Sample records for gas engine diluted

  1. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Motivation * Modern diesel engines utilize...

  2. An experimental and numerical investigation on the influence of external gas recirculation on the HCCI autoignition process in an engine: Thermal, diluting, and chemical effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l'Ecole (France); Guibert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l'Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to contribute to the solution of controlling the autoignition in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, parameters linked to external gas recirculation (EGR) seem to be of particular interest. Experiments performed with EGR present some difficulties in interpreting results using only the diluting and thermal aspect of EGR. Lately, the chemical aspect of EGR is taken more into consideration, because this aspect causes a complex interaction with the dilution and thermal aspects of EGR. This paper studies the influence of EGR on the autoignition process and particularly the chemical aspect of EGR. The diluents present in EGR are simulated by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, with dilution factors going from 0 to 46 vol%. For the chemically active species that could be present in EGR, the species CO, NO, and CH{sub 2}O are used. The initial concentration in the inlet mixture of CO and NO is varied between 0 and 170 ppm, while that of CH{sub 2}O alters between 0 and 1400 ppm. For the investigation of the effect of the chemical species on the autoignition, a fixed dilution factor of 23 vol% and a fixed EGR temperature of 70 C are maintained. The inlet temperature is held at 70 C, the equivalence ratios between 0.29 and 0.41, and the compression ratio at 10.2. The fuels used for the autoignition are n-heptane and PRF40. It appeared that CO, in the investigated domain, did not influence the ignition delays, while NO had two different effects. At concentrations up until 45 ppm, NO advanced the ignition delays for the PRF40 and at higher concentrations, the ignition delayed. The influence of NO on the autoignition of n-heptane seemed to be insignificant, probably due to the higher burn rate of n-heptane. CH{sub 2}O seemed to delay the ignition. The results suggested that especially the formation of OH radicals or their consumption by the chemical additives determines how the reactivity of the autoignition changed. (author)

  3. Translation of dilution tolerance for gasoline SI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niekamp, Troy S. (Troy Steven)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a variety of fuel improvement strategies being developed for spark ignition engines which use dilution. Many of these technologies use a combination of different diluents. It is impractical in optimizing these ...

  4. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  5. A hybrid 2-zone/WAVE engine combustion model for simulating combustion instabilities during dilute operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NO x emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included. We demonstrate how this hybrid model can be used to study strategies for adaptive feedback control to reduce cyclic combustion instabilities and, thus, preserve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

  6. NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Shahab D. Mohaghegh Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Keywords: Gas Storage, Natural Gas, Storage, Deliverability, Inventory

  7. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  8. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  9. Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Simultaneous Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Thang Q. Dam, K. Dean Edwards, John M. Storey Oak Ridge National...

  10. Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution C. J. Chiang (HCCI) engines in light of the cycle-to-cycle thermal feedback due to the high percentage of exhaust temperature is the primary mechanism for con- trolling ignition timing in an HCCI engine, especially when

  11. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar,...

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines...

  13. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 Ė 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  14. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  15. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nationís energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nationís future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillarís DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new ďopportunity fuelĒ deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

  16. KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Man-Chung

    for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite itsKINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures: NOx in Nitrogen Gui-Bing Zhao, Xudong Hu, Man-Chung Yeung, Ovid A. Plumb,§ and Maciej Radosz

  17. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Engine Lubricants: Trends and Challenges...

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating...

  19. Magnetic Gas Sensing Using a Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L.FallU . S .ofField MeasurementsGas

  20. Semiclassical Approximation for Non-Abelian Field Strength Correlators in the Instanton Dilute Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. -M. Ilgenfritz; B. V. Martemyanov; S. V. Molodtsov; M. MŁller--Preussker; Yu. A. Simonov

    1997-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Field strength correlators are semi-classically evaluated in the dilute gas model of non-Abelian sources (instantons) and compared with lattice data for QCD at zero temperature. We show that one of the Euclidean invariant, tensorial structures vanishes for configurations being purely selfdual or anti-selfdual. We compute the invariant functions contributing to the correlators within the two lowest orders in an instanton density expansion. Fitting instanton size and density for quenched and full QCD, we obtain a reasonable description.

  1. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dilute Bose gas in a random potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michikazu Kobayashi; Makoto Tsubota

    2002-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop the dilute Bose gas model with random potential in order to understand the Bose system in random media such as 4He in porous glass. Using the random potential taking account of the pore size dependence, we can compare quantitatively the calculated specific heat with the experimental results, without free parameters. The agreement is excellent at low temperatures, which justifies our model. The relation between Bose condensation and superfluidity is discussed. Our model can predict some unobserved phenomena in this system.

  2. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A., E-mail: ysu@crimson.ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  3. AIAA 20033698 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    AIAA 2003­3698 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Simulations W. C. Reynolds , J. J. Alonso, and M. Fatica, Reston, VA 20191­4344 #12;AIAA 2003­3698 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Simulations W. C. Reynolds , J. J of the flowpath through complete aircraft gas turbines including the compressor, combustor, turbine, and secondary

  4. Kinetic approach to the Gaussian thermostat in a dilute sheared gas in the thermodynamic limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. van Zon

    1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilute gas of particles with short range interactions is considered in a shearing stationary state. A Gaussian thermostat keeps the total kinetic energy constant. For infinitely many particles it is shown that the thermostat becomes a friction force with constant friction coefficient. For finite number of particles N, the fluctuations around this constant are of order one over the square root of N, and distributed approximately Gaussian with deviations for large fluctuations. These deviations prohibit a derivation of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium, based on the Fluctuation Theorem.

  5. Clearing the air with natural gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the increased popularity of natural gas vehicles which has spurred engine designers to manipulate fuel-air ratios, compression ratios, ignition timing, and catalytic converters in ways to minimize exhaust pollutants. The topics of the article include reducing pollutants, high-octane engineering, diesel to natural gas, and the two-fuel choice.

  6. Lyapunov Exponents from Kinetic Theory for a Dilute, Field-driven Lorentz Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; E. G. D. Cohen; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

    1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Positive and negative Lyapunov exponents for a dilute, random, two-dimensional Lorentz gas in an applied field, $\\vec{E}$, in a steady state at constant energy are computed to order $E^{2}$. The results are: $\\lambda_{\\pm}=\\lambda_{\\pm}^{0}-a_{\\pm}(qE/mv)^{2}t_{0}$ where $\\lambda_{\\pm}^{0}$ are the exponents for the field-free Lorentz gas, $a_{+}=11/48, a_{-}=7/48$, $t_{0}$ is the mean free time between collisions, $q$ is the charge, $m$ the mass and $v$ is the speed of the particle. The calculation is based on an extended Boltzmann equation in which a radius of curvature, characterizing the separation of two nearby trajectories, is one of the variables in the distribution function. The analytical results are in excellent agreement with computer simulations. These simulations provide additional evidence for logarithmic terms in the density expansion of the diffusion coefficient.

  7. The Lyapunov spectrum of the many-dimensional dilute random Lorentz gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astrid S. de Wijn; Henk van Beijeren

    2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    For a better understanding of the chaotic behavior of systems of many moving particles it is useful to look at other systems with many degrees of freedom. An interesting example is the high-dimensional Lorentz gas, which, just like a system of moving hard spheres, may be interpreted as a dynamical system consisting of a point particle in a high-dimensional phase space, moving among fixed scatterers. In this paper, we calculate the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for the dilute random Lorentz gas in an arbitrary number of dimensions. We find that the spectrum becomes flatter with increasing dimensionality. Furthermore, for fixed collision frequency the separation between the largest Lyapunov exponent and the second largest one increases logarithmically with dimensionality, whereas the separations between Lyapunov exponents of given indices not involving the largest one, go to fixed limits.

  8. Medium effects and the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas away from the conformal limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus Bluhm; Thomas Schaefer

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the shear viscosity of a dilute Fermi gas as a function of the scattering length in the vicinity of the unitarity limit. The calculation is based on kinetic theory, which provides a systematic approach to transport properties in the limit in which the fugacity $z=n\\lambda^3/2$ is small. Here, $n$ is the density of the gas and $\\lambda$ is the thermal wave length of the fermions. At leading order in the fugacity expansion the shear viscosity is independent of density, and the minimum shear viscosity is achieved at unitarity. At the next order medium effects modify the scattering amplitude as well as the quasi-particle energy and velocity. We show that these effects shift the minimum of the shear viscosity to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side of the resonance, in agreement with the result of recent experiments.

  9. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a...

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ALTERNATIVE. EVERY Advanced Natural Gas Engine Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Dr. Mostafa M Kamel Dr. Mostafa M...

  11. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP...

  12. Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

  13. Control apparatus for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

  14. Exponential approach to, and properties of, a non-equilibrium steady state in a dilute gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric A. Carlen; Joel L. Lebowitz; Clement Mouhot

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a kinetic model of a system in contact with several thermal reservoirs at different temperatures $T_\\alpha$. Our system is a spatially uniform dilute gas whose internal dynamics is described by the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian collisions. Similarly, the interaction with reservoir $\\alpha$ is represented by a Markovian process that has the Maxwellian $M_{T_\\alpha}$ as its stationary state. We prove existence and uniqueness of a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) and show exponential convergence to this NESS in a metric on probability measures introduced into the study of Maxwellian collisions by Gabetta, Toscani and Wenberg (GTW). This shows that the GTW distance between the current velocity distribution to the steady-state velocity distribution is a Lyapunov functional for the system. We also derive expressions for the entropy production in the system plus the reservoirs which is always positive.

  15. Analytical description of a trapped semi-ideal Bose-Gas One focus of research on dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensates is the study of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Einstein condensates is the study of thermodynamic quantities such as the transition temperature to Bose-Einstein condensation, and the condensate fraction. In particular, for the dilute gas Bose condensates, the weak of interactions on a trapped partially condensed gas using an intuitive and accessible description

  16. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  17. Multi-cylinder hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

  18. Statistical estimation of multiple faults in aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    415 Statistical estimation of multiple faults in aircraft gas turbine engines S Sarkar, C Rao of multiple faults in aircraft gas-turbine engines, based on a statistical pattern recognition tool called commercial aircraft engine. Keywords: aircraft propulsion, gas turbine engines, multiple fault estimation

  19. Inert Gas Dilution Effect on the Flammability Limits of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Fuman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    )????????????????????????..??...70 xii FIGURE Page 5.5 N-butane flammability properties with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1... and the regressed linear curve...........................................................................................................83 5.15 Experimental n-butane LFL diluted with N2 and the regressed linear curve..????????....????????????????...84 5...

  20. Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently in great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently and natural gas engineers design and develop methods for getting oil and gas from underground deposits's Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is competitive, with qualified applicants receiving

  1. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  2. Satoshi Hada Department of Gas Turbine Engineering,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Satoshi Hada Department of Gas Turbine Engineering, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago on Vane Endwall Film-Cooling Turbines are designed to operate with high inlet temperatures to improve. The endwall design considers both an upstream slot, representing the combustor--turbine junction

  3. Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines S Chakraborty, S Sarkar and computationally inexpensive technique of component-level fault detection in aircraft gas-turbine engines identification, gas turbine engines, language-theoretic analysis 1 INTRODUCTION The propulsion system of modern

  4. Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine Transportation Research PIER Transportation of natural gas vehicles as a clean alternative is currently limited to smaller engine displacements and spark ignition, which results in lower performance. A large displacement natural gas engine has

  5. A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION WITH INCREASED EFFICIENCY AND POWER REPORT (FAR) A NEW GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPT FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION WITH INCREASED EFFICIENCY://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 A New Gas Turbine Engine Concept For Electricity Generation With Increased

  6. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    England, G.C.; Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Chang, M.C.O.; Loos, K.R.; Hidy. G.M. [GE Energy, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  7. External combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santanam, Chandran B. (Indianapolis, IN); Thomas, William H. (Indianapolis, IN); DeJulio, Emil R. (Columbus, IN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An external combustor for a gas turbine engine has a cyclonic combustion chamber into which combustible gas with entrained solids is introduced through an inlet port in a primary spiral swirl. A metal draft sleeve for conducting a hot gas discharge stream from the cyclonic combustion chamber is mounted on a circular end wall of the latter adjacent the combustible gas inlet. The draft sleeve is mounted concentrically in a cylindrical passage and cooperates with the passage in defining an annulus around the draft sleeve which is open to the cyclonic combustion chamber and which is connected to a source of secondary air. Secondary air issues from the annulus into the cyclonic combustion chamber at a velocity of three to five times the velocity of the combustible gas at the inlet port. The secondary air defines a hollow cylindrical extension of the draft sleeve and persists in the cyclonic combustion chamber a distance of about three to five times the diameter of the draft sleeve. The hollow cylindrical extension shields the drive sleeve from the inlet port to prevent discharge of combustible gas through the draft sleeve.

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  9. LP engine performance on rice straw producer gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownfield, J.J.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An LP gas engine was converted using commercially available parts to operate on gas from fluidized bed gasifier fueled by rice straw. The engine was derated up to 57.5% from the lower energy value of induction charge, variations in gas quality, lower mechanical and thermal efficiencies.

  10. Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindes, Clyde J. (Troy, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

  11. Ideal Gas Carnot Engines and Efficiency Chemistry 223

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    's experiment T and N were held fixed but the volume accessible by the gas, V, and hence N/V, changed gas equation of state. For an adiabatic process, d- Q = 0. After a little algebra, Eq. (1) canIdeal Gas Carnot Engines and Efficiency Chemistry 223 Fig. 1. The Carnot Cycle The Carnot engine

  12. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine. The combustor assembly includes a combustor device coupled to a main engine casing, a first fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner disposed radially inwardly from the flow sleeve. The first fuel injection system provides fuel that is ignited with the pressurized air creating first working gases. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct and defines a path for the first working gases to flow from the liner to the transition duct. An intermediate duct inlet portion is associated with a liner outlet and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the liner. An intermediate duct outlet portion is associated with a transition duct inlet section and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the transition duct.

  13. Control of Charge Dilution in Turbocharged Diesel Engines via Exhaust Valve Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines high level of EGR can be used to indirectly control combustion initiation and HCCI engines [7, 10]. Conventional external EGR (eEGR), relies on a pressure drop from exhaust manifold

  14. Increasing interest in the gas engine heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing primary-energy prices and the availability of untapped heat sources have sparked interest in using a high-efficiency natural gas-driven engine as the power source in a heatpump system. This approach is being studied using a 37-kW Waukesha gas engine; one recently completed installation at Schiedam, Netherlands, extracts heat from a nearby waterway and utilizes the gas engine's waste heat as well.

  15. Power control system for a hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O. (Staffanstorp, SE)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

  16. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power usingThermoelectric Engines...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solutions Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power using Thermoelectric Engines John LaGrandeur October 5, 2011 Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 1 - Market motivation based on CO 2...

  17. Natural Gas Engine Development: July 2003--July 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekar, T. C.; Martin, T. J.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes project to develop natural gas engines that would be certifiable to nitrogen oxide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emission levels below 2004 federal standards.

  18. Natural Gas Engine Development: July 2003 -- July 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekar, T. C.; Martin, T. J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discusses project to develop heavy-duty, 8.1L natural gas vehicle engines that would be certifiable below the 2004 federal emissions standards and commercially viable.

  19. Leakage gas recirculation system for use in Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asano, K.

    1980-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A leakage gas return device for a Stirling engine includes a pumping cylinder divided into first and second chambers by a piston, one of the chambers for receiving leakage gas from the block seal through a first one way valve and returning the leakage gas to the engine cylinder through a second one-way valve. The other chamber is first connected to a low pressure oil source to permit expansion of the first chamber by the leakage gas, and at bottom dead center the second chamber is connected to a high pressure oil source to thereby force the leakage gas back into the engine cylinder.

  20. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  1. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  2. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  3. Method of coverning the working gas temperature of a solar heated hot gas engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almstrom, S.-H.; Nelving, H.G.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed-cycle hot gas engine heated by solar radiation is provided with a governing system varying the working gas pressure so as to vary the power output at a constant high temperature level of the working gas and-at least partly-at a constant engine speed.

  4. Method of governing the working gas temperature of a solar heated hot gas engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almstrom, S.H.; Nelving, H.G.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed-cycle hot gas engine heated by solar radiation is provided with a governing system varying the working gas pressure so as to vary the power output at a constant high temperature level of the working gas and-at least partly-at a constant engine speed.

  5. Optimal Maintenance Scheduling of a Gas Engine Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    to carry out preventive maintenance at regular intervals19 . The maintenance schedule affects many short1 Optimal Maintenance Scheduling of a Gas Engine Power Plant using Generalized Disjunctive with parallel units. Gas engines are shutdown according to a regular maintenance plan that limits the number

  6. Stirling engine with integrated gas combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a Stirling engine. It comprises heat transfer stacks having a cooler, regenerator and heat exchanger stacked end-to-end with a working cylinder adjacent each of the stacks and connected therewith by a hot connecting duct, the heat exchangers including an annular cluster of circumferentially spaced tubes extending from the regenerator in a substantially axial direction to an annular manifold axially spaced from the regenerator such that at any given time during operation of the Stirling engine working fluid in the tubes is flowing in a single axial direction through the heat exchanger, a combustion chamber on an end of each of the stacks having a gas flow outlet communicating with the interior of the heat exchanger tube cluster, air inlets for each of the combustion chambers for allowing air to enter the interior of the chambers, and a nozzle within the combustion chambers for introducing a combustible fuel within the combustion chambers, whereby the combustible fuel and air combust in the combustion chambers and generate hot gases which pass between the tubes applying heat to the heat exchanger.

  7. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  8. Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines ByThe History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines.engine invented by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890s and the gas

  9. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  10. State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies 2003 DEER Conference...

  11. Airfoil for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil is provided for a turbine of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil comprises: an outer structure comprising a first wall including a leading edge, a trailing edge, a pressure side, and a suction side; an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced from the first wall and at least one intermediate wall; and structure extending between the first and second walls so as to define first and second gaps between the first and second walls. The second wall and the at least one intermediate wall define at least one pressure side supply cavity and at least one suction side supply cavity. The second wall may include at least one first opening near the leading edge of the first wall. The first opening may extend from the at least one pressure side supply cavity to the first gap. The second wall may further comprise at least one second opening near the trailing edge of the outer structure. The second opening may extend from the at least one suction side supply cavity to the second gap. The first wall may comprise at least one first exit opening extending from the first gap through the pressure side of the first wall and at least one second exit opening extending from the second gap through the suction side of the second wall.

  12. The Ground State Energy of a Dilute Bose Gas in Dimension n >3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders Aaen

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a Bose gas in spatial dimension $n>3$ with a repulsive, radially symmetric two-body potential $V$. In the limit of low density $\\rho$, the ground state energy per particle in the thermodynamic limit is shown to be $(n-2)|\\mathbb S^{n-1}|a^{n-2}\\rho$, where $|\\mathbb S^{n-1}|$ denotes the surface measure of the unit sphere in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ and $a$ is the scattering length of $V$. Furthermore, for smooth and compactly supported two-body potentials, we derive upper bounds to the ground state energy with a correction term $(1+C\\gamma)8\\pi^4a^6\\rho^2|\\ln(a^4\\rho)|$ in dimension $n=4$, where $\\gamma:=\\int V(x)|x|^{-2}\\, dx$, and a correction term which is $\\mathcal{O}(\\rho^2)$ in higher dimensions.

  13. Dilute gas of ultracold two-level atoms inside a cavity; generalized Dicke model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas Larson; Maciej Lewenstein

    2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a gas of ultracold two-level atoms confined in a cavity, taking into account for atomic center-of-mass motion and cavity mode variations. We use the generalized Dicke model, and analyze separately the cases of a Gaussian, and a standing wave mode shape. Owing to the interplay between external motional energies of the atoms and internal atomic and field energies, the phase-diagrams exhibit novel features not encountered in the standard Dicke model, such as the existence of first and second order phase transitions between normal and superradiant phases. Due to the quantum description of atomic motion, internal and external atomic degrees of freedom are highly correlated leading to modified normal and superradiant phases.

  14. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  15. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  16. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  17. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  18. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE SUMMARY The Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump is a high performance product for space

  20. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Taylor, Gregory O. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  1. On optimization of sensor selection for aircraft gas turbine engines Ramgopal Mushini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dan

    On optimization of sensor selection for aircraft gas turbine engines Ramgopal Mushini Cleveland sets for the problem of aircraft gas turbine engine health parameter estimation. The performance metric for generating an optimal sensor set [3]. 3. Aircraft gas turbine engines An aircraft gas turbine engine

  2. Development of the Miller cycle for natural gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, F.R.; Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Shimogata, Satoshi; Shoji, Fujio [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas is a viable alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. But comparing natural gas engines with base diesel engines, the power output is 20--30% lower and the thermal efficiency is 4--5% lower due to knocking in the gas engine. The Miller cycle with independent presetting of the compression and expansion ratio for gas engines increases the engine efficiency with increased expansion ratio, while engine knocking can be avoided by reducing the compression ratio. A turbocharged inter-cooled spark ignition gas engine was modified to the Miller cycle engine and a thermal efficiency of 38%, 1.14MPa BMEP was attained with a three-way catalyst system compared to a thermal efficiency of 33%, 0.97 Mpa BMEP achieved by the conventional Otto cycle. On the other hand, the higher boost pressure, due to the lower compression ratio for avoiding knocking, caused a higher back pressure. This hinders the advantages of the Miller cycle and it is difficult to improve the engine performance further. Therefore, based on the Miller cycle, other technologies for avoiding knocking were developed to improve engine performance. A two-stage intake cooling system was developed, in which a new inter-cooler is installed in the intake passages close to the cylinder head as a second inter-cooler, besides an ordinary charge cooler. This significantly cools the blow-back mixture from the cylinder in the Late Intake-Closing Method Miller cycle. Besides the two-stage intake cooling system, a new split cooling system was also developed for the Miller cycle, where cooling water flowing to the cylinder head is independent of that flowing to the cylinder block. Cooling water at 313 K is circulated in the cylinder head to extend the knock-free zone and to improve the intake charging efficiency while cooling water at 353 K is circulated in the cylinder block to reduce the friction loss.

  3. Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines By Vaclav Smiland Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. Cambridge,of the internal combustion engine invented by Rudolf Diesel

  4. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  5. Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines By Vaclav Smil Reviewedof Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. Cambridge, MA: The MITin the 1890s and the gas turbine invented by Frank Whittle

  6. Natural gas fueling of a Catepillar 3406 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, G.E.; Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine which was converted to operate in a natural gas with diesel pilot ignition mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full-load power was achieved with natural gas fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with natural gas fueling at high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50 percent with natural gas fueling for all cases investigated. NO[sub x] emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for natural gas fueling while CO[sub 2] concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for natural gas fueling.

  7. Systems and method for delivering liquified gas to an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquified gas delivery system for a motorized platform includes a holding tank configured to receive liquified gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the tank to a valve device. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the tank to the valve device. Fluid coupled to the valve device is a vaporizer which is in communication with an engine. The valve device selectively withdraws either liquified gas or liquified gas vapor from the tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the tank. Various configurations of the delivery system can be utilized for pressurizing the tank during operation.

  8. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  9. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  10. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  11. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Scott M. (Oviedo, FL)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative2 DOE2011 DOEOperationModelingNatural Gas

  13. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater operating efficiency compared to conventional electric motor-driven units (SCGC 1998). In Japan, many hundreds of thousands of natural gas-driven heat pumps have been sold (typically 40,000 systems annually) (Yahagi et al. 2006). The goal of this program is to develop dependable and energy efficient GHPs suitable for U.S. commercial rooftop applications (the single largest commercial product segment). This study describes the laboratory performance evaluation of an integrated 10-ton GHP rooftop unit (a 900cc Daihatsu-Aisin natural gas engine) which uses R410A as the refrigerant (GEDAC No.23). ORNL Thermally-Activated Heat Pump (TAHP) Environmental Chambers were used to evaluate this unit in a controlled laboratory environment.

  14. Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

  15. Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

  16. Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

  17. Apparatus for controlling working gas pressure in Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsunekawa, M.; Naito, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Hayashi, T.

    1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A working gas pressure control apparatus for a Stirling engine is described which comprises: a pressure boost valve provided in a minimum cycle pressure line connected to a working space by a first unidirectional valve; a pressure reducing valve provided in a maximum cycle pressure line connected to the working space by a second unidirectional valve; an operating lever for controlling opening and closing of the pressure boost valve and the pressure reducing valve; a compressor connected by the pressure reducing valve and the pressure boost valves to the cycle pressure lines; an unloading valve arranged in a circuit short-circuiting suction and discharge lines of the compressor; and a control circuit for opening the unloading valve when any one of a rotational speed of the engine falls to a value lower than a present rotational speed for engine idling, the pressure boost valve is opened, and the engine is in a steady-state mode of operation.

  18. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

    2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  19. OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 Pre-and/or Co-Requisites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 1st Year Pre- and/or Co-Requisites FALL 1 AMAT 217 Calculus 259 Electricity and Magnetism AMAT 217; MATH 211 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program Pre 12 ENGG 317 Mechanics of Solids ENGG 202 or 205; AMAT 217 3rd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular

  20. Fault detection and isolation in aircraft gas turbine engines. Part 1: underlying concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    307 Fault detection and isolation in aircraft gas turbine engines. Part 1: underlying concept: aircraft propulsion, gas turbine engines, fault detection and isolation, statistical pattern recognition 1 INTRODUCTION Performance and reliability of aircraft gas turbine engines gradually deteriorate over the service

  1. REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3 Notice (PON-12-504) entitled "Advanced Natural Gas Engine research and Development for Class 3 through of natural gas engine concepts for application in light heavy-duty vehicles (LHDV) and medium heavy duty

  2. Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsland, Stephen

    Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm C. D. Rose, S. R of combustion engine gas-exchange systems still predominantly use trial and error. This paper proposes a new. INTRODUCTION The gas-exchange system is a primary factor in the performance of a combustion engine. Designing

  3. OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 2009/2010 Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year 2009/2010 Curriculum Pre- and/or Co-Requisites FALL 1 complementary studies courses must be taken prior to graduation. ENOG 2010/2011 Curriculum #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program BLK WK - WINTER ENCH 101 Computing

  4. Study Guide 2012 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Study Guide 2012 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Graduate Diploma in Oil Oil & Gas Economics PETR8503 Reservoir Engineering Possible Options (example only) PETR8510 Petroleum freedom to choose units from the available options listed in the Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Table

  5. Study Guide 2010 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Study Guide 2010 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Graduate Diploma in Oil Oil & Gas Economics PETR8503 Reservoir Engineering Possible Options (example only) CIVL4130 Offshore freedom to choose units from the available options listed in the Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Table

  6. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  7. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL¬ģ) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE‚??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL¬ģ concept were demonstrated: RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot and Full RCL¬ģ. The RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL¬ģ pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL¬ģ combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL¬ģ designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL¬ģ combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

  8. Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the ...

  9. Large bore natural gas engine performance improvements and combustion stabilization through reformed natural gas precombustion chamber fueling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruter, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Lean combustion is a standard approach used to reduce NOx emissions in large bore natural gas engines. However, at lean operating points, combustion instabilities andÖ (more)

  10. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todayís engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  11. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  12. End gas autoignition and knock in a spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konig, G.; Sheppard, C.G.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is concerned with end-gas autoignition, subsequent knock severity and magnitude of induced gas velocity. An optically accessed single cylinder two stroke engine was modified to give complete overhead optical access to the disc-shaped combustion chamber. Flame propagation and end-gas autoignition events were recorded using high speed natural light and schlieren photography; local gas motions, prior to and induced by the knock event, were determined using an oil droplet trajectory technique. Cylinder pressure was synchronously recorded at three positions around the cylinder head; one transducer's output being simultaneously displayed on the film. End gas autoignition generally developed from multiple centers. Autoignition was usually, but not invariably, followed by knock. The severity of knock increased as the onset of autoignition occurred closer behind the top dead centre position; knock was characterized by pressure oscillations, carbon formation and high velocity post-knock gas motions. These phenomena were relatively insensitive to mass fraction unburned at the time of autoignition.

  13. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology demonstration in an actual full-sized reciprocating natural-gas engine.

  14. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  15. Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

  16. A Channel Model for Wireless Sensor Networks in Gas Turbine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Robert C

    A Channel Model for Wireless Sensor Networks in Gas Turbine Engines K. Sasloglou, I. A. Glover , P.5 GHz) for wireless sensors deployed over the external surfaces of a gas turbine engine is reported. The model is empirical and based on a series of transmission loss measurements over the surface of a gas

  17. System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.

  18. Sealing system for piston rod of hot gas engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundholm, S.G.; Ringqvist, S.A.

    1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement to a sealing system for restricting fluid flow around a piston rod between a piston cylinder and crankshaft space in a hot gas engine where a seal element is secured around the piston rod in an intermediate chamber, the improvement including a link in the crankshaft space connecting, and permitting relative radial motion between, the piston rod and the crosshead and an o-ring having a diameter substantially greater than that of the piston rod and being secured between a lower ring securing the seal element in place around the piston rod and a wall of the intermediate chamber for frictionally restricting radial movement of the lower ring.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  20. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is possible as current investigations continue.

  1. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  2. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  3. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  4. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  5. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Greenwood, Stuart A. (San Diego, CA); Dutta, Partha (San Diego, CA); Moon, Hee-Koo (San Diego, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  6. Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas atmosphere Pauline Briaulta. An innovative application of this system would be to recover energy from exhaust gas of a thermal engine in a mixture of hydrocarbons (propane, propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water

  7. Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems J. Sharda1 ; C of multilayer composite fabrics used in a gas turbine engine containment system is developed. Specifically: Tensile strength; Stress analysis; Stress strain relations; Fabrics; Composite materials; Finite element

  8. Effects of a dilute gas of fermions on the superfluid-insulator phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumanta Tewari; Roman M. Lutchyn; S. Das Sarma

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Building on the work of Fisher et al. (Phys. Rev. B 40, 546 (1989)), we develop a framework for perturbation theory in the Bose-Hubbard model and apply it to calculate the effects of a degenerate gas of spin-polarized fermions interacting by contact interactions with the constituent bosons. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, the only non-trivial effect of the fermions is to induce an effective space- and time-dependent density-density interaction among the bosons. Using a path integral formulation, we develop the appropriate theory describing the perturbative effects of this fermion-mediated interaction (fermionic screening) on the generic superfluid-insulator phase diagram. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that the net effect of the fermions is to inherently suppress the Mott-insulating lobes and enhance the area occupied by the superfluid phase in the phase diagram. For the more general multi-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that, in addition to the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the virtual excitations of the bosons to the higher Bloch bands coupled with the contact interactions with the fermions result in an effective increase of the boson on-site repulsion. If this renormalization of the boson on-site potential is dominant over the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the area of the Mott insulating lobes of the Bose-Hubbard phase diagram will be enhanced for either sign of the boson-fermion interactions, as seen in recent experiments.

  9. US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

  10. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is quite possible.

  11. Off-design performance characteristics of a twin shaft gas turbine engine with regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leckie, Todd Stewart

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TWIN SHAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE WITH RECTION A 'Ihesis TODD STEWART LECKIE Submitted to the Graduate College Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TWIN SHAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE WITH REGENERATION A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by: er E. J 'ns rrman of Corrmittee) Je- 'n Han...

  12. Determination of cycle configuration of gas turbines and aircraft engines by an optimization procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuijikawa, Y.; Nagaoka, M. (Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Mozu-umemachi, Sakai 591 (JP))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analyses and optimization of simple and sophisticated cycles, particularly for various gas turbine engines and aero-engines (including the scramjet engine) to achieve maximum performance. The optimization of such criteria as thermal efficiency, specific output, and total performance for gas turbine engines, and overall efficiency, nondimensional thrust, and specific impulse for aero-engines has been performed by the optimization procedure with the multiplier method. Comparison of results with analytical solutions establishes the validity of the optimization procedure.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Water-gas shift catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Water-gas shift catalysis Sara Yu Choung Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division

  14. CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Natural Gas Engine and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Integration Research TRANSPORTATION ENERGY ­ including natural gas ­ that can substantially reduce GHG emissions while reducing petroleum dependence. This research would increase the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel by developing advanced natural

  15. MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas with oil and gas specialization at the assistant- or associate professor-level, commencing April 12, 2010 in the area of oil and gas, and process engineering, to supervise graduate students, to participate in other

  16. A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Alberto

    A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry Ismael H the control and execution of large and complex industrial projects in oil and gas industry. The environment governmental oil & gas company. The necessity of collaboration is especially acute in the field of computer

  17. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 A SILICON-BASED MICRO GAS TURBINE ENGINE FOR POWER GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 A SILICON-BASED MICRO GAS TURBINE ENGINE FOR POWER GENERATION X. C. Our research aims to develop a micro power generation systems based on micro gas turbine engine and a piezoelectric converter, as illustrated in Fig. 1 [6]. The micro gas turbine engine is composed of a centrifugal

  18. OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 SEMESTER OFFERED PRE-REQUISITES are listed in this column.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED PRE-REQUISITES are listed AMAT 217 and MATH 211; recommended co-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program will be deemed correct. 2014/2015 Curriculum (Updated June 13, 2014) #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 3rd

  19. OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-and/or CO-REQUISITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE- and/or CO-REQUISITES FALL-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE- and/or CO Mechanics of Solids ENGG 202 or 205; AMAT 217 3rd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program SEMESTER

  20. Fault detection and isolation in aircraft gas turbine engines. Part 2: validation on a simulation test bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    and model-based information. As aircraft gas turbine engines consist of multiple interconnected compo- nents319 Fault detection and isolation in aircraft gas turbine engines. Part 2: validation of fault detection and isolation (FDI) in aircraft gas turbine engines. The FDI algorithms are built upon

  1. OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-REQUISITES listed in this column.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-REQUISITES listed and Magnetism AMAT 217; MATH 211; recommended co-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program correct. 2013/2014 Curriculum (Updated June 18, 2013) #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 3rd Year Oil

  2. Development of the Cooper-Bessemer CleanBurn gas-diesel (dual-fuel) engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blizzard, D.T. (Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating Products Div., Cooper Industries, Grove City, PA (United States)); Schaub, F.S.; Smith, J.G. (Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating Products Div., Cooper Industries, Mount Vernon, OH (United States))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NO[sub x] emission legislation requirements for large-bore internal combustion engines have required engine manufacturers to continue to develop and improve techniques for exhaust emission reduction. This paper describes the development of the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Burn gas-diesel (dual-fuel) engine that results in NO[sub x] reductions of up to 92 percent as compared with an uncontrolled gas-diesel engine. Historically, the gas-diesel and diesel engine combustion systems have not responded to similar techniques of NO[sub x] reduction that have been successful on straight spark-ignited natural gas burning engines. NO[sub x] levels of a nominal 1.0 g/BHP-h, equal to the spark-ignited natural gas fueled engine, have been achieved for the gas-diesel and are described. In addition, the higher opacity exhaust plume characteristic of gas-diesel combustion is significantly reduced or eliminated. This achievement is considered to be a major breakthrough, and the concept can be applied to both new and retrofit applications.

  3. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  4. A market and engineering study of a 3-kilowatt class gas turbine generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Mark A. (Mark Alan)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market and engineering studies were performed for the world's only commercially available 3 kW class gas turbine generator, the IHI Aerospace Dynajet. The objectives of the market study were to determine the competitive ...

  5. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  6. Knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition engines with fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is carried out to understand the mechanism of using fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) for knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAl) engines. Experiments were first conducted ...

  7. Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System Contract: DE-EE0004016 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 92014 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator...

  8. Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martini, Bastien

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

  9. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

  10. Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity for the California desert and in other appro- priate regions worldwide. Current technology relies on steam Rankine

  11. Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, D. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken of the usage rates of both fuel and lubricants in reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas. The study was conducted to determine the potential for energy conservation, if use is made of more fuel efficient natural gas...

  12. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Brent. J. Brunell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitmead, Bob

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Brent. J. Brunell , Robert R the potential to achieve better performance than the production controller. 1 Introduction Gas turbines can turbine model considered is a low bypass, two rotor, turbojet with a variable exhaust area typical

  13. Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition (SI) engine, from a prototyping of a practical supervi- sion and control system for a pilot Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery

  14. Application of advanced Stirling engine technology to a commercial size gas-fired heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Agno, J.; Wurm, J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Research Institute sponsored work on the kinematic Stirling engine-driven heat pump, which offers practical improvements in the use of natural gas. Results from the first phase of the program led to the selection of a method of introducing low pressure natural gas into the V160 engine's combustor and testing of the ejector system. Further engine modifications will be needed as well as demonstrations of the performance and reliability of the units. The first phase found all developmental needs to be achievable, making the concept technically feasible. Computer projections based on the system performance of components indicate the gas-fired pump will work better than electric models and be economically feasible as well. 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although...

  16. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  18. Modelling of the dynamics of a low-speed gas-liquid heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, C.M.P.; Parise, J.A.R. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the simulation model of a gas-liquid heat engine which is characterized by very low speeds (1-3 rpm) and relatively high torque. The engine operates according to the Minto Thermal Wheel' principle. It is based on the conversion of thermal energy from the heat source, through gas expansion, into mechanical work, by means of the fall of a mass of liquid. A prototype has already been constructed showing great ability to operate at very low temperature differences between the heat source and heat sink. This makes the engine quite suitable to the utilization of low temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. On the other hand, the number of moving parts is kept to a minimum, since the piston of traditional positive displacement engines (PDE) is now replaced simply by a mass of liquid. The mathematical model consists of applying the energy equation, in it time-derivative form, to representative engine control volumes, resulting in a set of linear ordinary differential equations. Their integration provides the time variation of pressure and temperature of the working fluid. The engine performance can thus be predicted as a function of engine operating conditions and geometric characteristics. In this paper, the engine dynamics (i.e., variable angular speed) have been taken into account, as well as heat losses in the engine structure. Results and further design considerations are discussed.

  19. Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989-January 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod III) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

  20. LCV-Gas utilization in CHP plants with dual-fuel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, H.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of LCV-gases has been increased during the last years, especially in decentralized CHP plants from local power and heat distributors or industry works. Compared with the standard natural gas delivered by the main grid LCV gases are cheaper, wherefore it is possible to decrease energy costs. LCV gases are coming from local natural gas fields or a wide range of technical origins (e. g. steel production, gasification processes, biological processes). Therefore the composition of LCV gases could differ. The basis of this gases are normally methane or combinations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide together with quite large quantities of inert gases. The utilization of LCV gases in internal combustion engines requires high demands on the engine technique and the engine control system. A lot of items must to be considered when designing engines for every special purpose, especially in comparison to utilization of standard natural gas. The combustion system of dual-fuel engines as developed by B+V Industrietechnik GmbH (formerly Blohm + Voss Industrie GmbH) offers a lot of advantages for the utilization of LCV gases. There are two basic possibilities to supply the gases to the engine, one on low pressure level and the other one on high pressure level. The energy content of the pilot fuel injection is much higher than the corresponding value of a spark ignition system. Thus, gases with very low lower heating values and high contents of inert gases can be inflamed stable without problems. This engine type allows a LCV gas utilization with high electrical and thermal efficiencies. As an example for the utilization of a LCV gas the CHP engine plant for Hoogovens Ijmuiden in Holland, one of the largest European steel production companies, is presented.

  1. The Potential of Using Natural Gas in HCCI Engines: Results from Zero- and Multi-dimensional Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation, and is chemically stable, both of which make it a suitable fuel for homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Compared to petroleum based fuels, natural gas produces less green-house emissions. However, natural gas is hard to auto...

  2. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  3. Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Grace Xiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

  4. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  5. Influence of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) on Engine Components Durability & Lubricating Oil Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrs Rita; S. Pimpalkar

    AbstractĖĖDiesel engines are extensively used in automotive systems due to their low fuel consumption and very low CO emissions. Despite of these advantages, diesel engines suffer from environmental and health drawbacks such as high levels of NOx and particulate matter. Exhaust Gas Recirculation ( EGR) is an effective technique which is being used widely to control the NOx emissions from diesel engines. However, the use of EGR leads to rise in soot emission and it causes the problems inside the engine like degradation of lubricating oil, enhanced engine component wear etc. Therefore, it requires a study of influence of EGR on engine components and lubricating oil. This can be achieved only with different experimental investigation. In the present work, Engine test and Tribology test with lubricants ( Without EGR and With EGR) have been carried out to evaluate the effect of EGR on tribo- characteristics of engine components and lubricating oil condition. Influencing parameters like load, speed, temperature were selected as per the engine components operating condition. Friction and wear characteristics were measured and compared with the actual engine wear results to validate the test parameters. I.

  6. STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.

  7. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V. (Ypsilanti, MI); Jankovic, Mrdjan J (Birmingham, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  8. Emissions and fuel economy of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas dual fuelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, X.; Hill, P.G.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-cylinder turbocharged prechamber diesel engine (Caterpillar 3304) was operated with natural gas and pilot diesel fuel ignition over a wide range of load and speed. Measurements were made of fuel consumption and the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and the oxides of nitrogen. Improvements in fuel economy and emissions were found to be affected by the diesel fuel-gas fraction, and by air restriction and fuel injection timing. Boundaries of unstable, inefficient and knocking operation were defined and the importance of gas-air equivalance ratio was demonstrated in its effect on economy, emissions and stability of operation.

  9. 2009-01-0366 In-cylinder Burned Gas Rate Estimation and Control on VVA Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the combustion cham- bers of turbocharged Diesel engines equipped with low pressure EGR loop and VVA actuator. We engine. Using a high Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate along with advanced combustion timing allows Monoxides (CO) emissions. To compensate the exhaust temperature reduction, an Internal Exhaust Gas

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  11. Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: ∑ Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. ∑ Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION OF SMALL GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M√ľller, Norbert

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION OF SMALL GAS TURBINE into the given baseline engine are studied. The compressor and turbine pressure ratios, and the turbine inlet operates with the same turbine pressure ratio, inlet temperature and the same physical compressor like

  13. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  14. Traction drive automatic transmission for gas turbine engine driveline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carriere, Donald L. (Livonia, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transaxle driveline for a wheeled vehicle has a high speed turbine engine and a torque splitting gearset that includes a traction drive unit and a torque converter on a common axis transversely arranged with respect to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. The drive wheels of the vehicle are mounted on a shaft parallel to the turbine shaft and carry a final drive gearset for driving the axle shafts. A second embodiment of the final drive gearing produces an overdrive ratio between the output of the first gearset and the axle shafts. A continuously variable range of speed ratios is produced by varying the position of the drive rollers of the traction unit. After starting the vehicle from rest, the transmission is set for operation in the high speed range by engaging a first lockup clutch that joins the torque converter impeller to the turbine for operation as a hydraulic coupling.

  15. The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

  16. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

  17. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  18. Engineering Report on the Fission Gas Getter Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecker, Lynne; Ghose, Sanjit; Gill, Simerjeet; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) requested that a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)-led team research the possibility of using a getter material to reduce the pressure in the plenum region of a light water reactor fuel rod. During the first two years of the project, several candidate materials were identified and tested using a variety of experimental techniques, most with xenon as a simulant for fission products. Earlier promising results for candidate getter materials were found to be incorrect, caused by poor experimental techniques. In May 2012, it had become clear that none of the initial materials had demonstrated the ability to adsorb xenon in the quantities and under the conditions needed. Moreover, the proposed corrective action plan could not meet the schedule needed by the project manager. BNL initiated an internal project review which examined three questions: 1. Which materials, based on accepted materials models, might be capable of absorbing xenon? 2. Which experimental techniques are capable of not only detecting if xenon has been absorbed but also determine by what mechanism and the resulting molecular structure? 3. Are the results from the previous techniques useable now and in the future? As part of the second question, the project review team evaluated the previous experimental technique to determine why incorrect results were reported in early 2012. This engineering report is a summary of the current status of the project review, description of newly recommended experiments and results from feasibility studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS).

  19. System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

  20. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 Ė 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: ē Phase 1 Ė market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. ē Phase 2 Ė Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  1. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  2. Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

  3. A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

  4. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Christopher R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reservoir engineer involved in the development of unconventional gas reservoirs (UGRs) is required to integrate a vast amount of data from disparate sources, and to be familiar with the data collection and assessment. There has been a rapid evolution of technology used to characterize UGR reservoir and hydraulic fracture properties, and there currently are few standardized procedures to be used as guidance. Therefore, more than ever, the reservoir engineer is required to question data sources and have an intimate knowledge of evaluation procedures. We propose a workflow for the optimization of UGR field development to guide discussion of the reservoir engineer's role in the process. Critical issues related to reservoir sample and log analysis, rate-transient and production data analysis, hydraulic and reservoir modeling and economic analysis are raised. Further, we have provided illustrations of each step of the workflow using tight gas examples. Our intent is to provide some guidance for best practices. In addition to reviewing existing methods for reservoir characterization, we introduce new methods for measuring pore size distribution (small-angle neutron scattering), evaluating core-scale heterogeneity, log-core calibration, evaluating core/log data trends to assist with scale-up of core data, and modeling flow-back of reservoir fluids immediately after well stimulation. Our focus in this manuscript is on tight and shale gas reservoirs; reservoir characterization methods for coalbed methane reservoirs have recently been discussed.

  5. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGLís) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical ďLNG likeĒ fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  6. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlman, E.H.

    1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser.

  7. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  8. The effects of spark ignition parameters on the lean burn limit of natural gas combustion in an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chlubiski, Vincent Daniel

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of internal combustion engine ignition parameters on the air-fuel ratio (A/F) lean limit of combustion with compressed natural gas (CNG). Spark electrical characteristics (voltage...

  9. Resonance theory of the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluidity to Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. N. Milstein; S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans; M. J. Holland

    2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a description of the behavior of a superfluid gas of fermions in the presence of a Feshbach resonance over the complete range of magnetic field detunings. Starting from a resonance Hamiltonian, we exploit a functional method to describe the continuous behavior from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer to Bose-Einstein condensation type superfluidity. Our results show an ability for a resonance system to exhibit a high critical temperature comparable to the Fermi temperature. The results are derived in a manner that is shown to be consistent with the underlying microscopic scattering physics.

  10. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  11. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  12. Controlling fuel and diluent gas flow for a diesel engine operating in the fuel rich low-temperature-combustion mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, David M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of a diluent gas supplied to a motoring engine was controlled at a diluent to air mass flow ratios of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. This arrangement was a significant set up for running the engine in the Low-Temperature ...

  13. A computational study of an HCCI engine with direct injection during gas exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Haiyun; Vikhansky, Alexander; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Bhave, Amit [Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd., 61 Canterbury Street, Cambridge CB4 3QG (United Kingdom); Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, Mishuku 1200, Susono, Shizuoka 480-1193 (Japan); Mauss, Fabian [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new probability density function (PDF)-based computational model to simulate a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with direct injection (DI) during gas exchange. This stochastic reactor model (SRM) accounts for the engine breathing process in addition to the closed-volume HCCI engine operation. A weighted-particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve the resulting PDF transport equation. While simulating the gas exchange, it is necessary to add a large number of stochastic particles to the ensemble due to the intake air and EGR streams as well as fuel injection, resulting in increased computational expense. Therefore, in this work we apply a down-sampling technique to reduce the number of stochastic particles, while conserving the statistical properties of the ensemble. In this method some of the most important statistical moments (e.g., concentration of the main chemical species and enthalpy) are conserved exactly, while other moments are conserved in a statistical sense. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the statistical error associated with the down-sampling algorithm is more sensitive to the number of particles than to the number of conserved species for the given operating conditions. For a full-cycle simulation this down-sampling procedure was observed to reduce the computational time by a factor of 8 as compared to the simulation without this strategy, while still maintaining the error within an acceptable limit. Following the detailed numerical investigation, the model, intended for volatile fuels only, is applied to simulate a two-stroke, naturally aspirated HCCI engine fueled with isooctane. The in-cylinder pressure and CO emissions predicted by the model agree reasonably well with the measured profiles. In addition, the new model is applied to estimate the influence of engine operating parameters such as the relative air-fuel ratio and early direct injection timing on HCCI combustion and emissions. The qualitative trends observed in the parametric variation study match well with experimental data in literature. (author)

  14. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  15. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.

  16. Multi-strike ignition to improve performance, reduce misfiring of large gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New product and application information is now available on the advanced `CPU-2OOO` digital ignition system introduced by Altronic earlier this year for large-bore gas engines and integral compressors. The system is designed to improve performance, reduce misfiring, and be easily retrofitted to existing large-bore engines. including those that are being converted to lean-burn combustion in order to reduce emissions. To do this, the CPU-2OOO system features a selectable multi-striking mode, a selectable energy level and second spark plug cut-off control, a choice of global or individual cylinder timing control, and a high-energy long-duration spark. The 24 Vdc-powered system also offers comprehensive display and communications capabilities, plus system diagnostics and self-test functions. The system uses existing Altronic II-CPU coils, pickups, primary wiring harnesses and other hardware, allowing for easy upgrades of existing II-CPU installations. Also, a detonation avoidance system is being developed as an option for engine protection. Altronic says the field tests have demonstrated the ability of the CPU-20OO system to ignite extra-lean mixtures created when turbochargers are added to engines that previously operated at much richer levels. NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced by as much as 88%, to less than 2.7 g/kWh.

  17. High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

  18. Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

  19. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogenís significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: ē Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion ē Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, ē Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, ē Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, ē Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, ē Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. ē Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  20. Helium dilution refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Thomas Raymond

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

  1. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to 70' of maximum power; how- ever, dual-fuel operation at high speed with advanced tim- ing resulted in full-power operation with a 65(0 reduction in diesel fuel consumption as compared to conventional die- sel operation. Engine knock was evident... of gas-air ratio, the gaseous charge is ignited by its compression, prior to diesel fuel injec- tion. This preignition results in an uncontrolled pressure rise, the "knocking" noise, and eventual engine wear. The knock-limited gas-air ratio has been...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.

  3. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  4. The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

    1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

  5. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi [Shimizu Corporation; Morino, Kimio [Shimizu Corporation; Shinji, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Ogata, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Tadokoro, Masayuki [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  6. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  7. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  8. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  9. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  10. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?relative combustion phasing√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬į to 60√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įBTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  11. Development of multiscale models for the performance of the gas and oil seals in rotary engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picard, Mathieu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotary engines offer higher power density, fewer parts and lower vibrations than conventional reciprocating piston engines. However, rotary engines are more difficult to seal because of the rotor shape which leads to higher ...

  12. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    will build on system concepts and technical solutions developed for an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump More Documents &...

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  15. Process for forming a long gas turbine engine blade having a main wall with a thin portion near a tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X; Thomaidis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for forming an airfoil for a gas turbine engine involving: forming a casting of a gas turbine engine airfoil having a main wall and an interior cavity, the main wall having a wall thickness extending from an external surface of the outer wall to the interior cavity, an outer section of the main wall extending from a location between a base and a tip of the airfoil casting to the tip having a wall thickness greater than a final thickness. The process may further involve effecting movement, using a computer system, of a material removal apparatus and the casting relative to one another such that a layer of material is removed from the casting at one or more radial portions along the main wall of the casting.

  16. Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

  17. Combustion Timing Control of Natural Gas HCCI Engines Using Physics-Based Modeling and LQR Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelgawad, Marwa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines hold promises of being the next generation of internal combustion engines due to their ability to produce high thermal efficiencies and low emission levels. HCCI combustion is achieved through...

  18. Design and performance of a gas-turbine engine from an automobile turbocharger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Lauren (Lauren Elizabeth)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering teaches thermodynamics and fluid mechanics through a pair of classes, Thermal Fluids Engineering I & II. The purpose of this project was to ...

  19. Design, fabrication, and performance of a gas-turbine engine from an automobile turbocharger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Jorge, 1983-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-Fluids Engineering is taught in two semesters in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To emphasize the course material, running experiments of thermodynamic plants ...

  20. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing; published 28 August 2014) The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing Optimizing the internal combustion engine to achieve the highest possible fuel efficiency can be approached

  1. Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel

  2. Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

    2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

  3. Feasibility study of a 6V-92TA homogeneous auto-ignited two-stroke (HAT) compressed-natural-gas-engine. Topical report, August 1989-May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to modify a two-stroke 6V-92TA diesel engine to operate on natural gas using a simple system with gas addition to the compressor inlet and a spark plug for cold start and non-autoignition engine operation. The engine was to be operated at most speed-load conditions by autoignition of the premixed gas-air mixture. This concept is referred to as the Homogeneous Auto-Ignited Two-Stroke (HAT). Autoignition of carbureted natural gas was achieved at various loads and speeds in a 6V-92TA engine modified for operating on natural gas with the HAT concept. However, HAT engine operation up to 277 hp at 2100 rpm (diesel coach rating) was not achieved because early ignition in some cylinders caused knock and excessive heat transfer. Instead, the engine was operated up to 226 hp (767 N.m) at 2100 rpm, 181 hp (780 N.m) at 1650 rpm, 130 hp (773 N.m) at 1200 rpm, and 34 hp (368 N.m) at 650 rpm. Maximum brake thermal efficiency measured was 33.4% at 2100 rpm/219 hp. The corrected efficiency (to compensate for the unburned natural gas lost during the scavenging process) was higher than this. Steady-state emissions show very low NOx, total unburned HC lower than expected and reasonable CO levels. The lean air-fuel mixture and unburned exhaust gases in the cylinder resulted in very low NOx emissions.

  4. Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Jr., John M. Storey, and C. Stuart Daw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    1 Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green) for reduced nitro- gen oxide emissions from diesel engines. The research objective is to develop fundamental in- formation about the relationship between EGR parameters and diesel combustion instability

  5. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MW Reciprocating Engine 3 MW Gas Turbine 1 MW ReciprocatingEngine 5 MW Gas Turbine 3MW Gas Turbine 40 MW Gas Turbine 1 MW Reciprocating Engine

  6. SHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frechette, Luc G.

    those of their more familiar, full-sized breth- ren. The micro-gas turbine is a 2 cm diameter by 3 mm

  7. Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. FutureÖ (more)

  8. Dry Dilution Refrigerator with He-4 Precool Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlig, K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ~ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so that the condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR ...

  9. ENGINEERING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENGINEERING the Future of ENERGY Regional University Alliance National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development The Future of Energy The time to redraw...

  10. Buoyant Response of the Tank 241-SY-101 Crust to Transfer and Back-Dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CW Stewart

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The mixer pump installed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) in July 1993 has prevented the large buoyant displacement gas release events (BD GRE) it has historically exhibited. But the absence of periodic disruption from GREs and the action of mixing have allowed the crust to grow. The accelerated gas retention has resulted in over 30 inches of waste level growth and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from below the crust, SY-101 will be diluted in the fall of 1999 to dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank. The plan is to transfer waste out and back-dilute with water in several steps of about 100,000 gallons each. Back-dilution water may be added at the transfer pump inlet, the base of the mixer pump, and on top of the crust. The mixer pump will continue to be required to prevent formation of a deep nonconnective layer and resumption of BD GREs. Therefore, it is vital to ensure that the transfer and back-dilution processes do not significantly degrade the pump's effectiveness. Part of the strategy to avoid mixer pump degradation is to keep the base of the crust layer well above the pump inlet, which is 236 inches above the tank bottom. The maximum transfer for which an equal back-dilution is possible without sinking the crust is 90 kgal if water is injected at the 96-inch transfer pump inlet and 120 kgal for injection at the 9-inch mixer pump burrowing ring. To keep the crust base above the lowest observed elevation of 295 inches, transfer and back-dilution must be limited to 143 kgal and 80 kgal, respectively, for the 96-inch back-dilution and 175 kgal with a 112 kgal back-dilution using the 9-inch back-dilution elevation. These limits can be avoided by adding water to the top of the crust to dissolve the negatively buoyant layers. If 20 kgal of water is placed on top of the crust and the rest of the back-dilution is placed under the crust, back-dilution becomes limited by crust sinking at a 128 kgal transfer using the 96-inch injection point and at 160 kgal at 9 inches. The crust base remains well above the 295-inch minimum, and crust base elevation does not limit transfer volume. This result shows that top dilution is very beneficial in providing operational flexibility to the transfer and back-dilution process.

  11. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Aamodt, Tor - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia Aazhang, Behnaam -...

  12. Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfactorily in the laboratory and in a 450-bed hospital. The engine chiller has been redesigned to improve performance, increase capacity, and reduce the footprint, and is undergoing field tests at seven sites to verify performance and reliability....

  13. Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    with food production, should not use fresh water supplies, and should have neutral greenhouse gas emissions after a life cycle analysis (LCA) [7,8]. Biofuels derived from algal biomass feedstocks are generating considerable interest around the world...

  14. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  15. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  16. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  17. Concentration of light organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption on bound silicalite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Kathryn Louise

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis by KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Approved...

  18. Aerosol dilution and dispersion at the Nuclear Science Center confinement building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras Gonzalez, Yenny Rose

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AEROSOL DILUTION AND DISPERSION AT THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER CONFINEMENT BUILDING A Thesis by YENNY ROSE CONTRERAS GONZALEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject. Nuclear Engineering AEROSOL DILUTION AND DISPERSION AT THE NUCLEAR SCIENCE CENTER CONFINEMENT BUILDING A Thesis by YENNY ROSE CONTRERAS GONZALEZ Approved as to style and content by: Gerald...

  19. Chemical Engineering and Processing 43 (2004) 149160 Minimum superficial gas velocity for onset of foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    ; Foam fractionation; Slag foaming; Glass foam 1. Introduction Semi-batch foams or pneumatic foams protein concentration [2]. In food processes or in glass melting furnaces, foam is unde- sirable since of foaming Laurent Pilona,, Raymond Viskantab a Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University

  20. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300¬įF) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  1. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  2. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  3. Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enga, B.E.

    1981-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Stirling engines and to improved methods of operation whereby catalytic oxidation of a major proportion of the fuel takes place in the external combustor. An external combustion unit of a Stirling engine comprises a catalytic combustor having a thermally stable and oxidation resistant monolith made from and/or carrying a catalytic material and including a multiplicity of flow paths for catalytic combustion of combustible gases and injected fuel. The use of a catalytic combustor in accordance with this invention enables a Stirling or other engine fitted therewith to be used in areas such as mines and underwater installations where conventional flame combustion is impracticable or is controlled by stringent regulations.

  4. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia NanoparticlesSmart GrocerDepartment ofEngineer HonoredEngineering

  5. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60√?¬?√?¬į before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x). Further, the 60√?¬?√?¬į before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20√?¬?√?¬į before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40√?¬?√?¬į before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO x trends, which showed the lowest NO x emissions for the 60√?¬?√?¬į, 20√?¬?√?¬į, and 40√?¬?√?¬į before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak heat release rates and hotter packets but the pilot quantity and intake temperature affected the potential for NO x formation to a greater extent.

  6. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project ďThe Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 FuelĒ under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuelís characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the projectís objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customersí expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customersí expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  7. Automotive teamwork to develop an advanced automotive gas-turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A $56.6 million cost-sharing contract has been signed by the U.S. Department of Energy and an industrial group headed by AiResearch Manufacturing Co. and including Ford Motor Co., AiResearch Casting Co., and Carborundum Co. A second contractual arrangement for an advanced turbine engine is being negotiated with an industry team headed by General Motors Corp.

  8. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  9. Engineering Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

  10. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be scaled by the gravitational dimensionless time. Mechanistic simulation of core-scale surfactant brine imbibition matches the experimentally observed imbibition data. In-situ distributions observed through simulation indicate that surfactant diffusion (which depends on temperature and molecular weight) is the rate limiting step. Most of the oil is recovered through gravitational forces. Oil left behind at the end of this process is at its residual oil saturation. The capillary and Bond numbers are not large enough to affect the residual oil saturation. At the field-scale, 50% of the recoverable oil is produced in about 3 years if the fracture spacing is 1 m and 25% if 10 m, in the example simulated. Decreasing fracture spacing and height, increasing permeability, and increasing the extent of wettability alteration increase the rate of oil recovery from surfactant-aided gravity drainage. This dilute surfactant aided gravity-drainage process is relatively cheap. The chemical cost for a barrel of oil produced is expected to be less than $1.

  11. Application of the Concept of Exergy in the Selection of a Gas-Turbine Engine for Combined-Cycle Power Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, F. F.; Naumowicz, T.

    It has been shown that the second-law efficiency of a gas-turbine engine may be calculated in a rational and simple manner by making use of an algebraic equation giving the exergy content of turbine exhaust as a function of exhaust temperature only...

  12. Turbine bucket for use in gas turbine engines and methods for fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine bucket for use with a turbine engine. The turbine bucket includes an airfoil that extends between a root end and a tip end. The airfoil includes an outer wall that defines a cavity that extends from the root end to the tip end. The outer wall includes a first ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrate that extends a first distance from the root end to the tip end. An inner wall is positioned within the cavity. The inner wall includes a second CMC substrate that extends a second distance from the root end towards the tip end that is different than the first distance.

  13. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zillmer, Ruediger [INFN Sezione Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Livi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sezione INFN, Unita' INFM e Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Dinamiche Complesse, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Dinamiche Complesse, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.

  14. Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhlig, Kurt [Walther-Meissner-Institute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ? 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

  15. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska's North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  16. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F. (Solar Turbines, Inc.); Frary, M.E. (Caterpillar, Inc.); Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused laboratory-scale alloy development effort on modified cast austenitic stainless steels at ORNL. Isothermal fatigue testing at 700 C also showed that standard CN12 was far superior to SiMo cast iron, but somewhat less than the desired behavior. During the first year, 3 new modified CF8C heats and 8 new modified CN12 heats were made, based on compositional changes specifically designed to change the nature, dispersion and stability of the as-cast and high-temperature aging-induced microstructures that consisted of carbides and other precipitate phases. Screening of the alloys at room-temperature and at 850 C (tensile and creep-rupture) showed -a ten-fold increase in rupture life of the best modified CN12 relative to the baseline material, better room-temperature ductility after aging, caused by less precipitation in the as-cast material and much less aging-induced precipitation. The best new modified CF8C steel showed strength at tensile and creep-rupture strength comparable to standard CN12 steel at 850 C, due to a unique and very stable microstructure. The CRADA was scheduled to end in July 2001, but was extended twice until July 2002. Based on the very positive results on the newly developed modified CF8C and CN12 cast austenitic stainless steels, a new CRADA with Caterpillar has been set up to commercially scale-up, test and evaluate, and make trial components from the new steels.

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine: Parasitic Loss Control through Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farshid Sadeghi; Chin-Pei Wang

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of our investigation on parasitic loss control through surface modification in reciprocating engine. In order to achieve the objectives several experimental and corresponding analytical models were designed and developed to corroborate our results. Four different test rigs were designed and developed to simulate the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL) contact. The Reciprocating Piston Test Rig (RPTR) is a novel suspended liner test apparatus which can be used to accurately measure the friction force and side load at the piston-cylinder interface. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with the experimental measurements. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results showed good agreement. The results revealed that in the reciprocating engines higher friction occur near TDC and BDC of the stroke due to the extremely low piston speed resulting in boundary lubrication. A Small Engine Dynamometer Test Rig was also designed and developed to enable testing of cylinder liner under motored and fired conditions. Results of this study provide a baseline from which to measure the effect of surface modifications. The Pin on Disk Test Rig (POD) was used in a flat-on-flat configuration to study the friction effect of CNC machining circular pockets and laser micro-dimples. The results show that large and shallow circular pockets resulted in significant friction reduction. Deep circular pockets did not provide much load support. The Reciprocating Liner Test Rig (RLTR) was designed to simplifying the contact at the PRCL interface. Accurate measurement of friction was obtained using 3-axis piezoelectric force transducer. Two fiber optic sensors were used to measure the film thickness precisely. The results show that the friction force is reduced through the use of modified surfaces. The Shear Driven Test Rig (SDTR) was designed to simulate the mechanism of the piston ring pass through the liner. Micro PIV system was provided to observing the flow of lubricant in the cavity (pocket). The Vorticity-Stream Function Code was developed to simulate the incompressible fluid flow in the rectangular cavity.

  18. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia NanoparticlesSmart GrocerDepartment ofEngineer Honored

  19. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCI Home It is Partnershipsn eEngineering

  20. The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  1. Microwave Nitridation of Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts for Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edler, J.; Kiggans, J.O.; Suman, A.W.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This cooperative project was a joint development program between Eaton Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess up-scale of the microwave nitridation process using a more intricate-shaped part designed for application in advanced diesel engines. Eaton Corporation mined access to microwave facilities and expertise for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA established with Eaton Corporation and ORNL was to develop cost-effective silicon nitride ceramics compared to the current materials available. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Demonstrated that the binder burnout step can be incorporated into the SRBSN processing in the microwave furnace. (2) Scale-up of the microwave nitridation process using Eaton Corporation parts showed that the nitridation weight gains were essentially identical to those obtained by conventional heating. (3) Combined nitridation and sintering processes using silicon nitride beads as packing powders results in degradation of the mechanical properties. (4) Gelcasting of silicon nitride materials using Eaton Si mixtures was demonstrated.

  2. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  3. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  4. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING www.abdn.ac.uk/engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    , in the planning and commissioning of equipment, and in site and plant supervision. Engineers require a wide rangeSCHOOL OF ENGINEERING www.abdn.ac.uk/engineering POSTGRADUATE GUIDE #12;MSc Renewable Energy MSc Safety Engineering for Oil & Gas MSc Subsea Engineering MSc Oil & Gas Engineering MSc Project Management

  5. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engineís pistons to pump and powers the car. MSUís engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engineís rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSUís redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving partsóreducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  6. ENGINEERING ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    million for Air Force project ¬∑ Biological Systems Engineering uses MRI machine to further tissue studies: Engineering Extraordinary Students Enjoy a selection of stories about some of the amazing students¬ģ ENGINEERING NEBRASKA@ ENGINEERING EXTRAORDINARY STUDENTS AlSO INSIDE: BSEN INNOVATES WITH MRI

  7. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  8. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL); Horazak, Dennis A. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  9. Economical utilization of natural gas to produce synthetic petroleum liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, K.L.; Agee, M.A. [Syntroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Willingham, F.Y.; Trepper, E.L. [Bateman Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for converting pipeline quality or subquality natural gas into liquid fuels and other petroleum products is described. The technology, developed by Syntroleum Corporation, utilizes autothermal reforming with air to produce a nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas having a near ideal ratio for converting into synthetic hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A proprietary F-T catalyst system, designed to operate in a nitrogen-diluted atmosphere, achieves conversion rates comparable to conventional F-T processes without the need for recycle and the associated recompression equipment. This results in potential plant capital costs low enough to make conversion of remote and or subquality gas into synthetic fuels economical, based on current oil prices. The process is energy self-sufficient and compact enough to be constructed in 5,000 to 10,000 b/d plants on floating or platform facilities to utilize offshore gas reserves. The liquid fuels produced by the process are free of sulfur and aromatics. The process has been demonstrated at pilot-scale. Numerous engineering studies and cost estimates have been conducted to provide the information needed for economic evaluation and confident scale-up. This paper also outlines improvements to the process currently under development and how the process presents new opportunities for gas processors.

  10. Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High Efficiency While Avoiding Control Problems of HCCI Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

  11. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion...

  12. Effect of hydrous ethanol on crankcase oil dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, G.A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adequate lubrication is of the utmost importance in internal combustion engines. Low temperature operation with low-proof alcohol may create some operational problems if alcohol and/or water accumulates in the crankcase oil. Condensates of unburned alcohol and water maybe blown into the crankcase oil with blowby gases. These condensates may form an emulsion with the crankcase oil that may restrict the supply of oil for adequate lubrication. Three engine tests were performed to identify the effect of low-proof ethanol fueling on crankcase oil dilution and degradation. The first test was hydrous ethanol carburetion in a 2.3 liter, 4 cylinder, 1974 Ford gasoline engine. The second test was a mixture of low-proof ethanol fumigation and normal diesel fuel injection (at reduced rate) in an Allis-Chalmers Model 2900 turbocharged diesel engine. The third test was also a mixture of ethanol fumigation and diesel injection in an Allis-Chalmers Mod2800 naturally aspirated diesel engine. Independent parameters of crankcase oil temperature, engine load and speed, percent of total energy in the form of ethyl alcohol and proof of the ethyl alcohol were considered and varied. After each test the oil was sampled for determination of flash point, fire points, water by centrifuge, water by distillation, and viscosity at room temperature. Results for the first test indicate that the use of ethanol of 130 proof or less may result in accumulation of water in the crankcase oil that may be harmful to the engine. In the second and third tests although there was a decrease in fire and flash points as well as in the viscosity of the oil, no appreciable amount of water or alcohol was detected in the crankcase oil. It is important to mention that there was a maximum alcohol fuel flow rate beyond which the diesel engine starts to knock or misfire.

  13. Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures Akira Onukia. The solute partitioning between gas and liquid Henry's law and the surface tension change are discussed fraction X and the temperature-derivative / T cx,p of the surface tension at fixed pressure p

  14. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1, 2011 DRAFTofBio-Oil

  15. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  16. Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

  17. Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 1: Study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, M.J.; Jeske, F.R. (Ricardo North America, Burr Ridge, IL (United States))

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to improve the understanding of mixing in DI NG engines. Calculations of injection into a constant-volume chamber were performed to document unconfined plume behavior. A full three-dimensional calculation of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder was also performed to study plume behavior in engine geometries. The structure of the NG plume is characterized by a core of unmixed fuel confined to the near-field of the jet. This core contains the bulk of the unmixed fuel and is mixed by the turbulence generated by the jet shear layer. The NG plume development in the engine is dominated by combustion chamber surface interactions. A Coanda effect causes plume attachment to the cylinder head, which has a detrimental impact on mixing. Unconfined plume calculations with different nozzle hole sizes demonstrate that smaller nozzle holes are more effective at mixing the fuel and air.

  18. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  19. Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cellHeat Transfer in GEoperation

  20. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  1. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors," Journal of

  2. Toughened Silcomp composites for gas turbine engine applications. Continuous fiber ceramic composites program: Phase I final report, April 1992--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corman, G.S.; Luthra, K.L.; Brun, M.K.; Meschter, P.J.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two main factors driving the development of new industrial gas turbine engine systems are fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. One method of providing improvements in both areas is to reduce the cooling air requirements of the hot gas path components. For this reason ceramic components are becoming increasingly attractive for gas turbine applications because of their greater refractoriness and oxidation resistance. Among the ceramics being considered, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are leading candidates because they combine the high temperature stability of ceramics with the toughness and damage tolerance of composites. The purpose of this program, which is part of DOE`s CFCC initiative, is to evaluate the use of CFCC materials as gas turbine engine components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such components from Toughened Silcomp composites. Toughened silcomp is a CFCC material made by a reactive melt infiltration process, and consists of continuous SiC reinforcing fibers, with an appropriate fiber coating, in a fully dense matrix of SiC and Si. Based on the material physical properties, the material/process improvements realized in Phase 1, and the preliminary design analyses from Task 1, they feel the feasibility of fabricating Toughened Silcomp with the requisite physical and mechanical properties for the intended applications has been demonstrated. Remaining work for Phase 2 is to further improve the system for enhanced oxidation resistance, incorporate additional process controls to enhance the reproducibility of the material, transition the fabrication process to the selected vendors for scale-up, develop a more complete material property data base, including long-term mechanical behavior, and fabricate and test preliminary ``representative part`` specimens.

  3. A coupled model for ring dynamics, gas flow, and oil flow through the ring grooves in IC engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Ke, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil flows through ring/groove interface play a critical role in oil transport among different regions the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. This thesis work is intended to improve the understanding and ...

  4. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  5. Controls and Measurements of KU Engine Test Cells for Biodiesel, SynGas, and Assisted Biodiesel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main...

  6. CONSERVATION DU SPERME DE VERRAT SANS DILUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONSERVATION DU SPERME DE VERRAT SANS DILUTION : CONDITIONS D'EXAMEN F. DU MESNIL DU BUISSON avons comparé les effets de différents facteurs sur la conservation même du sperme de Verrat non dilué sperme au cours de la conservation ont été établies en prenant comme valeur de l'échantillon le produit

  7. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  8. Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee Unconventional Gas Research Group, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Curtin University, Australia Shale gas is becoming an important source feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable shale gas resources. Western Australia (WA) alone

  9. A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils POLARIS Applied Sciences, Inc. (2013) Abstract Diluted bitumen (dilbit) crude oil represents a range of oils produced from bitumen extracted from oil sands

  10. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    holidays ICE: Internal combustion engine, GT: Gas turbine,indicate that internal combustion engines (ICE) with heatdominance of internal combustion engines with heat exchanger

  11. Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  12. Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  13. Versatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature (250¬įC ¬≠ 400¬įC), a catalyst is required. Breakdown products of chemical-agent molecules eitherVersatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department Number: CBDIF-2006-PRO01 (Individual Protection) Motivation and approach Practically all chemical

  14. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. July 1, 2005 College of Engineering and Mineral Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    in Biometric Systems Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Science in Mechanical engineering; civil and environmental engineering; computer science and electrical engineering; industrial and natural gas engineering. All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing excellent

  16. July 1, 2009 College of Engineering and Mineral Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    in Biometric Systems Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Science in Mechanical; industrial and management systems engineering; mechanical and aerospace engineering; mining engineering; and petroleum and natural gas engineering. All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing

  17. ANALYSIS OF BORON DILUTION TRANSIENTS IN PWRS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.BROMLEY,B.P.ARONSON,A.L.

    2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been carried out with PARCS/RELAP5 to understand the consequences of hypothetical boron dilution events in pressurized water reactors. The scenarios of concern start with a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. If the event leads to boiling in the core and then the loss of natural circulation, a boron-free condensate can accumulate in the cold leg. The dilution event happens when natural circulation is re-established or a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is restarted in violation of operating procedures. This event is of particular concern in B&W reactors with a lowered-loop design and is a Generic Safety Issue for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The results of calculations with the reestablishment of natural circulation show that there is no unacceptable fuel damage. This is determined by calculating the maximum fuel pellet enthalpy, based on the three-dimensional model, and comparing it with the criterion for damage. The calculation is based on a model of a B&W reactor at beginning of the fuel cycle. If an RCP is restarted, unacceptable fuel damage may be possible in plants with sufficiently large volumes of boron-free condensate in the cold leg.

  18. Engineering Technician

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Civil Engineering Technician; Electrical Engineering Technician; Mechanical Engineering Technician; Environmental Engineering Technician

  19. West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Degrees Offered · Master of science in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Master of science in engineering with a major in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Doctor of philosophy in engineering with a major

  20. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  1. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  2. Economics of Electric Compressors for Gas Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Hibbs, J. J.

    ) option. Outside of these regions, new electric drives as well as gas fueled reciprocating engines and turbines are being considered for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines and compressor units, based on improved operating efficiency. We review...

  3. Fusion of Dilute $A_L$ Lattice Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-kui Zhou; Paul A. Pearce; Uwe Grimm

    1995-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion procedure is implemented for the dilute $A_L$ lattice models and a fusion hierarchy of functional equations with an $su(3)$ structure is derived for the fused transfer matrices. We also present the Bethe ansatz equations for the dilute $A_L$ lattice models and discuss their connection with the fusion hierarchy. The solution of the fusion hierarchy for the eigenvalue spectra of the dilute $A_L$ lattice models will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  4. Stirling cycle rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, J.A.

    1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling cycle rotary engine for producing mechanical energy from heat generated by a heat source external to the engine, the engine including: an engine housing having an interior toroidal cavity with a central housing axis for receiving a working gas, the engine housing further having a cool as inlet port, a compressed gas outlet port, a heated compressed gas inlet port, and a hot exhaust gas outlet port at least three rotors each fixedly mounted to a respective rotor shaft and independently rotatable within the toroidal cavity about the central axis; each of the rotors including a pair of rotor blocks spaced radially on diametrically opposing sides of the respective rotor shaft, each rotor block having a radially fixed curva-linear outer surface for sealed rotational engagement with the engine housing.

  5. Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayala, Ferran A. (Ferran Alberto), 1976-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating an engine with excess air, under lean conditions, has significant benefits in terms of increased engine efficiency and reduced emissions. However, under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion ...

  6. Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has...

  7. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  8. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  9. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  10. Creep performance of candidate SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials for land-based, gas turbine engine components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Kirkland, T.P.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tensile creep-rupture of a commercial gas pressure sintered Si3N4 and a sintered SiC is examined at 1038, 1150, and 1350 C. These 2 ceramics are candidates for nozzles and combustor tiles that are to be retrofitted in land-based gas turbine engines, and there is interest in their high temperature performance over service times {ge} 10,000 h (14 months). For this long lifetime, a static tensile stress of 300 MPa at 1038/1150 C and 125 Mpa at 1350 C cannot be exceeded for Si3N4; for SiC, the corresponding numbers are 300 Mpa at 1038 C, 250 MPa at 1150 C, and 180 MPa at 1350 C. Creep-stress exponents for Si3N4 are 33, 17, and 8 for 1038, 1150, 1350 C; fatigue- stress exponents are equivalent to creep exponents, suggesting that the fatigue mechanism causing fracture is related to the creep mechanism. Little success was obtained in producing failure in SiC after several decades of time through exposure to appropriate tensile stress; if failure did not occur on loading, then the SiC specimens most often did not creep-rupture. Creep-stress exponents for the SiC were determined to be 57, 27, and 11 for 1038, 1150, and 1350 C. For SiC, the fatigue-stress exponents did not correlate as well with creep-stress exponents. Failures that occurred in the SiC were a result of slow crack growth that initiated from the surface.

  11. Heat conductivity of a pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

  12. Dilution and microsegregation in dissimilar metal welds between super austenitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    Dilution and microsegregation in dissimilar metal welds between super austenitic stainless steel the weld will also signi¬ģ cantly affect the corrosion resistance. Dissimilar metal welds between a super dissimilar weld. The dilution level was found to decrease as the ratio of volumetric ¬ģ ller metal feedrate

  13. Engineering Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

  14. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 121:569-operations with natural gas: Fuel composition implications,ĒUSA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATION

  15. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Supperalloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J. Metals, Q,OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS Donald H. Boone1970, p. 545. R. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference

  16. 6/10/12 UK team advances measurement of gas bubbles in pipelines. | Technology news | Process Engineer... 1/2processengineering.theengineer.co.uk/.../1012631.article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    process in the manufacturing, power, oil & gas and petrochemical industries. For instance, the sharp

  17. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flowers, Daniel L. (San Leandro, CA)

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  18. Prerequisites: Control Systems I+II, System Modeling, Engine Class (Introduction to Modeling and Control of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, IC Engines, ...), Optimization Course, Matlab The gas-diesel engine is a natural gas engine, where the combustion is initiated by a small quantity on the investigation of the combustion process of the gas-diesel engine. A highly flexible engine test-bench with COC

  19. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  20. Laboratory Investigations of a Low-Swirl Injector with H2 and CH4 at Gas Turbine Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, R. K.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 130 C. K.Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 130 (2) (of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of

  1. Utilizing a cycle simulation to examine the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a spark-ignition engine: including the second law of thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyani, Rajeshkumar Ghanshyambhai

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , the optimum EGR rate should be carefully determined in order to obtain the better engine performance and emissions. A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of EGR on engine performance...

  2. Contraction/expansion flow of dilute elastic solutions in microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy Peter, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study is conducted on the nature of extensional flows of mobile dilute polymer solutions in microchannel. By observing such fluids on the microscale it is possible to generate large strain rates ([approximately] ...

  3. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  4. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  5. Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

  6. Anatomy of symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; B. K. Agrawal

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusterized nuclear matter are evaluated in the $S$-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. The calculated results are in reasonable consonance with those extracted recently from experimental data.

  7. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  8. Science & Engineering Engineering Databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampton, Randy

    -present. Good for computers, electronics, biomedical, control, electrical and ocean engineering, physics9/09 DK,DS Science & Engineering Library Engineering Databases How to search the engineering initials Special features: Limit to peer-reviewed journals Compendex [Engineering Index] 1884-present

  9. advanced engineering environment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil & gas company. For this article we have focused on Offshore Environments; Offshore Engineering. 1 Introduction Contemporary Science and Engineering projects, specially...

  10. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power generation gas turbines and jet engines. As the energy efficiency of gas turbines in- creases to pro- vide thermal protection to turbine blades and vanes in the hottest sections of both electric with turbine inlet turbine, advances in turbine efficiency depend on improved ther- mal barrier coatings

  11. 33engineering EnginEEring and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

  12. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battelle

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  13. application systems gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paul 2013-04-30 190 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  14. advanced gas turbines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 63 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  15. aviation gas turbines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 55 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  16. advanced gas turbine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 63 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  17. aircraft gas turbines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 62 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  18. aircraft gas turbine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 62 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  19. aviation gas turbine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 55 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  20. automotive gas turbine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 56 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  1. Gas Turbine Technology, Part A: Overview, Cycles, and Thermodynamic Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meher-Homji, C. B.; Focke, A. B.

    The growth of cogeneration technology has accelerated in recent years, and it is estimated that fifty percent of the cogeneration market will involve gas turbines. To several energy engineers, gas turbine engines present a new and somewhat...

  2. Stirling cycle engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundholm, Gunnar (Lund, SE)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  3. Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Gas Technology Sysmposium held

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

  4. An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

  5. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions ofInjector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines D. Littlejohn and R.11. IC ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SHORT TITLE: Fuel

  6. 409g Implementation of Coordinator Mpc on a Large-Scale Gas Plant Elvira M. B Aske, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian Univ of Sci & Tech (NTNU),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    constraints. Most of the distillation columns at the K√•rst√ł gas plant have already MPC installed with two409g Implementation of Coordinator Mpc on a Large-Scale Gas Plant Elvira M. B Aske, Dept is not necessary. The key issue is to identify the active "bottleneck" constraint and a coordinator MPC based

  7. College of Engineering ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    College of Engineering CYCLONE ENGINEERING RESEARCH `SENSING SKIN' MAKES WIND ENERGY MORE COST of Science and Technology. All rights reserved. Sarah A. Rajala Dean of Engineering James and Katherine Melsa: The College of Engineering is dedicated to advancing alternative energy, including wind energy. Researchers

  8. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  9. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  10. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  11. aircraft turbine engines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 48 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  12. aircraft turbine engine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 48 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  13. arnold engineering development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wu, J. 2014-01-01 283 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  14. abb combustion engineering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johansen, Tor Arne 54 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  15. West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum & Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering E-mail: Statler-PNGE@mail.wvu.edu Degree Offered · Bachelor of Science in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (B.S.P.N.G.E.) Nature of Program Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is concerned with design and application aspects

  16. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    College of Engineering College of Engineering Office in Engineering Building, Room 202 (970) 491 UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

  17. Chaotic Properties of Dilute Two and Three Dimensional Random Lorentz Gases I: Equilibrium Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. van Beijeren; A. Latz; J. R. Dorfman

    1997-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for a moving particle placed in a dilute, random array of hard disk or hard sphere scatterers - i.e. the dilute Lorentz gas model. This is carried out in two ways: First we use simple kinetic theory arguments to compute the Lyapunov spectrum for both two and three dimensional systems. In order to provide a method that can easily be generalized to non-uniform systems we then use a method based upon extensions of the Lorentz-Boltzmann (LB) equation to include variables that characterize the chaotic behavior of the system. The extended LB equations depend upon the number of dimensions and on whether one is computing positive or negative Lyapunov exponents. In the latter case the extended LB equation is closely related to an "anti-Lorentz-Boltzmann equation" where the collision operator has the opposite sign from the ordinary LB equation. Finally we compare our results with computer simulations of Dellago and Posch and find very good agreement.

  18. Determination of americium and curium by isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablochkin, A.V.; Krapivin, M.I.; Fedotov, S.N.; Yudina, V.G.; Yakobson, A.A.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors propose a method for the determination of americium and curium in solutions of spent fuels from water cooled and moderated reactors that is based on isotope dilution with Am 241 and Cm 244 combined with extraction chromatography of americium and curium and alpha spectroscopy of the labels.

  19. Dielectric function of diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguado, R.; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Sinova, Jairo; Brey, L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the dielectric function of metallic (III,Mn)V diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime. Our theoretical approach is based on the kinetic exchange model for carrier induced (III,Mn)V ferromagnetism. The dielectric...

  20. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  1. On the High Load Limit of Boosted Gasoline HCCI Engine Operating in NVO mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J.

    The high load limit of a boosted homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engine operating on negative-valve-overlap (NVO) was assessed. When operating under stoichiometric condition with no external dilution, the ...

  2. A Note on the Ruelle Pressure for a Dilute Disordered Sinai Billiard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henk van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman

    2002-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The topological pressure is evaluated for a dilute random Lorentz gas, in the approximation that takes into account only uncorrelated collisions between the moving particle and fixed, hard sphere scatterers. The pressure is obtained analytically as a function of a temperature-like parameter, beta, and of the density of scatterers. The effects of correlated collisions on the topological pressure can be described qualitatively, at least, and they significantly modify the results obtained by considering only uncorrelated collision sequences. As a consequence, for large systems, the range of beta-values over which our expressions for the topological pressure are valid becomes very small, approaching zero, in most cases, as the inverse of the logarithm of system size.

  3. Determination of Henry's law constants of organics in dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, K.C.; Zhou, Zhou; Yaws, C.L.; Aminabhavi, T.M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants, H, or air/water partitioning coefficients are required to predict the behavior of organic compounds in the environment. In particular, when the compounds are relatively volatile and exhibit low solubility in water, air stripping may be a viable method for above-ground treatment. Henry's law constants of 15 volatile organic compounds in dilute aqueous solutions were measured by the procedure of equilibrium partitioning in a closed system. The method is based upon the measurement of the headspace concentration by gas chromatography. The compounds investigated included six halogenated hydrocarbons, four aromatic hydrocarbons, and five alkanes. The measurements were made at three temperatures between 25 and 45 C. The measured Henry's law constants compared well with the literature data of some liquids. The temperature dependence of Henry's law constant was also studied from the van't Hoff relation.

  4. STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    quarter-sized micro-gas-turbine-engine and rocket engine. In 2005, Dr. Sun joined the Department, communications etc. I will present my work on the development of a new type of MEMS -power MEMS including micro-gas- turbine-engine, micro-rocket-engine for portable power sources. Microfluidics is also known as Lab- On

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

  6. Growth and characterization of dilute nitride GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x} nanowires and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1?y} core/shell nanowires on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukrittanon, S. [Graduate Program of Material Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States); Kuang, Y. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States); Dobrovolsky, A.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, LinkŲping University, 581 83 LinkŲping (Sweden); Kang, Won-Mo; Kim, Bong-Joong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ja-Soon [Department of Electronic Engineering, LED-IT Fusion Technology Research Center, Yeungnam University, Daegu 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Tu, C. W. [Graduate Program of Material Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated self-catalyzed GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x} and GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1?y} core/shell nanowire growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The growth window for GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x} nanowires was observed to be comparable to that of GaP nanowires (?585?įC to ?615?įC). Transmission electron microscopy showed a mixture of cubic zincblende phase and hexagonal wurtzite phase along the [111] growth direction in GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x} nanowires. A temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study performed on GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x}/GaN{sub y}P{sub 1?y} core/shell nanowires exhibited an S-shape dependence of the PL peaks. This suggests that at low temperature, the emission stems from N-related localized states below the conduction band edge in the shell, while at high temperature, the emission stems from band-to-band transition in the shell as well as recombination in the GaN{sub x}P{sub 1?x} core.

  7. SEMINAR ANNOUNCEMENT DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING & MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    products, pharmaceutical inhalers, office printers, gas turbine engines, spray-chemical-conversion reactors between the two phases; sometimes, mass transfer interactions are also important. These interactions occur

  8. Kinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine BergSrensen \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg-S√łrensen, Kirstine

    the kinetic theory for evaporative cooling of a dilute collisional gas in a trap. The analysis in 0. J. Luiten and increase the phase¬≠space density of an atomic, bosonic gas towards a Bose¬≠Einstein condensate (BECKinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine Berg¬≠S√łrensen \\Lambda The Rowland

  9. Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

  10. LANDFILL-GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET PRIVATE AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Materials Table A1: Model Results for West Lake Landfill WEST LAKE IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Landfill WEST COUNTY IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average Landfill Gas Generation (mmcf/yr) 1,075 1,735 $1,250 Table A3: Model Results for Modern Landfill MODERN IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average

  11. 9.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/44 3. Absorption, gas expansion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / V√§rme- och str√∂mningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Kylteknik ("KYL") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 √?A 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 9.11.2014√?bo energy, solar energy, biogas fuel, etc. Absorption refrigeration involves absorption of refrigerant

  12. Gas Pipeline Safety (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Pipeline Safety Section of the Engineering Division is responsible for the application and enforcement of pipeline safety regulations under Chapter 24B of the West Virginia Code and 49 U.S...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - annealed dilute systems Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up to the 104 dilution. 3... . Spread 25ul of the 104 dilution for each diploid on SC agar media, to ... Source: Roth, David B. - Langone Medical Center, New York University...

  14. A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped Vehicle as a Result of Regeneration A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped...

  15. Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    to increase reservoir productivity. Based on results of waterflood pilot scenarios, this study may be able problems for both primary production and waterflooding. Primary production under solution gas drive recovered less than 10% of the oil in place. After more than 40 years of waterflooding the current oil

  16. Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.

  17. Autothermal oxidation of dilute aqueous wastes under supercritical conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, D.; Balakotaiah, V. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the autothermal wet oxidation of dilute aqueous wastes reveals some important differences between the subcritical and supercritical operation of this process. The energy requirements are considerably higher for supercritical operation and are comparable to those for incineration. The calculations show that the efficiency of the heat exchanger in the near-critical region decreases significantly and using a regenerative heat exchanger for supercritical operation requires excessive heat-transfer area even for wastewaters with heating values around 1,000 kJ/kg. Better results are obtained at higher pressures. This study demonstrates that autothermal operation of the supercritical wet oxidation process for dilute wastewaters is feasible only with the addition of auxiliary fuel.

  18. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  19. A method of cobalt ion concentration from dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanatidou, E. [Technological Education Inst., Kila Kozanis (Greece); Stefanut, M.N.; Grozav, A. [Institute for Chemical and Technological Sciences, Timisoara (Romania)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid membrane technique is very useful for metal ions recovery from dilute solutions. Co{sup 2+} ions can be removed and concentrated from wastewaters with an emulsion liquid membrane. The paper describes the permeation of Co{sup 2+} using naphthenic acids as the carrier and kerosene as the membrane material. The inner phase is a HCl 3.162 x 10{sup -4} solution. The extraction yield is more than 96%.

  20. Systems Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Engineering Systems Engineering is a holistic engineering discipline that provides systems analysis, systems integration, decision analysis, and systems science products...

  1. Mechanical Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Facilities Engineering (TESF) organization of Substation Engineering (TES) within the Engineering and Technical Services (TE) organization of the Transmission (T)...

  2. Stirling engine power control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, James P. (Scotia, NY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

  3. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

  4. Mechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    . Mechanical engineering is a broad, versatile and creative discipline concerned with conversion of energyMechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering CollegeofEngineering 5050AnthonyWayneDrive Detroit,MI48202 College of engineering t Educating future engineers for 80 years

  5. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    College of Engineering _______________ 2.7 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

  6. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING What is Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , development, and manufacture of gas turbine and other aircraft engines; design and construction of electrical in hydraulic and pumping systems; study of heat flow, ranging from boilers and automotive radiators to heat

  7. Engineering Prestigious

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Engineering Studious Prestigious Adventurous Curious Ambitious Ingenious #12;TheCollegeof Engineering We are committed to innovation in all aspects of engineering education and research. We deliver an accredited professional education program that effectively prepares our students to become engineering

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive exhaust gas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution, Intext Educational Publishers, 1973 Summary: , Critical Topics in Exhaust Gas...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - asme international gas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    07 Summary: Combustion Engine Dynamic Coupling" ASME Transactions: J. Eng. for Gas Turbines and Power ASME, New York, NY... ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormally pressured gas Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collection: Engineering ; Biology and Medicine 48 FLOW BEHAVIOR OF GAS-CONDENSATE WELLS A DISSERTATION Summary: .10 Schematic diagram of the gas-condensate flow system. The...

  12. Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using of Engineers began the Gas Abatement Study in order to address the problem of gas and its effects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. One important question is how much gas reductions caused by structural changes at a few

  13. College of Engineering & Engineering Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Specialist -Tech Services Coordinator Dean Promod Vohra Mechanical Engineering Pradip Majumdar, ChairCollege of Engineering & Engineering Technology COMPUTER OPERATIONS -Manager -LAN Support -Senior Systems Engineer -Clerical Position OFFICE OF SPONSORED PROJECTS -Research Development Specialist

  14. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  15. Terry Fuller Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering Center Engineering Center Computer

  16. MASTER OF SCIENCE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and apparatus was developed and constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable, Lead Free Solder IMPROVED AEROTHERMODYNAMIC INSTRUMENTATION OF AN ALLISON T63-A-700 GAS TURBINE ENGINE for the gas generator turbine and exhaust state points were evaluated and average values were calculated

  17. Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, M.; Kazumoto, Y.; Nomaguchi, T.; Kashiwamura, K.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a Stirling engine wherein a pressure variation is provided by reciprocative movement of a displacer and is utilized by a power piston to obtain an output motive force, which comprises: a pressurized crankcase, an expansion cylinder having a seal carrying wall, a displacer located in the expansion cylinder, a displacer rod connected to the displacer and projecting through the seal and into the crankcase, a first elastic film attached to the displacer rod and to the seal carrying wall so as to produce a first hermetically sealed space, a compression cylinder, a power piston having a power piston rod located in the compression cylinder, a second elastic film attached to the power piston rod and to the compression cylinder so as to produce a second hermetically sealed space below the power piston, the first and the second hermetically sealed spaces being included in a pressurized reactive space, a pressure adjusting means for equalizing the mean pressure within the reactive space and the mean pressure within the crankcase, a heater tube, a regenerator, and a cooler tube are connected to the expansion cylinder, and are included in a working space, as is the expansion cylinder and the compression cylinder, and a first gas having a low viscosity, a low molecular weight and a high thermal conductivity is sealed in the working space and the reactive space, and a second gas having a high viscosity and a high molecular weight is sealed in the crankcase.

  18. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Eric Suuberg Professor Brown University Another Reason, chemicals of anthropogenic origin can migrate from soil into houses, invis- ibly, over time, impacting the soil gas migration problem, and used these to develop simple analytical approaches to estimating

  19. Casimir repulsion between Topological Insulators in the diluted regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pairwise Summation Approximation (PSA) of Casimir energy is applied to a system of two dielectrics with magnetoelectric coupling. In particular, the case of Topological Insulators (TI) is studied in detail. Depending on the the optical response of the TI, we obtain a stable equilibrium distance, atraction for all distances, or repulsion for all distances at zero temperature. This equilibrium distance disappears in the high temperature limit. These results are independent on the geometry of the TI, but are only valid in the diluted approximation.

  20. Electrical conductivity of dispersions: from dry foams to dilute suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Feitosa; S. Marze; A. Saint-Jalmes; D. J. Durian

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new data for the electrical conductivity of foams in which the liquid fraction ranges from two to eighty percent. We compare with a comprehensive collection of prior data, and we model all results with simple empirical formul\\ae. We achieve a unified description that applies equally to dry foams and emulsions, where the droplets are highly compressed, as well as to dilute suspensions of spherical particles, where the particle separation is large. In the former limit, Lemlich's result is recovered; in the latter limit, Maxwell's result is recovered.

  1. Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors from Electrodeposited ZnO Nanowires. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileep Singh Dileep SinghDilute Magnetic

  2. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi- cal Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Digital

  3. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemical En- gineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Digital

  4. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    58 College of Engineering and Science 58 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi- cal Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science

  5. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi- cal Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Digital

  6. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Com- puter Engineering, Computer Science, Digital Pro

  7. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemical En- gineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Digital

  8. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Petroleum Engineering Minor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering for their petroleum engineering minor. As well, mechanical engineeringMechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Petroleum Engineering Minor The Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering offers a minor in petroleum engineering within the mechanical engineering major

  9. A study of diesel combustion process under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection with gas sampling method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimazaki, Naoki; Hatanaka, Hirokazu; Yokota, Katsuhiko; Nakahira, Toshio

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that a high-pressure fuel injection is effective for the reduction in particulates and smoke emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective for the reduction in NO{sub x} emission. In this study an experiment aiming to understand more comprehensive combustion under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection was carried out by using gas sampling method for the purpose of understanding what occurred inside the spray before and after combustion. The number of combustion cycles in this engine can be controlled in order to change EGR conditions by adjusting the residual gas concentration in the cylinder. Main results were: (1) close to the nozzle tip, the sampling gas data showed little reaction which implies that combustion never occurs in this area during the injection period; (2) in the case of high-pressure fuel injection O{sub 2} concentration decreased faster and air dilution was more active and earlier, this may cause the decrease of smoke emissions due to accelerated soot oxidation; (3) in the case of EGR, combustion was poor since oxygen concentration was insufficient, thus, inactivity of oxidation reaction caused reduction in NO{sub x} emission; (4) in the case of increasing the amounts of N{sub 2} gas while keeping the O{sub 2} content constant (same amount as without EGR), NO{sub x} emission decreased without deterioration of smoke emission and Pmi.

  10. Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 USA ronney@usc.edu Keywords: Microgravity; premixed-gas; cool flames; turbulence. Reference: Ronney, P. D., "Premixed-Gas Flames," in: Microgravity Combustion

  11. air-cooled gas turbine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan) 2003-01-01 57 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  12. Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF/sub 6/ mass flow in UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentration in a UF/sub 6/ - H/sub 2/ process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF/sub 6/ environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement.

  13. Surface tension in the dilute Ising model. The Wulff construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Wouts

    2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the surface tension and the phenomenon of phase coexistence for the Ising model on $\\mathbbm{Z}^d$ ($d \\geqslant 2$) with ferromagnetic but random couplings. We prove the convergence in probability (with respect to random couplings) of surface tension and analyze its large deviations : upper deviations occur at volume order while lower deviations occur at surface order. We study the asymptotics of surface tension at low temperatures and relate the quenched value $\\tau^q$ of surface tension to maximal flows (first passage times if $d = 2$). For a broad class of distributions of the couplings we show that the inequality $\\tau^a \\leqslant \\tau^q$ -- where $\\tau^a$ is the surface tension under the averaged Gibbs measure -- is strict at low temperatures. We also describe the phenomenon of phase coexistence in the dilute Ising model and discuss some of the consequences of the media randomness. All of our results hold as well for the dilute Potts and random cluster models.

  14. Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Success Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Success Stories For further information, contact: Seth Snyder greenhouse gas emissions, and lower energy costs," said biochemical engineer Seth Snyder. Resin Wafer for Excellence in Technology Transfer for this separations technology. A team led by Argonne biochemical engineer

  15. Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage ¬Ľ SearchEnergyDepartment ofCombustuion | Department of Energy

  16. S. K. Aggarwal2 Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    , is important in diesel engines, liquid rockets, and gas turbine combustors. In jet engines used in military a critical state before it is ``atomized.'' The gas turbine combustors used in propulsion applications. The simulation is based on the time-dependent conservation equations for liquid and gas phases, pressure

  17. Introduction Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Environmental Engineering A study to create a social living space rich in amenity, convenience, and harmony with environment. Civil Engineering Engineering of Human Safety Engineering of Environmental Symbiosis A study34 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Engineering Graduate School/ Faculty

  18. Terry Fuller Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Marsha Sharp Center for Student Athletics Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering

  19. ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Fall 2013 #12;Name: ____________________________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________ College of Engineering Cornell University ABET Accredited Programs for 2013­14 ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

  20. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  1. Engineering Why engineering at Sussex?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    (Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Computer

  2. Biological Engineering Electives Biosystems Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    -Solid Mechanics (3) EGM 4853 Bio-Fluid Mechanics (3) ENV Environmental Engineering Courses CWR Civil EngineeringBiological Engineering Electives Biosystems Engineering Departmental Electives: (Choose at least one of the following) ABE 4034 Remote Sensing in Engineering: Science, Sensor & Applications (3) ABE

  3. College of Engineering Engineering in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    optics · Nuclear technologies · High-performance materials #12;College of Engineering ... and of the 21stCollege of Engineering Engineering in Social Context Jonathan Wickert Dean of Engineering #12;College of Engineering Game changers of the 20th century ... · Electrification · Automobile · Airplane

  4. Journal of Energy Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Sept. 2007 Abstract: Application of individual distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) engines, gas turbines, microturbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and wind-power. Most emerging technologies such as micro- turbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and gas internal combustion engines with permanent magnet system as a whole. The size of emerging generation technologies permits generators to be placed optimally

  5. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  6. Science & Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Technology Delivering basic and applied science discoveries and innovating engineering R&D is the hallmark of the Science and Engineering division in support of INL's...

  7. Interdisciplinary Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Transmission Engineering (TEL) organization of Engineering and Technical Services (TE), Transmission Services (T), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). In this...

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

  9. Faculty of Engineering & Design Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    (Hons) Mechanical Engineering Employed on a one year placement at RES On-Site Wood Energy, Bristol Gain confidenceFaculty of Engineering & Design Civil Engineering Chemical Engineering Electronic & Electrical Engineering Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Industrial Placements #12

  10. West Virginia University 1 Benjamin M. Statler College of Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    .S.C.S.) · Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (B.S.E.E.) · Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering (B · Industrial and Management Systems Engineering · Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering · Mining Engineering · Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing

  11. High Efficiency Gas Turbines Overcome Cogeneration Project Feasibility Hurdles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, J.

    HIGH EFFICIENCY GAS TlJR1HNES OVERCOME COGENFRATION PROJECT FEASIBILITY HURDLES JIM KING Gas Turbine Perfonumce Engineer STEVART &: STEVENSON SERVICES. INC. Houston. TelUlS ABSTRACT Cogeneration project feasibility sometimes fails... during early planning stages due to an electrical cycle efficiency which could be improved through the use of aeroderivative gas turbine engines. The aeroderivative engine offers greater degrees of freedom in terms of power augmentation through...

  12. Forecasting and strategic inventory placement for gas turbine aftermarket spares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Joshua T. (Joshua Thomas)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the problem of forecasting demand for Life Limited Parts (LLPs) in the gas turbine engine aftermarket industry. It is based on work performed at Pratt & Whitney, a major producer of turbine engines. ...

  13. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Seongsoo [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Samarth, Nitin [Physics Department, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lozanne, Alex de [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  14. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Emig, Thorsten [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Krueger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this nonequilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to ''dilution''. This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to submicron distances at realistic porosities.

  15. Internal combustion engine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, C.W.

    1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine system comprising: an engine body including a main combustion engine for transmitting the power generated by explosion pressure to a pumping piston and a power transmission apparatus for transmitting to a power crank shaft power that is increased by the ratio of the cross-sectional area of a combustion chamber piston to a power piston. The stroke distance of the combustion chamber piston is equal to that of the power piston; a swash plate-type stirling engine coupled to an exhaust gas outlet of the main combustion engine to be driven by exhaust heat therefrom; a one-stage screw-type compressor coupled by a driving shaft to the swash plate-type stirling engine, thereby generating a great amount of compressed air; a turbo-charger mounted adjacent to a gas outlet of the stirling engine to force a supply of fresh air into the combustion chamber of the main combustion engine; a booster being mounted between a compressed air source and the power transmission apparatus to amplify the air pressure derived from the compressed air source and then provide the amplified air pressure to the power transmission apparatus by operation of a cam in accordance with the rotation of the first crankshaft; compressed air sources being mounted between the compressor and the booster for storing a great amount of compressed air from the compressor; and an accumulator in communication with the power transmission apparatus through a fluid oil pipe, thereby maintaining constant control of the oil pressure in the power transmission apparatus.

  16. Jet Ignition Research for Clean Efficient Combustion Engines Prasanna Chinnathambi, Abdullah Karimi, Manikanda Rajagopal, Razi Nalim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    -chamber internal combustion engines and in innovative pressure-gain combustors for gas turbine engines. Jet the partially combusted gas from the pre-chamber products initiating combustion in the main chamber mixture. IC for gas turbine engines using constant-volume, pressure-gain combustion include the multi-chamber wave

  17. College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Core 2.0 Completion Checklist Mechanical Engineering Science IN CHMY 141 (CHEM 131) 6 Research and Creative Experience R EMEC 489R & EMEC 499 R (ME 404R & ME

  18. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

  20. Understanding Loss Mechanisms and Efficiency Improvement Options for HCCI Engines Using Detailed Exergy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Wet Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine Combined With Organicof a wet ethanol operated HCCI engine based on first andGas blends Combustion in HCCI Engines,Ē Energy, 36(12), pp.

  1. aided process engineering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    374 Application Of The Mold Sdm Process To The Fabrication Of Ceramic Parts For A Micro Gas Turbine Engine CiteSeer Summary: ... engine with silicon nitcon part is being developed....

  2. aero engine applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    468 Application Of The Mold Sdm Process To The Fabrication Of Ceramic Parts For A Micro Gas Turbine Engine CiteSeer Summary: ... engine with silicon nitcon part is being developed....

  3. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    engineering covers a wide range of critical services, from designing water and wastewater treatment facilitiesENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING www.cee.pdx.edu What do environmental engineers do? Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) is an exciting, challenging, and dynamic field that is critical to our quality

  5. Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines Riccardo Ceccarelli , Philippe are provided using advanced Diesel engine developed under AMEsim. I. INTRODUCTION The modern Diesel engine has of the functioning of a air-path in a Diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation circuit is presented. More

  6. Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on previous work on an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump, this project will develop hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that...

  7. Standby Electric Generators for Emergency Farm Use Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    start. Gasoline-, liquid-propane- (LP-) gas-, and diesel-fueled models are available. Engine-driven standby generators are often large, permanently-mounted, diesel units. The advantages of engine

  8. USC Viterbi School of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    ); Chemical Engineering (Nanotechnology); Chemical Engineering (Petroleum Engineer- ing); Chemical Engineering (Biochemical Engineering); Biomedical (Electrical Engineer- ing); Biomedical (Mechanical Engineering); Chemical Engineering; Chemical Engineer- ing (Biochemical Engineering); Chemical Engineering (Environmental Engineering

  9. Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel engine with cooled EGR and flexible intake valve actuation developed to capture dynamic effects of gas exchange actuators deer12kocher.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Kalman Filter Constraint Switching for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dan

    , Estimation, Quadratic Pro- gramming, Residuals, Gas Turbine Engines. 1 Introduction For linear dynamic. However, in the application of Kalman filters there is often known model or signal information

  11. Physical mechanisms for the offshore detachment of the Changjiang Diluted Water in the East China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Changsheng

    Physical mechanisms for the offshore detachment of the Changjiang Diluted Water in the East China mechanisms for the summertime offshore detachment of the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) into the East China in the northern coastal area of the Changjiang mouth offshore over a submerged plateau that extends toward Cheju

  12. MATHEHATICAL NODELING OF THE TEHPERATURE PROFILES AND WELD DILUTION IN ELECTROSLAG WELDING OF STEEL PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) MATHEHATICAL NODELING OF THE TEHPERATURE PROFILES AND WELD DILUTION IN ELECTROSLAG WELDING describes a calculation procedure for the detailed predic- tion of temperature profiles and weld dilution in the electroslag welding of mild steel plates. The temperature profiles in the liquid slag and the liquid metal

  13. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 ¬įC and with 1

  14. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  15. Effect of syngas composition and CO2-diluted oxygen on performance of a premixed swirl-stabilized combustor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future energy systems based on gasification of coal or biomass for co-production of electrical power and fuels may require gas turbine operation on unusual gaseous fuel mixtures. In addition, global climate change concerns may dictate the generation of a CO{sub 2} product stream for end-use or sequestration, with potential impacts on the oxidizer used in the gas turbine. In this study the operation at atmospheric pressure of a small, optically accessible swirl-stabilized premixed combustor, burning fuels ranging from pure methane to conventional and H{sub 2}-rich and H{sub 2}-lean syngas mixtures is investigated. Both air and CO{sub 2}-diluted oxygen are used as oxidizers. CO and NO{sub x} emissions for these flames have been determined from the lean blowout limit to slightly rich conditions ({phi} - 1.03). In practice, CO{sub 2}-diluted oxygen systems will likely be operated close to stoichiometric conditions to minimize oxygen consumption while achieving acceptable NO{sub x} performance. The presence of hydrogen in the syngas fuel mixtures results in more compact, higher temperature flames, resulting in increased flame stability and higher NO{sub x} emissions. Consistent with previous experience, the stoichiometry of lean blowout decreases with increasing H{sub 2} content in the syngas. Similarly, the lean stoichiometry at which CO emissions become significant decreases with increasing H{sub 2} content. For the mixtures investigated, CO emissions near the stoichiometric point do not become significant until {phi} > 0.95. At this stoichiometric limit, CO emissions rise more rapidly for combustion in O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixtures than for combustion in air.

  16. Faculty of Engineering Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Engineering Aerospace Engineering Canada's aerospace industry is one of the largest. One of the key factors that will continue this success is a steady stream of engineering talent.uwindsor.ca/mame Rigorous, Enriching Programs Our new Aerospace Engineering program at Windsor is an optional stream within

  17. College of Engineering EGR Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Engineering EGR Engineering KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 EGR 101 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING. (4) This course introduces the engineering profession and the skills and expectations required for success

  18. College of Engineering Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    College of Engineering Industrial Engineering Core 2.0 Completion Checklist Industrial Engineering) 6 Research and Creative Experience R EIND 499R (I&ME 444 R and I&ME 445 R) Note: Courses completed Social Sciences; * EGEN 310 (ENGR 310), Multidisciplinary Engineering Design, may be substituted

  19. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SPRING Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabry, Frederic

    mentorship and guidance for students and professors with creative ideas, The Macdonald Engineering BuildingFACULTY OF ENGINEERING SPRING 2012 Dean's Faculty of Engineering Innovation and entrepreneurship get major boost M cGill Engineering has long recognized the value of entrepreneurship in building

  20. Computer Engineering Mekelweg 4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    , Suriname Computer Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering

  1. Inferential determination of various properties of a gas mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for inferentially determining various properties of a gas mixture, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. The method can be applied to natural gas mixtures, where the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for heating value calculations. The method may also be applied to inferentially determine density and molecular weight for gas mixtures other than natural gases.

  2. BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING CIVIL, ARCHITECTURAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING MECHANICAL, MATERIALS, AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING IIT ARMOUR #12;WHY ENGINEERINGAT IIT ARMOUR? Five Departments. One Distinctive Educational

  3. SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Surveying Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Surveying Engineering Technology practice FOCUSED WHY SURVEYING ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY? Surveying engineering technology is a practice- focused program that provides students ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY DEGREE? A graduate with a surveying engineering technology degree can work as a party

  4. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  5. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  6. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  7. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  8. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  9. Fading Away: Dilution and User Behaviour Paul Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Paul

    entering another query into the search interface) than a user who has found a large number of relevant, hoping for better results; 3. Switching to a different search engine and entering the same query, hoping@unimelb.edu.au ABSTRACT When faced with a poor set of document summaries on the first page of returned search results

  10. Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogatchev, Kirill Y

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPING A TIGHT GAS SAND ADVISOR FOR COMPLETION AND STIMULATION IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS WORLDWIDE A Thesis by KIRILL BOGATCHEV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DEVELOPING A TIGHT GAS SAND ADVISOR FOR COMPLETION AND STIMULATION IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS WORLDWIDE A Thesis by KIRILL...

  11. EnginEEring capstone engineerSpring 08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    EnginEEring crEativity capstone engineerSpring 08 As future engineers, students in UA's College ­ it takes creativity. Engineering EmbracES Creativity Crimson is ... #12;capstone engineering society 1 at the Heart of Engineering Alumni 6 Composer's Spirit Lives On 8 Engineering Students Embrace Creativity 14

  12. michigan state university college of engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the wave disk engine. This technology uses turbo combustion to convert liquid fuel or compressed natural gas or hydrogen into electrical power. The goal is to increase fuel efficiency for hybrid vehicles

  13. Department of Mechanical Engineering 2014 Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    systems such as oil and gas exploration and production, oil refineries, commercial aviation Professor Production Engineering Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Uncertainty in Support for predicting the evolution of degradation processes affecting systems are becoming increasingly attractive

  14. Engine system for ships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, C.W.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an engine system for ships, comprising: an engine body including a main combustion engine for transmitting the power generated by explosion pressure to a pumping piston and a power transmission apparatus for transmitting to a power crank shaft the power that is increased by the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of a combustion chamber piston to a power piston, wherein the stroke distance of the combustion chamber piston is equal to that of the power piston; one or more swash plate-type stirling engines coupled to the exhaust gas outlet of the main combustion engine to be driven by the exhaust gas heat; a single-stage screw-type compressor coupled by the drive shaft to the swash plate-type stirling engine; thereby generating a great amount of compressed air; a compressed air source connected to the compressor for storing a great amount of compressed air from the compressor; a booster connected between the compressed air source and the power transmission apparatus to amplify the air pressure derived from the compressed air source and then to provide the amplified air pressure to the power transmission apparatus by operation of the cam in accordance with the rotation of a crank shaft; an accumulator in communication with the power transmission apparatus through a fluid oil pipe, thereby maintaining constant control of the oil pressure in the power transmission apparatus; and a compressed air control device for intake and exhaust of compressed air which is added and released to/from the pumping piston of the power transmission apparatus.

  15. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  16. Value Engineering

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) value engineering policy that establishs and maintains cost-effective value procedures and processes.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  18. 112 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    112 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering and Engineering requirements in interdisciplinary studies, engineering majors need only one interdisciplinary studies course of Engineering and Engineering Technology offer baccalaureate programs leading to the degree Bachelor of Science

  19. Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hai

    and human origins. Civil and Environmental Engineers create, con- struct, and manage the infrastructure water and air pollution as well as industrial and hazardous waste management. They monitor the quality, construc- tion, transportation, environmental engineering, and water resources. The Structural Engineering

  20. ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    COURSE GUIDE 2013 UTS: ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL UNDERGRADUATE w w w.eng.uts.edu.au #12;2 / ENGINEERING IN AUSTRALIA Internationally, Australian universities have a reputation for high quality research developed close links with many international institutions, particularly in Asia. ENGINEERING IN SYDNEY

  1. Biomedical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Biomedical Engineering Dr. Kevin Lear, Director, Undergraduate Program Ms. Brett Eppich Beal, Adviser 5280 CSU Engineering Showcase January 29, 2011 #12;SBME ­ Who are We? Director ­ Stuart Tobet Engineering Also Director of Undergraduate Program Staff Brett Eppich Beal ­ Industry Relations, Grant

  2. University , Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    , Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Presented at Seminar of Department of Nuclear Engineering Massachusetts{AC020{76{CHO{3073. Leonid E. Zakharov, Department of Nuclear Engineering, MIT , Feb.26, 2001, Cambridge acting on the guide wall. This design concept opens opportunities for nuclear engineers and technologists

  3. Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology Development Project FY 2005 Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Sell; Donald Fisher

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adaptation of Melt-Dilute technology to a mobile and deployable platform progressed with the installation of the prototype air-cooled induction furnace and power generator in an ISO cargo container. Process equipment tests were conducted in FYí05 on two fronts: the melt container and its associated hardware and the mobile furnace and generator. Container design was validated through tests at elevated temperature and pressure, under vacuum, and subjected to impact. The Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) furnace and power source tests were completed per the plan. The tests provided information necessary to successfully melt and dilute HEU research reactor fuel assemblies.

  4. Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Yueh-Du

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 37: 43-52. Saha B.production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48:Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 37: 43-52. Saulnier L,

  5. Title: A brief history of the Rolls-Royce University Technology Centre in Gas Turbine Noise at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Report Title: A brief history of the Rolls-Royce University Technology Centre in Gas Turbine Noise and systems engineering, gas turbine transmission systems and gas turbine noise. The UTC in gas turbine noise to generation and propagation of noise from gas turbine engines. Aircraft noise is a critical technical issue

  6. Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yin

    2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

  7. Worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

  8. Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

    RELIABLE GAS TURBINE OUTPUT; ATTAINING TEMPERATURE INDEPENDENT PERFORMANCE James E. Neeley, P.E. Power Plant Engineer Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled... with dropping gas prices, has made gas turbines a popular choice of utilities to supply peaking as well as base load power in the form of combined cycle power plants. Today, because of the gas turbine's compactness, low maintenance, and high levels...

  9. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South ValleyASGovLtr.pdfAboutSheet, AprilEdward Lyford-Pike, Cummins Inc.

  10. Recuperator construction for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A counter-flow recuperator formed from annular arrays of recuperator core segments. The recuperator core segments are formed from two opposing sheets of fin fold material coined to form a primary surface zone disposed between two flattened manifold zones. Each primary surface zone has undulating corrugations including a uniform, full height central portion and a transition zone disposed between the central portion and one of the manifold zones. Corrugations of the transition zone rise from zero adjacent to the manifold zone and increase along a transition length to full crest height at the central portion. The transition lengths increase in a direction away from an inner edge containing the air inlet so as to equalize air flow to the distal regions of the primary surface zone.

  11. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative2 DOE2011 DOEOperationModeling ofofEdward

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative2 DOE2011 DOEOperationModeling

  13. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  14. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  15. School of Engineering and Applied Science Engineering Achievement Award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittle, Mark

    derivative high efficiency power generation systems. · In 2008, Chip was elevated to Vice President treatments for aircraft engines, land-based gas turbines, lighting systems, medical systems, and diesel installed base of customers and every 2-3 seconds an aircraft powered by GE takes off...this is the world

  16. Medical Engineering Is Medical Engineering right for me?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    and agencies, oil and gas industry, automotive industry, aviation, chemical and pharmaceutical industries course will focus on application of engineering principles to both the human body and to a broad range of resources and time ∑ Good IT skills These skills can help you gain work in government departments

  17. Chemical and Biological Engineering Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Fuel Cell Lab Fuel Cell Battery Lab Fluidization Lab Gas Processing Lab Interfacial Phenomena Lab Light's core areas of research competency: Energy and Sustainability Fuel Cells Fluidization and Gasification Polymer Reaction Engineering Lab Porous Media and Core Analysis Lab Process Control & Optimization Lab

  18. An algorithm for U-Pb isotope dilution data reduction and uncertainty propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Noah Morgan

    High-precision U-Pb geochronology by isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry is integral to a variety of Earth science disciplines, but its ultimate resolving power is quantified by the uncertainties of ...

  19. Dendritic cells: sensors of extreme antigen dilutions and role in immunity against Salmonella typhimurium infections†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zienkiewicz, Dimitrios Tomasz

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intention of the work described in this thesis was to identify whether extremely high dilutions of antigen can induce changes in dendritic cell maturation and dendritic cell ability to initiate immune responses. ...

  20. Field-driven dynamics of dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Aruna, 1981-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with the exploration of field-induced dynamical phenomena arising in dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains. The problems considered herein pertain to the slip-induced motion of a rigid, ...