,113 2,353 3,203 2,833 3,175 2,684 2,296 2,457 2,750 2,150 1992 1,337 1,107 1,379 1,254 1,439 1,833 2,083 1,970 2,009 1,630 1,835 1,812 1993 3,276 3,172 2,618 2,863 2,492 2,286 2,563 2,471 2,865 3,708 2,934 3,238 1994 3,225 3,330 3,515 3,403 3,959 4,686 3,429 2,766 3,188 3,543 3,122 3,871 1995 3,543 3,658 3,862 3,738 4,350 5,148 3,768 3,039 3,503 3,893 3,430 4,252 1996 3,461 3,537 3,340 3,922 3,459 4,520 4,339 3,794 3,556

  13. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,565 2,780 3,074 1970's 2,499 575 1,999 1,560 1,537 1,288 1,038 960 1,253 1980's 1,386 1,907 1,907 1,135 2,116 2,200 2,750 2,734 2,733 2,731 1990's 1,244 1,429 751 580 830 1,250 1,268 1,590 1,952 1,367 2000's 2,210 1,717 2,690 3,940 3,215 2,120 1,562 1,879 2,127 2,501 2010's 2,790 2,424 0

  14. Colorado Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,656 1,514 1,326 1970's 7,126 2,843 4,758 3,008 2,957 2,516 1,836 1,528 1,108 1,199 1980's 796 1,195 1,223 1,360 1,000 1,821 1,577 2,360 4,593 3,961 1990's 4,719 2,890 1,868 2,024 2,476 1,510 1,230 2,178 1,244 802 2000's 805 908 935 1,123 1,158 1,215 1,291 1,333 1,501 1,411 2010's 1,242 1,291 0

  15. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 5 5 1980's 5 52 54 85 165 194 140 0 0 0 1990's 3,648 4,844 5,476 5,732 5,805 7,122 7,636 1,639 1,526 1,555 2000's 1,806 2,043 1,880 2,100 2,135 2,071 1,931 2,177 2,073 2,160 2010's 2,136 2,120 0

  16. Texas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 129,403 124,584 111,499 1970's 100,305 70,222 59,821 36,133 34,431 31,295 30,402 27,340 25,556 27,350 1980's 28,837 32,907 33,061 28,420 32,256 30,776 26,050 29,325 31,832 29,770 1990's 28,247 30,638 19,689 34,486 42,037 46,183 45,382 47,922 25,949 35,675 2000's 32,010 26,823 27,379 23,781 26,947 38,654 43,169 36,682 42,541 41,234 2010's 39,569 35,248 47,530 76,113 81,755

  17. Alabama Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 194 200 140 132 106 82 205 152 157 192 159 134 1997 134 110 90 112 98 125 119 114 118 91 227 224 1998 125 101 87 104 91 ...

  18. Kansas Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,630 2,529 2,666 1970's 2,713 2,669 2,681 2,377 889 846 831 783 861 801 1980's 737 641 431 436...

  19. New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1994 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  20. North Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 232 193 232 176 230 258 269 324 298 334 213 199 1997 229 264 293 280 303 313 258 301 327 330 321 315 1998 308 301 334 380 418 459 435 425 310 328 345 330 1999 231 194 245 204 202 206 231 307 232 227 202 212 2000 225 218 226 237 257 271 292 327 293 333 311 300 2001 269 246 276 255 245 263 289 283 250 260 281 249 2002 231 221 210 235 250 238 258 245 257 222 210 214 2003 196 167 193 174 167 161 158 171 164 181 168 170 2004 197 157 166 150

  1. Oregon Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  2. South Dakota Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 384 350 382 380 382 376 405 418 397 439 445 486 1992 455 445 448 468 497 447 465 459 438 450 440 465 1993 463 417 484 453 478 459 497 500 495 545 507 435 1994 385 324 383 373 409 424 506 590 595 591 601 625 1995 640 570 637 609 617 602 617 637 578 526 540 549 1996 533 516 618 620 662 658 680 685 650 689 657 669 1997 128 123 129 135 139 134 135 145 143 146 140 143 1998 145 134 148 145 129 114 122 121 118 119 114 117 1999 147 136 151 148

  3. California Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 1,153 1,041 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,153 1,116 1,153 1,116 1,153 2011 1,245 1,125 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,245 1,205 1,245 1,205 1,245 2012 1,243 1,162 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,243 1,203 1,243 1,203 1,243 2013 1,199 1,083 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,199 1,161 1,199 1,161 1,199 2014 1,408 1,272 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,408 1,363 1,408 1,363 1,408 2015 1,398 1,263 1,398 1,353 1,398 1,299 1,408 1,408 1,363

  4. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  5. Flare heating and ionization of the low solar chromosphere. II. Observations of five solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, T.R.; Canfield, R.C.; Saba, J.L.R. Hawaii Univ., Honolulu Lockheed Research Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA )

    1990-12-01

    Two neutral Mg spectral lines formed in the temperature-minimum region and the low chromosphere, at 4571 and 5173 A, are used to quantify the changes in the atmospheric structure as a function of time during five solar flares. Eight proposed flare heating and ionization mechanisms and predictions of the effects of each on the temperature minimum region are discussed. Two Mg spectral observations made at the National Solar Observatory (Sacramento Peak), along with observations of hard and soft X-rays from the SMM and GOES satellites, are compared to the predictions of the eight proposed mechanisms. The initial effects in all five flares are consistent with backwarming by enhanced Balmer- and Paschen-continuum radiation originating in the upper chromosphere. Extended heating observed in two of the flares is most likely due to UV irradiation. In all cases heating by the dissipation of nonreversed electric currents, collisions with an electron or proton beam, irradiation by soft X-rays, and dissipation of Alfven waves are eliminated. 61 refs.

  6. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  7. Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for economically capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas has begun at the National ... nominal 1-megawatt-electric (MWe) pilot plant expected to capture 30 tons of CO2 per day. ...

  8. Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot-scale testing of an advanced technology for economically capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas has begun at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, Ala.

  9. New Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving in Synergy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving in Synergy New Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving in Synergy Berkeley Lab Mathematics Captures Fluid Interface Dynamics in Unprecedented Detail June 10, 2016 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510.495.2402 Gas bubbles in a glass of champagne, thin films rupturing into tiny liquid droplets, blood flowing through a pumping heart and crashing ocean waves-although seemingly unrelated, these phenomena have something in

  10. Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture Ionic liquids for carbon capture and gas separation National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Ionic liquids Ionic liquids Technology Marketing Summary Research is active on technologies for application of ionic liquids to carbon capture or other separation processes in energy systems. The technologies consist of materials and methods that promise to

  11. New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... 90 percent CO2 capture from a slipstream of coal-fired flue gas. A six-month field test using the test skid will be conducted at Arizona Public Service's (APS) Cholla Power Plant. ...

  12. The National Carbon Capture Center

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Laboratory OD Outer Diameter OSU Ohio State University PC Pulverized Coal PC4 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center PCC Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture PCD Particulate ...

  13. Carbon Capture Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

  14. Examination of the effect of system pressure ratio and heat recuperation on the efficiency of a coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power generation system with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Gemmen, R.S.; Liese, E.A

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines two coal-based hybrid configurations that employ separated anode and cathode streams for the capture and compression of CO2. One configuration uses a standard Brayton cycle, and the other adds heat recuperation ahead of the fuel cell. Results show that peak efficiencies near 55% are possible, regardless of cycle configuration, including the cost in terms of energy production of CO2 capture and compression. The power that is required to capture and compress the CO2 is shown to be approximately 15% of the total plant power.

  15. Spatial Knowledge Capture Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-05-16

    The Spatial Knowledge Capture Library is a set of algorithms to capture regularities in shapes and trajectories through space and time. We have applied Spatial Knowledge Capture to model the actions of human experts in spatial domains, such as an AWACS Weapons Director task simulation. The library constructs a model to predict the expert’s response to sets of changing cues, such as the movements and actions of adversaries on a battlefield, The library includes amore » highly configurable feature extraction functionality, which supports rapid experimentation to discover causative factors. We use k-medoid clustering to group similar episodes of behavior, and construct a Markov model of system state transitions induced by agents’ actions.« less

  16. Proton capture resonance studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  18. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  19. An X-ray flare from 47 Cas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Jeewan C.; Karmakar, Subhajeet

    2015-02-01

    Using XMM-Newton observations, we investigate properties of a flare from the very active but poorly known stellar system 47 Cas. The luminosity at the peak of the flare is found to be 3.54 10{sup 30} erg s{sup ?1}, which is ?2 times higher than that at a quiescent state. The quiescent state corona of 47 Cas can be represented by two temperature plasma: 3.7 and 11.0 MK. The time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the flare show the variable nature of the temperature, the emission measure, and the abundance. The maximum temperature during the flare is derived as 72.8 MK. We infer the length of a flaring loop to be 3.3 10{sup 10} cm using a hydrodynamic loop model. Using the RGS spectra, the density during the flare is estimated as 4.0 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3}. The loop scaling laws are also applied when deriving physical parameters of the flaring plasma.

  20. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McTiernan, James M. [Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ?2 to ?50MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ?2-25MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ?10MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ?0.4-5nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  1. Neutron capture therapies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  2. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  3. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  4. Progress and new developments in carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plasynski, S.I.; Litynski, J.T.; McIlvried, H.G.; Srivastava, R.D.

    2009-07-01

    Growing concern over the impact on global climate change of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has resulted in proposals to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at large point sources and store it in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations, referred to as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are three options for capturing CO{sub 2} from point sources: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Several processes are available to capture CO{sub 2}, and new or improved processes are under development. However, CO{sub 2} capture is the most expensive part of CCS, typically accounting for 75% of overall cost. CCS will benefit significantly from the development of a lower cost post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process that can be retrofitted to existing power plants. Once captured, the CO{sub 2} is compressed to about 150 atm and pipelined at supercritical conditions to a suitable storage site. Oil and gas reservoirs, because they have assured seals and are well characterized, are promising early opportunity sites. Saline formations are much more extensive and have a huge potential storage capacity, but are much less characterized. Several commercial and a number of pilot CCS projects are underway around the world.

  5. Ultraheavy element enrichment in impulsive solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichler, David

    2014-10-10

    Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvén wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in {sup 3}He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated species—as {sup 3}He is posited to be—and superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvén turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

  6. How Carbon Capture Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Peer Exchange Call: How Can the Network Meet Your Needs? Call Slides and Meeting Summary, February 27, 2014. Call Slides and Meeting Summary (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability Better Buildings Residential Network Membership Form

    4 likes How Carbon Capture Works Nearly 70 percent of America's electricity is generated from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. And

  7. Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As natural gas travels through infrastructure, from well-head to customer meter, small portions are routinely used as fuel, vented, flared, or inadvertently leaked to the atmosphere. This paper describes the analytical and methodological basis for three diagrams that illustrate the natural gas losses and greenhouse gas emissions that result from these processes. The paper examines these emissions in some detail, focusing in particular on the production, processing, transmission and storage, and distribution segments of natural gas infrastructure.

  8. THE IMPACT OF BOUND STELLAR ORBITS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ON THE TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Lixin; Escala, Andres; Coppi, Paolo

    2013-09-20

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of the resulting stellar debris changes qualitatively. The debris is initially all bound, returning to pericenter in a short time about the original stellar orbital timescale. The resulting fallback rate can thus be much higher than the Eddington rate. Furthermore, if the star is disrupted close to the hole, in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal precession can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, likely leading to fast debris energy dissipation. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, nodal precession reduces the probability of self-intersection, and circularization may take many dynamical timescales, delaying the onset of flare activity. An examination of the particle dynamics suggests that quasi-periodic flares with short durations, produced when the center of the tidal stream passes pericenter, may occur in the early-time light curve. The late-time light curve may still show power-law behavior which is generic to disk accretion processes. The detection triggers for future surveys should be extended to capture such 'non-standard' short-term flaring activity before the event enters the asymptotic decay phase, as this activity is likely to be more sensitive to physical parameters such as the black hole spin.

  9. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  10. Carbon Capture FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It is primarily applicable to conventional coal-, oil-, or gas-fired power plants. In a typical coal-fired power plant, fuel is burned with air in a boiler to produce steam that ...