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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Heavy-duty engine and light-duty vehicle experiments were conducted to investigate the...

2

Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Xin He, Aaron M. Williams, Earl D. Christensen, Jonathan L. Burton, Robert L. McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 5, 2011...

3

Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst Final Report February 24, 2004 - February 23, 2006 T. Reppert Mack Trucks, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania J. Chiu Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas Subcontract Report NREL/SR-540-38222 September 2005 Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst Final Report February 24, 2004 - February 23, 2006 T. Reppert Mack Trucks, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania J. Chiu Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas NREL Technical Monitor: R. Parish Prepared under Subcontract No. ZCI-4-32049-01 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-540-38222 September 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

4

Translation of dilution tolerance for gasoline SI engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are a variety of fuel improvement strategies being developed for spark ignition engines which use dilution. Many of these technologies use a combination of different diluents. It is impractical in optimizing these ...

Niekamp, Troy S. (Troy Steven)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Impact of N2 dilution on combustion and emissions in a spark ignition CNG engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to reduce \\{NOx\\} (nitrogen oxides) emissions, N2 (nitrogen) was introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture with a specially-designed injection device. The impacts of varying N2 DR (dilution ratio) on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbon) emissions and so on. For this study, a modified 6.6 L CNG (compressed natural gas) engine was tested and N2 was injected into the end of intake manifold by a specially-designed device. The results showed that N2 dilution has a significant influence on the combustion and the exhaust emissions. With the rise of N2 DR, the maximum of pressure in cylinder and the maximum of heat release rate exhibited decrease trends, the centre of heat release curve showed a moving backward tendency. Higher N2 DR exhibited lower \\{NOx\\} (17–81%) emissions, but higher emissions of THC (3–78%) and CO (1–28%). The change of BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) can be ignored with N2 DR no more than 167%. Satisfactory results can be obtained, with lower \\{NOx\\} (31%) emissions, lower BSFC (0.5%), and relatively higher THC (6%) and CO (1%) emissions, when N2 DR is 67%.

Zhongshu Wang; Hongbin Zuo; Zhongchang Liu; Weifeng Li; Huili Dou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the cooling effect of water evaporation to cool a facilities water cooling system while the gas engine drive chiller uses a standard "freon" compressor driven by a gas engine' to provide its cooling. In the absorption chiller, a heat generator boils... for the water in the evaporator section. A pump then moves the dilute solution back to the generator to continue the process. GED chillers are no different than their electric counterparts except an engine drives the compressor instead of an electric motor...

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Shahab D. Mohaghegh Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Keywords: Gas Storage, Natural Gas, Storage, Deliverability, Inventory

Mohaghegh, Shahab

8

Study of Lean Premixed Methane Combustion with CO2 Dilution under Gas Turbine Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In gas turbines, high air dilution is used in order to keep the turbine inlet temperature (TIT)(7) below the metallurgical temperature limit of the first turbine stages. ... It was shown that CO2 dilution could be an efficient method for increasing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas, thus making its capture easier. ... Efforts were focused on the impacts on cycle efficiency, combustion, gas turbine components, and cost. ...

Stéphanie de Persis; Gilles Cabot; Laure Pillier; Iskender Gökalp; Abdelakrim Mourad Boukhalfa

2012-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

10

Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...February 15, 2007 ERRATUM ERRATUM Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste Deepti Appukuttan Amara Sambasiva Rao Shree Kumar Apte Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre...

Deepti Appukuttan; Amara Sambasiva Rao; Shree Kumar Apte

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar,...

12

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines...

13

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of the Art Pre-ARES Engines Characterized by the following: Limited investment in natural gas engines, based on derivatives of larger volume diesel engines Low...

14

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

Pike, Edward

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

The effect of dilution on the gas retention behavior of Tank 241-SY- 103 waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-five of the 177 underground waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site have been placed on the Flammable Gas watch list. These 25 tanks, containing high-level waste generated during plutonium and uranium processing, have been identified as potentially capable of accumulating flammable gases above the lower flammability limit (Babad et al. 1991). In the case of Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103, it has been proposed that diluting the tank waste may mitigate this hazard (Hudson et al. 1995; Stewart et al. 1994). The effect of dilution on the ability of waste from Tank 241-SY-103 to accumulate gas was studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A similar study has been completed for waste from Tank 241-SY-101 (Bredt et al. 1995). Because of the additional waste-storage volume available in Tank 241-SY-103 and because the waste is assumed to be similar to that currently in Tank 241-SY-101, Tank 241-SY-103 became the target for a demonstration of passive mitigation through in-tank dilution. In 1994, plans for the in-tank dilution demonstration were deferred pending a decision on whether to pursue dilution as a mitigation strategy. However, because Tank 241-SY-103 is an early retrieval target, determination of how waste properties vary with dilution will still be required.

Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating...

18

Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Natural gas engine technology has evolved to meet the...

19

Semiclassical Approximation for Non-Abelian Field Strength Correlators in the Instanton Dilute Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field strength correlators are semi-classically evaluated in the dilute gas model of non-Abelian sources (instantons) and compared with lattice data for QCD at zero temperature. We show that one of the Euclidean invariant, tensorial structures vanishes for configurations being purely selfdual or anti-selfdual. We compute the invariant functions contributing to the correlators within the two lowest orders in an instanton density expansion. Fitting instanton size and density for quenched and full QCD, we obtain a reasonable description.

E. -M. Ilgenfritz; B. V. Martemyanov; S. V. Molodtsov; M. Müller--Preussker; Yu. A. Simonov

1997-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Time-dependent gas phase kinetics in a hydrogen diluted silane plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas phase kinetics in a high-pressure hydrogen diluted silane plasma has been studied at time scales of 10{sup -2}-6x10{sup 2} s. The time-resolved gas phase composition shows the following kinetics at different time scales: silane decomposition and polysilane generation in < or approx. 2x10{sup -1} s, nanoparticle formation and plasma density reduction in 10{sup -1}-10{sup 0} s, polysilane accumulation in 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} s, and silane depletion and electrode heating in > or approx. 10{sup 1} s. Disilane radicals are implied to be the dominant film precursors in addition to silyl radicals.

Nunomura, S.; Kondo, M. [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yoshida, I. [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Advanced Photovoltaics Development Center, Advanced Energy Research Center, Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., 108 Ohmori, Anpachi-cho, Anpachi-gun, Gifu 503-0195 (Japan)

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Simulation of Landfill Gas Performance in a Spark Ignited Engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Computer simulations were performed using KIVA-4 code to determine performance of a spark ignited engine fueled by methane diluted with carbon dioxide to approximate… (more)

Swain, Daniel P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Clearing the air with natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines the increased popularity of natural gas vehicles which has spurred engine designers to manipulate fuel-air ratios, compression ratios, ignition timing, and catalytic converters in ways to minimize exhaust pollutants. The topics of the article include reducing pollutants, high-octane engineering, diesel to natural gas, and the two-fuel choice.

O'Connor, L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Medium effects and the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas away from the conformal limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the shear viscosity of a dilute Fermi gas as a function of the scattering length in the vicinity of the unitarity limit. The calculation is based on kinetic theory, which provides a systematic approach to transport properties in the limit in which the fugacity $z=n\\lambda^3/2$ is small. Here, $n$ is the density of the gas and $\\lambda$ is the thermal wave length of the fermions. At leading order in the fugacity expansion the shear viscosity is independent of density, and the minimum shear viscosity is achieved at unitarity. At the next order medium effects modify the scattering amplitude as well as the quasi-particle energy and velocity. We show that these effects shift the minimum of the shear viscosity to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side of the resonance, in agreement with the result of recent experiments.

Bluhm, Marcus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP...

25

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a...

26

Control apparatus for hot gas engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) Contract: DE-FC26-01CH11080 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 122013 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator james.zurlo@ge.com Tel....

29

Exponential approach to, and properties of, a non-equilibrium steady state in a dilute gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a kinetic model of a system in contact with several thermal reservoirs at different temperatures $T_\\alpha$. Our system is a spatially uniform dilute gas whose internal dynamics is described by the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian collisions. Similarly, the interaction with reservoir $\\alpha$ is represented by a Markovian process that has the Maxwellian $M_{T_\\alpha}$ as its stationary state. We prove existence and uniqueness of a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) and show exponential convergence to this NESS in a metric on probability measures introduced into the study of Maxwellian collisions by Gabetta, Toscani and Wenberg (GTW). This shows that the GTW distance between the current velocity distribution to the steady-state velocity distribution is a Lyapunov functional for the system. We also derive expressions for the entropy production in the system plus the reservoirs which is always positive.

Eric A. Carlen; Joel L. Lebowitz; Clement Mouhot

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

30

Gas turbine engines with particle traps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiodurans R1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Dilute Nuclear Waste Published ahead of print on 20 October 2006. Deepti...situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste. Nuclear waste contains a variety of heavy metals, radionuclides...

Deepti Appukuttan; Amara Sambasiva Rao; Shree Kumar Apte

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

Zigler, B.T.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Gas Detonation and its Application in Engineering and Technologies (Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most relevant aspects of advanced experimental investigations of gas detonation and its mathematical simulation are presented. Examples of the engineering use of gas detonation are given.

Yu. A. Nikolaev; A. A. Vasil'ev…

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas-Turbine Engine Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...but in some industrial gas-turbine engines applications it can reach...shorter thermal-cycling lives than EB-PVD TBCs...extremely well in industrial gas-turbine engines, including “bucket...thermal” compressive residual stresses in...

Nitin P. Padture; Maurice Gell; Eric H. Jordan

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Results of completed study on...

36

Gas engine driven chiller development and economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TECOGEN Division of Thermo Electron Corporation has developed a nominal 150 ton engine driven chiller system under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute. The system incorporates an engine directly driving a screw compressor to produce about 130 tons of cooling capacity and a single effect absorption chiller driven by hot water recovered from engine heat to produce another 30 tons of cooling capacity. An economic analysis shows that it will be possible to recover the cost premium of engine driven chiller systems in most US cities in 3 years or less with the O and M savings of these systems when this cost premium is $30 per ton. 4 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

Koplow, M.D.; Searight, E.F.; Panora, R.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Inert Gas Dilution Effect on the Flammability Limits of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

previous one from U.S. BMs???????....69 5.3 Ethane flammability properties with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1 atm)??????????????????????..????.. 70 5.4 Propane flammability properties with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1 atm...)???????????????????????..???.. 72 5.8 Flammability properties of methane and propane at different molar radios (20 %/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%) with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1 atm)?..????.?..?????????73 5.9 Flammability properties of ethane and propane...

Zhao, Fuman

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine Transportation Research PIER Transportation of natural gas vehicles as a clean alternative is currently limited to smaller engine displacements and spark ignition, which results in lower performance. A large displacement natural gas engine has

39

Reaction of Exhaust Gas in the Exhaust Gas Tube of Marine Diesel Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction of Exhaust Gas in the Exhaust Gas Tube of Marine Diesel Engines }S"G"WjAS"O·u·� "¡"c ·_Zk

Ishii, Hitoshi

40

Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

England, G.C.; Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Chang, M.C.O.; Loos, K.R.; Hidy. G.M. [GE Energy, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

42

The effect of reformer gas mixture on the performance and emissions of an HSDI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming is an attractive on-board hydrogen production method, which can open new frontiers in diesel engines. Apart from hydrogen, and depending on the reactions promoted, the reformate typically contains a significant amount of carbon monoxide, which is produced as a by-product. Moreover, admission of reformed gas into the engine, through the inlet pipe, leads to an increase of intake air nitrogen to oxygen ratio. It is therefore necessary to study how a mixture of syngas and nitrogen affects the performance and emissions of a diesel engine, in order to gain a better understanding of the effects of supplying fuel reformer products into the engine. In the current research work, a bottled gas mixture with H2 and CO contents resembling those of typical diesel reformer product gas was injected into the inlet pipe of an HSDI diesel engine. Nitrogen (drawn from a separate bottle) at the same volumetric fraction to syngas was simultaneously admitted into the inlet pipe. Exhaust analysis and performance calculation was carried out and compared to a neat diesel operation. Introduction of syngas + N2 gas mixture resulted in simultaneous reduction of the formation of \\{NOx\\} and smoke emissions over a broad range of the engine operating window. Estimation of the bottled carbon monoxide utilisation showed that by increasing either the load or the speed the admitted carbon monoxide is utilised more efficiently. As a general rule, CO2 emissions increase when the bottled carbon monoxide utilisation is approximately over 88%. Isolation of the H2 and N2 effect revealed that a CO diluted flame promotes the formation of smoke. When the intake air is enriched with syngas + N2, an increase of engine speed results in reduction of maximum pressure rise rate (dp/da). The effect of load on dp/da varies depending on engine speed. Finally, the engine is more fuel efficient when running on neat diesel.

Fanos Christodoulou; Athanasios Megaritis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Gas Turbine Engine Collaborative Research - NASA Glenn Research Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Engine Collaborative Gas Turbine Engine Collaborative Research-NASA Glenn Research Center Background Advancing the efficiency and performance levels of gas turbine technology requires high levels of fundamental understanding of the actual turbine component level technology systems. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn), with support from the Ohio State University, is planning research to compile

44

Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

Hindes, Clyde J. (Troy, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This work focused on using camless engine technology to improve the efficiency of a natural gas engine. Late intake close timing and cylinder deactivation were utilized to meet a peak BTE > 40%.

46

Power control system for a hot gas engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

Berntell, John O. (Staffanstorp, SE)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power usingThermoelectric Engines...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solutions Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power using Thermoelectric Engines John LaGrandeur October 5, 2011 Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 1 - Market motivation based on CO 2...

48

Auto goes hybrid with gas-electric engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Auto goes hybrid with gas-electric engine ... A hybrid automobile, under development for some time by General Electric and others, has been completed. ...

1983-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

49

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

50

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Argonne TTRDC - Feature - Combining Gas and Diesel Engines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Combining Gas and Diesel Engines Could Yield the Best of Both Worlds Combining Gas and Diesel Engines Could Yield the Best of Both Worlds by Louise Lerner Steve Ciatti Steve Ciatti in the Engine Research Facility It may be hard to believe, but the beloved gasoline engine that powers more than 200 million cars across America every day didn't get its status because it's the most efficient engine. Diesel engines can be more than twice as efficient, but they spew soot and pollutants into the air. Could researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory engineer a union between the two-combining the best of both? Steve Ciatti, a mechanical engineer at Argonne, is heading a team to explore the possibilities of a gasoline-diesel engine. The result, so far, is cleaner than a diesel engine and almost twice as efficient as a typical

52

Stirling engine with integrated gas combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a Stirling engine. It comprises heat transfer stacks having a cooler, regenerator and heat exchanger stacked end-to-end with a working cylinder adjacent each of the stacks and connected therewith by a hot connecting duct, the heat exchangers including an annular cluster of circumferentially spaced tubes extending from the regenerator in a substantially axial direction to an annular manifold axially spaced from the regenerator such that at any given time during operation of the Stirling engine working fluid in the tubes is flowing in a single axial direction through the heat exchanger, a combustion chamber on an end of each of the stacks having a gas flow outlet communicating with the interior of the heat exchanger tube cluster, air inlets for each of the combustion chambers for allowing air to enter the interior of the chambers, and a nozzle within the combustion chambers for introducing a combustible fuel within the combustion chambers, whereby the combustible fuel and air combust in the combustion chambers and generate hot gases which pass between the tubes applying heat to the heat exchanger.

Meijer, R.J.

1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Chapter 2 - Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling Engineering and Equipment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter introduces the drilling engineering and equipment in the field of offshore oil and gas.It starts by introducing the drilling platform used in the offshore oil and gas. Then it presents the wellhead and wellhead devices used in the offshore oil and gas. After these two, it begins to introduce the drilling engineer including preparation, working procedure, well completion and so on. Finally, it roughly introduces the new technology in drilling and new drilling rig nowadays.

Huacan Fang; Menglan Duan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat waste recovery system from exhaust gas of diesel engine to a reciprocal steam engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research project was about the combined organic Rankine cycle which extracted energy from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. There was a study… (more)

Duong, Tai Anh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Static Dilution System to Produce Trace Level Gas Standards for Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......trace chromatographic analysis of extraneous gases...standards for quantitative analysis of O2, N 2 , and other...its versatility and reliability. Introduction High-purity...atmosphere), and in analysis (as a carrier gas for...dried in a silica gel reactor before being admitted......

N.P. Neves; Jr.; C.A. Gasparoto; C.H. Collins

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

57

State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies State of the Art and Future Developments In Natural Gas Engine Technologies 2003 DEER Conference...

58

Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

NONE

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Ground State Energy of a Dilute Bose Gas in Dimension n >3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a Bose gas in spatial dimension $n>3$ with a repulsive, radially symmetric two-body potential $V$. In the limit of low density $\\rho$, the ground state energy per particle in the thermodynamic limit is shown to be $(n-2)|\\mathbb S^{n-1}|a^{n-2}\\rho$, where $|\\mathbb S^{n-1}|$ denotes the surface measure of the unit sphere in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ and $a$ is the scattering length of $V$. Furthermore, for smooth and compactly supported two-body potentials, we derive upper bounds to the ground state energy with a correction term $(1+C\\gamma)8\\pi^4a^6\\rho^2|\\ln(a^4\\rho)|$ in dimension $n=4$, where $\\gamma:=\\int V(x)|x|^{-2}\\, dx$, and a correction term which is $\\mathcal{O}(\\rho^2)$ in higher dimensions.

Anders Aaen

2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Dilute gas of ultracold two-level atoms inside a cavity; generalized Dicke model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a gas of ultracold two-level atoms confined in a cavity, taking into account for atomic center-of-mass motion and cavity mode variations. We use the generalized Dicke model, and analyze separately the cases of a Gaussian, and a standing wave mode shape. Owing to the interplay between external motional energies of the atoms and internal atomic and field energies, the phase-diagrams exhibit novel features not encountered in the standard Dicke model, such as the existence of first and second order phase transitions between normal and superradiant phases. Due to the quantum description of atomic motion, internal and external atomic degrees of freedom are highly correlated leading to modified normal and superradiant phases.

Jonas Larson; Maciej Lewenstein

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Uncooled two-stroke gas engine for heat pump drive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and analysis of a family of natural gas fueled, uncooled, two-stroke, lean burn, thermal-ignition engines. The engines were designed specifically to meet the requirements dictated by the commercial heat pump application. The engines have a power output ranging from 15 to 100 kW; a thermal efficiency of 36 percent; a mean time between failure greater than 3 years; and a life expectancy of 45,000 hours. To meet these specifications a family of very simple, uncooled, two-stroke cycle engines were designed which have no belts, gears or pumps. The engines utilize crankcase scavenging, lubrication, stratified fuel introduction to prevent raw fuel from escaping with the exhaust gas, use of and ceramic rolling contact bearings. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) is used for ignition to enable the engines to operate with a lean mixture and eliminate spark plug erosion. 4 refs., 16 figs.

Badgley, P.; McNulty, D.; Woods, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF THFEGENERAL ELECTRIC STIRLING ENGINE GAS HEAT PUMP R. C. Meier, Program Manager, Gas Heat Pump Program General Electric Company P. 0. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE SUMMARY The Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump is a high performance product for space

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

63

Development of the Miller cycle for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas is a viable alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. But comparing natural gas engines with base diesel engines, the power output is 20--30% lower and the thermal efficiency is 4--5% lower due to knocking in the gas engine. The Miller cycle with independent presetting of the compression and expansion ratio for gas engines increases the engine efficiency with increased expansion ratio, while engine knocking can be avoided by reducing the compression ratio. A turbocharged inter-cooled spark ignition gas engine was modified to the Miller cycle engine and a thermal efficiency of 38%, 1.14MPa BMEP was attained with a three-way catalyst system compared to a thermal efficiency of 33%, 0.97 Mpa BMEP achieved by the conventional Otto cycle. On the other hand, the higher boost pressure, due to the lower compression ratio for avoiding knocking, caused a higher back pressure. This hinders the advantages of the Miller cycle and it is difficult to improve the engine performance further. Therefore, based on the Miller cycle, other technologies for avoiding knocking were developed to improve engine performance. A two-stage intake cooling system was developed, in which a new inter-cooler is installed in the intake passages close to the cylinder head as a second inter-cooler, besides an ordinary charge cooler. This significantly cools the blow-back mixture from the cylinder in the Late Intake-Closing Method Miller cycle. Besides the two-stage intake cooling system, a new split cooling system was also developed for the Miller cycle, where cooling water flowing to the cylinder head is independent of that flowing to the cylinder block. Cooling water at 313 K is circulated in the cylinder head to extend the knock-free zone and to improve the intake charging efficiency while cooling water at 353 K is circulated in the cylinder block to reduce the friction loss.

Zhang, F.R.; Okamoto, Kazuhisa; Shimogata, Satoshi; Shoji, Fujio [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan). Energy Technology Research Inst.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

The axial gas-dynamic forces acting on the rotor of a small gas-turbine engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exact determination is discussed of the axial gas-dynamic forces acting on the rotor of a gas-turbine engine (GTE), which influence reliability....

S. S. Evgen’ev; R. R. Zalyaev

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines By Vaclav Smiland Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. Cambridge,of the internal combustion engine invented by Rudolf Diesel

Anderson, Byron P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Stirling engines for gas fired micro-cogen and cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and performance of free-piston Stirling engine-alternators particularly suited for use as natural gas fired micro-cogen and cooling devices. Stirling based cogen systems offer significant potential advantages over internal combustion engines in efficiency, to maintain higher efficiencies at lower power levels than than combustion engines significantly expands the potential for micro-cogen. System cost reduction and electric prices higher than the U.S. national average will have a far greater effect on commercial success than any further increase in Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling based cogen systems are competitive. Machines of this design are being considered for production in the near future as gas-fired units for combined heat and power in sufficiently large quantities to assure competitive prices for the final unit.

Lane, N.W.; Beale, W.T. [Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

Not Available

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines Natural gas and other liquid feedstocks for transportation fuels...

69

Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines By Vaclav Smil Reviewedof Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. Cambridge, MA: The MITin the 1890s and the gas turbine invented by Frank Whittle

Anderson, Byron P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Natural gas fueling of a Catepillar 3406 diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on a Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine which was converted to operate in a natural gas with diesel pilot ignition mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full-load power was achieved with natural gas fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with natural gas fueling at high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50 percent with natural gas fueling for all cases investigated. NO[sub x] emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for natural gas fueling while CO[sub 2] concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for natural gas fueling.

Doughty, G.E.; Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

: Pune, India GTA8.3SLB QSV91 6 Measure of Success CO2 Production and Comparison of Natural Gas and Diesel Power Generation Applications The combination of high...

72

Methods For Delivering Liquified Gas To An Engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquified gas delivery system for a motorized platform includes a holding tank configured to receive liquified gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the tank to a valve device. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the tank to the valve device. Fluid coupled to the valve device is a vaporizer which is in communication with an engine. The valve device selectively withdraws either liquified gas or liquified gas vapor from the tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the tank. Various configurations of the delivery system can be utilized for pressurizing the tank during operation.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

73

Methods For Delivering Liquified Gas To An Engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquified gas delivery system for a motorized platform includes a holding tank configured to receive liquified gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the tank to a valve device. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the tank to the valve device. Fluid coupled to the valve device is a vaporizer which is in communication with an engine. The valve device selectively withdraws either liquified gas or liquified gas vapor from the tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the tank. Various configurations of the delivery system can be utilized for pressurizing the tank during operation.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

74

Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

Performance characterization of different configurations of gas turbine engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of different configurations of gas turbine engines. A full numerical model for the engine is built. This model takes into account the variations in specific heat and the effects of turbine cooling flow. Also, the model considers the efficiencies of all component, effectiveness of heat exchangers and the pressure drop in relevant components. The model is employed to compare the engine performances in cases of employing intercooler, recuperation and reheat on a single spool gas turbine engine. A comparison is made between single-spool engine and two-spool engine with free power turbine. Also, the performance of the engine with inter-stage turbine burner is investigated and compared with engine employing the nominal reheat concept. The engine employing inter-stage turbine burners produces superior improvements in both net work and efficiency over all other configurations. The effects of ignoring the variations on specific heat of gases and turbine cooling flow on engine performance are estimated. Ignoring the variation in specific heat can cause up to 30% difference in net specific work. The optimum locations of the intercooler and the reheat combustor are determined using the numerical model of the engine. The maximum net specific work is obtained if the reheat combustor is placed at 40% of the expansion section. On the other hand, to get maximum efficiency the reheat combustor has to be placed at nearly 10%-20% of the expansion section. The optimum location of the intercooler is almost at 50% of the compression section for both maximum net specific work and efficiency.

Tarek Nada

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil- Impact on Wear  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results of completed study on the effect of four exhaust gas recirculation levels on diesel engine oil during standard test with an API Cummins M-11 engine.

77

Simulation of single acting natural gas Reciprocating Expansion Engine based on ideal gas model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential energy of high pressure gas destroyed in natural gas pressure reduction stations during pressure reduction when it passes through throttling valves. One way to recover this energy is to use a Reciprocating Expansion Engine coupled with a generator. The expansion engine is able to produce electricity as pressure decreases by recovering the potential energy. Although the expansion engine has been utilized in pressure reduction points for some time but it has not been analyzed for performance enhancement yet. In this work an advanced numerical simulation has been presented for the thermodynamic modeling of Natural Gas Single Acting Reciprocating Expansion Engine under various working conditions for high pressure ranges. The simulation has been carried out to understand the effects of various parameters and to improve performance of the engine. A range of geometric parameters such as suction diameter, piston diameter, crank radius, connecting rod length, speed were covered in this research. Because of the physical and numerical difficulties of the problem, the natural gas is assumed as an ideal gas.

Mahmood Farzaneh Gord; Mohsen Jannatabadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Systems for delivering liquified natural gas to an engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel delivery system includes a fuel tank configured to receive liquid natural gas. A first conduit extends from a vapor holding portion of the fuel tank to an economizer valve. A second conduit extends from a liquid holding portion of the fuel tank to the economizer valve. Fluid coupled to the economizer valve is a vaporizer which is heated by coolant from the engine and is positioned below the fuel tank. The economizer valve selectively withdraws either liquid natural gas or vaporized natural gas from the fuel tank depending on the pressure within the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank. A delivery conduit extends from the vaporizer to the engine. A return conduit having a check valve formed therein extends from the delivery conduit to the vapor holding portion of the fuel tank for pressurizing the fuel tank.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siahpush, Ali S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Brown, Kevin B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fumigation of a diesel engine with low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 0.5 liter single-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine has been fumigated with producer gas. Measurements of power, efficiency, cylinder pressure, and emissions were made. At each operating condition, engine load was held constant, and the gas-to-diesel fuel ratio was increased until abnormal combustion was encountered. This determined the maximum fraction of the input energy supplied by the gas, E/sub MAX/, which was found to be dependent upon injection timing and load. At light loads, E/sub MAX/ was limited by severe efficiency loss and missfire, while at heavy loads it was limited by knock or preignition. Fumigation generally increased ignition delay and heat release rates, but peak pressures were not strongly influenced. Efficiency was slightly decreased by fumigation as were NO/sub X/ and particle emissions while CO emissions were increased.

Ahmadi, M.; Kittelson, D.B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS Advanced Natural Gas Engine Research and Development for Class 3 Notice (PON-12-504) entitled "Advanced Natural Gas Engine research and Development for Class 3 through of natural gas engine concepts for application in light heavy-duty vehicles (LHDV) and medium heavy duty

83

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 Pre-and/or Co-Requisites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 1st Year Pre- and/or Co-Requisites FALL 1 AMAT 217 Calculus 259 Electricity and Magnetism AMAT 217; MATH 211 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program Pre 12 ENGG 317 Mechanics of Solids ENGG 202 or 205; AMAT 217 3rd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular

Calgary, University of

84

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 2009/2010 Curriculum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year 2009/2010 Curriculum Pre- and/or Co-Requisites FALL 1 complementary studies courses must be taken prior to graduation. ENOG 2010/2011 Curriculum #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program BLK WK - WINTER ENCH 101 Computing

Calgary, University of

85

Study Guide 2012 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study Guide 2012 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Graduate Diploma in Oil Oil & Gas Economics PETR8503 Reservoir Engineering Possible Options (example only) PETR8510 Petroleum freedom to choose units from the available options listed in the Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Table

Tobar, Michael

86

Study Guide 2010 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study Guide 2010 for Full-Time Students Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Graduate Diploma in Oil Oil & Gas Economics PETR8503 Reservoir Engineering Possible Options (example only) CIVL4130 Offshore freedom to choose units from the available options listed in the Master of Oil and Gas Engineering Table

Tobar, Michael

87

Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program Nuclear Furnace 1 test?reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen?gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

Herbert R. Zweig; Stanley Fischler; William R. Wagner

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

Zweig, H.R.; Fischler, S.; Wagner, W.R. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Large bore natural gas engine performance improvements and combustion stabilization through reformed natural gas precombustion chamber fueling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lean combustion is a standard approach used to reduce NOx emissions in large bore natural gas engines. However, at lean operating points, combustion instabilities and… (more)

Ruter, Matthew D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

91

Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

End gas autoignition and knock in a spark ignition engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper is concerned with end-gas autoignition, subsequent knock severity and magnitude of induced gas velocity. An optically accessed single cylinder two stroke engine was modified to give complete overhead optical access to the disc-shaped combustion chamber. Flame propagation and end-gas autoignition events were recorded using high speed natural light and schlieren photography; local gas motions, prior to and induced by the knock event, were determined using an oil droplet trajectory technique. Cylinder pressure was synchronously recorded at three positions around the cylinder head; one transducer's output being simultaneously displayed on the film. End gas autoignition generally developed from multiple centers. Autoignition was usually, but not invariably, followed by knock. The severity of knock increased as the onset of autoignition occurred closer behind the top dead centre position; knock was characterized by pressure oscillations, carbon formation and high velocity post-knock gas motions. These phenomena were relatively insensitive to mass fraction unburned at the time of autoignition.

Konig, G.; Sheppard, C.G.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Landfill gas with hydrogen addition – A fuel for SI engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent quest to replace fossil fuels with renewable and sustainable energy sources has increased interest on utilization of landfill and bio gases. It is further augmented due to environment concerns and global warming caused by burning of conventional fossil fuels, energy security concerns and high cost of crude oil, and renewable nature of these gases. The main portion of landfill gas or biogas is comprised of methane and carbon dioxide with some other gases in small proportions. Methane if released directly to the atmosphere causes about 21 times global warming effects than carbon dioxide. Thus landfill gas is generally flared, where the energy recovery is not in place in practice. Using landfill gas to generate energy not only encourages more efficient collection reducing emissions into the atmosphere but also generates revenues for operators and local governments. However, use of landfill gases for energy production is not always perceived as an attractive option because of some disadvantages. Thus it becomes necessary to address these disadvantages involved by studying landfill gases in a technological perspective and motivate utilization of landfill gas for future energy needs. This paper discussed landfill gas as a fuel for a spark ignition engine to produce power in an effective way. It has been shown that though the performance and combustion characteristics of the landfill gas fueled engine deteriorated in comparison with methane operation, increasing compression ratio and advancing spark timing improved the performance of the landfill gas operation in par with methane operation. The effects due to composition changes in the landfill gas were found more pronounced at lean and rich mixture operation than at stoichiometry. In addition, the effects of additions of hydrogen up to 30% in the landfill gas were studied. Addition of even small quantities of hydrogen such as 3–5% delivered better performance improvement particularly at the lean and rich limit operations and extended the operational limits. Additions of hydrogen also improved the combustion characteristics and reduced cyclic variations of landfill gas operations especially at the lean and rich mixtures.

S.O. Bade Shrestha; G. Narayanan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Dilute, Mixing-Controlled Combustion in an Optical Direct-Injection Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, and Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 ... Additionally, data obtained from this study provide fundamental insights into NOx and PM formation mechanisms in diesel engines. ... Results show that increasing fuel oxygenation produces lower in-cylinder and engine-out soot levels, consistent with existing studies of the effects of fuel oxygenation on soot emissions from diesel engines. ...

A. S. (Ed) Cheng; Ansis Upatnieks; Charles J. Mueller

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Bayesian Hierarchical Models for aerospace gas turbine engine prognostics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improved prognostics is an emerging requirement for modern health monitoring that aims to increase the fidelity of failure-time predictions by the appropriate use of sensory and reliability information. In the aerospace industry, it is a key technology to maximise aircraft availability, offering a route to increase time in-service and to reduce operational disruption through improved asset management. An aircraft engine is a complex system comprising multiple subsystems that have dependent interactions so it is difficult to construct a model of its degradation dynamics based on physical principles. This complexity suggests that a statistically robust methodology for handling large quantities of real-time data would be more appropriate. In this work, therefore, a Bayesian approach is taken to exploit fleet-wide data from multiple assets to perform probabilistic estimation of remaining useful life for civil aerospace gas turbine engines. The paper establishes a Bayesian Hierarchical Model to perform inference and inform a probabilistic model of remaining useful life. Its performance is compared with that of an existing Bayesian non-Hierarchical Model and is found to be superior in typical (heterogeneous) scenarios. The techniques use Bayesian methods to combine two sources of information: historical in-service data across the engine fleet and once per-flight transmitted performance measurement from the engine(s) under prognosis. The proposed technique provides predictive results within well defined uncertainty bounds and demonstrates several advantages of the hierarchical variant’s ability to integrate multiple unit data to address realistic prognostic challenges. This is illustrated by an example from a civil aerospace gas turbine fleet data.

Martha A. Zaidan; Robert F. Harrison; Andrew R. Mills; Peter J. Fleming

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology demonstration in an actual full-sized reciprocating natural-gas engine.

Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas (734) 764-4256 1 #12;Storset et al.- Adaptive Air Charge Est. for TC Diesel Engines 2 1 Introduction

Stefanopoulou, Anna

99

Failure Analysis of a Compressor Blade of Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The stage II compressor stator blade of a developmental gas turbine engine was found damaged during dismantling of the engine after test run. A portion of the blade was found fractured from the hub region at leading edge. A crack was also observed extending from the fractured surface towards the centre of the airfoil region of the blade. Low magnification stereo-binocular observation revealed presence of beach marks on the fractured surface indicating the blade failure in progressive mode. This observation was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The crack origin was at the blade hub-stem junction on the leading edge side. Presence of machining/filing marks appeared to be the reason for the fatigue crack initiation from this region. No metallurgical abnormalities were present at the crack origin. However, deep filing/machining lines were observed at the stem region of the blade attributing to the cause of failure.

Swati Biswas; M.D. Ganeshachar; Jivan Kumar; V.N. Satish Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.

Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

\\{NOx\\} reduction from a large bore natural gas engine via reformed natural gas prechamber fueling optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lean combustion is a standard approach used to reduce \\{NOx\\} emissions in large bore (35–56 cm) stationary natural gas engines. However, at lean operating points, combustion instabilities and misfires give rise to high total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. To counteract this effect, precombustion chamber (PCC) technology is employed to allow engine operation at an overall lean equivalence ratio while mitigating the rise of THC and CO caused by combustion instability and misfires. A PCC is a small chamber, typically 1–2% of the clearance volume. A separate fuel line supplies gaseous fuel to the PCC and a standard spark plug ignites the slightly rich mixture (equivalence ratio 1.1–1.2) in the PCC. The ignited PCC mixture enters the main combustion chamber as a high energy flame jet, igniting the lean mixture in the main chamber. Typically, natural gas fuels both the main chamber and the PCC. In the current research, a mixture of reformed natural gas (syngas) and natural gas fuels the PCC. Syngas is a broad term that refers to a synthetic gaseous fuel. In this case, syngas specifically denotes a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane generated in a natural gas reformer. Syngas has a faster flame speed and a wider equivalence ratio range of operation than methane. Fueling the PCC with Syngas reduces combustion instabilities and misfires. This extends the overall engine lean limit, enabling further \\{NOx\\} reductions. Research results presented are aimed at quantifying the benefits of syngas PCC fueling. A model is developed to calculate the equivalence ratio in the PCC for different mixtures and flowrates of fuel. An electronic injection valve is used to supply the PCC with syngas. The delivery pressure, injection timing, and flow rate are varied to optimize PCC equivalence ratio. The experimental results show that supplying the PCC with 100% syngas improves combustion stability by 21% compared to natural gas PCC fueling. A comparison at equivalent combustion stability operating points between 100% syngas and natural gas shows an 87% reduction in \\{NOx\\} emissions for 100% syngas PCC fueling compared to natural gas PCC fueling.

Mathew D. Ruter; Daniel B. Olsen; Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper ... , we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3?5 kWe...electric...

Tie Li; Xiange Song; Xiaohong Gui; Dawei Tang; Zhigang Li…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Advanced Life Assessment Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In combustion systems for aircraft applications, liners represent an interesting challenge from the engineering point of view regarding the state of stress, including high temperatures (up to 1500 °C) varying over time, high thermal gradients, creep related phenomena, mechanical fatigue and vibrations. As a matter of fact, under the imposed thermo-mechanical loading conditions, some sections of the liner can creep; the consequent residual stresses at low temperatures can cause plastic deformations. For these reasons, during engine operations, the material behaviour can be hardly non-linear and the simulation results to be time expensive. Aim of this paper is to select and implement some advanced material life assessment methods to gas turbine engine components such as combustor liners. Uniaxial damage models for Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF), based on Coffin-Manson, Neu-Sehitoglu and Chaboche works, have been implemented in Matlab®. In particular, experimental LCF and TMF results for full size specimens are compared to calibrate these models and to assess TMF life of specimens. Results obtained in different testing conditions have been used for validation. In particular, each model needs specific parameter calibrations to characterize the investigated materials; these parameters and their relation with temperature variation have been experimentally obtained by testing standard specimens.

Vincenzo Cuffaro; Francesca Curŕ; Raffaella Sesana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Experimental study of rotordynamic coefficients of squeeze film dampers of an aircraft gas turbine engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rotordynamic coefficients of squeeze film dampers of an aircraft gas turbine engine were investigated experimentally. Rotordynamic model(XLROTOR) for Gas Generator and Power Turbine were constructed. The XLROTOR response plots with changing...

Na, Uhn Joo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Domestic equipment for the development of gas-turbine based power engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A brief analysis of characteristics and specific features of foreign gas-turbine installations is presented. Prospects of introduction of combined-cycle and gas-turbine technologies in power engineering of Rus...

G. G. Ol’khovskii

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems J. Sharda1 ; C of multilayer composite fabrics used in a gas turbine engine containment system is developed. Specifically: Tensile strength; Stress analysis; Stress strain relations; Fabrics; Composite materials; Finite element

Mobasher, Barzin

108

US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Determination of cycle configuration of gas turbines and aircraft engines by an optimization procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the analyses and optimization of simple and sophisticated cycles, particularly for various gas turbine engines and aero-engines (including the scramjet engine) to achieve maximum performance. The optimization of such criteria as thermal efficiency, specific output, and total performance for gas turbine engines, and overall efficiency, nondimensional thrust, and specific impulse for aero-engines has been performed by the optimization procedure with the multiplier method. Comparison of results with analytical solutions establishes the validity of the optimization procedure.

Tsuijikawa, Y.; Nagaoka, M. (Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Mozu-umemachi, Sakai 591 (JP))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas-Turbine Engine Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thereby improving engine efficiency and performance...temperature, making engine components more...some extent, in diesel engines, where higher operating...analyze it in terms of fundamental principles governing...change with time and cycles during service...

Nitin P. Padture; Maurice Gell; Eric H. Jordan

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

111

Effects of a dilute gas of fermions on the superfluid-insulator phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building on the work of Fisher et al. (Phys. Rev. B 40, 546 (1989)), we develop a framework for perturbation theory in the Bose-Hubbard model and apply it to calculate the effects of a degenerate gas of spin-polarized fermions interacting by contact interactions with the constituent bosons. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, the only non-trivial effect of the fermions is to induce an effective space- and time-dependent density-density interaction among the bosons. Using a path integral formulation, we develop the appropriate theory describing the perturbative effects of this fermion-mediated interaction (fermionic screening) on the generic superfluid-insulator phase diagram. For the single-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that the net effect of the fermions is to inherently suppress the Mott-insulating lobes and enhance the area occupied by the superfluid phase in the phase diagram. For the more general multi-band Bose-Hubbard model, we find that, in addition to the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the virtual excitations of the bosons to the higher Bloch bands coupled with the contact interactions with the fermions result in an effective increase of the boson on-site repulsion. If this renormalization of the boson on-site potential is dominant over the fermion screening of the boson interactions, the area of the Mott insulating lobes of the Bose-Hubbard phase diagram will be enhanced for either sign of the boson-fermion interactions, as seen in recent experiments.

Sumanta Tewari; Roman M. Lutchyn; S. Das Sarma

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

112

CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Natural Gas Engine and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Integration Research TRANSPORTATION ENERGY ­ including natural gas ­ that can substantially reduce GHG emissions while reducing petroleum dependence. This research would increase the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel by developing advanced natural

113

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas) Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas with oil and gas specialization at the assistant- or associate professor-level, commencing April 12, 2010 in the area of oil and gas, and process engineering, to supervise graduate students, to participate in other

George, Glyn

114

A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry Ismael H the control and execution of large and complex industrial projects in oil and gas industry. The environment governmental oil & gas company. The necessity of collaboration is especially acute in the field of computer

Barbosa, Alberto

115

An experimental investigation of high performance natural gas engine with direct injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The original gasoline-PI engine was also modified to a CNG bi-fuel system. The test results obtained from CNG fuel using two different systems (i.e. bi-fuel and DI) have been investigated and compared with the original gasoline engine. The objective of this investigation is to compare the test results between CNG-DI, with CNG-BI and gasoline-PI engines with the same displacement volume. It was found that the CNG-DI engine produces similar brake power at 6000 rpm and wide open throttle (WOT) but produces higher brake power at part load condition as compared to the original gasoline. The CNG-BI engine produces 23% lower brake power than the CNG-DI engine. The average brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the CNG-DI engine was 0.28% and 8% lower than gasoline-PI and CNG-BI engines respectively. The CNG-DI engine reduces 42% \\{NOx\\} emission as compared to the base engine. However, the CNG-DI engine produces higher HC and CO emissions as compared to the base engine. This paper discusses a review on the direct injection (DI) natural gas engine with new information along with other investigations.

M.A. Kalam; H.H. Masjuki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Producer Gas Engines in Villages of Less-Developed Countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combustion en-gines such as the Stirling engine running on any combustible material...low-pressure, hot-air Stirling engine will cost $300 to $400 per...anticipate a 100-W, "free piston" Stirling engine pump to be sold for less than...

Rathin Datta; Gautam S. Dutt

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-and/or CO-REQUISITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 2 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE- and/or CO-REQUISITES FALL-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE- and/or CO Mechanics of Solids ENGG 202 or 205; AMAT 217 3rd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program SEMESTER

Calgary, University of

118

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 SEMESTER OFFERED PRE-REQUISITES are listed in this column.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED PRE-REQUISITES are listed AMAT 217 and MATH 211; recommended co-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program will be deemed correct. 2014/2015 Curriculum (Updated June 13, 2014) #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 3rd

Calgary, University of

119

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-REQUISITES listed in this column.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 1st Year SEMESTER OFFERED COURSE PRE-REQUISITES listed and Magnetism AMAT 217; MATH 211; recommended co-req: AMAT 219 2nd Year Oil and Gas Engineering: Regular Program correct. 2013/2014 Curriculum (Updated June 18, 2013) #12;OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 2 of 3 3rd Year Oil

Calgary, University of

120

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System Contract: DE-EE0004016 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 92014 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator...

123

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)- Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES), given by Martin Willi at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

124

Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

Martini, Bastien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Exhaust gas recirculation trials with high-speed marine and rail diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On diesel engines in particular, series production in both passenger and commercial vehicle sectors has long incorporated systems which introduce cooled exhaust gas into the charge air in order to lower peak c...

Dirk Bergmann; Christian Philipp; Helmut Rall; Rolf Traub

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A market and engineering study of a 3-kilowatt class gas turbine generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Market and engineering studies were performed for the world's only commercially available 3 kW class gas turbine generator, the IHI Aerospace Dynajet. The objectives of the market study were to determine the competitive ...

Monroe, Mark A. (Mark Alan)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)- Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES), given by Jim Zurlo at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

128

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)- Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES), given by Edward Lyford-Pike at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

129

Producer Gas Engines in Villages of Less-Developed Countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...farmers use high-quality...petroleum and natural gas, whereas virtually...of synthesis gas. So far...950-watt, low-pressure, hot-air...fluidized-bed combustors to yield combustion...exceedingly high, $4,000...producer gas, and Stirling...

Rathin Datta; Gautam S. Dutt

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

130

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr. Fletcher Miller SDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract Solar thermal power for electricity for the California desert and in other appro- priate regions worldwide. Current technology relies on steam Rankine

Ponce, V. Miguel

131

Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study was undertaken of the usage rates of both fuel and lubricants in reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas. The study was conducted to determine the potential for energy conservation, if use is made of more fuel efficient natural gas...

Johnson, D. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

SHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulta- neously, holding out the promise of low production cost. Such assemblies are known as microSHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED ROTATING MACHINERY Alan H. Epstein, Stuart A. Jacobson, Jon M. Protz, Luc G. Fréchette Gas Turbine Laboratory

Frechette, Luc G.

133

Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine Operating on Landfill Gas and the Effect of Syngas Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine Operating on Landfill Gas and the Effect of Syngas Addition ... The performance of a four-stroke Honda GC160E spark ignition (SI) internal combustion (IC) engine operating on landfill gas (LFG) was investigated, as well as the impact of H2 and CO (syngas) addition on emissions and engine efficiency. ... In addition, variation across both the syngas content (up to 15%) and the ratio of H2 to CO in the syngas (H2/CO = 0.5, 1, and 2) were tested. ...

McKenzie P. Kohn; Jechan Lee; Matthew L. Basinger; Marco J. Castaldi

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas-Turbine Engine Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from corrosion, wear, and erosion...generation, and marine propulsion (1...some extent, in diesel engines, where...from corrosion, wear, and erosion...from corrosion, wear, and erosion...generation, and marine propulsion...some extent, in diesel engines, where...

Nitin P. Padture; Maurice Gell; Eric H. Jordan

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

135

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition (SI) engine, from a prototyping of a practical supervi- sion and control system for a pilot Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

The influence of fuel composition on the combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As global energy demand rises, natural gas (NG) plays an important strategic role in energy supply. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel that has been investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the research on the effects of natural gas composition on combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) and reports the most achievements obtained by researchers in this field. It has been reported that the engine performance and emission are greatly affected by varying compositions of natural gas. The most important NG fuel property is the Wobbe number (WN). Generally, it was agreed by researchers that the fuels with higher hydrocarbons, higher WN, and higher energy content exhibited better fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were also increased for gases with higher levels of higher WN, while total hydrocarbons (THCs), carbon monoxide (CO), showed some reductions for these gases. On the other hand, particulate matter (PM) emissions did not show any fuel effects. Moreover, adding of small fractions of higher alkanes, such as ethane and propane, significantly improved ignition qualities of natural gas engines. The results presented provide a good insight for researchers to pursue their future research on natural gas fueled ICEs.

Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Amin Paykani; Mostafa Ghajar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions ... The development of the necessary thermodynamic equations directly in terms of molality is not common ... ...

Gabor Jancso; David V. Fenby

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A Gas Chromatography-Isotope Dilution High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantification of Isomeric Benzo[a]pyrene Diol Epoxide Hemoglobin Adducts in Humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Smoking blood We developed a gas chromatographyisotope...materials, industrial production of petroleum products...persist and accumulate A Gas ChromatographyIsotope...rate, accessible, and cost-effective foundation...have developed the first gas chromatographyisotope......

Angela D. Ragin; Kenroy E. Crawford; Alisha A. Etheredge; James Grainger; Donald G. Patterson; Jr.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Experimental investigation of the thermal and diluent effects of EGR components on combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of a turbocharged natural gas SI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of effective measures used in natural gas (NG) engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Each component of EGR gases can exert different effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates, such as thermal effect, diluent effect, and chemical effect. In this study, the thermal and diluent effects of the main components of EGR gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), were experimentally investigated. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty natural gas spark-ignition (SI) engine with multi-point injection and 6-cylinder. In order to define the diluent effect of EGR components, argon (Ar) was introduced to the test, for its low and unchangeable specific heat capacity under different temperatures. The results showed that the contribution of the diluent effect on \\{NOx\\} reductions was 50–60% and 41–53% for N2 and CO2 respectively, and the relevant contribution of the thermal effect was 40–50% and 47–59% respectively. CO2 had greater effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates than N2 at the same dilution ratio. Increasing Ar improved the thermal efficiency due to the higher specific heat ratio provided. Meanwhile, \\{NOx\\} emissions were found to be decreased with increasing DR as a result of the diluent effect of Ar on combustion and \\{NOx\\} formations.

Weifeng Li; Zhongchang Liu; Zhongshu Wang; Yun Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effects of gas composition on the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is considered to be a promising alternative ... energy security. However, since the composition of natural gas fuel varies with location, climate and other ... emission characteristics and performance...

Byung Hyouk Min; Jin Taek Chung; Ho Young Kim; Simsoo Park

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989-January 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod III) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Potential of Using Natural Gas in HCCI Engines: Results from Zero- and Multi-dimensional Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the depletion of petroleum based fuels and the corresponding concerns of national energy security issues, natural gas as an alternative fuel in IC engine applications has become an attractive option. Natural gas requires minimum mixture...

Zheng, Junnian

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

143

Experiments and thermal modeling on hybrid energy supply system of gas engine heat pumps and organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a hybrid energy supply system, which is composed of two subsystems (gas engine-driven heat pump system (GEHP) and organic Rankine cycle system (ORC)) and three major thermodynamic cycles (the vapor compression refrigeration cycle, the internal combustion gas engine cycle and ORC). In order to convert the low-grade gas engine waste heat into high-grade electricity, the ORC system is built up using R245fa, \\{R152a\\} and R123 as working fluids, and the ORC thermal model is also developed. Meanwhile, experiments of \\{GHEPs\\} in cooling mode are conducted, and several factors which influence the cooling performance are also discussed. The results indicate that the cooling capacity, gas engine energy consumption, gas engine waste heat increase with increasing of gas engine speed and decrease with decreasing of evaporator water inlet temperature. The waste heat recovered from gas engine is more than 55% of gas engine energy consumption. F6urthermore, R123 in ORC system yields the highest thermal and exergy efficiency of 11.84% and 54.24%, respectively. Although, thermal and exergy efficiency of \\{R245fa\\} is 11.42% and 52.25% lower than that of R123, its environmental performance exhibits favorable utilization for ORC using gas engine waste heat as low-grade heat source.

Huanwei Liu; Qiushu Zhou; Haibo Zhao; Peifeng Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Experience gained in a number of countries from using thermal power stations equipped with diesel and gas engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large-capacity thermal power stations and customer’s cogeneration stations equipped with diesel and gas engines, and their technical-economic and cost...

A. A. Salamov

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Reduction of fuel consumption in gasoline engines by introducing HHO gas into intake manifold  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brown’s gas (HHO) has recently been introduced to the auto industry as a new source of energy. The present work proposes the design of a new device attached to the engine to integrate an HHO production system with the gasoline engine. The proposed HHO generating device is compact and can be installed in the engine compartment. This auxiliary device was designed, constructed, integrated and tested on a gasoline engine. Test experiments were conducted on a 197cc (Honda G 200) single-cylinder engine. The outcome shows that the optimal surface area of an electrolyte needed to generate sufficient amount of HHO is twenty times that of the piston surface area. Also, the volume of water needed in the cell is about one and half times that of the engine capacity. Eventually, the goals of the integration are: a 20–30% reduction in fuel consumption, lower exhaust temperature, and consequently a reduction in pollution.

Ammar A. Al-Rousan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

147

Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

Not Available

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of VOCs [2], and that lubricating oil is a major contributor. Fitting an oxidation catalyst to the natural gas engine leads to a reduction in nanoparticles emissions in comparison to engines without aftertreatment [2,3,4]. In 2001, the Cummins Westport Plus technology was introduced with the C Gas Plus engine, a popular choice for transit bus applications. This incorporates drive by wire, fully integrated, closed loop electronic controls and a standard oxidation catalyst for all applications. The B Gas Plus and the B Propane Plus engines, with application in shuttle and school buses were launched in 2002 and 2003. The gas-specific oxidation catalyst operates in concert with an optimized ring-pack and liner combination to reduce total particulate mass below 0.01g/bhphr, combat ultrafine particles and control VOC emissions.

Dunn, M

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

149

Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

Gu, Grace Xiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Emissions and fuel economy of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas dual fuelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder turbocharged prechamber diesel engine (Caterpillar 3304) was operated with natural gas and pilot diesel fuel ignition over a wide range of load and speed. Measurements were made of fuel consumption and the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and the oxides of nitrogen. Improvements in fuel economy and emissions were found to be affected by the diesel fuel-gas fraction, and by air restriction and fuel injection timing. Boundaries of unstable, inefficient and knocking operation were defined and the importance of gas-air equivalance ratio was demonstrated in its effect on economy, emissions and stability of operation.

Ding, X.; Hill, P.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP- Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System, given by Jim Zurlo at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

153

Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the turbocharger wastegate, and the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system are three actuators in the air path systemAir Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation of transient cylin- der charge control, based on a cycle-averaged mean-value model for a turbocharged spark

Stefanopoulou, Anna

154

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

155

Real-time estimation of gas turbine engine damage using a control-based Kalman filter algorithm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a second-generation Kalman filter algorithm is described that has sufficient accuracy and response for real-time detection and estimation of gas turbine engine gas path damage caused by normal wear, mechanical failures, and ingestion of foreign objects. The algorithm was developed for in-flight operation of aircraft engines but also has application for marine and industrial gas turbines. The control measurement and microcomputer requirements are described. The performance and sensitivity to engine transients and measurement errors is evaluated. The algorithm is demonstrated with actual engine data of ice and bird ingestion tests.

Kerr, L.J.; Nemec, T.S.; Gallops, G.W. (Pratt and Whitney, United Technologies Corp., West Palm Beach, FL (US))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped Vehicle as a Result of Regeneration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

˘This approach can be easily adopted for developing optimum engine calibration meeting performance, emissions and oil dilution.

158

Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine R&D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this cooperative research is to develop and verify models of internal combustion engine spark ignition devices in order to improve combustion chamber fuel ignition characteristics and to improve spark plug durability. As a direct result of this joint research, a novel spark plug design was improved. A theory of spark arc motion was developed that explains experimentally observed effects not explained by other published theories. The knowledge developed by this research will be used to further improve spark plugs as well as improve the ignition process in a combustion chamber. The predictive models developed here are compared with experimental measurements, including high-speed photographs, of the spark as it translates across the gap. Two different spark plug configurations were investigated: the conventional or J-gap plug, and a novel spark ignition device (the FANG plug) invented by Cummins, Inc., the CRADA partner. A description of the physics of arc dynamic motion in a spark plug gap, including the effects of an imposed transverse magnetic field, appears here in Appendix A as a result of the analytical effort. The theory proposed here does explain experimentally observed effects not completely explained by other research publications appearing in the scientific literature. These effects are due to pressure and ion, electron, and electrode interactions. A dominant mechanism for electrode erosion is presented for both spark plug configurations. Reversing the polarity of both types of spark plugs has verified this proposed erosion mechanism, according to data collected at Cummins. An extensive series of experiments measured the arc position, voltage, and current as a function of time during the approximately 2 millisecond spark discharge. FANG plug data, obtained with the fast-framing camera experimental apparatus operating at 200,000 frames per second, are presented that show the transverse arc velocity varying directly as the inverse square root of the elapsed time since arc initiation. At the request of Cummins, experiments were performed on three conventional spark plugs identical in design and having the same spark gap, but differing as follows: one was new, another had been used in an engine, and the third was new but had been sandblasted to simulate a used plug. Cummins had observed that only the used plug required a significantly higher breakdown voltage. Experiments at ORNL indicated that the used plug had a significantly higher breakdown voltage confirming the Cummins observations (although the sandblasted plug also exhibited a higher breakdown voltage than the new plug but lower than the used plug), and thus an apparent increase of the arc breakdown voltage results as the plug ages in use. Further analysis of this phenomenon is warranted.

None

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

Painter, Kevin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Dynamic pressure as a measure of gas turbine engine (GTE) performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilizing in situ dynamic pressure measurement is a promising novel approach with applications for both control and condition monitoring of gas turbine-based propulsion systems. The dynamic pressure created by rotating components within the engine presents a unique opportunity for controlling the operation of the engine and for evaluating the condition of a specific component through interpretation of the dynamic pressure signal. Preliminary bench-top experiments are conducted with dc axial fans for measuring fan RPM, blade condition, surge and dynamic temperature variation. Also, a method, based on standing wave physics, is presented for measuring the dynamic temperature simultaneously with the dynamic pressure. These tests are implemented in order to demonstrate the versatility of dynamic pressure-based diagnostics for monitoring several different parameters, and two physical quantities, dynamic pressure and dynamic temperature, with a single sensor. In this work, the development of a dynamic pressure sensor based on micro-electro-mechanical system technology for in situ gas turbine engine condition monitoring is presented. The dynamic pressure sensor performance is evaluated on two different gas turbine engines, one having a fan and the other without.

G Rinaldi; I Stiharu; M Packirisamy; V Nerguizian; R Jr Landry; J-P Raskin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Energetic and exergetic analyses of a variable compression ratio spark ignition gas engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Considering the significance of obtaining higher efficiencies from internal combustion engines (ICE) along with the growing role of natural gas as a fuel, the present work is set to explore the effects of compression ratio (CR hereafter) and air/fuel equivalence ratio (AFER hereafter) on the energy and exergy potentials in a gas-fueled spark ignition internal combustion engine. Experiments are carried out using a single cylinder, port injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR hereafter), spark ignition engine at a constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The study involves \\{CRs\\} of 12, 14 and 16 and 10 \\{AFERs\\} between 0.8 and 1.25. Pure methane is utilized for the analysis. In addition, a natural gas blend with the minimum methane content among Iranian gas sources is also tested in order to investigate the effect of real natural gas on findings. The energy analysis involves input fuel power, indicated power and losses due to high temperature of exhaust gases and their unburned content, blow-by and heat loss. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input and piston, exhaust, and losses availabilities along with destructed entropy. The analysis indicates an increase in the ratio of thermo-mechanical exhaust availability to fuel availability by CR with a maximum near stoichiometry, whereas it is shown that chemical exhaust exergy is not dependent on CR and reduces with AFER. In addition, it is indicated that the ratio of actual cycle to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is about constant (about 0.784) with changing CR, AFER and CNG fuel used.

A. Javaheri; V. Esfahanian; A. Salavati-Zadeh; M. Darzi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine.

Mohamed Djermouni; Ahmed Ouadha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Vibration based damage detection of rotor blades in a gas turbine engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes the problems concerning turbine rotor blade vibration that seriously impact the structural integrity of a developmental aero gas turbine. Experimental determination of vibration characteristics of rotor blades in an engine is very important from fatigue failure considerations. The blades under investigation are fabricated from nickel base super alloy through directionally solidified investment casting process. The blade surfaces are coated with platinum aluminide for oxidation protection. A three dimensional finite element modal analysis on a bladed disk was performed to know the likely blade resonances for a particular design in the speed range of operation. Experiments were conducted to assess vibration characteristics of bladed disk rotor during engine tests. Rotor blade vibrations were measured using non-intrusive stress measurement system, an indirect method of blade vibration measurement utilizing blade tip timing technique. Abnormalities observed in the vibration characteristics of the blade tip timing data measured during engine tests were used to detect the blade damage. Upon disassembly of the engine and subsequent fluorescent penetrant inspection, it was observed that three blades of the rotor assembly were identified to have damaged. These are the blades that exhibited vibration abnormalities as a result of large resonant vibration response while engine tests. Further, fractographic analysis performed on the blades revealed the mechanism of blade failures as fatigue related. The root cause of blade failure is established to be high cycle fatigue from the engine run data history although the blades were put into service for just 6 h of engine operation.

S. Madhavan; Rajeev Jain; C. Sujatha; A.S. Sekhar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A Gas Chromatography-Isotope Dilution High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantification of Isomeric Benzo[a]pyrene Diol Epoxide Hemoglobin Adducts in Humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Chromatography, Gas Cohort Studies Erythrocytes chemistry Hemoglobins analysis Humans Hydrolysis...industrial production of petroleum products, combustion of refuse, to- bacco smoke, and automobile...hydrocarbon- DNA and protein adducts in coal treated patients and controls and their......

Angela D. Ragin; Kenroy E. Crawford; Alisha A. Etheredge; James Grainger; Donald G. Patterson; Jr.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Effects of CH4, H2 and CO2 Mixtures on SI Gas Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Performance of a four-stroke spark ignition gas engine operated on mixtures of CH4, H2 and CO2 was studied. Experiments were carried out at a constant engine speed of 2,000 rpm and throttle opening of 14% with various equivalence ratios. The results showed that the highest brake power output of 12.5 kW and 35% thermal efficiency were achieved when operated with the mixture of 69.70% CH4, 9.95% H2 and 20.45% CO2 and the equivalence ratios between 1.0 and 0.82.

S. Chuayboon; S. Prasertsan; T. Theppaya; K. Maliwan; P. Prasertsan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

Mahrle, P.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Impact of Siloxane Impurities on the Performance of an Engine Operating on Renewable Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of Siloxane Impurities on the Performance of an Engine Operating on Renewable Natural Gas ... Biogas from sludge biodegradation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and landfill gas (LFG) generated from the decomposition of solid waste in landfills are both promising renewable fuels, as they contain a large fraction of methane, 40–70% by volume, the rest being CO2, together with smaller amounts of other gases like O2, N2, and Ar. ... In these studies two Honda EU2000i gasoline electric generators were utilized. ...

Nitin Nair; Xianwei Zhang; Jorge Gutierrez; Jack Chen; Fokion Egolfopoulos; Theodore Tsotsis

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

170

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Formation during Diesel Exhaust Dilution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Formation during Diesel Exhaust Dilution ... In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that ... ... Analyses of Turbulent Flow Fields and Aerosol Dynamics of Diesel Engine Exhaust Inside Two Dilution Sampling Tunnels Using the CTAG Model ...

Ji Ping Shi; Roy M. Harrison

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

171

A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Off-design performance of solar Centaur-40 gas turbine engine using Simulink  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, a Simulink model based on Matlab software is used to calculate the off-design running point for single shaft Centaur 40 power generation gas turbine engine. The off-design calculations comprise two models, the first is the operation during engine starting (from 65% to 100% speed, no load) while the other is the engine operation during the loading (constant speed of 100%). For starting model the baseline parameter is the engine speed while the net power is the baseline parameter in the case of loading operation. Herein, the component characteristics maps, the air and air/fuel mixture properties as functions of temperature and the engine design point parameters are introduced to the calculating program. Because of the lack of real component characteristics, scaling law is followed to adapt these characteristics. The loading operation results are then compared with the field results to check the validity of Simulink model. Also the effects of the ambient temperature on the engine performance parameters at the design condition are investigated.

M.H. Gobran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

An approach for assessing engineering risk from shale gas wells in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In response to a series of “energy crises” in the 1970s, the United States government began investigating the potential of unconventional, domestic sources of energy to offset imported oil. Hydraulic fracturing applied to vertical tight sand and coal bed methane wells achieved some degree of success during a period of high energy prices in the early 1980s, but shale gas remained largely untapped until the late 1990s with the application of directional drilling, a mature technology adapted from deepwater offshore platforms that allowed horizontal wells to penetrate kilometers of organic-rich shale, and staged hydraulic fracturing, which created high permeability flowpaths from the horizontal wells into a much greater volume of the target formations than previous completion methods. These new engineering techniques opened up vast unconventional natural gas and oil reserves, but also raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. These include short-term and long-term impacts to air and water quality from rig operations, potential migration of gas, fluids and chemicals through the ground, and effects on small watersheds and landscapes from roads, pads and other surface structures. Engineering risk assessment commonly uses integrated assessment models (IAMs), which define sources of risk from features, events and processes. The risk from each system element is assessed using high-fidelity models. Output from these is simplified into reduced-order models, so that a large, integrated site performance assessment can be run using the IAM. The technique has been applied to engineered systems in geologic settings for sequestering carbon dioxide, and it is also applicable to shale gas, albeit with some modifications of the various system elements. Preliminary findings indicate that shale gas well drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques are generally safe when properly applied. Incident reports recorded by state environmental agencies suggest that human error resulting from the disregard of prescribed practices is the greatest cause of environmental incidents. This can only be addressed through education, regulations and enforcement.

Daniel J. Soeder; Shikha Sharma; Natalie Pekney; Leslie Hopkinson; Robert Dilmore; Barbara Kutchko; Brian Stewart; Kimberly Carter; Alexandra Hakala; Rosemary Capo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser.

Kohlman, E.H.

1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

178

Improving fatigue strength by producing residual stresses on surface of parts of gas-turbine engines using processing treatments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with a comparison of results of measuring residual stresses and with the study of their ... effect on the fatigue strength of parts of gas-turbine engines after finish treatments by grinding, poli...

M. G. Yakovlev

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Certain peculiarities of Zr?Cr?N coatings on steel blades of a gas-turbine engine compressor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The properties of compressor blades of a helicopter gas-turbine engine with an experimental ionplasma coating Zr? ... -resistant, and mitigate the dependence of their residual properties on the amplitude and the ...

V. A. Styazhkin; A. A. Kopylov; S. Ya. Paleeva; Yu. G. Veksler…

180

Failure Analysis of Nozzle Guide Vane of a Low Pressure Turbine in an Aero Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure of low pressure turbine nozzle guide vane (NGV) in an aero gas turbine engine is analyzed to determine its root ... failure has caused extensive damages in low pressure turbine modules. Remedial measures ...

R. K. Mishra; Johney Thomas; K. Srinivasan…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector- Fact Sheet, 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet overview of a natural gas heat pump system for the residential sector that will incorporate an internal combustion engine that drives a vapor-compression heat pump

182

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

183

VOLUME 77, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 2 SEPTEMBER 1996 Lyapunov Exponents from Kinetic Theory for a Dilute, Field-Driven Lorentz Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cohen,3 H. A. Posch,4 and Ch. Dellago4 1 Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, Postbus 80006, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 2 Institute for Physical Science and Technology for a dilute, random, two-dimensional Lorentz gas in an applied field, E, in a steady state at constant energy

Dellago, Christoph

184

Experimental investigation of thermal balance of a turbocharged SI engine operating on natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper experimentally investigates the thermal balance and performance of a turbocharged gas spark ignition engine. The First Law of Thermodynamics was used for control volume around the engine to compute the output power, transferred energy to the cooling fluid, exhaust gases and also unaccounted losses through convection and radiation heat transfer. Thermal balance tests were performed for various operational conditions including full and half loads and different cooling fluid temperatures. Results indicate that by increasing engine load and coolant temperature, the percentage of transferred energy to the exhaust gases increased while the percentage of coolant energy decreased. Also, experimental data reveals that using gaseous fuel and a turbocharger (TC) in the engine leads to 4.5% and 4% more thermal efficiency than gasoline and natural aspirated (NA), respectively. Also, second law analysis reveals that using a turbocharger leads to a 3.6% increase in exergetic efficiency of the engine, averagely. Based on experimental results, an empirical correlation was suggested for computing the energy of exhaust gases which shows good agreement with the experimental data for the majority of operating conditions.

A. Gharehghani; M.Koochak; M. Mirsalim; Talal Yusaf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fault detection and isolation of a dual spool gas turbine engine using dynamic neural networks and multiple model approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for an aircraft jet engine is developed. The proposed FDI system is based on the multiple model approach and utilizes dynamic neural networks (DNNs) to accomplish this goal. Towards this end, ... Keywords: Bank of detection and isolation filters, Dual spool gas turbine engine, Dynamic neural networks, Fault diagnosis, Multiple model scheme

Z. N. Sadough Vanini; K. Khorasani; N. Meskin

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Evaluation of a Partial Flow Dilution System for Transient Particulate Matter Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A commercially available partial flow dilution system was evaluated against a constant volume sampling system over a suite of transient engine dynamometer tests.

187

Diluted Graphene Antiferromagnet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study RKKY interactions between local magnetic moments for both doped and undoped graphene. In the former case interactions for moments located on definite sublattices fall off as 1/R2, whereas for those placed at interstitial sites they decay as 1/R3. The interactions are primarily (anti)ferromagnetic for moments on (opposite) equivalent sublattices, suggesting that at low temperature dilute magnetic moments embedded in graphene can order into a state analogous to that of a dilute antiferromagnet. In the undoped case we find no net magnetic moment in the ground state, and demonstrate numerically this effect for ribbons, suggesting the possibility of an unusual spin-transfer device.

L. Brey; H. A. Fertig; S. Das Sarma

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The viscosity and density of CJO (crude Jatropha oil) were reduced by heating it using the heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine with an appropriately designed helical coil heat exchanger. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and \\{NOx\\} (nitrous oxide) emissions were observed for PJO along with increased CO (carbon monoxide) emission as compared to those of HSD.

Priyabrata Pradhan; Hifjur Raheman; Debasish Padhee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Advanced natural-gas-fueled-engine development. Part 1: design and analyses. Final report, April 1985-July 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research program was to design an advanced natural gas engine (NG 1990) to be produced in the 1990's which will have high thermal efficiency and 40,000 hours durability of the valve-train components before major engine overhaul. Preliminary design and feasibility of the NG 1990 advanced natural gas engine was completed. A natural gas engine simulation model predicts up to 43.6% brake thermal efficiency (5840 Btu/hp-hr BSFC) for the advanced engine with the advanced concepts like K-Miller cycle (early intake valve closing), lean burn combustion - A/F ratio = 24.5, high compression ratio up to 14:1, higher turbocharger efficiency of 63.2% overall, and axially stratified charge combustion system resulting in fast burning. The use of K-Miller cycle reduces the in-cylinder gas temperatures and allows engine operation at 14:1 compression ratio without knock tendencies. The design and analyses of the NG 1990 engine and its components like K-Miller system were completed in the program.

Kamo, R.; Walson, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, L.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Multi-strike ignition to improve performance, reduce misfiring of large gas engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New product and application information is now available on the advanced `CPU-2OOO` digital ignition system introduced by Altronic earlier this year for large-bore gas engines and integral compressors. The system is designed to improve performance, reduce misfiring, and be easily retrofitted to existing large-bore engines. including those that are being converted to lean-burn combustion in order to reduce emissions. To do this, the CPU-2OOO system features a selectable multi-striking mode, a selectable energy level and second spark plug cut-off control, a choice of global or individual cylinder timing control, and a high-energy long-duration spark. The 24 Vdc-powered system also offers comprehensive display and communications capabilities, plus system diagnostics and self-test functions. The system uses existing Altronic II-CPU coils, pickups, primary wiring harnesses and other hardware, allowing for easy upgrades of existing II-CPU installations. Also, a detonation avoidance system is being developed as an option for engine protection. Altronic says the field tests have demonstrated the ability of the CPU-20OO system to ignite extra-lean mixtures created when turbochargers are added to engines that previously operated at much richer levels. NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced by as much as 88%, to less than 2.7 g/kWh.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Application of systems engineering techniques (reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars) to the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systems engineering function for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) covers system requirements definition, analyses, verification, technical reviews, and other system efforts necessary to assure good balance of performance, safety, cost, and scheduling. The systems engineering function will support the design, installation, start-up, and operational phases of GCEP. The principal objectives of the systems engineering function are to: assure that the system requirements of the GCEP process are adequately specified and documented and that due consideration and emphasis are given to all aspects of the project; provide system analyses of the designs as they progress to assure that system requirements are met and that GCEP interfaces are compatible; assist in the definition of programs for the necessary and sufficient verification of GCEP systems; and integrate reliability, maintainability, logistics, safety, producibility, and other related specialties into a total system effort. This paper addresses the GCEP reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars (RAM dollars) analyses which are the primary systems engineering tools for the development and implementation of trade-off studies. These studies are basic to reaching cost-effective project decisions. The steps necessary to achieve optimum cost-effective design are shown.

Boylan, J.G.; DeLozier, R.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Characterization of cycle-to-cycle variations in a natural gas spark ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work a study of the influence of the fuel/air equivalence ratio and engine rotational speed on the cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion in a natural gas spark ignition engine is presented. The study considers both classic estimators of cyclic dispersion and a new one, based on the burned mass and burning rate. The engine experimental conditions were as follows: Intake pressure 0.5 bar, while fuel/air equivalence ratio was changed from 1.0 to 0.63, and engine rotational speed was varied from 1000 rpm to 2500 rpm. For each equivalence ratio and engine speed, a diagnosis model is used to process the experimentally obtained combustion pressure data in order to provide combustion relevant results such as the mass burning rate at a cycle level. A procedure based on the use of genetic algorithms is used to obtain a very accurate and objective (without human intervention) adjustment of the optimum parameters needed for combustion diagnosis: angular positioning and pressure offset of the pressure register, dynamic compression ratio, and heat transfer coefficients. The model allows making the diagnosis of series of 830 consecutive engine cycles in an automatic way, increasing the objectivity of the combustion diagnosis. The paper focuses on using the values of the mass fraction burned computed from the pressure register and especially on the analysis of the combustion cycle to cycle variation in the natural gas fuelled engine. A new indicator for the study of cycle-to-cycle variations is proposed, i.e. the standard deviation of the mass fraction burning rate. The values of this new indicator are compared with other classic indicators, showing the same general trends. However, a deeper insight is provided on the combustion cyclic variation when the values of the new indicator are plotted as a function of the mass fraction burned, since this allows analyzing the cyclic variation along the combustion development in each cycle from a mass fraction burned of zero to one, with a relevant value at mass fraction burned of 0.5. More important is that the consideration of the dependence of the combustion variables (density, flame front surface, combustion speed) on the mass fraction burned allows ensemble averaging of all registered cycles for each value of mass fraction burned. This permits using the ensemble averaged mass fraction burning rate as an estimator of combustion speed. The analysis of the general trends of cyclic dispersion when engine speed and equivalence ratio are modified (1000, 1750 and 2500 rpm; 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0) indicate that cycle-to-cycle variations show, as expected, a strong dependence on the engine rotational speed, increasing the variation with engine rpm. However, when the standard deviation of mass fraction burning rate is plotted as a function of mass fraction burned, there is a linear dependence on engine rpm, but only a very weak dependence on equivalence ratio. This means that the proposed estimator of cyclic dispersion is sensitive to only flow turbulent intensity and not to equivalence ratio.

M. Reyes; F.V. Tinaut; B. Giménez; A. Pérez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Effect of Gas-to-Liquid Diesel Fuels on Combustion Characteristics, Engine Emissions, and Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming. Comparative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K., Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH, U.K., Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, U.K., and Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blount's Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH, U.K. ... Clearly, the general trend is toward higher efficiency engines and improved fuel economy, something that puts current technology spark ignition (SI) engines in a relatively weak position compared to compression ignition (CI) engines. ... As the diesel engine used in this study was equipped with a pump-line-nozzle-type fuel injection system, all the observed effects may not apply to common rail or unit injection equipped engines. ...

A. Abu-Jrai; A. Tsolakis; K. Theinnoi; R. Cracknell; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski; S. E. Golunski

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

198

Development of a gas engine-driven chiller. Annual report, January 1988-November 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report covers the third and final year of activity in a program to develop a natural gas engine-driven chiller with a nominal capacity of 150 tons. During the period covered by the report the field testing of six chillers continued, and a seventh and the final field test chiller was installed and started (April 1988). Field test hours for the period totalled 17,299, bringing the total field test hours to 24,247. The reliability and serviceability of the chiller have met expectations and have proven to be within the bounds of acceptability for this type of equipment. A ton-hour weighted coefficient of performance of 1.26 was obtained for the year.

Koplow, M.; Morgan, J.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from the Combustion of Alternative Fuels in a Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

? Centre of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Within the aviation sector, the development and certification of alternative drop-in fuels are progressing at a rapid pace: a standard specification for aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons was approved by ASTM in 2009,(4) Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA), also often referred to as hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ), qualified as a 50/50 blend with petroleum Jet A-1 in 2011,(4) and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) anticipate fully synthetic Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel to qualify in 2012. ... Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ...

Simon Christie; David Raper; David S. Lee; Paul I. Williams; Lucas Rye; Simon Blakey; Chris W. Wilson; Prem Lobo; Donald Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

Johnson, Jay; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi [Shimizu Corporation; Morino, Kimio [Shimizu Corporation; Shinji, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Ogata, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Tadokoro, Masayuki [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions. Topical report, February 1993-November 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NOx and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

Turner, S.H.; Weaver, C.S.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Implications of Exhaust Gas, CO2, and N2 Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Performance, Soot, and NO Emissions: A Comparative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Marine Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Section of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, Hellenic Naval Academy, End of Hatzikiriakou Ave., 18539 Piraeus, Greece ... (1-3) Hence, under certain conditions, the successful implementation of various internal measures in HD diesel engines may lead to their compliance with current and near-future emission standards, thus diminishing the need for complex and costly technologies of after-engine pollution control. ... (16, 17) Ladommatos et al.(11-14) in their fundamental work successfully managed to isolate the three aforementioned major effects of EGR on diesel engine combustion characteristics and NOx emissions, revealing that, under constant inlet pressure, dilution of the charge mixture is the most influential mechanism on the reduction of engine-out NOx. ...

Dimitrios T. Hountalas; Spiridon I. Raptotasios; Theodoros C. Zannis

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Diesel and gas turbine marine engine alternatives. 1976-January, 1982 (citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering Data Base). Report for 1976-January 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reports are cited which discuss the development and utilization of power plants designed for marine use. Power generated by coal burning, wind, nuclear reactors, water jet propulsion, and high-power water-cooled electric propulsion are among the alternative sources of power for marine application. Performance evaluations of existing unconventional marine propulsion systems are examined. This bibliography does not consider diesel internal combustion or gas turbine marine engines. (Contains 207 citations fully indexed and includes a title list.)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Development of multiscale models for the performance of the gas and oil seals in rotary engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rotary engines offer higher power density, fewer parts and lower vibrations than conventional reciprocating piston engines. However, rotary engines are more difficult to seal because of the rotor shape which leads to higher ...

Picard, Mathieu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hardware and Software Design for a Large Gas Engine Detonation Simulator.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Demands to meet legislative exhaust emission levels, provide fuel economy, and improve engine quality have been the major driving forces for engine control advancement [1].… (more)

Lowder, Tracy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

will build on system concepts and technical solutions developed for an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump More Documents &...

209

A 1-D gas dynamics code for subsonic and supersonic flows applied to predict EGR levels in a heavy-duty diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a 1-D gas dynamics code for unsteady flow in internal combustion (IC) engines as well as its validation and application for predicting residual gas fraction are introduced in this paper. Some new approaches are presented for modelling flows in diverging ducts and for treating boundary conditions. These include the use of flow resistance correlation to describe separated flows and flows in bends. Excellent agreement with analytical solutions and test results has been obtained when the code was validated with fundamental gas dynamic problems, including converging-diverging nozzle flows with and without shocks; Fanno and Rayleigh flows; the Riemann shock tube problem; and engine rig experiments for modelling flow with different property gases. The code has been applied satisfactorily to predict the gas exchange process of a spark ignition (SI) engine following exhaust blow-down and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

Yuhua Zhu; R.D. Reitz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Gas Stirling engine ?CHP boiler experimental data driven model for building energy simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A dynamic model for the simulation of gas micro combined heat and power devices (?CHP boilers) has been developed in order to assess their energy performances. From a literature review and experimental investigations, the new model is designed with the aim of limiting the number of parameters which need to be easily accessible in order to be suitable with annual building energy simulations. At first, this paper focuses on the description of the ?CHP boiler which has been tested, on the development of the test bench and on the experimental results. Then, it focuses on the model description, on its parameterization and on its validation. The modelling approach is based on an energy balance on the device and on empirical expressions for the main inputs and outputs. The model characterizes the ?CHP boiler behaviour for different inlet water flow rates and temperatures. The dynamic phases with the start-up and cooling phases are taken into account. Finally, the models for the Stirling engine and the additional boiler are limited respectively to 28 and 24. Further experimental investigations led to simplify the ?CHP model from 28 to 17 parameters without reducing the accuracy.

J.-B. Bouvenot; B. Andlauer; P. Stabat; D. Marchio; B. Flament; B. Latour; M. Siroux

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas turbines has been continuously improved by technology, and new devices and procedures under development

Anderson, Byron P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Process for forming a long gas turbine engine blade having a main wall with a thin portion near a tip  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for forming an airfoil for a gas turbine engine involving: forming a casting of a gas turbine engine airfoil having a main wall and an interior cavity, the main wall having a wall thickness extending from an external surface of the outer wall to the interior cavity, an outer section of the main wall extending from a location between a base and a tip of the airfoil casting to the tip having a wall thickness greater than a final thickness. The process may further involve effecting movement, using a computer system, of a material removal apparatus and the casting relative to one another such that a layer of material is removed from the casting at one or more radial portions along the main wall of the casting.

Campbell, Christian X; Thomaidis, Dimitrios

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

Safety System Oversight Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility Tritium Gas Handling System  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site Visit Report Site Visit Report Safety System Oversight Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility Tritium Gas Handling System INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW This report documents the results of the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) review of a safety system oversight (SSO) assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) tritium gas handling system (TGHS). The assessment evaluated the TGHS's ability to perform as required by safety bases and other applicable requirements. The assessment was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Los Alamos Site Office (LASO) and was conducted October 25 - November 5, 2010. LASO was the overall lead organization for the evaluation, which included independent

214

Review of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility Tritium Gas Containment Vital Safety System, January 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Independent Oversight Review of the Independent Oversight Review of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility Tritium Gas Containment Vital Safety System January 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose............................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Background...................................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Scope................................................................................................................................................ 1

215

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ... † Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. ...

Prem Lobo; Lucas Rye; Paul I. Williams; Simon Christie; Ilona Uryga-Bugajska; Christopher W. Wilson; Donald E. Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield; Simon Blakey; Hugh Coe; David Raper; Mohamed Pourkashanian

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion Timing Control of Natural Gas HCCI Engines Using Physics-Based Modeling and LQR Controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines hold promises of being the next generation of internal combustion engines due to their ability to produce high thermal efficiencies and low emission levels. HCCI combustion is achieved through...

Abdelgawad, Marwa

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Optimization of the Combustion in Large Marine Diesel Engine by Controlling the Exhaust Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The diesel engine performance and emissions are strongly linked to ... to regulate the air-fuel mixture in a diesel engine, by controlling the turbocharger speed through a ... work we have taken as a model a marine

Sabri Bechir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing; published 28 August 2014) The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing Optimizing the internal combustion engine to achieve the highest possible fuel efficiency can be approached

219

Direct Capillary Gas Chromatography of Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines R.D. Cuthbertson P.R. Shore...Filter-Borne Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines R.D. Cuthbertson and P.R...oil-derived material. Introduction Diesel engines emit particulate matter consisting......

R.D. Cuthbertson; P.R. Shore

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Integrated Gas Analyzer for Complete Monitoring of Turbine Engine Test Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is proving to be reliable and economical for the quantification of many gas-phase species during testing and development of gas...

Markham, James R; Bush, Patrick M; Bonzani, Peter J; Scire, James J; Zaccardi, Vincent A; Jalbert, Paul A; Bryant, M Denise; Gardner, Donald G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel

222

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Experimental investigation of DI diesel engine operating with eucalyptus biodiesel/natural gas under dual fuel mode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract With the gradual depletion of petroleum and environmental degradation, intensive research activity has been addressed to the utilization of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines. In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to study the effect of eucalyptus biodiesel and natural gas under dual fuel combustion mode on the performance and the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder DI diesel engine. The natural gas (NG) is inducted with the intake air through the inlet manifold. The liquid pilot fuel (eucalyptus biodiesel or diesel fuel) is injected into the combustion chamber to cover approximately 10% of the maximum power output. Then, keeping constant the pilot fuel flow rate, the power output is further increased using only natural gas. The combustion characteristics (cylinder pressure, ignition delay and heat release rate), performance and exhaust emissions of the dual fuel mode (NG–diesel fuel and NG–biodiesel) are compared with those of conventional diesel engine mode at various load conditions. The combustion analysis has shown that biodiesel as pilot fuel exhibits similar pressure–time history, with highest peak, as diesel fuel in conventional and dual fuel modes. The performance and pollutant emission results show that, compared to diesel fuel in dual fuel mode, the use of eucalyptus biodiesel as pilot fuel reduces the high emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) particularly at high engine loads. However this is accompanied by an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which can be explained by the lower calorific value and the oxygen presence in the molecule of the eucalyptus biodiesel, respectively.

L. Tarabet; K. Loubar; M.S. Lounici; K. Khiari; T. Belmrabet; M. Tazerout

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Feasibility study of a 6V-92TA homogeneous auto-ignited two-stroke (HAT) compressed-natural-gas-engine. Topical report, August 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to modify a two-stroke 6V-92TA diesel engine to operate on natural gas using a simple system with gas addition to the compressor inlet and a spark plug for cold start and non-autoignition engine operation. The engine was to be operated at most speed-load conditions by autoignition of the premixed gas-air mixture. This concept is referred to as the Homogeneous Auto-Ignited Two-Stroke (HAT). Autoignition of carbureted natural gas was achieved at various loads and speeds in a 6V-92TA engine modified for operating on natural gas with the HAT concept. However, HAT engine operation up to 277 hp at 2100 rpm (diesel coach rating) was not achieved because early ignition in some cylinders caused knock and excessive heat transfer. Instead, the engine was operated up to 226 hp (767 N.m) at 2100 rpm, 181 hp (780 N.m) at 1650 rpm, 130 hp (773 N.m) at 1200 rpm, and 34 hp (368 N.m) at 650 rpm. Maximum brake thermal efficiency measured was 33.4% at 2100 rpm/219 hp. The corrected efficiency (to compensate for the unburned natural gas lost during the scavenging process) was higher than this. Steady-state emissions show very low NOx, total unburned HC lower than expected and reasonable CO levels. The lean air-fuel mixture and unburned exhaust gases in the cylinder resulted in very low NOx emissions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components.

227

Engineering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Engineering Engineering1354608000000EngineeringSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Engineering Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Reference Standards Data Sources Organizations Journals Key Resources Engineering Village Includes Engineering Index (Ei) and Compendex Knovel Handbooks, databases, and eBooks integrated with analytical and search tools IEEE Xplore Full text access to technical literature, standards, and conference proceedings in engineering and technology SPIE Digital Library Full-text papers from SPIE journals and proceedings published since 1998; subject coverage includes optics, photonics, electronic imaging, visual information processing, biomedical optics, lasers, and

228

Study on capacity optimization of PEM fuel cell and hydrogen mixing gas-engine compound generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of a small-scale power source not dependent on commercial power may result in various effects. For example, it may eliminate the need for long distance power-transmission lines, and mean that the amount of green energy development is not restricted to the dynamic characteristics of a commercial power grid. Moreover, the distribution of the independent energy source can be optimized with regionality in mind. This paper examines the independent power supply system relating to hydrogen energy. Generally speaking, the power demand of a house tends to fluctuate considerably over the course of a day. Therefore, when introducing fuel cell cogeneration into an apartment house, etc., low-efficiency operations in a low-load region occur frequently in accordance with load fluctuation. Consequently, the hybrid cogeneration system (HCGS) that uses a solid polymer membrane-type fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a hydrogen mixture gas engine (NEG) together to improve power generation efficiency during partial load of fuel cell cogeneration is proposed. However, since facility costs increase, if the HCGS energy cost is not low compared with the conventional method, it is disadvantageous. Therefore, in this paper, HCGS is introduced into 10 household apartments in Tokyo, and the power generation efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions and optimal capacity of a boiler and heat storage tank are investigated through analysis. Moreover, the system characteristics change significantly based on the capacity of PEM-FC and NEG that compose HCGS. Therefore, in this study, the capacity of PEM-FC and that of NEG are investigated, as well as the power generation efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions and the optimal capacity of a boiler and heat storage tank. Analysis revealed that the annual average power generation efficiency when the capacity of PEM-FC and NEG is 5 kW was 27.3%. Meanwhile, the annual average power generation efficiency of HCGS is 1.37 times that of the PEM-FC independent system, and 1.28 times that of the NEG independent system, respectively.

Shin’ya Obara; Itaru Tanno

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thin?film temperature sensors for gas turbine engines: Problems and prospects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing trend towards high?temperature fuel efficient jet engines has led to the development of complex cooling schemes for the turbine blades. The measurement of temperature of the blade during operation which is accomplished in conventional blade design by embedding wire thermocouples in the blade wall causes serious structural and aerodynamic problems in the case of cooled turbines. In order to meet the requirement of temperature measurement in cooled turbines it is desirable to develop surface?mounted thin?film thermocouples or a resistance thermometer. In the current state of the art of thin?film thermocouples the sensing element consists of 2??m?thick Pt and Pt 10% Rh thin?film elements deposited on the insulating surface of the blades and vanes. The insulator is developed by thermal oxidation of a MCrAlY coating which is deposited on the blade and vane surface in the current state of turbine technology. The understanding of the structural and thermoelectric stability of the sensor elements and of the insulating layer of Al2O3 in the hostile environment of a gas turbine requires an in?depth study of the metallurgical reactions occurring at the thin?film Al2O3 and Al2O3–MCrAlY interfaces and of the corrosive reactions on the surface of the metal film. The work presented in this review addresses the problems associated with obtaining highly adherent and insulating Al2O3 on the MCrAlY surfaces adhesion of the sensor elements thermoelectric stability of the sensors on contamination and finally the development of a corrosion protectioncoating. The desired quality Al2O3 has been grown on NiCoCrAlY?coated nickel?based superalloy substrates by a combination of oxidation treatments. The interface?modified Pt and Pt/Rh films are deposited on the oxide by a dc magnetron sputtering technique. The corrosion protection requirements involve deposition of Si–O–N and Si3N4 graded structures on the sensors by the plasma?assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Details of the electrical and metallurgical characteristics of the device at each stage of the coating/film growth have been analyzed by a number of surface sensitive and bulk analytical techniques.

R. C. Budhani; S. Prakash; R. F. Bunshah

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Future… (more)

ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Dynamic neural network-based fault diagnosis of gas turbine engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a neural network-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme is presented to detect and isolate faults in a highly nonlinear dynamics of an aircraft jet engine. Towards this end, dynamic neural networks (DNN) are first developed to ... Keywords: Aircraft jet engine, Bank of filters, Computational intelligence, Dynamic neural networks, Fault detection and isolation, Fault diagnosis, Multiple model schemes

S. Sina Tayarani-Bathaie; Z. N. Sadough Vanini; K. Khorasani

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Performance and emission evaluation of biodiesel fueled diesel engine abetted with exhaust gas recirculation and Ni coated catalytic converter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article summarizes the results of a laboratory exertion to evaluate the performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder water cooled direct injection diesel engine with and without the aid of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as well as with and without the assistance of nickel coated catalytic converter. Neat diesel ethyl esters of waste frying oil (B100) and its diesel blends (B20 and B40) were used as test fuels to assess the various engine operating parameters. Conjointly in this work the effects of emission characteristics by incorporating nickel coated catalytic converter along with 0% 15% and 20% of HOT EGR technique are elaborately discussed. Experimental results proved that the diesel engine operated up to B40 blends assisted by catalytic converter and 15% EGR level showed an adequate reduction in oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust pipe. Also EGR level up to 15% proved reasonable brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when the test engine operated up to B40 biodiesel-diesel blends.

D. Subramaniam; A. Murugesan; A. Avinash

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experimental study on combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with EGR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on the effect of hydrogen fraction and EGR rate on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends was investigated. The results show that flame development duration, rapid combustion duration and total combustion duration are increased with the increase of EGR rate and decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the blends. Hydrogen addition shows larger influence on flame development duration than that on rapid combustion duration. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure increases with the increase of EGR rate. And hydrogen addition into natural gas decreases the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure, and this effectiveness becomes more obviously at high EGR rate. Engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with proper EGR rate can realize the stable low temperature combustion in gas engine.

Erjiang Hu; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaolei Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas Pauline Briaulta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cathode materials, besides LSCF demonstrated a lower catalytic activity towards hydrocarbon partial corresponding to a composition of exhaust gas. A screening of four cathode materials was done, some well selected as the electrolyte material. Chemical stability tests and catalytic activity studies in the gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

satisfactorily in the laboratory and in a 450-bed hospital. The engine chiller has been redesigned to improve performance, increase capacity, and reduce the footprint, and is undergoing field tests at seven sites to verify performance and reliability....

Lindsay, B. B.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Thermochemical conversion of fuels into hydrogen-containing gas using recuperative heat of internal combustion engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of the thermochemical recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ICEs) as a method of ... the steam conversion of oxygen-containing fuels into syngas were developed, a...

V. A. Kirillov; A. B. Shigarov; N. A. Kuzin…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet \\{NOx\\} targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR.

Usman Asad; Ming Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic detection of methane emitted from natural gas powered engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we present a laser photoacoustic arrangement for the detection of the important greenhouse gas methane. A quantum-cascade laser and a differential photoacoustic cell were ... tested in the detection ...

M. V. Rocha; M. S. Sthel; M. G. Silva; L. B. Paiva; F. W. Pinheiro…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Demonstration of Natural Gas Engine Driven Air Compressor Technology at Department of Defense Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are offset by differences in prevailing utility rates, efficiencies of partial load operation, reductions in peak demand, heat recovery, and avoiding the cost of back-up generators. Natural gas, a clean-burning fuel, is abundant and readily available...

Lin, M.; Aylor, S. W.; Van Ormer, H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Simultaneous use of MRM (maximum rectangle method) and optimization methods in determining nominal capacity of gas engines in CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Energy, economic, and environmental analyses of combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems were performed here to select the nominal capacities of gas engines by combination of optimization algorithm and maximum rectangle method (MRM). The analysis was performed for both priority of providing electricity (PE) and priority of providing heat (PH) operation strategies. Four scenarios (SELL-PE, SELL-PH, No SELL-PE, No SELL-PH) were followed to specify design parameters such as the number and nominal power of prime movers, heating capacities of both backup boiler and energy storage tank, and the cooling capacities of electrical and absorption chillers. By defining an objective function called the Relative Annual Benefit (RAB), Genetic Algorithm optimization method was used for finding the optimal values of design parameters. The optimization results indicated that two gas engines (with nominal powers of 3780 and 3930 kW) in SELL-PE scenario, two gas engines (with nominal powers of 5290 and 5300 kW) in SELL-PH scenario, one gas engine (with nominal power of 2440 kW) in No SELL-PE scenario provided the maximum value of the objective function. Furthermore in No SELL-PE scenario (which had the lowest RAB value in comparison with that for the above mentioned scenarios), thermal energy storage was not required. Due to very low value of RAB, any gas engine in No SELL-PH scenario was not recommended.

Sepehr Sanaye; Navid Khakpaay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Dry Dilution Refrigerator with He-4 Precool Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ~ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so that the condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR ...

Uhlig, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The evolution of thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been used for almost three decades to extend the life of combustors and augmentors and, more recently, stationary turbine components. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia TBC currently is bill-of-material on many commercial jet engine parts. A more durable electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) ceramic coating recently has been developed for more demanding rotating as well as stationary turbine components. This ceramic EB-PVD is bill-of-material on turbine blades and vanes in current high thrust engine models and is being considered for newer developmental engines as well. To take maximum advantage of potential TBC benefits, the thermal effect of the TBC ceramic layer must become an integral element of the hot section component design system. To do this with acceptable reliability requires a suitable analytical life prediction model calibrated to engine experience. The latest efforts in thermal barrier coatings are directed toward correlating such models to measured engine performance.

Meier, S.M.; Gupta, D.K. (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Engineering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Engineering Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Home Technologies Core Competencies Showcase Careers Partnerships About Advanced Manufacturing Developing high-performance materials, devices, components, and assemblies enabled by innovative design tools and novel manufacturing techniques Learn more Applied Electromagnetics Supporting the development of electromagnetic systems that are pervasive and paramount to the greater National Security community. Learn more Data Sciences Enabling better decisions through the development and application of state-of-the-art techniques in machine learning, statistics, and decision sciences Learn more Precision Engineering Embracing determinism to guide rigorous design, construction, and metrology of mechatronic systems, instruments, and manufactured components

245

Residual stress profiles for mitigating fretting fatigue in gas turbine engine disks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The driving force for fretting fatigue in engine disks is the contact stresses generated by fretting of the blade and the disk surfaces in the attachment region. This paper examines the use of different residual compressive stress profiles to counteract the undesirable effects of contact stresses and to mitigate fretting fatigue. A global finite-element analysis of the disk blade assembly is first performed. The contact pressure and shear traction at the attachment region are extracted from the FEM results and used to compute the contact stress distribution. The contact stresses are then combined with the residual stresses and the bulk stresses. The overall stress distribution is then utilized in a probabilistic crack growth model to predict the risk of disk failure for a military engine under simulated loading conditions. The results are used to identify the minimum residual stress profile for mitigating fretting fatigue in engine disks.

Kwai S. Chan; Michael P. Enright; Jonathan P. Moody; Patrick J. Golden; Ramesh Chandra; Alan C. Pentz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

247

Effect of hydrogen addition on criteria and greenhouse gas emissions for a marine diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrogen remains an attractive alternative fuel to petroleum and a number of investigators claim that adding hydrogen to the air intake manifold of a diesel engine will reduce criteria emissions and diesel fuel consumption. Such claims are appealing when trying to simultaneously reduce petroleum consumption, greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. The goal of this research was to measure the change in criteria emissions (CO, NOx, and PM2.5) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), using standard test methods for a wide range of hydrogen addition rates. A two-stroke Detroit Diesel Corporation 12V-71TI marine diesel engine was mounted on an engine dynamometer and tested at three out of the four loads specified in the ISO 8178-4 E3 emission test cycle and at idle. The engine operated on CARB ultra-low sulfur #2 diesel with hydrogen added at flow rates of 0, 22 and 220 SLPM. As compared with the base case without hydrogen, measurements showed that hydrogen injection at 22 and 220 SLPM had negligible influence on the overall carbon dioxide specific emission, EF CO 2 . However, in examining data at each load the data revealed that at idle EF CO 2 was reduced by 21% at 22 SLPM (6.9% of the added fuel energy was from hydrogen) and 37.3% at 220 SLPM (103.1% of the added fuel energy was from hydrogen). At all other loads, the influence of added hydrogen was insignificant. Specific emissions for nitrogen oxides, EF NO x , and fine particulate matters, EF PM 2.5 , showed a trade-off relationship at idle. At idle, EF NO x was reduced by 28% and 41% with increasing hydrogen flow rates, whilst EF PM 2.5 increased by 41% and 86% respectively. For other engine loads, EF NO x and EF PM 2.5 did not change significantly with varying hydrogen flow rates. One of the main reasons for the greater impact of hydrogen at idle is that the contribution of hydrogen to the total fuel energy is much higher at idle as compared to the other loads. The final examination in this paper was the system energy balance when hydrogen is produced by an on-board electrolysis unit. An analysis at 75% engine load showed that hydrogen production increased the overall equivalent fuel consumption by 2.6% at 22 SLPM and 17.7% at 220 SLPM.

Hansheng Pan; Sam Pournazeri; Marko Princevac; J. Wayne Miller; Shankar Mahalingam; M. Yusuf Khan; Varalakshmi Jayaram; William A. Welch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Investigation on Firing Behavior of the Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Methanol/LPG During Cold Start  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be produced from synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen) that is formed by steam reforming of natural gas, by gasification of coal, or from biomass, all of which are available in abundance or renewable. ... Liguang et al.,(16) based on cycle-by-cycle control strategy on an EFI (electronic fuel injection) LPG engine, studied how to control the ignition cycle and performed both single-cycle and multicycle tests. ...

Changming Gong; Baoqing Deng; Shu Wang; Yan Su; Qing Gao; Xunjun Liu

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60���° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x). Further, the 60���° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20���° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40���° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO x trends, which showed the lowest NO x emissions for the 60���°, 20���°, and 40���° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak heat release rates and hotter packets but the pilot quantity and intake temperature affected the potential for NO x formation to a greater extent.

Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

251

Engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and, as a result, connected information regarding the use of indicators on internal combustion engines is not readily obtainable. The author, who designed that most useful instrument, the ... in the manipulation of these instruments. His survey is limited to the combined piston, spring and pencil-lever types, and traces their development from the original instrument devised by ...

1939-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

252

Engineering Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

Maroncelli, Mark

253

The effects of an ambient salinity gradient on the dilution of dense brine jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE MCCULLOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY NAYNE MCCULLOUGH Approved as to style and content by: Robert E. Randall (Chair of Committee...

McCullough, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

In-cylinder investigations and analysis of a SI gas engine fuelled with H2 and CO rich syngas fuel: Sensitivity analysis of combustion descriptors for engine diagnostics and control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The sensitivity of combustion phasing and combustion descriptors to ignition timing, load and mixture quality on fuelling a multi-cylinder natural gas engine with bio-derived H2 and CO rich syngas is addressed. While the descriptors for conventional fuels are well established and are in use for closed loop engine control, presence of H2 in syngas potentially alters the mixture properties and hence combustion phasing, necessitating the current study. The ability of the descriptors to predict abnormal combustion, hitherto missing in the literature, is also addressed. Results from experiments using multi-cylinder engines and numerical studies using zero dimensional Wiebe function based simulation models are reported. For syngas with 20% H2 and CO and 2% CH4 (producer gas), an ignition retard of 5 ± 1 degrees was required compared to natural gas ignition timing to achieve peak load of 72.8 kWe. It is found that, for syngas, whose flammability limits are 0.42–1.93, the optimal engine operation was at an equivalence ratio of 1.12. The same methodology is extended to a two cylinder engine towards addressing the influence of syngas composition, especially H2 fraction (varying from 13% to 37%), on the combustion phasing. The study confirms the utility of pressure trace derived combustion descriptors, except for the pressure trace first derivative, in describing the MBT operating condition of the engine when fuelled with an alternative fuel. Both experiments and analysis suggest most of the combustion descriptors to be independent of the engine load and mixture quality. A near linear relationship with ignition angle is observed. The general trend(s) of the combustion descriptors for syngas fuelled operation are similar to those of conventional fuels; the differences in sensitivity of the descriptors for syngas fuelled engine operation requires re-calibration of control logic for MBT conditions.

Anand M. Shivapuji; S. Dasappa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska's North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Natural Gas in Britain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AT a recent meeting of the Institution of Gas Engineers, Sir Harold Smith, chairman ofthe ... Engineers, Sir Harold Smith, chairman ofthe Gas Council, stated that an intensive, large-scale search for ...

1953-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

260

Experimental study on the spatial distribution of particle rotation in the upper dilute zone of a cold CFB riser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle rotation plays an important role in gas-solid flows. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the spatial distribution of average rotation speed for glass beads in the upper dilute zone of a ...

Xue-cheng Wu; Qin-hui Wang; Chen Tian…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the oxidative reactivity of diesel engine soot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper expands the consideration of the factors affecting the nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of diesel soot to include the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Past work showed that soot derived from oxygenated fuels such as biodiesel carries some surface oxygen functionality and thereby possesses higher reactivity than soot from conventional diesel fuel. In this work, results show that EGR exerts a strong influence on the physical properties of the soot which leads to enhanced oxidation rate. HRTEM images showed a dramatic difference between the burning modes of the soot generated under 0 and 20% EGR. The soot produced under 0% EGR strictly followed an external burning mode with no evidence of internal burning. In contrast, soot generated under 20% EGR exhibited dual burning modes: slow external burning and rapid internal burning. The results demonstrate clearly that highly reactive soot can be achieved by manipulating the physical properties of the soot via EGR. (author)

Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Bldg., University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines The Potential of Elelcltric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD DIesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

263

Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ? 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.

Uhlig, Kurt [Walther-Meissner-Institute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

264

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Free Energy of a Nonideal Boson Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Theoretical Physics December 1968 research-article Articles Free Energy of a Nonideal Boson Gas Shokichi Kanno Toshiyuki Nishiyma...of General Education, Osaka University, Toyonaka The free energy of a dilute nonideal boson gas is obtained by replacing......

Shokichi Kanno; Toshiyuki Nishiyma

1968-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

None

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Comparison of the processes induced by nitrogen dilution on the photodissociation of silane and disilane at 193 nm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We compare the influence of the dilution of silane and disilane in nitrogen during laser photodissociation to produce silicon at 193 nm, at room temperature in a static reaction chamber. The experimental results show that the conversion of the reactant gas and its deposition yield can be controlled by varying adequately the extent of dilution. So, two total pressure regions have been observed, independent of the dilution: below 40–50 Torr, the variations of stable species concentration are very important but above these values the variation in the dilution rate has practically no effects on their concentrations. In the first region, during the silane photodissociation at the initial reactant pressure below 5 Torr, the conversion of silane increases with increasing dilution, and at higher initial reactant pressure the conversion of silane tends to rise only a little. In contrast, at any initial reactant pressure, the conversion of disilane during its photodecomposition decreases with increasing dilution. In the second region, the concentration of each stable gaseous species tends to reach a pressure stationary-state. For both the silane and disilane photodissociation, the deposition yield of silicon increases with decreasing the initial reactant gas pressure and it reaches a pressure stationary-state above 50% dilution; but in all the cases, it is greater in disilane photolysis than that of silane. A simple kinetic model is proposed for which the computed results predict the time-evolution of gas composition and amount of silicon deposited.

B. Aka; E. Boch

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

World experience with development of combined-cycle and gas turbine technologies and prospects for employing them in the thermal power engineering of Russia using the capacities of the country’s industry producing power machinery and equipment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

World experience gained from using combined-cycle and gas-turbine technologies in power engineering is analyzed. The technical and production capacities of the Russian industry constructing power machinery and...

O. N. Favorskii; V. L. Polishchuk; I. M. Livshits…

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High Efficiency While Avoiding Control Problems of HCCI Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

270

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00...

271

Effect of hydrous ethanol on crankcase oil dilution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adequate lubrication is of the utmost importance in internal combustion engines. Low temperature operation with low-proof alcohol may create some operational problems if alcohol and/or water accumulates in the crankcase oil. Condensates of unburned alcohol and water maybe blown into the crankcase oil with blowby gases. These condensates may form an emulsion with the crankcase oil that may restrict the supply of oil for adequate lubrication. Three engine tests were performed to identify the effect of low-proof ethanol fueling on crankcase oil dilution and degradation. The first test was hydrous ethanol carburetion in a 2.3 liter, 4 cylinder, 1974 Ford gasoline engine. The second test was a mixture of low-proof ethanol fumigation and normal diesel fuel injection (at reduced rate) in an Allis-Chalmers Model 2900 turbocharged diesel engine. The third test was also a mixture of ethanol fumigation and diesel injection in an Allis-Chalmers Mod2800 naturally aspirated diesel engine. Independent parameters of crankcase oil temperature, engine load and speed, percent of total energy in the form of ethyl alcohol and proof of the ethyl alcohol were considered and varied. After each test the oil was sampled for determination of flash point, fire points, water by centrifuge, water by distillation, and viscosity at room temperature. Results for the first test indicate that the use of ethanol of 130 proof or less may result in accumulation of water in the crankcase oil that may be harmful to the engine. In the second and third tests although there was a decrease in fire and flash points as well as in the viscosity of the oil, no appreciable amount of water or alcohol was detected in the crankcase oil. It is important to mention that there was a maximum alcohol fuel flow rate beyond which the diesel engine starts to knock or misfire.

Khalifa, G.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures Akira Onukia. The solute partitioning between gas and liquid Henry's law and the surface tension change are discussed fraction X and the temperature-derivative / T cx,p of the surface tension at fixed pressure p

273

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Dual-Fuel Diesel/Natural Gas Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, UTV, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, and IM-CNR, Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Naples, Italy ... Accordingly, the use of NG as primary fuel allows the same compression ratio of the conventional diesel engine; thus, existing diesel engines can be easily converted to dual-fuel operation. ... Thus, a more general combustion model (G-equation or EDC) could be considered to represent flame propagation. ...

Stefano Cordiner; Michele Gambino; Sabato Iannaccone; Vittorio Rocco; Riccardo Scarcelli

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Pilot-Scale Aftertreatment Using Nonthermal Plasma Reduction of Adsorbed NOx in Marine Diesel-Engine Exhaust Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulations governing marine diesel engine NOx emissions have recently become more stringent. As it is difficult to fulfill these requirements by combustion improvements alone, effective aftertreatment technologi...

Takuya Kuwahara; Keiichiro Yoshida…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

Mohaghegh, Shahab

276

Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 1: Study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to improve the understanding of mixing in DI NG engines. Calculations of injection into a constant-volume chamber were performed to document unconfined plume behavior. A full three-dimensional calculation of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder was also performed to study plume behavior in engine geometries. The structure of the NG plume is characterized by a core of unmixed fuel confined to the near-field of the jet. This core contains the bulk of the unmixed fuel and is mixed by the turbulence generated by the jet shear layer. The NG plume development in the engine is dominated by combustion chamber surface interactions. A Coanda effect causes plume attachment to the cylinder head, which has a detrimental impact on mixing. Unconfined plume calculations with different nozzle hole sizes demonstrate that smaller nozzle holes are more effective at mixing the fuel and air.

Jennings, M.J.; Jeske, F.R. (Ricardo North America, Burr Ridge, IL (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The overall goal of this study is to help identify which conditions and potential mechanisms impede soot formation in GDI operations.

279

Investigation on characteristics of ionization current in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends with BSS de-noising method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation on ionization current characteristic in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas, natural gas–hydrogen bends and gasoline was conducted. Blind Source Separation (BSS) de-noising method is employed to separate the ionization current signal from the interference of spark tail generated by ignition discharge. Cylinder pressure was recorded, and local temperature at spark plug gap is calculated using AVL-FIRE simulation code. Results show that the simulated cylinder pressures are in good agreement with those of measured and the spark tail and ionization current can be separated using BSS method. Front flame stage and post flame stage in ionization current can be used to analyze the combustion characteristics of natural gas–hydrogen blends. De-noised current shows that the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage (including the peaks in the stages) fueled with natural gas is postponed and compared with that fueled with gasoline, and the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage advance with the increase of hydrogen fraction in natural gas–hydrogen blends. In addition, the amplitude of ionization currents in both front flame and post flame (including the two peaks) fueled with natural gas gives lower values compared with those fueled with gasoline and hydrogen addition can increase the amplitude. Maximum post flame current shows similar trend to maximum cylinder pressure and it has good correlation between the timing of maximum post flame current and the timing of maximum cylinder pressure. High correlation coefficient between maximum post flame current and maximum pressure is presented.

Zhongquan Gao; Xiaomin Wu; Hui Gao; Bing Liu; Jie Wang; Xiangwen Meng; Zuohua Huang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Impact of natural gas fuel composition on criteria, toxic, and particle emissions from transit buses equipped with lean burn and stoichiometric engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated the impacts of varying natural gas composition on the exhaust emissions from different technology transit buses. For this study, two CNG (compressed natural gas) buses equipped with lean burn combustion and \\{OCs\\} (oxidation catalysts), and one stoichiometric CNG bus equipped with a TWC (three-way catalyst) and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) were tested on a chassis dynamometer over the CBD (Central Business District) cycle on six different gas blends each. The gases represented a range of compositions from gases with high levels of methane and correspondingly lower energy contents/WN (Wobbe number) to gases with higher levels of heavier hydrocarbons and correspondingly higher energy contents/WN. For the lean burn buses, gases with low methane contents exhibited higher \\{NOx\\} (nitrogen oxides) (19%–53%) and NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon) (39%–102%) emissions, but lower emissions of THC (total hydrocarbon) (9%–24%), CH4 (methane) (23%–33%), and formaldehyde emissions (14%–45%). The stoichiometric engine bus with a TWC showed significantly reduced \\{NOx\\} and THC emissions compared to the lean burn buses, but did show higher levels of CO (carbon monoxide) and NH3 (ammonia). PM (particulate matter) mass emissions did not show any fuel effects, while PN (particle number) emissions exhibited some reductions for the higher WN gases.

Maryam Hajbabaei; Georgios Karavalakis; Kent C. Johnson; Linda Lee; Thomas D. Durbin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors," Journal of

Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Application of Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled by Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, ester-based oxygenated fuels have been used in compression ignition engines in pure form or as an addition to diesel fuel. ... In hydrocarbon steam reforming (SR), high-temperature steam separates hydrogen from carbon atoms. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski

2003-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

283

A coupled model for ring dynamics, gas flow, and oil flow through the ring grooves in IC engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil flows through ring/groove interface play a critical role in oil transport among different regions the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. This thesis work is intended to improve the understanding and ...

Jia, Ke, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Phase boundary detection for dilution refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a device to conveniently measure the positions of the phase boundaries in a dilution refrigerator. We show how a simple modification of a standard capacitive level gauge (segmentation of one of the electrodes) permits a direct calibration of the capacitance versus phase boundary position. We compare this direct calibration with the indirect procedure that must be adopted for a conventional capacitive level gauge. The device facilitates the correct adjustment of the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He fraction in the dilution refrigerator.

Haar, E. ter; Martin, R.V. [DFMT, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Viscosity Oscillations and Hysteresis in Dilute Emulsions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the viscosity of a dilute emulsion exhibits oscillations and hysteresis as a function of the shear rate. This results from breaking up of droplets in response to the shear flow. The new phenomena we describe are generic and do not depend on a specific choice of model. The interesting dependence of the basic properties of a dilute emulsion on the shear rate results from the fact that the immersed droplets must break when the shear rate applied to the system is large enough.

Yiftah Navot and Moshe Schwartz

1997-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

288

Unconventional Natural Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(NETL) Anthony Zammerilli General Engineer Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil Energy Sector Planning and Analysis (ESPA) Robert C. Murray, Thomas Davis, and James...

289

Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

290

Micro Gas Turbine Operation with Biomass Producer Gas and Mixtures of Biomass Producer Gas and Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instead of gas engines, micro or mini gas turbines may be used. ... Power output delivered to the grid, engine speed, turbine temperature, and fuel gas valve position are read from the micro gas turbine operating console and recorded manually. ... Financial support from the Renewable Energy (DEN) program of the Dutch Energy Agency SenterNovem is gratefully acknowledged. ...

Luc P. L. M. Rabou; Jan M. Grift; Ritze E. Conradie; Sven Fransen

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

291

Engineering at the British Association  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... engineering, Mr. Dugald Clerk, is so well known for his researches on the gas engine, and has done so much to place the theory of gas- ... , and has done so much to place the theory of gas-engine work upon a true scientific basis, that it was only to be expected that ...

1908-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

292

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

CRAWFORD, B.A.

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

294

Infinitely Dilute Partial Molar Properties of Proteins from Computer Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein’s conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies ...

Elizabeth A. Ploetz; Paul E. Smith

2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

295

On-engine evaluation of emission characteristics of a variable geometry lean-premixed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and on-engine testing of a lean-premixed, low-NO{sub x} combustor for a simple-cycle, single-shaft, 250-kW gas turbine engine of a pressure ratio of eight are described. A variable-geometry system composed of butterfly air valves was used to control the combustor air split between combustion and dilution. Fuel was staged to a direct-injection pilot burner, and a lean-premixed main burner was fitted to the combustor liner. The NO{sub x} emissions with natural gas fueling were found to be less than 20 ppm (at 5% O{sub 2}) at and near full-load conditions with combustion efficiencies greater than 99.8%. Emissions data from early high-pressure rig tests of the combustor hardware are also presented.

Yamada, H.; Shimodaira, K.; Hayashi, S. [National Aerospace Lab., Tokyo (Japan). Thermofluid Dynamics Div.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Controls and Measurements of KU Engine Test Cells for Biodiesel, SynGas, and Assisted Biodiesel Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................................................................................................................. 127 Table 4. Torque output and standard deviation under different reformate flow rates between 0 and 15 liters per minute... to maintain 1,800 revolutions per minute (rpm) needed for the generator. The current setup allows for all the components of the engine to be operated independent of each other; it is important to note that the original design by BEC did not allow...

Cecrle, Eric Daniel

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effects of Inert Dilution and Preheating Temperature on Lean Flammability Limit of Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lean flammability limits (LFL) of syngas mixtures were measured at different levels of inert dilution and unburned gas preheating temperatures using a counter-flow flame burner. ... The syngas and air are then premixed within a mixing chamber before being injected into the counter-flow burners. ... (45) Multicomponent transport was used in the calculation to account for the Soret effect, which generally enhance the burning intensity of lean syngas flame. ...

Suhui Li; Yang Zhang; Xiaolong Qiu; Bo Li; Hai Zhang

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Design and implementation of a five-hp, switched reluctance, fuel-lube, pump motor drive for a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new switched reluctance (SR) fuel/lube (F/L) pump system has been developed for a gas turbine engine application. The system is rated at 5 hp, 270 Vdc, 12.5 krpm maximum operating speed, and consists of a SR machine mounted on the F/L pump shaft, an inverter, and an electronic controller. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and performance of the system. The system can use one of two methods for rotor position sensing, either a resolver or electronic position sensing (EPS). The F/L pump system has undergone extensive performance testing with the resolver. Currently, testing is underway using electronic position sensing. Test results are given to validate the system design and compare the performance using both approaches to position sensing. System efficiency is about 82% at full load.

Ferreira, C.A.; Jones, S.R.; Drager, B.T.; Heglund, W.S. (Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Combustion Characteristics and Heat Release Analysis of a Spark-Ignited Engine Fueled with Natural Gas?Hydrogen Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be seen that the laminar-burning velocity of hydrogen is 5 times that of natural gas and that the quenching distance of hydrogen is one-third that of natural gas, while the latter is beneficial to reduce the unburned hydrocarbons near the wall and from the top-land crevice. ... The signal of cylinder pressure was acquired for every 0.5 deg CA, the acquisition process covered 254 completed cycles, and the averaged value of these 254 cycles was outputted as the pressure data for calculation of the combustion parameters. ... Two factors are considered to influence the cylinder pressure:? one is the increase in flame propagation speed or combustion speed with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in the blends, and this will cause a rapid rising in the cylinder pressure and bring a higher value of the peak cylinder pressure; another is the decrease in the heating value of the fuel blends with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in natural gas?hydrogen blends, and this will decrease the volumetric heat release rate and the cylinder pressure rising, leading to the lower value of the peak cylinder pressure. ...

Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Ke Zeng; Yinyu Huang; Deming Jiang; Xibin Wang; Haiyan Miao

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Exhaust emissions characteristics of a multi-cylinder 18.1-L diesel engine converted to fueled with natural gas and diesel pilot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A six-cylinder, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was converted to operate with natural gas and diesel pilot for generator application. The flow of natural gas was electronically controlled using a throttle valve, and it was pre-mixed with air before being introduced into the combustion chambers. The aim of this work was to study the exhaust emissions characteristics under diesel and dual fuel operations at different operating conditions. Exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), soot, particulate matter and carbon dioxide were measured at different loads. This work also presents the effects of diesel oxidation catalyst on HC and CO conversions under dual fuel operation. Results showed that \\{NOx\\} emission was reduced at all operating loads under dual fuel operation compared to diesel operation. HC and CO emissions were increased under dual fuel operation, but their concentrations were considerably reduced with oxidation catalyst. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it was found that soot and particulate matter were increased under dual fuel operation compared to diesel operation.

Mayank Mittal; Ron Donahue; Peter Winnie; Allen Gillette

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Metal-insulator transition in dilute alkali-metal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The metal-insulator transition is studied for dilute systems of alkali metals. Using a spin-split self-consistent band-structure approach, we find the transition density, a strikingly enhanced magnetic susceptibility, and the electron effective mass. The critical density nc is found to be given by the simple relation rsc=r0+2.8. Here rsc=[3(4?nc)]13 and r0 is the model potential radius which is roughly the radius of the neutral atom. The Mott criterion of nc13aB?0.25 (where aB is the appropriate Bohr orbit) is found to be inadequate for describing these systems. The predicted effective mass and magnetic susceptibility enhancements are largest for Li and become systematically smaller for the heavier alkalis. We compare our results for the transition density with two sets of experiments, namely the gas-liquid critical density and the metal-insulator transition for codeposited thick films of alkali-metal and rare-gas atoms. Good agreement is found in both cases.

J. H. Rose

1981-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

July 1, 2005 College of Engineering and Mineral Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Biometric Systems Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Science in Mechanical engineering; civil and environmental engineering; computer science and electrical engineering; industrial and natural gas engineering. All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing excellent

Mohaghegh, Shahab

305

July 1, 2009 College of Engineering and Mineral Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Biometric Systems Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering Bachelor of Science in Mechanical; industrial and management systems engineering; mechanical and aerospace engineering; mining engineering; and petroleum and natural gas engineering. All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing

Mohaghegh, Shahab

306

RAMAN AND IR STUDY OF NARROW BANDGAP A-SIGE AND C-SIGE FILMS DEPOSITED USING DIFFERENT HYDROGEN DILUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0.72 and a wide range], cathode deposition [2], and using disilane- germane mixture without H dilution [3] in PECVD process. A gas mixture of disilane, germane and hydrogen was used with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0

Deng, Xunming

307

Particle size distributions from heavy-duty diesel engine operated on low-sulfur marine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) emission characteristics of a four-stroke diesel engine were investigated while operating on low-sulfur marine gas oil. PM size distributions appeared to be unimodal (accumulation mode) with fairly constant count median diameter (CMD) of 55–65 nm for all test modes at maximum engine speed. The slightly bigger CMD of around 76 nm for unimodal particle size distributions at 1080 rpm at medium- and high-load conditions was observed. The bimodal size distribution was registered only at very low load with nuclei CMD being below 15 nm, accumulation CMD of around 82 nm and percentage of nanoparticles of around 65%. The study of primary dilution air temperature (PDT) effect revealed a significant reduction in total particle number for all operating conditions when PDT was increased from 30 °C to 400 °C. This also had an effect on particle CMD values and is believed to be due to evaporation of sulfuric acid with bound water and certain organic fractions that were formed during dilution process (at PDT = 30 °C). At very low load intermediate speed conditions, the heating of dilution air had a very little effect on the nucleation mode, which could suggest that it primarily consists of heavy hydrocarbons associated with lubrication oil.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jřrgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Comprehensive Analysis of Enhanced CBM Production via CO2 Injection Using a Surrogate Reservoir Model Jalal Jalali, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model Jalal Jalali, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia (net thickness, porosity, permeability, etc.) are generated by geo-statistical techniques using a small layer. Once the outputs are generated by the network and an error is generated by comparing the network

Mohaghegh, Shahab

309

Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Degrees Offered · Master of science in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Master of science in engineering with a major in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Doctor of philosophy in engineering with a major

Mohaghegh, Shahab

312

Biofuel Characteristics in Micro Turbojet Engine Application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The engine performance and fuel consumption of a micro gas turbojet engine running mixtures of B1OO biodiesel fuel and kerosene are reported in this… (more)

Tan, Ing Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Economics of Electric Compressors for Gas Transmission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) option. Outside of these regions, new electric drives as well as gas fueled reciprocating engines and turbines are being considered for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines and compressor units, based on improved operating efficiency. We review...

Schmeal, W. R.; Hibbs, J. J.

315

Metallurgical failure analysis for a blade failed in a gas-turbine engine of a power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The failed gas-turbine blades (first stage blades) (type Siemens V94.2 KWU) were acquired from TNB Research Sdn. Bhd: a subsidiary of Malaysian power-generation industry (TNB, Malaysia). The blades were sectioned for metallographic investigations. The microstructural characterization involved use of both optical as well as electron microscopes including application of EPMA technique. The Microstructures were compared for three spots selection i.e. leading edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), trailing edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), and centre (near the platform of the blade) (transverse and longitudinal). The material properties and behavior at high temperature were interpreted on the basis of the observed microstructures and the phases present in the alloy. The interpretations were related to the operating conditions of the turbine blade; and main cause of failure was found to be creep damage. Recommendations have been made for improved material performance.

Zainul Huda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Changing Prospects for Natural Gas in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...34). Diesel engine technology is...natural gas in reciprocating engines: (i) production...prob-lems when new models were first introduced...the capital cost of a combined-cycle...all based on reciprocating engine and gas turbine...

W. M. BURNET; T S. D. BAN

1989-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operating an engine with excess air, under lean conditions, has significant benefits in terms of increased engine efficiency and reduced emissions. However, under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion ...

Ayala, Ferran A. (Ferran Alberto), 1976-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Feasibility study of solid oxide fuel cell engines integrated with sprinter gas turbines: Modeling, design and control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Conventional recuperating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/gas turbine (GT) system suffers from its poor dynamic capability and load following performance. To meet the fast, safe and efficient load following requirements for mobile applications, a sprinter SOFC/GT system concept is proposed in this paper. In the proposed system, an SOFC stack operating at fairly constant temperature provides the baseline power with high efficiency while the fast dynamic capability of the GT-generator is fully explored for fast dynamic load following. System design and control studies have been conducted by using an SOFC/GT system model consisting of experimentally-verified component models. In particular, through analysis of the steady-state simulation results, an SOFC operation strategy is proposed to maintain fairly constant SOFC power (less than 2% power variation) and temperature (less than 2 K temperature variation) over the entire load range. A system design procedure well-suited to the proposed system has also been developed to help determining component sizes and the reference steady-state operation line. In addition, control analysis has been studied for both steady-state and transient operations. Simulation results suggest that the proposed system holds the promise to achieve fast and safe transient operations by taking full advantage of the fast dynamics of the GT-generator.

Zhenzhong Jia; Jing Sun; Herb Dobbs; Joel King

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Engineering Electrical &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

320

Engineering Electrical &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

AN ENGINEER'S OUTLOOK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...how to light towns by gas, and were beginning...agency of heat. The steam turbine of Parsons, the gas engines of Otto and Dugald...environment of Darwin's life. The pilgrims who now...patient weighings of the residual gas which was found after...

ALFRED EWING

1932-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

Heat conductivity of a pion gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Engineering Engineering Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

Simaan, Nabil

324

Combustion Characteristics, Emissions and Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Fuelled with Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The EGR, a very well-known method for NOx reduction in diesel engines, is also a method in HCCI combustion mode, when fuelled with commercial fuel, to improve engine power, mainly because of the increase of the ignition delay. ... Heywood, J. B. “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapur (Singapur), 1988. ... (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory MITI) “Chemical Kinetic Study of a Cetane Number Enhancing Additive for an LGP DI Diesel Engine,” ...

Miguel Torres García; Francisco J. Jiménez-Espadafor Aguilar; Tomás Sánchez Lencero

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

325

The military aircraft gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of the gas turbine for use in military aircraft is discussed. The advancing fields of component technology and engine testing are also outlined

R.M. Denning; R.J. Lane

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 121:569-operations with natural gas: Fuel composition implications,”USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATION

Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

6/10/12 UK team advances measurement of gas bubbles in pipelines. | Technology news | Process Engineer... 1/2processengineering.theengineer.co.uk/.../1012631.article  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process in the manufacturing, power, oil & gas and petrochemical industries. For instance, the sharp

Sóbester, András

328

Dilution and microsegregation in dissimilar metal welds between super austenitic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilution and microsegregation in dissimilar metal welds between super austenitic stainless steel the weld will also signi® cantly affect the corrosion resistance. Dissimilar metal welds between a super dissimilar weld. The dilution level was found to decrease as the ratio of volumetric ® ller metal feedrate

DuPont, John N.

329

Prerequisites: Control Systems I+II, System Modeling, Engine Class (Introduction to Modeling and Control of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thesis IDSC-LG-FZ-05 Gas Diesel Engine Modeling and Control The gas diesel engine is a natural gas enginePrerequisites: Control Systems I+II, System Modeling, Engine Class (Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, IC Engines, ...), Optimization Course, Matlab

Lygeros, John

330

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide ( NO x ) emission. The NO x emission was reduced by about 17.68% for 10% of EGR introduction and about 13.55% increase in smoke emission. When dimethyl carbonate was added with EGR the engine emits lower smoke with lesser NO x emission and it showed that the smoke reduction rate had a linear relationship with DMC percentage. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions also decreased when DMC was added. However the addition of DMC with EGR caused an increase in both BSEC and BTE.

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Infinite dilution activity coefficient and vapour liquid equilibrium measurements for dimethylsulphide and tetrahydrothiophene with hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activity coefficients at infinite dilution (??) of dimethylsulphide (DMS) in four hydrocarbon solvents were measured using the dilutor technique at temperatures between 288 K and 303 K. The four hydrocarbons were hexane, 1-hexene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene. The dilutor technique is based on the stripping of the highly diluted solute, i.e. DMS, by a constant flow of inert gas. The gas composition was analysed by gas chromatography and the rate of solute removal was calculated from the area of the peaks. In addition, a static total pressure apparatus was used to measure the vapour–liquid equilibrium of the binary systems of propane + DMS and propane + tetrahydrothiophene at 293 K and 313 K. In the static total pressure method, the analysis of the constituent phases is avoided. The systems’ components were injected to the equilibrium cell in known amounts. The composition of the liquid and vapour phase was calculated from the measured temperature and total pressure. The parameters for the Wilson activity coefficient model were regressed. When possible, a comparison between our experimental results and data found in the literature was performed.

Piia Haimi; Petri Uusi-Kyyny; Juha-Pekka Pokki; Ville Alopaeus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Effects of Bioethanol-Blended Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Reduction Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... As a fuel for compression engines, bioethanol-blended diesel fuels have some different trends on the exhaust emission characteristics according to the engine load. ... The paper begins with an introduction of general information on the nature of emissions of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and causes of emissions for both spark-ignition and diesel engines. ...

Su Han Park; Junepyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

333

Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Electrical, Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sustainable Engineering ­ advance theory and practice of sustainable engineering; provide access to clean Engineering (Ron Askin) Computer Science Computer Systems Engineering Industrial Engineering Informatics and identification Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy (Kyle Squires) Aerospace Engineering Chemical

Zhang, Junshan

343

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLER TESTING Southwest Research Institute® #12;overnment environmental regulations for diesel engine emissions are becoming increas- ingly stringent, and are driving) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered

Chapman, Clark R.

344

Special dilution refrigerator systems of Milli-Kelvin detector experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several hundred ultra low temperature systems have been designed and built for a variety of applications. One common application is the refrigeration of low temperature detectors. Although many of the requirements are satisfied by standard designs, Oxford Instruments has often built special refrigerators to suit specific detector requirements. A few of the most interesting of these systems will be discussed. (1) dilution refrigerators to cool gravitational wave antennae to 65 mK; (2) rotating dilution refrigerator for cosmic ray detector experiments; (3) compact dilution refrigerator to cool large bolometer arrays within the SCUBA telescope; (4) side access systems for beam line experiments

Batey, G.; Balshaw, N. (Oxford Instruments Ltd., Old Station Way (United Kingdom))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Paramagnetic Relaxation in Dilute Potassium Ferricyanide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Paramagnetic relaxation times have been measured for the ground-state doublet of iron present as a dilute substitutional impurity in potassium cobalt cyanide. Measurements were carried out over the temperature range 1.25 to 4.5°K and over a range of Fe/Co concentrations 0.24 to 3.5 at.%. Two frequencies were used, 1.8 and 8.5 Gc/sec, to provide a direct test of the frequency variation of the relaxation time. The "fast-passage-recovery" technique was employed, and a description of the apparatus is included. At 0.24% the 1.8-Gc/sec times are found to be well fitted by a Raman rate 1T1=4.3×10-3 T9 sec-1 over the entire temperature range and over five decades of time. At 8.5 Gc/sec this rate is augmented by a direct rate 1T1=3.1 T. At 0.5% the X-band direct rate is the same, but the Raman rate appears slightly higher; and the L-band rates are substantially faster. All relaxation rates increase with further increases in concentration, but the effect is stronger at 1.8 Gc/sec, so that the rates at both frequencies become equal at 1.7%. Still higher concentrations give rise to behavior not describable by a simple relaxation rate.For low concentration, the theoretical fourth-power frequency dependence of the direct relaxation process is not verified directly because the low frequency rates are always dominated by the Raman process; however, the frequency dependence must be as at least the third power to be consistent with the data. Some attempts are made to interpret the concentration dependence in terms of cross relaxation between single ions and coupled pairs.

Andreas Rannestad and Peter E. Wagner

1963-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Addressing Complexity In Laboratory Experiments- The Scaling Of Dilute  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Addressing Complexity In Laboratory Experiments- The Scaling Of Dilute Multiphase Flows In Magmatic Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Addressing Complexity In Laboratory Experiments- The Scaling Of Dilute Multiphase Flows In Magmatic Systems Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The kinematic and dynamic scaling of dilute multiphase mixtures in magmatic systems is the only guarantee for the geological verisimilitude of laboratory experiments. We present scaling relations that can provide a more complete framework to scale dilute magmatic systems because they

347

Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

Cochran, H.D. Jr.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

A lattice Boltzmann method for dilute polymer solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Succi and Stefano Ubertini A lattice Boltzmann method for dilute polymer solutions...560064, India We present a lattice Boltzmann approach for the simulation...Fokker-Planck equation|lattice Boltzmann method|finitely extensible...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

Boyer, Edmond

350

Contraction/expansion flow of dilute elastic solutions in microchannels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study is conducted on the nature of extensional flows of mobile dilute polymer solutions in microchannel. By observing such fluids on the microscale it is possible to generate large strain rates ([approximately] ...

Scott, Timothy Peter, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Anatomy of symmetry energy of dilute nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The symmetry energy coefficients of dilute clusterized nuclear matter are evaluated in the $S$-matrix framework. Employing a few different definitions commonly used in the literature for uniform nuclear matter, it is seen that the different definitions lead to perceptibly different results for the symmetry coefficients for dilute nuclear matter. They are found to be higher compared to those obtained for uniform matter in the low density domain. The calculated results are in reasonable consonance with those extracted recently from experimental data.

J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; B. K. Agrawal

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils...

353

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

33engineering EnginEEring and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

Wagner, Stephan

355

Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Gas Technology Sysmposium held  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented

Mohaghegh, Shahab

356

Matter & Energy Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. AmericanEnergyProperties.com Related Stories New Facility BoostsGasHydrates Research (June 2, 2008) --A new & Climate Global Warming Environmental Issues Climate Reference Natural gas Hydrocarbon Automobile emissionsLike 6 0 | More APA MLA See Also: Matter & Energy Petroleum Engineering Fossil Fuels Earth

Sóbester, András

357

An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

School of Engineering and Applied Science Engineering Achievement Award  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatments for aircraft engines, land-based gas turbines, lighting systems, medical systems, and diesel technology. #12;· Next he served as the general manager of GE Aviation's small Commercial Engine Operation and General Manager, Commercial Engines, GE Aviation and named an officer of the General Electric Company

Whittle, Mark

359

Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions ofInjector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines D. Littlejohn and R.11. IC ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SHORT TITLE: Fuel

Littlejohn, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

College of Engineering ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

College of Engineering CYCLONE ENGINEERING RESEARCH `SENSING SKIN' MAKES WIND ENERGY MORE COST of Science and Technology. All rights reserved. Sarah A. Rajala Dean of Engineering James and Katherine Melsa: The College of Engineering is dedicated to advancing alternative energy, including wind energy. Researchers

Mayfield, John

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

our environment) #12;33 Engineering challenges :structures Sydney Opera House Roof stress testing done

Anderson, Jim

362

Engineering Institute  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Institute Engineering Institute Engineering dynamics that include flight, vibration isolation for precision manufacturing, earthquake engineering, blast loading, signal processing,...

363

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum & Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering E-mail: Statler-PNGE@mail.wvu.edu Degree Offered · Bachelor of Science in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (B.S.P.N.G.E.) Nature of Program Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is concerned with design and application aspects

Mohaghegh, Shahab

364

MASTER OF SCIENCE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Lead Free Solder IMPROVED AEROTHERMODYNAMIC INSTRUMENTATION OF AN ALLISON T63-A-700 GAS TURBINE ENGINE for the gas generator turbine and exhaust state points were evaluated and average values were calculated. The gas generator turbine inlet and exhaust temperature profiles have been measured and show

365

The Forging of Gas Turbine Discs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of the forging process with particular reference to the production of discs for aero gas turbine engines have been reviewed. How the technological requirements of the engine manufac...

F. Turner

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

5 - Reservoir Engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter presents the basic fundamentals that are useful to practical petroleum engineers by including basic principles, definitions, and data related to the reservoir engineering. It introduces the topics at a level that can be understood by engineers and geologists who are not expert in the field of reservoir engineering. Various correlations are provided in the chapter to understand the functioning of reservoir engineering, and newer techniques for improving recovery are also discussed. Reservoir engineering covers a broad range of subjects including the occurrence of fluids in a gas or oil-bearing reservoir, movement of those or injected fluids, and evaluation of the factors governing the recovery of oil or gas. The objectives of a reservoir engineer are to maximize producing rates and to recover oil and gas from reservoirs in the most economical manner possible. The advent of programmable calculators and personal computers has changed the approach that the reservoir engineers use to solve problems. In the chapter, many of the charts and graphs that have been historically used are presented for completeness and for illustrative purposes. In addition, separate sections of the chapter are devoted to the use of equations in some of the more common programs suitable for programmable calculators and personal computers.

F. David Martin; Robert M. Colpitts

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Gasification of Mixed Plastic Wastes in a Moving-Grate Gasifier and Application of the Producer Gas to a Power Generation Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to the flame-assisted tar reforming with oxy-combustion of natural gas, the hydrogen content was significantly increased, resulting in an increase in the syngas caloric value and a decrease in the gas cleaning load downstream. ... An auxiliary burner was installed in front of each stage for preheating the inside of the gasifier. ... Such waste products include discarded tires, plastic, glass, steel, burnt foundry sand, and coal combustion byproducts (CCBs). ...

Jeung Woo Lee; Tae U Yu; Jae Wook Lee; Ji Hong Moon; Hyo Jae Jeong; Sang Shin Park; Won Yang; Uen Do Lee

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

369

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size David B. Kittelson Center for Diesel Research than 90% of particle number are formed during exhaust dilution ­ Particle dynamics during sampling deposition of particle with density of 1 g/um Typical Diesel Particle Size Distribution #12;Typical Diesel

Minnesota, University of

371

Oil & Gas Research | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that require hydraulic fracturing or other engineering measures to produce. Fugitive Emissions |...

372

Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils...

373

6 - Engine brake performance in diesel engine system design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter provides a comprehensive theory on engine brake performance. It first discusses vehicle braking requirement and the impact on engine–vehicle matching in engine brake operation, followed by a comparison between engine brakes and drivetrain retarders. It then introduces drivetrain retarders in detail including their torque and cooling characteristics. The performance characteristics of exhaust brakes and compression brakes are elaborated including their mechanisms and the interactions with valvetrain, variable valve actuation (VVA) and turbocharger. The principles of engine brake design are introduced through comprehensive simulation analysis on engine thermodynamic cycles in braking operation. A braking gas recirculation (BGR) theory is developed.

Qianfan Xin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Engines - Spark Ignition Engines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spark Ignition Engines Spark Ignition Engines Thomas Wallner and omni engine Thomas Wallner and the omnivorous engine Background Today the United States import more than 60% of its crude oil and petroleum products. Transportation accounts for a major portion of these imports. Research in this field is focused on reducing the dependency on foreign oil by increasing the engine efficiency on the one hand and blending gasoline with renewable domestic fuels, such as ethanol, on the other. Argonne's Research The main focus of research is on evaluation of advanced combustion concepts and effects of fuel properties on engine efficiency, performance and emissions. The platforms used are a single-cylinder research engine as well as an automotive-size four-cylinder engine with direct fuel injection.

375

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

Walter, M.Todd

376

Chapter 8 - Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although natural gas is a nonrenewable resource, it is included for discussion because its sudden growth from fracking will impact the development and use of renewable fuels. Firms who are engaged in the development of processes that employ synthesis gas as an intermediate have concluded that the synthesis gas is more economically obtainable by steam reforming of natural gas than by gasification of waste cellulose. In some instances, firms have largely abandoned the effort to produce a renewable fuel as such, and in others firms are developing hybrid processes that employ natural gas in combination with a fermentation system. Moreover, natural gas itself is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines since it can be the least expensive option on a cost per joule basis. It is also aided by its high octane number of 130.

Arthur M. Brownstein

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Comparative experimental evaluation of performance, combustion and emissions of laser ignition with conventional spark plug in a compressed natural gas fuelled single cylinder engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser is emerging as a strong concept for alternative ignition in spark ignition engine. Laser ignition has potential advantages over conventional spark plug ignition. Laser ignition system is free from spark electrodes hence there is no loss of spark energy to the electrodes, which are also free from erosion effect. In addition, there is flexibility in choosing spark location and it offers excellent performance under high in-cylinder pressures. In this paper, performances of laser ignition and conventional spark ignition systems are comparatively evaluated in terms of in-cylinder pressure variation, combustion stability, fuel consumption, power output and exhaust emissions at similar operating conditions of the engine.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

379

SEMINAR ANNOUNCEMENT DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING & MECHANICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

products, pharmaceutical inhalers, office printers, gas turbine engines, spray-chemical-conversion reactors between the two phases; sometimes, mass transfer interactions are also important. These interactions occur

Ponce, V. Miguel

380

Integrating Gasifiers and Reciprocating Engine Generators to...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

generation from waste biomass while reducing diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Introduction Internal combustion reciprocating engine generators (gensets)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an advanced combustion model are used...

382

9.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/44 3. Absorption, gas expansion and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Kylteknik ("KYL") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 �A 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 9.11.2014�bo energy, solar energy, biogas fuel, etc. Absorption refrigeration involves absorption of refrigerant

Zevenhoven, Ron

383

Determination of americium and curium by isotope dilution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors propose a method for the determination of americium and curium in solutions of spent fuels from water cooled and moderated reactors that is based on isotope dilution with Am 241 and Cm 244 combined with extraction chromatography of americium and curium and alpha spectroscopy of the labels.

Yablochkin, A.V.; Krapivin, M.I.; Fedotov, S.N.; Yudina, V.G.; Yakobson, A.A.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Computational Modelling of Particle Degradation in Dilute Phase Pneumatic Conveyors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, GU2 7XH, UK {h.abou-chakra, u.tuzun}@surrey.ac.uk c The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, Woolwich, London, SE18 6PF, UK {i.bridle, m degradation during dilute phase pneumatic conveying. A numerical procedure, based on a matrix representation

Christakis, Nikolaos

385

Automated control and data acquisition for a small dilution refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An automatic temperature controller and data acquisition system for use with a dilution refrigerator is described. The unit is controlled by a 16?bit home microcomputer and operates and reads a resistance bridge capacitance bridge and temperature controller. Interfacing is achieved with common components and minimum additional wiring. Flexibility is retained in the software to allow application to several types of measurements.

David G. Haase

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

LANDFILL-GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS: AN ANALYSIS OF NET PRIVATE AND SOCIAL BENEFITS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials Table A1: Model Results for West Lake Landfill WEST LAKE IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Landfill WEST COUNTY IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average Landfill Gas Generation (mmcf/yr) 1,075 1,735 $1,250 Table A3: Model Results for Modern Landfill MODERN IC Engine Gas Turbine Steam Turbine Average

Jaramillo, Paulina

387

Numerical simulation of dilute and dense layered coal-dust explosions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Multidimensional time-dependent simulations were performed to study the interaction of a shock wave and resulting shear layer with layers of coal dust. The simulations used a high-order compressible numerical method for fluid dynamics and included a Eulerian kinetic-theory-based granular multiphase model applicable over a range from dense to dilute particle volume fractions. Two cases were considered: a loose dust layer with an initial volume fraction of 1%, and a dense dust layer with an initial volume fraction of 47%. For both cases, the final result is a coupled complex consisting of a shock leading a coal-dust flame. In the simulations presented here, a shock is initially produced from remnants of a natural gas detonation, which has decayed into a shock once it passes into a region containing no gaseous fuel. This shock weakens further due to mechanical and thermal losses from lifting and entraining the coal dust. The lifted dust subsequently ignites in the shock-heated air and produces a structure similar to a mixing-limited, nonpremixed flame. The flame consists of a burning coal dust wave that follows the shock. The distance between the shock and ignition point is determined by the induction length of carbon char, which is ? 170 cm and ? 15 cm for the 47% and 1% cases, respectively. The burning of coal particles is predominantly from heterogeneous reactions with carbon char, and volatilized methane combustion is a secondary effect. Air and particles are mixed by relative velocity between the gas and solid phases. Coal particles burn and produce pressure waves that accelerate the shock from Mach 2.2 to 2.6 for the dilute layer, and from Mach 1.7 to 1.8 in the dense layer.

Ryan W. Houim; Elaine S. Oran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effect of H2/CO ratio and N2/CO2 dilution rate on laminar burning velocity of syngas investigated by direct measurement and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laminar burning velocities of syngas/air premixed flames, varying with H2/CO ratio (from 5/95 to 75/25) and N2 or CO2 dilution rate (from 0% to 60%), were accurately measured using a Teflon coated Heat Flux burner and OH-PLIF based Bunsen flame method. Experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, with fuel/air equivalence ratios ranging from fuel-lean to fuel-rich. Coupled with experimental data, three chemical kinetic mechanisms, namely GRI-Mech 3.0, USC Mech II and Davis H2–CO mechanism, were validated. The Davis H2–CO and USC Mech II mechanisms appear to provide a better prediction for the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity variations with H2 and dilution gas contents were systematically investigated. For given dilution gas fraction, the laminar burning velocity reduction rate was enhanced as H2/CO ratio increasing. Effects of the syngas components and equivalence ratio variation on the concentrations of radical H and OH were also studied. It appears that there is a strong linear correlation between the laminar burning velocity and the maximum concentration of the H radical in the reaction zone for syngas. This characteristic is exclusively different from that in methane air premixed flame. These findings indicated that the high thermal diffusivity of the H radical played an important role in the laminar burning velocity enhancement and affected the laminar burning velocity reduction rate under dilution condition.

Z.H. Wang; W.B. Weng; Y. He; Z.S. Li; K.F. Cen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Mechanical Engineer  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This position is located in the Facilities Engineering (TESF) organization of Substation Engineering (TES) within the Engineering and Technical Services (TE) organization of the Transmission (T)...

390

Stirling engine power control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

Fraser, James P. (Scotia, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Mechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Mechanical engineering is a broad, versatile and creative discipline concerned with conversion of energyMechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering CollegeofEngineering 5050AnthonyWayneDrive Detroit,MI48202 College of engineering t Educating future engineers for 80 years

Berdichevsky, Victor

392

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:15am Addthis Photo of a large truck stopped at a gas station that reads 'Natural Gas for Vehicles.' Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are either fueled exclusively with compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas (dedicated NGVs) or are capable of natural gas and gasoline fueling (bi-fuel NGVs). Dedicated NGVs are designed to run only on natural gas. Bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated natural gas vehicles demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to

393

Diluting the founder effect: cryptic invasions expand a marine invader's range  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dilute the founder effect for nonindigenous...community of a wooden ship (Yamada 2001...Diluting the founder effect: conservation implications...assemblages entrained by ships are not only species...coastal invasions via ships: effects of emerging strategies...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped Vehicle as a Result of Regeneration A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped...

395

Engineering Prestigious  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Studious Prestigious Adventurous Curious Ambitious Ingenious #12;TheCollegeof Engineering We are committed to innovation in all aspects of engineering education and research. We deliver an accredited professional education program that effectively prepares our students to become engineering

Saskatchewan, University of

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive exhaust gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution, Intext Educational Publishers, 1973 Summary: , Critical Topics in Exhaust Gas...

397

Dilution calculations for determining laboratory exhaust stack heights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory exhaust stacks should be designed with sufficient height and exit momentum to avoid re-entry of exhaust and possible air quality problems, and the design should be evaluated before construction. One evaluation method is presented in this paper that combines dilution prediction equations from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals (1997) and a dilution criteria of Halitsky (1988). This method is less conservative than a geometric method in the ASHRAE Handbook and is less costly than wind-tunnel modeling. The method should only be applied to relatively simple building geometries with no larger buildings adjacent to them. A planned change to the ASHRAE equations, which would result in larger stacks being necessary, is discussed. Further investigation of this change is recommended using comparisons to wind tunnel data.

Ratcliff, M.A.; Sandru, E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

High precision in-cylinder gas thermometry using Laser Induced Gratings: Quantitative measurement of evaporative cooling with gasoline/alcohol blends in a GDI optical engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The first application of Laser Induced Thermal Gratings Spectroscopy (LITGS) for precision thermometry in a firing GDI optical engine is reported. Crank-angle resolved temperature values were derived from LITGS signals generated in fuel vapour with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1–1.0% allowing differences in evaporative or charge cooling effects arising from a variety of ethanol and methanol blends with a model gasoline fuel to be quantified. In addition, fluctuations in temperature arising from cyclic variations in compression were directly detected and measured.

Ben Williams; Megan Edwards; Richard Stone; John Williams; Paul Ewart

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A method of cobalt ion concentration from dilute aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid membrane technique is very useful for metal ions recovery from dilute solutions. Co{sup 2+} ions can be removed and concentrated from wastewaters with an emulsion liquid membrane. The paper describes the permeation of Co{sup 2+} using naphthenic acids as the carrier and kerosene as the membrane material. The inner phase is a HCl 3.162 x 10{sup -4} solution. The extraction yield is more than 96%.

Amanatidou, E. [Technological Education Inst., Kila Kozanis (Greece); Stefanut, M.N.; Grozav, A. [Institute for Chemical and Technological Sciences, Timisoara (Romania)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

402

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

403

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print Electronic Structure and Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Print The possibility of using electrons' spins in addition to their charge in information technology has created much enthusiasm for a new field of electronics popularly known as "spintronics." An intensely studied approach to obtaining spin-polarized carriers for data-storage devices is the use of diluted magnetic semiconductors created by doping ions like Mn, Fe, or Co having a net spin into a semiconducting host such as GaAs, ZnO, or GaN. The interaction among these spins leads to ferromagnetic order at low temperatures, which is necessary to create spin-polarized carriers. A research team working at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Beamline ID8 made a big leap forward in clarifying the microscopic picture of magnetism and anisotropy in Mn-doped GaAs by resolving localized and hybridized d states using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements.

404

Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

Uhlig, Kurt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

College of Engineering & Engineering Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Specialist -Tech Services Coordinator Dean Promod Vohra Mechanical Engineering Pradip Majumdar, ChairCollege of Engineering & Engineering Technology COMPUTER OPERATIONS -Manager -LAN Support -Senior Systems Engineer -Clerical Position OFFICE OF SPONSORED PROJECTS -Research Development Specialist

Kostic, Milivoje M.

406

Comprehensive modeling study analyzing the insights of the NO–NO2 conversion process in current diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Multiple researches have focused on reducing the \\{NOx\\} emissions and the greatest results have been achieved when lowering the combustion temperature by employing massive exhaust gas recirculation rates (LTC). Despite this benefit, a substantial increase in the NO2 contribution to the \\{NOx\\} emissions has also been observed, which is the most harmful specie and is important for the design and positioning of the after-treatment devices. To understand how NO2 behaves and how it contributes to the total \\{NOx\\} (NO2/NOx), not only under LTC but also for CDC conditions, a stepwise computational research study was performed with Chemkin Pro software, due to the complexity of isolating the different phenomena studied, to analyze: (1) general equilibrium conditions and (2) the influence of typical diesel engine phenomena (combustion and cooling effects) under non-equilibrium conditions. The results obtained under equilibrium state confirm the theoretical guidelines established for the NO2 formation process. When considering a combustion process (HCCI-like mode), the previous results were corroborated as well as the fact that only poor or slow combustion processes are responsible for the NO2 formation. Additionally, it reflected a cyclic process between NO and NO2, or in other words, it is suffice to just concentrate on NO to be able to predict NO2. Finally, the results yield after analyzing some cooling effects, inherent to how diesel engines work (the expansion stroke, dilution of combustion products with the rest of in-cylinder charge and the one caused by wall impingement), reflect that: (1) the dilution effect explains the 10% of the NO2/NOx ratio under CDC conditions and (2) the coupling of the dilution with the expansion stroke cooling effects can explain the NO2 increase typical of LTC conditions. These results were also supported by some experiments performed in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Consequently, the cooling effect caused by dilution should be considered when modeling the NO2 formation just like the expansion stroke.

J. Benajes; J.J. López; R. Novella; P. Redón

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using CRiSP 1 Gas Saturation and Sensitivity Analysis Using of Engineers began the Gas Abatement Study in order to address the problem of gas and its effects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. One important question is how much gas reductions caused by structural changes at a few

Washington at Seattle, University of

408

Externally heated valve engine -- An alternative to the Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new concept of the Externally Heated Valve (EHV) engine is presented. The principle of the engine operation is described in the introduction to the paper. Heat delivered to the working medium (air) in the heater, or several heaters working commutatively, can come from a combustion chamber or other heat generator such as nuclear reactors or solar collectors. The engine construction is original entirely different from the well-known Stirling engine. New results of the EHV engine computer modeling are presented. This is connected with a new kind of the annular heater applied to the EHV engine. A whirl motion inside the heater is caused to ensure the proper condition of the heat exchanger during the whole engine cycle. Three heaters working commutatively have been considered in this model. Comparisons between the power and efficiency of the Stirling engine and EHV engine have been performed for the same engine capacity, rotational frequency, maximum and minimum temperatures of the working gas and for the same mean pressures of both the engine cycles. The power of the EHV engine is in this case over three times higher than the Stirling engine power, while the efficiency of both the engines is almost the same.

Kazimierski, Z. [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Sendai, Miyagi (Japan). Research Div. in Mechanical Engineering; Brzeski, L. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

CHAIR OF AERO ENGINES CHAIR OF AERO ENGINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was also responsible for the development of technology in specific areas as well as for the definition with this experience, Prof. Peitsch today emphasizes the holistic view on the system "Gas Turbine" including all its · steady and unsteady flows in compressors and turbines · whole engine aspects of gas turbines including

Berlin,Technische Universität

410

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Terry Fuller Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering Center Engineering Center ComputerTerry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering

Gelfond, Michael

412

Crystal Fields in Dilute Rare-Earth Metals Obtained from Magnetization Measurements on Dilute Rare-Earth Alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystal field parameters of Tb, Dy, and Er in Sc, Y, and Lu are summarized. These parameters are obtained from magnetization measurements on dilute single crystals, and successfully checked by a number of different methods. The crystal field parameters vary unpredictably with the rare-earth solute. B40, B60, and B66 are similar in Y and Lu. Crystal field parameters for the pure metals Tb, Dy, and Er are estimated from the crystal fields in Y and Lu.

P. Touborg and J. Hřg

1974-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, amorphous silicon films by hot filament technique using ``safe`` silicon source gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate by flowing a stream of safe (diluted to less than 1%) silane gas past a heated filament. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Nelson, B.P.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering, Civil Engineer- ing, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering86 College of Engineering and Science 86 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers a broad range of rigorous and stimulating baccalaure- ate programs which

Stuart, Steven J.

415

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, MechanicalCollege of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering

Stuart, Steven J.

416

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering are each accredited by the Engineering87 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering educational oppor- tunities. The innovative combination of engineering and science disciplines that comprises

Stuart, Steven J.

417

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Mechanical35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering

Stuart, Steven J.

418

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Com- puter Engineering, Computer Science, Digital ProCollege of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering

Bolding, M. Chad

419

5 - Reservoir Engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter presents the basic fundamentals useful to practical petroleum engineers. Topics are introduced at a level that can be understood by engineers and geologists who are not expert in this field. Various correlations are provided in the chapter where useful. Newer techniques for improving recovery are also discussed in the chapter. Reservoir engineering covers a broad range of subjects including the occurrence of fluids in a gas or oil-beating reservoir, movement of those fluids or injected fluids, and evaluation of the factors governing the recovery of oil or gas. The objectives of a reservoir engineer are to maximize production rates and to ultimately recover oil and gas from reservoirs in the most economical manner possible. The chapter includes many of the charts and graphs that have been historically used. While illustrating enhanced oil recovery methods, estimation of waterflood residual oil saturation, fluid movements, material balance with volumetric analysis, the chapter also discusses pressure transient testing, recovery of hydrocarbons, and decline curve analysis. Decline curve analysis estimates primary oil recovery for an individual reservoir. The conventional analysis of production decline curves for oil or gas production consists of plotting the log of flow rate versus time on semilog paper. In case of a decline in the rate of production, the data are extrapolated into the future to provide an estimate of expected production and reserves.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI (Gas Research Institute) Coal Gasification Research Program: Quarterly report, March 28--June 26, 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following joint program projects comprised the scope of Foster Wheeler's current monitoring activities: KRW Energy System, Inc.-- Fluidized-Bed Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU), Madison, Pennsylvania. CNG Research Company--Acid Gas Removal System, Cleveland, Ohio. The test program in KRW's fluidized-bed gasifier PDU was resumed, following shutdown for winter maintenance. During this quarter, CNG completed construction on the new flash crystallizer PDU and started shakedown testing of the unit. Details of Foster Wheeler's monitoring activities on these projects are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. Under the technical evaluation scope of modular integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. This study was authorized by DOE in mid-March 1987 and was initiated during the current period. Discussions on the status of the IGCC systems study is included in Section 5.0 of this report. 4 refs.

Mazzella, G.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 USA ronney@usc.edu Keywords: Microgravity; premixed-gas; cool flames; turbulence. Reference: Ronney, P. D., "Premixed-Gas Flames," in: Microgravity Combustion

422

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Engineering Institute  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Engineering dynamics that include flight, vibration isolation for precision manufacturing, earthquake engineering, blast loading, signal processing, and experimental model analysis. Contact Leader, LANL Charles Farrar Email Leader, UCSD Michael Todd Email LANL Program Administrator Jutta Kayser (505) 663-5649 Email Collaboration for conducting mission-driven, multidisciplinary engineering research and recruiting, revitalization, and retention of current & future staff The Engineering Institute is a collaboration between LANL and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Jacobs School of Engineering, whose mission is to develop a comprehensive approach for conducting mission-driven, multidisciplinary engineering research

424

STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, communications etc. I will present my work on the development of a new type of MEMS -power MEMS including micro-gas quarter-sized micro-gas-turbine-engine and rocket engine. In 2005, Dr. Sun joined the DepartmentSTEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Wednesday, May 17, 2006

Fisher, Frank

425

Gas temperature effect on the time for onset of particle nucleation in argon diluted acetylene plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The electrodes are symmetrically capacitively coupled on a 13.6 MHz power supply witch is used for standard industry applications. The electrode system is confined in a stainless-steel vacuum vessel, supplied II, Ruhr-University, 44780 Bochum, Germany 2 Also at Institute of Physics, POB 57, 11000 Belgrade

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Synergistic Inhibitors for Dilute High-Level Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans were conducted to determine the effectiveness of various combinations of anodic inhibitors in the prevention of pitting in carbon steel exposed to dilute radioactive waste. Chromate, molybdate, and phosphate were investigated as replacements for nitrite, whose effective concentrations are incompatible with the waste vitrification process. The polarization scans were performed in non-radioactive waste simulants. Their results showed that acceptable combinations of phosphate with chromate and phosphate with molybdate effectively prevented pitting corrosion. Chromate with molybdate could not replace nitrite.

Wiersma, B.J.; Zapp, P.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Cellulase Accessibility of Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The dilute-acid pretreatment reduces xylan content in corn stover. This reduction in xylan content appears to render the substrate less recalcitrant. Below {approx}8%, xylan content is no longer the dominant factor in biomass recalcitrance. (2) Decreasing xylan content of corn stover also created more binding sites for Cel7A, but no strong correlation with actual xylan content. (3) We found no correlation between bound Cel7A concentration and lignin content. Maybe lignin is blocking the way for Cel7A? The contribution of lignin to biomass recalcitrance requires further investigation.

Jeoh, T.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Electrical conductivity of dispersions: from dry foams to dilute suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new data for the electrical conductivity of foams in which the liquid fraction ranges from two to eighty percent. We compare with a comprehensive collection of prior data, and we model all results with simple empirical formul\\ae. We achieve a unified description that applies equally to dry foams and emulsions, where the droplets are highly compressed, as well as to dilute suspensions of spherical particles, where the particle separation is large. In the former limit, Lemlich's result is recovered; in the latter limit, Maxwell's result is recovered.

K. Feitosa; S. Marze; A. Saint-Jalmes; D. J. Durian

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by the recent success of optical trapping of alkali-metal bosons, we have studied the zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin-f, which are spin-S excitations (0<~S<~2f). The dispersion of the mode (S) depends on a single Landau parameter F(S), which is related to the scattering lengths of the system through a simple formula. Measurement of (even a subset of) these modes in finite magnetic fields will enable one to determine all the interaction parameters of the system.

S.-K. Yip and Tin-Lun Ho

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Industrial Gas Turbines | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air. This is why gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate, they are used widely in industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings. Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy from the fuel

431

Industrial Gas Turbines | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air. This is why gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate, they are used widely in industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings. Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy from the fuel

432

Atomic-scale insight and design principles for turbine engine thermal barrier coatings from theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...energy efficiency, gas turbine engines used in...designing circumvention strategies. We review results...energy: Both employ turbine engines that combust...more expansion of gas that creates more...for most materials development, the usual path...

Kristen A. Marino; Berit Hinnemann; Emily A. Carter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Terry Fuller Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering EngineeringTerry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Marsha Sharp Center for Student Athletics Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology

Gelfond, Michael

434

ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Fall 2013 #12;Name: ____________________________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________ College of Engineering Cornell University ABET Accredited Programs for 2013­14 ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

Walter, M.Todd

435

Ceramic gas turbine shroud  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

Bulk viscosity of a pion gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of m?, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity ?~(F08/m?5)exp(2m?/T), where F0?93?MeV is the pion decay constant.

Egang Lu and Guy D. Moore

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

Engineering Why engineering at Sussex?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Computer

Sussex, University of

438

Biological Engineering Electives Biosystems Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Solid Mechanics (3) EGM 4853 Bio-Fluid Mechanics (3) ENV Environmental Engineering Courses CWR Civil EngineeringBiological Engineering Electives Biosystems Engineering Departmental Electives: (Choose at least one of the following) ABE 4034 Remote Sensing in Engineering: Science, Sensor & Applications (3) ABE

Hill, Jeffrey E.

439

College of Engineering Engineering in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optics · Nuclear technologies · High-performance materials #12;College of Engineering ... and of the 21stCollege of Engineering Engineering in Social Context Jonathan Wickert Dean of Engineering #12;College of Engineering Game changers of the 20th century ... · Electrification · Automobile · Airplane

Lin, Zhiqun

440

Gas Mileage Tips - Mobile  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Mileage Tips Gas Mileage Tips Drive sensibly Agressive Driver Save 5% to 33% by avoiding speeding and aggressive accelerating and braking. Save: $0.16-$1.07 per gallon Obey the speed limit 65 mph sign Each 5 mph you drive over 50 mph can lower gas mileage by 7% or more. Save: $0.23-$0.45 per gallon Keep your engine properly tuned Man and woman looking under hood Fixing an out-of-tune engine can improve its efficiency by 4% on average. Save: $0.13 per gallon Keep tires properly inflated Woman checking tire pressure Under-inflated tires can lower gas mileage by 0.3% for every 1 psi drop in pressure of all four tires. Save: Up to $0.10 per gallon Remove un-needed cargo Woman shopping for a car An extra 50 to 100 pounds can lower gas mileage by about 1% to 2%. Save: $0.03-$0.06 per gallon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF/sub 6/ mass flow in UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with H/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentration in a UF/sub 6/ - H/sub 2/ process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF/sub 6/ environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement.

Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental is to provide high quality teaching, advising, research, outreach, and service in a land grant, Carnegie Class I, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering

443

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, MechanicalCollege of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi

Stuart, Steven J.

444

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering (Inorganic), and Mechanical91 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering educational oppor- tunities. The innovative combination of engineering and science disciplines that comprises

Stuart, Steven J.

445

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Mechanical35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi

Stuart, Steven J.

446

Stability Regimes of Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One option for combustion in zero-emission Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants is non-premixed combustion of nitrogen-diluted hydrogen in air. An important aspect to non-premixed combustion is flame stability or anchoring, though only a few fundamental stability studies of these flames have taken place to date. The following paper presents the results of experiments investigating the effects of nitrogen diluent fraction, jet diameter, and exit velocity on the static stability limits of a turbulent hydrogen jet flame issuing from a thin-lipped tube into a quiescent atmosphere. Four different stability limits are observed: detachment from the burner lip, reattachment to the burner lip, transition from a laminar lifted flame base to blowout or to a turbulent lifted flame, and transition from a turbulent lifted flame to blowout. The applicability of existing theories and correlations to the stability results is discussed. These results are an important step in assessing the viability of a non-premixed combustion approach using hydrogen diluted with nitrogen as a fuel.

Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Surface tension in the dilute Ising model. The Wulff construction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension and the phenomenon of phase coexistence for the Ising model on $\\mathbbm{Z}^d$ ($d \\geqslant 2$) with ferromagnetic but random couplings. We prove the convergence in probability (with respect to random couplings) of surface tension and analyze its large deviations : upper deviations occur at volume order while lower deviations occur at surface order. We study the asymptotics of surface tension at low temperatures and relate the quenched value $\\tau^q$ of surface tension to maximal flows (first passage times if $d = 2$). For a broad class of distributions of the couplings we show that the inequality $\\tau^a \\leqslant \\tau^q$ -- where $\\tau^a$ is the surface tension under the averaged Gibbs measure -- is strict at low temperatures. We also describe the phenomenon of phase coexistence in the dilute Ising model and discuss some of the consequences of the media randomness. All of our results hold as well for the dilute Potts and random cluster models.

Marc Wouts

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

448

West Virginia University 1 Benjamin M. Statler College of Engineering and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S.C.S.) · Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (B.S.E.E.) · Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering (B · Industrial and Management Systems Engineering · Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering · Mining Engineering · Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering All undergraduate programs are recognized by industry as providing

Mohaghegh, Shahab

449

An Improved Thermionic Ionization Detector for Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......through two of the holes and is used as the heater element. A fine platinum wire runs through...LOW DENSITY Cs HIGH DENSITY Cs NICHROME HEATER GAS ENVIRONMENT DILUTE H2/AIR N2 Figure...Patterson. Selective responses of a flameless thermionic detector. J. Chromatogr......

P.L. Patterson; R.A. Gatten; C. Ontiveros

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Core 2.0 Completion Checklist Mechanical Engineering Science IN CHMY 141 (CHEM 131) 6 Research and Creative Experience R EMEC 489R & EMEC 499 R (ME 404R & ME

Dyer, Bill

451

Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

452

Jet Ignition Research for Clean Efficient Combustion Engines Prasanna Chinnathambi, Abdullah Karimi, Manikanda Rajagopal, Razi Nalim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-chamber internal combustion engines and in innovative pressure-gain combustors for gas turbine engines. Jet engines using low-cost, low-carbon natural gas need improved methods for ignition of lean mixtures rotor combustor. A wave rotor combustion chamber is best ignited with a jet of hot gas that may come

Zhou, Yaoqi

453

HP-41CV applied drilling engineering manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents of this manual are as follows: average diameter of an open hole; pump cycle, pump factor, and annulus capacity; drilling-time and penetration rate predictions; nozzle selection; direction well survey; viscosity of drilling fluids; barite requirements with solids dilution; solids analysis and recommended flow properties; evaluation of hydrocyclones; frictional pressure loss; surge and swab pressures; pressure and average density of a gas column; cement additive requirements; kick tolerance, severity, length and density; and pump pressure schedule for well control operations.

Chenevert, M.; Williams, F.; Hekimian, H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Evaluation of the residual gas tolerance of homogeneous combustion processes with high exhaust-gas recirculation rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of concepts with low emissions and fuel consumption for gasoline engines requires an early knowledge of the combustion process’ residual gas tolerance. At the Institute...

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Thomas Lauer…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Development, Optimization and Validation of Gas Chromatographic Fingerprinting of Brazilian Commercial Diesel Fuel for Quality Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Science and Technology - IFSP, Campus...three-step development, optimization...described for gas chromatography...Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power...methodology - A gas chromatography...Heyden Y.V. Development, optimization......

Bruno César Diniz Brito dos Santos; Danilo Luiz Flumignan; José Eduardo de Oliveira

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engineering covers a wide range of critical services, from designing water and wastewater treatment facilitiesENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING www.cee.pdx.edu What do environmental engineers do? Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) is an exciting, challenging, and dynamic field that is critical to our quality

457

Application of hybrid EGR systems to turbocharged GDI engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a hybrid exhaust gas recirculation system, high-pressure EGR is combined with low-pressure EGR. As BorgWarner demonstrates, proven technology from diesel engines can also be used for gasoline engines in ord...

David Roth; Rolf Sauerstein; Dr.-Ing. Michael Becker; Rob Meilinger

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

ADVANCED VISUALIZATION OF ENGINE SIMULATION DATA USING TEXTURE SYNTHESIS AND TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 1: Idealized in-cylinder flow through a diesel engine (left) and a gas engine (right). ADVANCED motion found inside diesel and gas engines, respectively. Texture-based flow visualization techniques use for the design of a diesel engine try to create an ideal pattern of motion, which can be described by a swirling

Chen, Guoning

460

Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines Riccardo Ceccarelli , Philippe are provided using advanced Diesel engine developed under AMEsim. I. INTRODUCTION The modern Diesel engine has of the functioning of a air-path in a Diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation circuit is presented. More

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sources » Fossil » Natural Gas Sources » Fossil » Natural Gas Natural Gas July 30, 2009 DOE Leads National Research Program in Gas Hydrates The U.S. Department of Energy today told Congress the agency is leading a nationwide program in search of naturally occurring natural gas hydrates - a potentially significant storehouse of methane--with far reaching implications for the environment and the nation's future energy supplies. May 18, 2009 DOE-Supported Publication Boosts Search for Oil, Natural Gas by Petroleum Operators A comprehensive publication detailing the oil-rich fields of Utah and nearby states, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, can now provide petroleum companies and related service providers with the geologic, geographic, and engineering data needed to tap into these resources.

462

AVESTAR® - Shale Gas Processing (SGP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shale Gas Processing (SGP) Shale Gas Processing (SGP) SPG The shale gas revolution is transforming America's energy landscape and economy. The shale gas boom, including the Marcellus play in Appalachia, is driving job creation and investment in the energy sector and is also helping to revive other struggling sectors of the economy like manufacturing. Continued growth in domestic shale gas processing requires that energy companies maximize the efficiency and profitability from their operations through excellent control and drive maximum business value from all their plant assets, all while reducing negative environmental impact and improving safety. Changing demographics and rapidly evolving plant automation and control technologies also necessitate training and empowering the next-generation of shale gas process engineering and

463

Effects of dilution conditions on diesel particle size distribution and filter mass measurements in case of marine fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Particle emission characteristics were studied from heavy-duty diesel engine operating on fuels with sulfur levels relevant to marine operation, i.e. 0.05% S and 3% S respectively. Effects of primary dilution temperature (PDT) and primary dilution ratio (PDR) were investigated together with effect of filter media and time of filter conditioning. PDT increase was found slowing down nucleation rate due to increase of saturation vapor pressures of volatile species. In turn, increasing PDR reduces partial pressure of exhaust species and hence weakens both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. All these effects are amplified by high sulfur content in marine fuels which increases available amount of nucleation-prone vapor-phase semivolatile compounds. At the same time, water condensation artifact was observed at PDR = 3. No filter type was found to be overwhelmingly superior as certain positive and/or negative measurement artifacts are inherently associated with all filter materials. The filter conditioning time was also found to cause substantial PM mass variation, as control over VOC take up from (or lost to) laboratory air and hydration of sulfuric acid is required. The standard 24 hour conditioning time was found insufficient to reach complete PM mass equilibrium, so longer time is required when measuring from high-sulfur fuels.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jřrgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

Reader, G.T.; Hooper

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Propane, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ford F-150 (Dual-Fuel LPG) Propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines. LPG-fueled vehicles can produce significantly lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). LPG is usually less expensive than gasoline, it can be used without degrading vehicle performance, and most LPG used in U.S. comes from domestic sources. The availability of LPG-fueled light-duty passenger vehicles is currently limited. A few light-duty vehicles-mostly larger trucks and vans-can be ordered from a dealer with a prep-ready engine package and converted to use propane. Existing conventional vehicles can also be converted for LPG use.

466

Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

Kweon, Seongsoo [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Samarth, Nitin [Physics Department, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lozanne, Alex de [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Vibrational Dynamics of Isotopically Dilute Nitrogen to 104 GPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman studies to 104 GPa of a 14N2 host with dilute 15N2 and 14N15N isotopic species indicate an increase in vibrational coupling with pressure. The lowest frequency branch of the isotopic species 15N2 reaches a plateau around 100 GPa suggesting the onset of bond weakening for molecules located on particular sites. An unusual intensity increase is observed for the isotopic ?1 guest modes. The phase transitions above 20 GPa appear to involve an increase in the number of inequivalent sites, with possibly subtle changes in the orientational behavior of particular molecules in the pressure range 25 to 50 GPa not readily revealed in recent x-ray diffraction studies.

H. Olijnyk and A. P. Jephcoat

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

468

Science as Art: Jet Engine Airflow | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

used heavily by GE Aviation, GE Power & Water, and GE Oil & Gas for the design of turbomachinery, e.g. jet engines, gas turbines, etc. I had the chance to talk with Brian to...

469

Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Building on previous work on an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump, this project will develop hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that...

470

REQUEST BY CUMMINS ENGINE COMPANY, INC., FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of technologies to improve spark ignition natural gas engine efficiencies for automotive markets. Two other companies, Mack Truck and Deere & Company, are also subcontractors...

471

Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

diesel engine with cooled EGR and flexible intake valve actuation developed to capture dynamic effects of gas exchange actuators deer12kocher.pdf More Documents &...

472

Southwest Engineers participates in North Dakota fracking project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Southwest Engineers Inc is working with Earthwater Resources Inc on a major project in the Bakken Shale oil and gas zone in North Dakota, USA.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Gas-Saving Tips  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Gas-Saving Tips Gas-Saving Tips Some consumers believe fuel economy ratings are a fixed number, like engine size or cargo volume. However, a vehicle's fuel economy can vary significantly due to several factors, including how the vehicle is driven, the vehicle's mechanical condition, and the environment in which it is driven. That's good news. It means you may be able to improve your vehicle's gas mileage through proper maintenance and driving habits. In fact, studies suggest the average driver can improve his/her fuel economy by roughly 10 percent. Here are a few simple tips to help you get the best possible fuel economy from your vehicle and reduce your fuel costs. Adopt Good Driving Habits Drive Sensibly Aggressive driving (speeding, rapid acceleration and braking)

474

College of Engineering Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

College of Engineering Industrial Engineering Core 2.0 Completion Checklist Industrial Engineering) 6 Research and Creative Experience R EIND 499R (I&ME 444 R and I&ME 445 R) Note: Courses completed Social Sciences; * EGEN 310 (ENGR 310), Multidisciplinary Engineering Design, may be substituted

Dyer, Bill

475

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

477

Computer Engineering Mekelweg 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Suriname Computer Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Kuzmanov, Georgi

478

Oil and Gas Drilling Bit Tribology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A drilling bit is used in petroleum exploration to drill a wellbore through various layers of rock formations to access oil or natural gas resources. It is engineered...1). A roller cone drill bit is categorized ...

Dr. Chih Lin Ph.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxicology, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences58 College of Engineering and Science 58 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems

Stuart, Steven J.

480

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING CIVIL, ARCHITECTURAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL Experience. DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING · Degree programs in cell and tissue engineering, medical imaging, and neural engineering These are exciting times for biomedical engineering and for Illinois Tech

Heller, Barbara

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas engine diluted" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

CollegeofEngineering College of Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering, Neural Engineering, Bioinformatics and Genomics, and Nanobiomolecular Engineering targeting and transport, biotransduc- tion, imaging and inducible bioactivity, computational genomics

Illinois at Chicago, University of

482

Inferential determination of various properties of a gas mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for inferentially determining various properties of a gas mixture, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. The method can be applied to natural gas mixtures, where the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for heating value calculations. The method may also be applied to inferentially determine density and molecular weight for gas mixtures other than natural gases.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it t