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Sample records for gas emissions reductions

  1. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  2. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  3. Meeting an 80% Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation by 2050: A Case Study in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from ,Board, 2008. California Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory.A. , 2003. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from US

  4. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  5. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  6. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT WITH GAS TURBINES ACHIEVE BOTH ENERGY SAVINGS AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS F. Giacobbe*, G. Iaquaniello**, R. G. Minet*, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT... Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented. INTRODUCTION Petroleum refining...

  7. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and A. Schafer, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S.Council. Marintek, Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions fromfor Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions

  8. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  9. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping STD-1128-2013 April 2013DepartmentGreenPaulDepartment of

  11. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  12. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  13. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  14. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerous transportation strategies are directed at reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changing the behavior of individual drivers or travelers. These behavioral changes may have the effect of reducing travel, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing travel. Since the 1970s, federal, regional, state and municipal agencies have tried to reduce energy use, emissions, and congestion by influencing travel behavior. This report reviews and summarizes the literature on relationships between these strategies and transportation-related energy use and GHG emissions to examine how changes to travel behavior can reduce transportation energy use and discuss the potential for federal actions to affect travel behavior.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  16. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    2001) The impact of CO 2 emissions trading on the EuropeanJ. D. et al. (2007) Emissions Trading for internationalinvestigating an open emission trading system for aviation

  18. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    are for total full fuel cycle emissions. References l.Light Duty Vehicle Full Fuel Cycle Emissions Analysis,AND FUEL ECONOMY FULL FUEL CYCLE EMISSIONS REGULATORY

  19. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    vehicles used liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum1,793 -100 to -84% Other Fuels Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

  20. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Diesel (Coal-to- Liquids) Hydrogen (Natural Gas, pipeline)Hydrogen (Natural Gas, liquid H2 truck) Hydrogen (Coal,Natural Gas, on-site Natural Gas, liquid H2 truck, w/o or w/

  1. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    management program following national energy managementwith national-level energy or GHG tax programs, LBNLnational level energy efficiency and GHG emissions reduction programs.

  2. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  3. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    internal combustion enginesand gas turbines, fuel cells,2, the external combustion engines(gas turbine and Stifling)or external combustion engines, such as the gas turbine or

  4. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Electricity (Natural Gas Combined Cycle) Electricity (Coal,efficiency enabled by combined cycle systems at stationarybut also using combined cycle and fuel cell-based power

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle Activity Network Efficiency GHG Emissions Operational Efficiency Alternative EnergyAlternative energy includes the substitution of fuels other than fossil fuels for vehicle

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    fuels in place of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO). A replacement of HFOGHG Emissions Change from Heavy Fuel Oil Marine Diesel Oil AEmissions Change from Heavy Fuel Oil At worst be CO 2

  7. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    Powerplant Efficiency (%) FF Vehicle Fuel/Technologies gmC02) pp I Llecmcity gmC02 ] j KJ)Fuel gm j Coal Steam Oil Steam GasGas from Biomass from Solar Carbon Dioxide Table 2: [gin ~mlsslons~-~iJf°r Usage for Various Powerplant

  8. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  11. Reduction of green house gas emission by clean power Jinxu Ding and Arun Somani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , fossil fuels play an important role. The estimation of Energy Information Administration [7] of Depart.8%, coal 26.6% and natural gas 22.9%. The total value of these sources is 86.3% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Burning fossil fuels produces about 21.3 billion tons of CO2 every

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  14. The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

    2009-01-01

    the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits MattNATURE AND EXTENT OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REDUCTIONa similar situation with greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  15. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  16. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  17. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  18. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs... of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh p. 26 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 OSD eGrid for NOx Emissions Unit: Tons of NOx/OSD p. 27 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 28 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p...

  19. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  20. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  1. Reduction of NOx Emissions in Alamo Area Council of Government Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    This reports summarizes the electricity, natural gas and NOx emissions reductions from retrofit measures reported as part of the AACOG emissions reduction effort. The electricity and natural gas savings were collected by ...

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

  5. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  6. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  7. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Affairs (DEFRA), 2005. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. http://targets through the UK Emissions Trading Scheme. 6 Table 1is to be adjusted for emissions trading. The reports must be

  8. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    CO2 Emissions Reduced (Mt) Taxes Subsidies Agreements Total Source:CO2 from UTO Source: CARB, 2009a; LBNL own estimates Not Specified: emissions

  9. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  10. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  11. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    non-marketed natural gas. g Includes methane emissions related to energy, agriculture, waste management, and industrial processes. h Includes nitrous oxide emissions related...

  12. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Avoided Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Settingexits • Calculating trading group targets • Measuring energyemissions trading scheme, and a “light touch” on energy

  13. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley National Laboratory’s Energy Analysis Program forare often national-level energy or GHG programs that combinea national-level energy or GHG emissions mitigation program

  14. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  15. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

  16. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    fuel switching, and cogeneration. These measures can oftenthe installation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement:They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increased

  17. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increasedinstallation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement: Therefineries, 27 power plants, and 5 cogeneration facilities (

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01

    to accomplish strategically a reduction in emissions. Through its development, ENERGY STAR has become an integral player with many Green Buildings Program to help them carry the energy efficiency banner to higher levels of cooperation. What is occurring today...

  19. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002deersloan.pdf More Documents...

  20. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Hughes, and C.R. Knittel. Greenhouse Gas Reductions underoil sands industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. EnvironmentalA cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. McKinsey

  1. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    manufacturers to focus on high fuel-economy cars. And Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are wonderful, or oil resources. Nor would the anticipated 40 mpg Ford Escape hybrid in the "small SUV" class Cycle (UDC) for representative cars and light trucks.1 The horizontal axis shows measured emissions

  2. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  4. CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    H2 CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California goals of criteria pollutant and GHG emission reduction. · Modelers need to work with policy makers more to policy-makers and stakeholders. 5 #12;Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California 2030 #12;

  5. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  6. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  7. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  8. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Presentation: North East States for Coordinated Air Use Management

  9. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment Muhammad Ehsanul The objective of this research was to develop a multiob- jective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to re- duce emissions in a cost

  11. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for control of NO.sub.x emissions in a sulfur-containing gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly

    2015-08-11

    An exhaust gas treatment process, apparatus, and system for reducing the concentration of NOx, CO and hydrocarbons in a gas stream, such as an exhaust stream (29), via selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is provided. The process, apparatus and system include a catalytic bed (32) having a reducing only catalyst portion (34) and a downstream reducing-plus-oxidizing portion (36). Each portion (34, 36) includes an amount of tungsten. The reducing-plus-oxidizing catalyst portion (36) advantageously includes a greater amount of tungsten than the reducing catalyst portion (36) to markedly limit ammonia salt formation.

  12. Leakage and Comparative Advantage Implications of Agricultural Participation in Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Emission Mitigation Heng-Chi Lee Assistant Professor Institute of Applied Economics National Taiwan Ocean greenhouse gas emissions. Reduction efforts may involve the agricultural sector through options emission reductions. As a consequence, emission reduction efforts in implementing countries may be offset

  13. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  14. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  15. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  16. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  17. Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from a High Speed Ferry Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia University 2003deerthompson.pdf More Documents &...

  18. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson...

  19. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

  20. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  2. EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS USING HYDROGEN FROM PLASMATRON FUEL CONVERTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L

    2000-08-20

    Substantial progress in engine emission control is needed in order to meet present and proposed regulations for both spark ignition and diesel engines. Tightening regulations throughout the world reflect the ongoing concern with vehicle emissions. Recently developed compact plasmatron fuel converters have features that are suitable for onboard production of hydrogen for both fuel pretreatment and for exhaust aftertreatment applications. Systems that make use of these devices in conjunction with aftertreatment catalysts have the potential to improve significantly prospects for reduction of diesel engine emissions. Plasmatron fuel converters can provide a rapid response compact means to transform efficiently a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen rich gas. They have been used to reform natural gas [Bromberg1], gasoline [Green], diesel [Bromberg2] and hard-to-reform biofuels [Cohn1] into hydrogen rich gas (H2 + CO). The development of these devices has been pursued for the purpose of reducing engine exhaust pollutants by providing hydrogen rich gas for combustion in spark ignition and possibly diesel engines, as shown in Figure 1 [Cohn2]. Recent developments in compact plasmatron reformer design at MIT have resulted in substantial decreases in electrical power requirements. These new developments also increase the lifetime of the electrodes.

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9...

  4. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  6. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental

  7. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  9. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By enabling process heaters to utilize...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    fuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fromand N 2 O are the major greenhouse gases produced in soils,O is the most important greenhouse gas that is emitted from

  11. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    is attained in a post-catalyst homogeneous combustion zone.This process leads to substantial reduction of NOxIntroduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is of great importance in practical emissions (typically NOx is produced exclusively from the gaseous (homogeneous) reaction path

  12. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  13. Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement S A J A L S . P O K H A R E L , G A R Y emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    consumption 13 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 14 U.S. carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 15 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions:...

  15. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  16. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.6.3.

  17. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual

  18. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin6

  19. Air Emissions Reduction Assistance Program (Iowa) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Provider Iowa Department of Natural Resources The State of Iowa may provide financial assistance in the form of loans andor grants to projects aimed at reducing air emissions...

  20. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel...

  1. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  2. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    6.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Metrics . . . . . . iii 72.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact Assessment 2.1.3energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external

  3. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a MarineTides and the emission of oil and gas from an abandoned oil

  4. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    or collectively). EMCON Methane Generation Model: A model for estimating the production of methane from municipal solid waste landfills. Emissions: Anthropogenic releases...

  5. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  6. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

  7. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages...

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of...

  9. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) (Redirected from Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

  10. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel...

  11. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods...

  12. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop The Advanced Manufacturing Office...

  13. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions April 17, 2006 - 10:20am Addthis Announces Revised...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence annual reduction of greenhouse gases of 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. The transportation committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012

  15. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  16. Estimation and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scataglia, A.

    1992-01-01

    and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Anthony Scataglia, Branch Manager, Team, Incorporated, Webster, Texas ABSTRACT Environmental regulations have resulted in the need for industrial facilities to reduce fugitive emissions... from equipment leaks to their lowest possible level. This paper presents and compares approved methods outlined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for estimating fugitive emissions from equipment leaks, as well as strategies...

  17. Optimal Deployment Plan of Emission Reduction Technologies for TxDOT's Construction Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul

    2010-10-12

    -road equipment of TxDOT to reduce emissions in a cost effective and optimal manner. Three technologies were considered for deployment in this research, (1) hydrogen enrichment (HE), (2) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and (3) fuel additive (FA... Gas ....................................................................... 24 Biodiesel ............................................................................ 24 Hydrogen...

  18. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  19. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data analysis from this study will provide insight into real-world performance of current emissions reduction devices, under various operating conditions, and with respect to greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  1. Texas Emissions Reductions Program (TERP) Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2010-01-01

    counties, and near-nonattainmtent counties. LEGISLATIVE RESPONSE Senate Bill 5 (77th Legislature, 2001) Ch. 386. Texas Emissions Reduction Plan Sec. 386.205. Evaluation Of State Energy Efficiency Programs (with PUC) Ch. 388. Texas Building... ST ON E GR IM ES LE E SO ME RV EL L AN DR EW S BO RD EN OS D NO x E mi ss ion s R ed uc tio ns (T on s/y r) County Total OSD NOx Emissions Reductions (SF, MF and Commercial Buildings) Natural Gas (SF...

  2. Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batiste, Oriol

    . Scientists have done field studies of emissions of one or both gases at some 30 reservoirs, mostly in Canada, the climate change impact of hydropower in Canada and the northern US appears to be well under half coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

  3. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  4. Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions Careers & Internships EERE Home Contact EERE Energy.gov...

  5. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  6. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reference Manual, Volume III. IPCC/Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Lynn Price,

  7. Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions andAdministration. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the UnitedAbating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker

  8. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  9. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  10. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI): Sun, Yong (Madison, WI)

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  11. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  12. Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    by multiplying the passenger car emissions estimate by the36 MPG new car to achieve the same GHG emissions reduction.U.S. (CARS) Stimulate auto industry and reduce GHG emissions

  13. Driving down emissions : analyzing a plan for meeting Massachusetts' carbon emission reduction targets for passenger vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irvin, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joanna)

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of the US states at the forefront of carbon emission reduction policy, and has the potential to model success to the rest of the country. The state's Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) passed in 2008, ...

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes

  15. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes1.

  16. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes1.A2.

  17. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1.

  18. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1--Electronic860‹‹

  19. Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Without a major change in direction towards more compulsory policies, it seems unlikely that Canada will achieve significant domestic greenhouse gas reductions over and beyond

  20. NOx reduction technology for natural-gas-industry prime movers. Special report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, C.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability, performance, and costs are summarized for state-of-the-art NOx emission controls for prime movers used by the natural gas industry to drive pipeline compressors. Nearly 7700 prime movers of 300 hp or greater are in operation at compressor stations. NOx control technologies for application to reciprocating engines are catalytic reduction, engine modification, exhaust gas recirculation, and pre-stratified charge. Technologies discussed for application to gas turbines are catalytic reduction, water or steam injection, and low-NOx combustors.

  1. Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions -Fuel is cheep -High energy density (1 ton U = 16 abundant elements found in natural crustal rocks) Nuclear Power CONS -High capital cost due to meeting,000 tons of coal to produce same amount of electricity) -Natural abundance of U (48th among the most

  2. CLIMATIC CHANGE, GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, FUTURE CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    trends over India, greenhouse gas emissions due to energy consumption, forest and land-use changes the development of renewable, non- conventional energy sources. In all cases, serious institutional barriers an FOR INDIA by Pitta Govinda Rao, Mick Kelly, Mike Hulme and Govindarajan Srinivasan CSERGE Working Paper GEC

  3. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  4. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  5. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  6. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  7. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  8. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  9. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  10. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas...

  11. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

  12. European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition* John M. Reilly and Sergey, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate

  13. Direct measurements improve estimates of dairy greenhouse-gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitloehner, Frank M; Sun, Huawei; Karlik, John F

    2009-01-01

    that a small quantity of Greenhouse gases measured entericSC, Pain BF. 1994. Greenhouse gas emissions from intensiveT, Hartung E, Brose G. 2001. Greenhouse gas emissions from

  14. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  15. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO sub 2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: Emissions, cost, and employment tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-08-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO{sub 2} emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: accurately models random outages of generating units, must-run constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emissions trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable.

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  17. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and water scarcity within the supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Updated state-level greenhouse gas emission coefficients forDA. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs andpaper A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and

  18. Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions University://www.atmos.utah.edu/) seeks multiple graduate students to study greenhouse gas emissions associated with urban development greenhouse gas emissions. Samples of guiding questions as part of the projects include: · What can explain

  19. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  20. Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Leon E.; Fawcett, Allen; Weyant, John; McFarland, Jim; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Climate Action Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    similar to the Land and Food Systems (LFS) Orchard Garden, 0.019 tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions an external source. This study attempts to quantify the GHG emissions from the transportation of the food Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral

  2. Modeling and Measuring Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Low Carbon Airport Access Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Updated State?level Greenhouse  Gas Emission Coefficients Agency (EPA) (2006) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S.  Port of Seattle (2008) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory.  

  3. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  4. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  5. Climate change: Clinton affirms binding emissions reduction policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, P.

    1996-12-04

    In Australia last month President Clinton called for an international agreement to negotiate {open_quotes}legally binding commitments to fight climate change.{close_quotes} His comments affirmed the line the Administration adopted in July and lent prominence to the effort to bring about a treaty by December 1997. Environmentalists welcomed Clinton`s comments, but industry response is divided. The Global Climate Coalition (Washington), of which CMA is a member, has tried to slow negotiations by questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and suggesting {open_quotes}serious damage to the American economy{close_quotes} could result from emissions reduction.

  6. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  7. CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County, California: Energy Resources JumpEmission Reductions Calculation

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  9. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  10. Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture Yit Arn Teh,1,2 * Whendee L, California 94702, USA ABSTRACT Agricultural drainage is thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from or global warming potential. We re- port greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, CO2, N2O) from a drained peatland

  11. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why to estimates based on this work (Gg/yr) Production emissions reported in 2011 greenhouse gas inventory (annual is methane important? The role of methane in the national greenhouse gas inventory · Most recent national

  12. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium power system All emissions are displayed in short tons (not metric tons) The Pacific Northwest (PNW

  13. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS - Simple ModelCafeteria A photoGreenhouse Gas

  14. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to:...

  15. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised draft...

  16. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Controlling Methane Emissions in the...

  17. GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 2013 MultiGAS, gas emissions, exploration, Peru, Italy, gas geo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    , SO2 and H2S. In geothermal systems, surface manifestations are often com- prised of gas emissions geochemistry is used to help define the geometry of the geothermal system at depth (e.g., zones of upflow geo- chemistry, real-time ABSTRACT Geothermal exploration relies in part on the gas geochemis- try

  18. A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction S.Barazzetta, G. Corani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corani, Giorgio

    A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction planning S.Barazzetta, G. Corani , G- ulated areas. Ozone is produced by a series of photochemical reactions, activated by the emissions concen- trations are equally complex and cannot be directly used to optimize emission reduction policies

  19. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  20. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

  1. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  2. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    longer-run management of greenhouse gas emis- sions; thatthe California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Severinthe California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Severin

  3. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Greenwood, Stuart A. (San Diego, CA); Dutta, Partha (San Diego, CA); Moon, Hee-Koo (San Diego, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  4. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  6. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  7. Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas Gennady A. El1 , Maxim of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow, Russia 3 Laboratory of Geometric, Moscow, Russia 4 Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 pr. Nauky

  8. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  9. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in The Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume III- Technical Appendix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Lewis, C.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J..; Degelman, L.; McKelvey, K.; Clardige, D.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Zilbershtein. G.; Gilman, D.

    2012-01-01

    this sixth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (Preliminary Report) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. In this preliminary report, the NOx emissions savings from the energy...

  10. An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of OceanAn Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standards Prepared for the U Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 12.3 Second Deliverable

  11. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H received September 12, 2010. Accepted September 14, 2010. Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (

  12. CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Future UBC Transportation Options Curtis Wan Joyce Ying Torrio Louie April 18th 2008 #12;ii Summary: This report analyzes the CO2 emissions and 53.0 g/CO2 respectively. It is determined that the emissions for 2007 were 83646.07 tonnes CO2

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric Power Plants in the Upper Colorado capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE. Introduction In2001

  14. Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1993-12-31

    Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

  15. Comparative emissions from natural gas and diesel buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.N.; Gadapati, C.J.; Lyons, D.W.; Wang, W.; Gautam, M.; Bata, R.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Kelly, K.; White, C.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods. During the three years of testing, a significant fraction of emissions data was acquired from buses with Cummins L-10 engines designed to operate on either CNG or diesel. The CNG lean burn engines were spark ignited and throttled. Early CNG engines, which were pre-certification demonstration models, have provided the bulk of the data, but data from 9 buses with more advanced technology were also available. It has been found that carbon monoxide (CO) levels from early Cummins L-10 CNG powered buses varied greatly from bus to bus, with the higher values ascribed to either faulty catalytic converters or a rich idle situation, while the later model CNG L-10 engines offered CO levels considerably lower than those typical of diesel engines. The NO{sub x} emissions were on par with those from diesel L-10 buses. Those natural gas buses with engines adjusted correctly for air-fuel ratio, returned very low emissions data. CNG bus hydrocarbon emissions are not readily compared with diesel engine levels since only the non-methane organic gases (NMOG) are of interest. Data show that NMOG levels are low for the CNG buses. Significant reduction was observed in the particulate matter emitted by the CNG powered buses compared to the diesel buses, in most cases the quantity captured was vanishingly small. Major conclusions are that engine maintenance is crucial if emissions are to remain at design levels and that the later generation CNG engines show marked improvement over the earlier models. One may project for the long term that closed loop stoichiometry control is desirable even in lean burn applications.

  16. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  17. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  18. Pricing greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    limits (contraction) · Equalize world per capita emissions (convergence) · Each adult receives a CO2 CO2 emissions Decrease Unchanged Increase Decreases Intensity: Decreases if emissions fall faster and Canadian jurisdictions (initially west coast) ­ Focus on transportation ­ Stationary emitters of CO2 given

  19. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units demonstrated an IME of 64% at stationary idle for the test period. The data collected during calendar year 2004 demonstrated that 707,600 gallons of fuel were saved and 285 tons of NOX were not emitted as a result of idle management in stationary idle, which translates to 12,636 gallons and 5.1 tons of NOx per unit respectively. The noise reduction capabilities of the APU demonstrated that at 150 feet from the locomotive the loaded APU with the main engine shut down generated noise that was only marginally above ambient noise level.

  20. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  1. Recent advances in carbon emissions reduction: policies, technologies, monitoring, assessment and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    energy systems Carbon capture and storage Geoengineering approaches Carbon trade/tax schemes a b s t r Keywords: Carbon emissions reduction Improved energy use efficiency Implementation of low-fossil carbon in this special volume assess alternative carbon emissions reduction approaches, such as carbon capture

  2. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  3. Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via Lube-Oil-Consumption Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Alan

    are strongly related to NOx emissions, and in order to reach extremely low emission levels, reduction1 Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Diesel Engine Particulate Emission Reduction via Lube of the consumed lube-oil. Significant reductions in particulate emission rate could be obtained by controlling

  4. become more important as countries agree to emission reduction targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    : immediate stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, regulation of air pollution that balances removal

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    and the Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from AviationD17): 4560. EPA (2006). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from theEPA (2008a). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

  6. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; McKelvey, K.; Montgomery, C.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-08-29

    should include the cumulative savings estimates from all projects projected through 2020 for both the annual and Ozone Season Day (OSD) NOx reductions. The NOx emissions reduction from all these programs were calculated using estimated emissions factors...

  7. Optimal Design and Allocation of Electrified Vehicles and Dedicated Charging Infrastructure for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions Submitted for Presentation at the 2011 Annual Meeting to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from personal transportation by shifting energy demand from

  8. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

  9. Reduction in Vehicle Idling Emissions Using RFID Parking Permits Dawson, Pakes-Ahlman, Graham, Gutierrez, Vilasdaechanont

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    1 Reduction in Vehicle Idling Emissions Using RFID Parking Permits 9/20/13 Dawson, Pakes consumption and vehicle emissions. RFID Background RFID tags contain electronically stored data that can's entrance and exit from parking ramps. Table 1. Average Idle Emission Rates by Pollutant and Vehicle Type

  10. Sources of Emission Reductions: Evidence for US SO2 Emissions 1985-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A Denny; Dubroeucq, Florence

    2004-06-16

    -gas-fired, combined cycle units have displaced conventional generation that would have emitted about 800,000 tons of SO2; however, the effect has not been to reduce total SO2 emissions since the 9.0 million ton cap is unchanged, but to reduce the quantity... content of the fuel used to generate electricity (either by switching or retrofitting scrubbers) or by shifting generation to lower emitting units including new units. However, Title IV did not replace the source- specific limits and technology mandates...

  11. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

  12. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President...

  13. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  14. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California, Marineet al. , 2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from aand P.G. Mikolaj, Natural oil seepage at Coal Oil Point,

  15. Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschein, Perry S.

    1995-01-01

    Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

  16. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart & Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level I electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 L MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  17. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bailey, B.K.; Colucci, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart and Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level 1 electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 liter MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  18. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in The Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume I- Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Lewis, C.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J..; Degelman, L.; McKelvey, K.; Clardige, D.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Zilbershtein. G.; Gilman, D.

    2012-01-01

    is 336,046 MWh/year (2.5%) In 2011, the total integrated OSD savings from all programs is 36,076 MWh/day, which would be a 1,503 MW average hourly load reduction during the OSD period. The integrated OSD electricity savings from all the different....4%), ? NOx emissions reduction from green power purchases (wind) are 7.63 tons-NOx/day (77.1%), and ? NOx emissions reduction from residential air conditioner retrofits are 0.55 tons-NOx/day (5.6%). By 2013, the total integrated annual NOx emissions...

  19. Ris-R-1545(EN) Emission reduction by means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Plasma Research Department, Risø), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Risø), Per G. Kristensen reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø

  20. Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster describes an air path control concept, which minimizes NOx and PM emission variance while having the ability to run reliably with many different sensor configurations.

  1. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  2. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  3. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  4. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of in-use DPFs shows levels of reduction within in-use testing objectives: PM emission reductions >90%, elemental/black carbon reduction of ~99%, and retrofit durability.

  5. NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction Plan (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions...

  6. Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water Harvesting, Combined Heat Infrastructure Ecology Decentralized Water Resource Development: Low Impact Development (LID) Decentralized Energy Production: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Policies for Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting

  7. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Volume I - Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Clardige, D.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Gilman, D.; Degelman, L.

    2013-01-01

    ninth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I - Summary Report - provides...

  8. Procedure to Calculate NOx Reductions Using the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (E-Grid) Spreadsheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Verdict, M.; Turner, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this report a detailed description of the procedure to calculate NOx reductions from energy savings due to the 2000 IECC code implementation in single family residences using the United States Environmental Protect Agency's (USEPA's) Emissions...

  9. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  10. The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step Toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, Department ofDetailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and CriteriaNo. 879 The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First

  11. Reducing Freight Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the California Corridor: The potential of short sea shipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Bo; Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Resources Board (CARB). Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data: 1990-CARB) California 1990 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Leve l andfor Designing a Greenhouse Gas Cap -and- Trade System for

  12. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01

    editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emission and sinks:Ishida. 2008. An integrated greenhouse gas assessment of anguidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume

  13. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  14. Quantifying emissions reductions from New England offshore wind energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlinski, Michael Peter

    2006-01-01

    Access to straightforward yet robust tools to quantify the impact of renewable energy resources on air emissions from fossil fuel power plants is important to governments aiming to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse ...

  15. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  16. Review of U.S. and European Regional Modeling Studies of Policies Intended to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are possible (accidents, noise, and greenhouse gas emissions. We reviewto Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Robert A.

  17. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    2007. “Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much atDepartment of Energy. 2009. “Greenhouse gas abatement in thefor Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Evan

  18. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    in unconventional production. Estimates of methane emissions from activities on producing oil and gas sites in unconventional oil and gas production is beinDirect measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania Mary

  19. Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility's studies have determined that mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants pose significant hazards to public health and must be reduced. Coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction

  20. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akkutlu, I Y; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work \\cite{aes14}, where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. We developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations on a Cartesian fine grid. In this paper, we consider arbitrary fracture orientations and use triangular fine grid and developed GMsFEM for nonlinear flows. Moreover, we develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region ...

  1. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  2. The new air emission regulations for gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solt, C.

    1998-07-01

    In the US, there are three new regulations now in development that will lower the limits for NO{sub x} emissions from gas turbines: (1) New National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter, and Possibly revision to the Ozone standard (both of these new programs will target NO{sub x} emissions); (2) New regulations stemming from the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) recommendations (again, NO{sub x} is the primary focus); (3) Revision of the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for gas turbines and a new rule that will impose new toxic emission requirements, (the Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking, stemming from revisions to Title III of the Clean Sir Act Amendments of 1990). The toxic rule should be of particular concern to the gas turbine industry in that it may impose the use of expensive toxic emission control techniques that may not provide any significant health benefits to the public. In addition, the European Community is currently drafting a new regulation for combustion sources that will require gas turbines to meet levels that are lower than any in Europe today. This paper will consider all 5 of these regulatory actions and will: review the proposed regulations; discuss timing for regulation development and implementation; assess the probable impact of each regulation; and provide opinions on the fate of each regulation. Both manufacturers and users of gas turbines should be aware of these proceedings and take an active role in the rule development.

  3. The Regional Incidence of a National Greenhouse Gas Emission Limit: Title VII of the American Clean Energy and Security Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    the macroeconomic costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions under Title VII of the American Clean Energy Clean Energy and Security Act Ian Sue Wing* Dept. of Geography & Environment, Boston University. Introduction Title VII of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (H.R. 2454) has the distinction

  4. Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  5. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotis, S.C. [Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC (United States); Sussman, D. [Poubelle Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.6.

  7. The development of Comprehensive Community NOx Emissions Reduction Toolkit (CCNERT) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yong Hoon

    2004-11-15

    -17 Residential Sector?s Total Energy............................................................................. 131 Table 5-18 Comparison of Annual Electric Sales vs. Estimated Electricity Use........................ 133 Table 5-19 2001 College Station... successfully reduce the production of NOx emissions by adopting electricity efficiency programs in its buildings, another community might be equally successful by changing the mix of fuel sources used to generate electricity, which is consumed...

  8. Design of Environmental Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    unit of emitted pollutant. When the marginal pollution abatement cost are lower than the tax compliance levels through process innovation. Alternatively, market-based regulations stimulate continued. It assesses the feasibility of treatment options, estimates their cost and expected emissions. Rigorous

  9. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  10. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, E.C. Jr. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Shannon, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  11. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This chapter provides an assessment of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) flux caused by (1) changes in forest carbon in the form of forest and soil surveys. Carbon dioxide fluxes from forest carbon stocks and from nonInventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 1998 April 15, 2000 U.S. Environmental

  12. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    a marine seep, University of California Energy InstituteEnergy Development and Technology 009r “Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marinemarine hydrocarbon seeps at Coal Oil Point, CA: Implications for offshore oil production, Final report for University of California Energy

  13. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  14. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  15. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  16. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSiliciumEnergy Inc JumpPennsylvania:Sound Beach, New|from

  17. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO is developed by EMDPowerMexican

  18. PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| Department ofStephen P rice Los ANot sure howSummaryPrinceton

  19. Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment-emission electricity within one or two decades. Renewable generation is also planned to increase over similar time, it is therefore possible that large (~45%) reductions in CO2 emissions from UK electricity generation could

  20. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  1. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  2. Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · The installation of one 320kW and one 150kW Froling woodchip boiler to replace four coal-fired boilers producing 2 buildings on Sheffield Road. · Installation of a gas boiler back-up plant for use in an emergency

  3. Texas Air Quality Status and the Texas Emission Reduction Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, S.

    2012-01-01

    in eligible areas. With recent legislation, the TERP also supports programs to encourage the use of alternative fuels for transportation in Texas. Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference ? Galveston, Texas ? October 10, 2012 Clean Air... Transportation Triangle (CTT) (new) ? Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Grant Program (TNGVGP) (new) ? Alternative Fueling Facilities Program (AFFP) (new) ? New Technology Implementation Grants (NTIG) Program ? Texas Clean School Bus Program Clean Air Through...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum and Emission Reduction Planning

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNatural Gas Printable

  5. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  6. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

  7. Reduction of solvent emissions within a paint booth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zirps, N.A.; Wiener, R.K.; Shaver, D.K.

    1988-12-31

    ICF Technology is currently performing a waste minimization study at Vandenberg Air Force Base. As part of the study, ICF has been examining planned freon-113 usage operations within Martin Marietta`s new Titan fairing paint booths. The booths are to be used for painting payload fairing (PLF) for Titan II and Titan IV vehicles. Approximately 1,050 gallons of Freon-113 are planned for use within the paint booths. The following alternatives have been examined to reduce emissions: substitution of the primary coating with an alternative coating such as powder, waterborne, or high solids; recovery of Freon-113 vapors using carbon adsorption or condensation; and use of a different application method.

  8. Estimation of Annual Reductions of NOx Emissions in ERCOT for the HB3693 Electricity Savings Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diem, Art; Mulholland, Denise; Yarbrough, James; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Im, Piljae; Haberl, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    reductions are small compared to the total emission reductions needed to bring the state?s non-attainment areas into attainment of the national ambient air quality standards for ozone, they can be a part of an overall strategy to reduce emissions.... In this step, plants that have a capacity factor of 0.8 or greater are considered to be baseload units and none of their generation would be affected by energy efficiency measures. In addition, plants that have a capacity factor of 0.2 or less are considered...

  9. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume I 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman; Gilman, Don; Fitzpatrick, Tom; Muns, Shirley; Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Degelman, Larry; Claridge, David

    2008-01-01

    -12-01 ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPACT IN THE TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTION PLAN (TERP) VOLUME I ? SUMMARY REPORT Annual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality January 2007 ? December 2007 Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P... Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP),? as required under Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. ? 388.003 (e), Vernon Supp. 2002 (Senate Bill 5, 77R as amended 78 R & 78S). The Laboratory is required to annually...

  10. Methodology to Calculate NOx Emissions Reductions from the Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.

    2004-01-01

    (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions in energy...

  11. Texas Emissions Reductions Program (TERP) Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory ? 2011 TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS PROGRAM (TERP) ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY (EE/RE) UPDATE November 2011 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems... FOR SIP CREDITS (2004) Enforceability: Measures that reduce emissions from electricity generation may be: (1) Enforceable directly against a source; (2) Enforceable against another party responsible for the energy efficiency or renewable...

  12. ASSESSING GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS IN THE TRANSITION ECONOMIES USING A HYBRID ENERGY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTIONS IN THE TRANSITION ECONOMIES USING A HYBRID ENERGY- ECONOMY: Assessing Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the Transition Economies Using a Hybrid Energy- Economy Model Project/Approved: _______________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT In this research, the CIMS hybrid energy-economy modelling framework is used

  13. Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline...

  14. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels Title Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

  15. A physics-based emissions model for aircraft gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allaire, Douglas L

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, a physics-based model of an aircraft gas turbine combustor is developed for predicting NO. and CO emissions. The objective of the model is to predict the emissions of current and potential future gas turbine ...

  16. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across...

  17. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

  18. Validating the role of AFVs in voluntary mobile source emission reduction programs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Saricks, C. L.

    1999-03-17

    Late in 1997, EPA announced new allowances for voluntary emission control programs. As a result, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities and other metro areas that have made an ongoing commitment to increasing participation by alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in local fleets have the opportunity to estimate the magnitude and obtain emission reduction credit for following through on that commitment. Unexpectedly large reductions in key ozone precursor emissions in key locations and times of the day can be achieved per vehicle-mile by selecting specific light duty AFV offerings from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in lieu of their gasoline-fueled counterparts. Additional benefit accrues from the fact that evaporative emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (generated in the case of CNG, LNG, and LPG by closed fuel-system AFV technology) can be essentially negligible. Upstream emissions from fuel storage and distribution with the airshed of interest are also reduced. This paper provides a justification and outlines a method for including AFVs in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality, and for quantifying emission reduction credits. At the time of submission of this paper, the method was still under review by the US EPA Office of Mobile Sources, pending mutually satisfactory resolution of several of its key points. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  19. PROVO POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM A study designed to show that cost-effective on-road emissions reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    -road emissions reductions can be achieved with a targeted repair program. Prepared by University of Denver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A. Chemistry of CO and HC Emissions from Automobiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 B. Remote Sensing-road emissions monitor. It is capable of monitoring emissions at vehicle speeds between 2.5 and 150 mph in under

  20. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  1. A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

    1998-10-19

    New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g/mile and 57.8 g/mile in 1996. These stoichiometric engines were also less fuel efficient than their lean burn counterparts. The Detroit Diesel Series 50 powered refuse haulers produced high levels of oxides of nitrogen. However, it was found that changing the shifting patterns of the transmission lowered the oxides of nitrogen. All three engine types showed the potential for low emissions operation and the particulate matter reduction advantage offered by natural gas was evident from the results.

  2. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2003-08-24

    The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

  3. Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Taylor, J.; Wayne, W. S.; Smith, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2005-12-01

    An evaluation of emissions of natural gas and diesel buses operated by the Washington Metro Area Transit Authority.

  4. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  5. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of air pollutant emission reduction strategies in the context of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Evaluation of air pollutant emission reduction strategies in the context of climate change Bertrand is a key issue to understand how climate change affects air pollution The global climate fields issued from changes is expected to have a significant impact on air quality. The main meteorological parameters

  7. Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation are used to measure air-fuel ratio upstream and downstream of each catalyst. A series controller on the basis of measured feedgas air-fuel ratio, while the downstream controller uses the feedgas and post

  8. Analysis of Emissions Calculators for a National Center of Excellence on Displaced Emissions Reductions (CEDER) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2008-07-18

    In August 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued guidance on quantifying the air emissions benefits from electric sector energy efficiency and renewable energy. Because there was no clear best strategy, ...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  10. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  11. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  12. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Erik

    2012-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­?hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-­?hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries to utilize energy recycling technology to lower domestic energy use and see higher net energy efficiency. The prototype system and results will be used to seek additional resources to carry out full deployment of a system. Ultimately, this innovative technology is expected to be transferable to other testing applications involving energy-­?based cycling within the company as well as throughout the industry.

  13. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theUS exports of natural gas Energy Policy www.bipac.net/dow/

  14. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theThe effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and

  15. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  16. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  17. The sources of emission reductions : evidence from U.S. SO? emissions from 1985-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2004-01-01

    An enduring issue in environmental regulation is whether to clean up existing "old" plants or in some manner to bring in new ?clean? plants to replace the old. In this paper, a unit-level data base of emissions by nearly ...

  18. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  19. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  20. Intergrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

    2014-01-01

    CONFERENCE FOR ENHANCED BUILDING OPERATIONS TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY – 2014 BEIJING, CHINA – SEPTEMBER 14 -17 Calculation of Integrated NOx Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas... TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY – 2014 BEIJING, CHINA – SEPTEMBER 14 -17 Savings (2002 to 2011) Electricity - $1,082 million Demand - $1,245 million Total - $2,327 million Emissions Reduction in 2011 466 tons-NOx/year, (About 158,923 cars) Demand Reduction in 2011...

  1. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  2. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  3. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Bruce A. Mc Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Today society faces important concentrations to stabilize once emissions have stabilized; and c) decades to fully retrofit and/or replace

  4. Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    \\ Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten· Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld Image. EAGAR ABSTRACT. An experimental study was carried out to map the light emissions from a gas tungsten arc. The emissions were found to be dramat- ically different with different shielding gases, welding current and base

  5. Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working-gas pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Stress reduction in sputter deposited films using nanostructured compliant layers by high working October 2004; accepted 13 December 2004; published 27 June 2005 We present a strategy of stress reduction as a compliant layer to reduce the stress of the subsequently deposited continuous film grown under low gas

  6. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  7. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2007-01-01

    p. 2 41 Counties in Texas designated non-attainment or affected. Senate Bill 5 (77th Legislature, 2001) Ch. 386. Texas Emissions Reduction Plan Sec. 386.205. Evaluation Of State Energy Efficiency Programs (with PUC) Ch. 388. Texas Building... Energy Performance Standards Sec. 388.003. Adoption Of Building Energy Efficiency Performance Standards. Sec. 388.004. Enforcement Of Energy Standards Outside Of Municipality. Sec. 388.007. Distribution Of Information And Technical Assistance. Sec...

  8. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions air quality, liquefied natural gas, nitrogen  dioxide, increasing use of liquefied natural gas in California, the 

  9. Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel applicable to investigations of modeling the effect of natural gas interchangeability on urban air quality for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

  10. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated Nox Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Clardige, D.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.

    2013-01-01

    ninth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I - Summary Report - provides...

  11. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Gilman, D.; Baltazar, J. C.; Lewis, C.; McKelvey, K.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Degelman, L.; Liu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    eighth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes: Volume I – Summary Report – provides an executive...

  12. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  13. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  14. Penetration and air-emission-reduction benefits of solar technologies in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of four solar energy technologies and the electric utility industry are reported. The purpose of the study was to estimate the penetration by federal region of four solar technologies - wind, biomass, phtovoltaics, and solar thermal - in terms of installed capacity and power generated. The penetration by these technologies occurs at the expense of coal and nuclear power. The displacement of coal plants implies a displacement of their air emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. The main conclusion of this study is that solar thermal, photovoltaics, and biomass fail to penetrate significantly by the end of this century in any federal region. Wind energy penetrates the electric utility industry in several regions during the 1990s. Displaced coal and nuclear generation are also estimated by region, as are the corresponding reductions in air emissions. The small-scale penetration by the solar technologies necessarily limits the amount of conventional fuels displaced and the reduction in air emissions. A moderate displacement of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen is estimated to occur by the end of this century, and significant lowering of these emissions should occur in the early part of the next century.

  15. DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING. Phone (714) 907-1123, Fax (213) 821-3926, E-mail fprager@usc.edu Emissions trading, or "cap and trade

  16. Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

    2012-12-31

    Rising fuel costs and energy demands, combined with growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions, have led to increased interest in the use of renewable fuels to help meet increasing worldwide demand and reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions from...

  17. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-04-06

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

  18. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  19. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  20. Agricultural Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Uwe A.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the economic potential of agriculture to participate in greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts. Major agricultural mitigation strategies are included simultaneously to capture interactions. ...

  1. Development of Atmospheric Tracer Methods To Measure Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1995-01-01

    to coal and 30% less compared to fuel oil, switching fromcoal and fuel oil to natural gas has the potential to reducehydrocarbon emissions from an oil refinery wastewater

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  3. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    state-level cost and bene?t estimates of renewable portfoliostandards National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technicalnatural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissions

  4. Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting Tool (NEAT) for Long Term Energy and GHG Impacts Evaluation: Domestic Freight Component Documentation and User's...

  5. Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures developed to calculate the electricity savings and emissions reductions from the infiltration of storm water into sanitary sewage separation using a two-step regression method: one step to correlate the gallons...

  6. Emission Reduction and Assisted Combustion Strategies for Compression Ignition Engines with Subsequent Testing on a Single-Cylinder Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragone, Colter

    2012-08-31

    Due to increasingly stringent regulations set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency, engine researchers and manufacturers are testing and developing various emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. This thesis contains...

  7. Review of the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Program for Political Subdivisions, Institutions of Higher Education and State Agencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B. L.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a concise review of the Energy Systems Laboratory's experience in evaluating the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Program for Political Subdivisions, Institutions of Higher Education & State Agencies (Texas Health...

  8. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Volume III--Technical Appendix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman; Gilman, Don; Muns, Shirley; Liu, Zi; Baltazar-Cervantes, Juan-Carlos; Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Degelman, Larry; Claridge, David

    2009-01-01

    seventh annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes: Volume I – Summary Report – provides an executive...

  9. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

  12. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Y. : 1989, Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth:The Evolution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use inand energy-related carbon dioxide emissions for the WEO 2004

  13. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice of Headquarters AccountingDOEEnergyHuman Capital

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid methane emissions...

  15. A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, A.; Price, L.; Lin, E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO2 emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key...

  16. The potential of future aircraft technology for noise and pollutant emissions reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, W. R.; Hall, C. A.; Vera Morales, M.

    2014-03-27

    Aviation and the Environment The potential of future aircraft technology for noise and pollutant emissions reduction W R Graham1, C A Hall, M Vera Morales2 Institute for Aviation and the Environment, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0DY, UK... , cruising either at the same Mach number (0.77) as the A320 — the ‘fast open rotor’ — or at Mach 0.66 — the ‘reduced-speed open rotor’. Their fuel consumption figures come from a range-equation analysis (cf. Section 2.1). Estimates for the 2025 values...

  17. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  18. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  19. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    oil-gas separator, and gas flux turbine. B. Image of oil-gasoil. Absent the oil-gas separator, the turbine would havelines connected the turbine to the oil-gas separator and

  20. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  1. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    1999?for fuel economy, CO2 emissions, car dealerships Tax onfor passenger cars and induce GHG emission reductions. Taxesregulates CO2 emissions from passenger cars; the policy

  2. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn: California regula2on of Greenhouse Gas Emissions · AB 32: Mandates 1990 levels assessed) Policies TelecommuFng Employer-Based Trip ReducFon Car-Sharing Pricing

  3. A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200806 A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract

  4. Emissions and performance evaluation of a dedicated compressed natural gas saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Taylor, J.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel has been identified as one strategy that can help ameliorate some problems, which include a growing dependence on imported oil (and all its ramifications) and the persistent contributions that mobile sources make to urban air pollution, associated with the use of conventional petroleum fuels. The attributes and limitations of CNG as a fuel for spark-ignition engines have been presented by others. The attributes are associated with its high octane rating, low cost relative to other alternative fuels, its availability, the absence of running and diurnal evaporative emissions, and its demonstrated potential for producing extremely low exhaust emissions-particularly if the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted are expressed in terms of reactivity adjusted non-methane organic gases (RANMOG). The limitations associated with the use of CNG include its limited refueling infrastructure, the cost of refueling facilities, the cost of on-board fuel storage tanks, and its relatively low energy density. Because one impediment to CNG use is the cost associated with producing a CNG-powered vehicle, a study was initiated at the University of Tennessee under sponsorship by the Saturn Corporation to determine how a CNG vehicle (specifically, a 1991 Saturn SL1) could be engineered so it could be produced with a minimal impact on the production of the base vehicle. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the emissions reduction potential of the Saturn CNG vehicle. In the previous study the role of exhaust gas recirculation was not thoroughly investigated. Those involved in the study agreed that the NO{sub x} levels could be brought down well below California ULEV levels without increasing either the non-methane organic gases or the CO levels.

  5. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand The model can also track CO2 emissions heat rates, emission rates, hydro shapes... Fuel prices Emission Rate Load Heat Rate 10 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 80,000 mmbtu Combined Cycle Plant 212 lb/mmbtu Emission Rate 4 8,000 MWh Load Heat Rate 7 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 56,000 mmbtu 3,276 tons CO2 Emission Rate 117 lb

  6. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net and reducing CH4 emissions (6­8). Second, by removing the living biomass from the peatland surface, the grossJulian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Peat

  7. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  8. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  9. Reduction of NO sub x and SO sub 2 emissions from coal burning pulse combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, E.A.; Zinn, B.T.; Miller, N.; Chen, F.

    1990-12-01

    In this investigation, a Rijke pulse combustor was constructed, in which unpulverized coal was burned on a rotating bed where the presence of acoustic velocity oscillations resulted in bed fluidization and intensification of the combustion process. The objectives of this investigation were to determine (1) if the nitrogen oxides emissions of the experimental Rijke pulse combustor could be reduced by air staging the combustion process and (2) if the sulfur dioxide emissions of this pulse combustor could be reduced by the addition of sorbent materials such as limestone to the coal bed or to the gas stream above the bed. Air staging experiments were conducted for total dimensionless air fuel ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 and primary dimensionless air/fuel ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Injection heights ranged from 20 cm to 52 cm above the coal bed. Air staging was effective in reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions of coal burning Rijke type pulse combustors under the proper conditions. Another series of experiments was conducted using sorbent addition to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. In some of these experiments, pulverized dolomitic limestone was introduced along with the coal through the coal delivery tube just above the bed, while in the remainder of the experiments, the sorbent was dispersed in an air stream and injected at 15 cm or 23 cm above the coal bed. 9 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. HI emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, S N; Allison, J R; Koribalski, B S; Curran, S J; Pracy, M B

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a targeted search for intervening HI absorption in six nearby, gas-rich galaxies using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The sightlines searched have impact parameters of 10-20 kpc. By targeting nearby galaxies we are also able to map their HI emission, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the extended HI distribution. The continuum sightlines intersect the HI disk in four of the six galaxies, but no intervening absorption was detected. Of these four galaxies, we find that three of the non-detections are the result of the background source being too faint. In the fourth case we find that the ratio of the spin temperature to the covering factor ($T_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$) must be much higher than expected ($\\gtrsim$5700 K) in order to explain the non-detection. We discuss how the structure of the background continuum sources may have affected the detection rate of HI absorption in our sample, and the possible implications for future surveys. Future...

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    3 (Table 6 and Figure 4), and LPG savings 13 million tonnes.electricity and 28 billion m 3 LPG, with a CO2 reduction ofGas WH* (billion m 3 ) LPG WH (million tonnes) Electric

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine transportation emissions is more...

  13. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    data provided were for final energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions for nine worlddata provided were for primary energy use and CO 2 emissions for 11 worldscenario data, respectively. Table 1. World Primary Energy

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of total HFC emissions, including the group of other HFCsPFCsPFPEs. To encourage vehicle manufacturers to reduce emissions of HFC-134a from mobile air conditioners, the...

  15. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References Retrieved from "http:...

  16. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  17. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas. This natural gas revolution is driving economic growth across the country, lowering energy prices and creating jobs. It has also contributed to an American manufacturing...

  18. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  20. TOPIC: Shale Gas Emissions w/David Allen, Energy Institute HOST: Jeff Tester and Todd Cowen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    the nation's energy landscape. However, the environmental impacts associated with ``fracking'' for shale gasTOPIC: Shale Gas Emissions w/David Allen, Energy Institute HOST: Jeff Tester and Todd Cowen DATE: November 20th , 12:00 -1:00pm, 300 Rice Hall Atmospheric Impacts of Expanded Natural Gas Use Hydraulic

  1. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  2. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Turbines Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of industrial gas turbine packages for the power generation- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  3. Analysis of Emissions Calculators for the National Center of Excellence on Displaced Emission Reductions (CEDER): Annual Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdani, Bahman; Culp, Charles; Haberl, Jeff; Baltazar, Juan-Carlos; Do, Sung Lok

    2010-01-01

    Calculators According to Annual CO2 Emissions from N.G. Use ................................................................................................................................................ 15 Figure 5. Annual NOx Emissions from the N.G.... Use of a Residential Building ........................ 16 Figure 6. Annual SOx Emissions from the N.G. Use of a Residential Building ......................... 16 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Review of Emissions Calculators in the 2008...

  4. Clean Coal Technology: Reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} using gas reburning, sorbent injection, and integrated technologies. Topical report No. 3, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program), is a unique government/industry cost-shared effort to develop these advanced coal-based technologies. The CCT Program provides numerous options for addressing a wide range of energy and environmental issues, including acid rain, global climate change, improved energy efficiency, energy security, and environmental qualitiy. It is intended to demonstrate a new generation of full-scale, ``showcase`` facilities built through the United States. Gas Reburning, Sorbent Injection and Integrated Technologies -- the subject of this Topical Report -- are one such set of promising innovative developments. In addition to discussing the technologies involved, this report will describe two specific projects, results to date, and the commercial promise of these processes. The objectives of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection were to have a 60% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions and a 50% reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions. These objectives have been achieved at the tangentially-fired boiler at the Hennepin site of Illinois Power and at the cyclone-fired boiler operated by City Water, Light and Power in Springfield, Illinois. The other project, Gas Reburning and Low NO{sub x} Burners had the goal of a 70% NO{sub x} reduction from the wall-fired boiler operated by Public Service of Colorado at Denver. In early preliminary testing, this goal was also achieved. Energy and Environmental Research (EER) is now ready to design and install Gas Rebunting and Sorbent Injection systems, and Gas Reburning-Low NO{sub x}, Burner systems for any utility or industrial application. These technologies are offered with performance and emission control guarantees.

  5. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  7. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  8. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid...

  9. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    installed to replace hydro power, in terms of GHG emissions.coal-fired power plant or a hydro-power facility. 4. The GHG

  10. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Emissions (Mt CO2) Region Pacific OECD Canada/US Europe Transition Economies Latin America Africa/Middle East Asia World

  11. Calculation of NOx Emission Reduction from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Yazdani, B.; Im, P.; Verdict, M.; Bryant, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2003-01-01

    OF NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTION FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2000 IECC/IRC CONSERVATION CODE IN TEXAS Jeff S. Haberl Ph.D., P.E Professor/ Assc. Director Charles Culp Ph.D., P.E. Assc. Director Bahman Yazdani P.E. Assc. Director Tom Fitzpatrick... and passed Senate Bill 5 to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state2. An important part of this legislation is the State?s energy efficiency program, which includes...

  12. Alternative SO sub 2 and NO sub x emission reduction technologies for stationary sources: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmel, T.E. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Emission control of acid rain precursors is currently the subject of intense debate on Capitol Hill. Numerous bills have been introduced which call for substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from operating utility and industrial boilers. The primary focus of the debates is on the cost, applicability and potential market impacts of emissions control options available to achieve the desired reductions. These topics are also the focus of a report in preparation for the 1990 Assessment of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This paper summarizes some of the abatement technology information for utility boilers contained in the NAPAP report. First the major provisions in the proposed acid rain legislation are summarized and the emission reduction options potentially applicable to the utility boiler population discussed. This is followed by discussion of the retrofit issues for utility boilers and a synopsis of the applicability and cost of retrofit emission control options. Since the focus of the current proposed legislation is on near-term reduction requirements for utility boilers, this paper emphasizes retrofit control options. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impervious cover. Gas consists mostly of CO2 with minor H2S and the diffuse CO2 soil flux is locally very high. Accidental gas blowouts, occurred during shallow well...

  14. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    patent fuel, coke oven coke, coke oven gas, blastproduction of steel. Coke oven gas is produced as byproductgas and briquettes (BKB) -- were derived as the ratio of fuel inputs at coke ovens,

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  16. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  17. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  18. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  19. A methodology for assessing MIT's energy used and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) actions can be made to decrease losses and therefore increase plant efficiencies. As production efficiencies are maximized, fuel use and thus emissions are minimized. From fiscal year 1998 to 2003, the gas turbine ...

  20. High gas prices. Road construction. Plane delays. Traffic jams. Fuel emission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    1 High gas prices. Road construction. Plane delays. Traffic jams. Fuel emission. Millions of people interdisciplin- ary nature--focusing on economics, engineering and public policy--presents real-life situations

  1. Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry. Another option that needs to be considered for use in wet scrubbers is acidic electrolyzed water (AEW

  2. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  3. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    to natural gas combustion and air pollution were reviewedreports on combustion-related air pollution were alsoCombustion Emissions? Specialty Session, 67th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution

  4. Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martini, Bastien

    2008-01-01

    Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

  5. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated Nox Emisions Savings From EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.S.; Yazdani, B.; Baltazar, J. C.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S. L.; Zilbertshtein, G.; Claridge, D.

    2014-01-01

    -09-01 ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPACT IN THE TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTION PLAN (TERP) PRELIMINARY REPORT: INTEGRATED NOX EMISSIONS SAVINGS FROM EE/RE PROGRAMS STATEWIDE Annual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality January... Laboratory (ESL) at the Texas Engineering Experiment Station of the Texas A&M University System is pleased to provide this preliminary report, “Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Integrated NOx Emissions...

  6. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  7. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    BroadRock Renewables, LLC built two high efficiency electricity generating facilities that utilize landfill gas in California and Rhode Island. The two projects received a total of $25 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Private-sector cost share for the projects totaled approximately $186 million.

  8. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  9. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  10. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    of solar-thermal electricity generation,” Solar Energy, vol.solar, wind, other renewables or electricity technologies, and energysolar energy case study showed reductions of over 25% in the transportation and electricity

  11. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  12. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  13. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  14. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  15. European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methane emissions between 1996 and 2001 using a three-dimensional global chemical transport model, Yu and ecosystem impacts, and analysis of mitigation strategies, need to be based on realistic evaluation

  16. Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young high and would subject young people, future generations and nature to irreparable harm. Carbon dioxide. Of course carbon dioxide from deforestation also causes warming and policies must address that carbon source

  17. Procedures for the Integration of Complete Year Texas Weather Data Files for eCalc-Emissions Reduction Calculator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.

    2007-01-01

    for the weather normalization needed to a base year for EE/RE projects. This paper describes the procedures that have been followed to assemble annual files of hourly weather data that are required to assess the emission reductions due to the electricity savings...

  18. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Climate Action Partnership Contribution of Food GHG Emissions Reduction: Moving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    target: Ensure that 90% of UBC's food system waste can be composted or recycled by 2015. We reviewed Waste Management, UBC Food Services and the AMS Food and Beverage Partnership Contribution of Food GHG Emissions Reduction: Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral Jennifer Baum

  19. Energy use and emissions of idling-reduction options for heavy-duty diesel truacks a comparison.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L. L.; Hartman, C. J. B.; Solomon, M. J.; Energy Systems; James Madison Univ.; Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management

    2009-01-01

    Pollution and energy analyses of different idling-reduction (IR) technologies have been limited to localized vehicle emissions and have neglected upstream energy use and regional emissions. In light of increasing regulation and government incentives for IR, this research analyzed the full fuel cycle effects of contemporary approaches. It compared emissions, energy use, and proximity to urban populations for nine alternatives, including idling, electrified parking spaces, auxiliary power units, and several combinations of these. It also compared effects for the United States and seven states: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. U.S. average emissions impacts from all onboard IR options were found to be lower than those from a 2007-compliant idling truck. Total particulate emissions from electrified parking spaces were found to be greater than those from a 2007 truck, but such emissions generally occurred in areas with low population density. The lowest energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, and nitrogen oxide emissions are seen with a direct-fired heater combined with electrified parking spaces for cooling, and the lowest particulate-matter emissions were found with a direct-fired heater combined with an onboard device for cooling. As expected, state-to-state variations in the climate and grid fuel mix influence the impacts of the full fuel cycle from IR technologies, and the most effective choice for one location may be less effective elsewhere.

  20. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  1. Evaluation of KDOT's Vehicle Fleet's CO2 Emissions and Possible Energy Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Eric

    2012-12-31

    Increasing energy demands require more energy extraction from fossil fuels. The energy is extracted through combustion and results in mainly CO2 emissions as well as other trace emissions. Reducing energy usage can save money and CO2 emissions...

  2. Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    balance; Agro-ecosystem model; CERES-EGC; Bayesian calibration; Green- house gases; Nitrous oxidePredicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe gases (GHG) con- tributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact

  3. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider policies or markets are simulated via hypothetical carbon prices. At each carbon price level

  4. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application explore the implications for Canada's industrial sector of an economy-wide, compulsory greenhouse gas of the Canadian industrial sector to GHG charges implemented throughout the economy, starting in the year 2006

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric options is an important step in formulating a cohesive strategy to abate U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  8. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  9. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  11. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol

  12. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    energy challenge with ISO 50001, International Organizationgas emissions. Also, the ISO 50001 standard for Energy

  15. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 93% methane by mass. NETL, 2012. Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment. See ICF, supra note 11 at 78, fn. 40. 39 This report is available...

  16. Well-to-wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael Q.; Vyas, Anant D.; Wade, David C.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2004-07-01

    A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this effort, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H{sub 2} production pathways: (1) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using Light Water Reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H{sub 2} production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using steam from High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR); (3) H{sub 2} production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium ore transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H{sub 2} production in nuclear power plants; H{sub 2} transportation; H{sub 2} compression; and H{sub 2} FCVs operation. Due to large differences in electricity requirements for uranium fuel enrichment between gas diffusion and centrifuge technologies, two scenarios were designed for uranium enrichment: (1) 55% of fuel enriched through gaseous diffusion technology and 45% through centrifuge technology (the current technology split for U.S. civilian nuclear power plants); and (2) 100% fuel enrichment using the centrifuge technology (a future trend). Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H{sub 2} compared to natural gas-based H{sub 2} production via steam methane reforming for a unit of H{sub 2} delivered at refueling stations. In particular, 73-98% of GHG emissions and 81- 99% of fossil energy use are reduced by nuclear-based H{sub 2} relative to natural gas-based H{sub 2}, depending on the uranium enrichment technology and type of nuclear reactor used. When H{sub 2} is applied to FCVs, the WTW results also show large benefit in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. (authors)

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  19. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  20. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore »conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  1. The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seong Woo

    2011-08-08

    of the activities of agricultural and forestry to EPA?s carbon prices: 40 percent from tillage practices, 30 percent from afforestation, 20 percent from methane capture, and 20 percent from production of bioenergy crops. Mooney et al. (2003................................ 14 III ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS: EFFECTS OF INCLUDING TRANSACTION COSTS IN ELIGIBILITY ................................................................................. 19 Introduction...

  2. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  3. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  4. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  5. OY Car During Normal Outburst: Balmer Emission From The Red Star And The Gas Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. T. Harlaftis; T. R. Marsh

    1995-03-07

    We present observations of OY Car, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope, during a normal outburst in August 1991. Two sinusoidal components are resolved in the H$\\beta$ trailed spectra and we determine the location of the narrow component to be on the secondary star with a maximum contributed flux of ~2.5 per cent to the total flux. Imaging of the line distribution reveals that the other emission component is associated with the gas stream. This follows a velocity close to the ballistic one from the red star to a distance of ~0.5 R$_{L_{1}}$ from the white dwarf. This emission penetrates the accretion disc (from 0.5--0.1 R$_{L_{1}}$), with a velocity now closer (but lower) to the keplerian velocities along the path of the gas stream. We finally discuss the implications of having observed simultaneously line emission from the gas stream and the red star during outburst.

  6. Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C and N processes under different fired N processes under different fire frequencies in soils of Sierra Nevada chaparral shrublands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Jay B.

    Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere is lacking. ·Historically, fire played a critical role in shaping

  7. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    into power. Cogeneration systems can either be direct gasCogeneration. Waste gas discharged from the kiln exit gases, the clinker cooler system,

  8. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Vol. I - Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L. O.; Gilman, D.; Ahmed, M.; Yazdani, B.; Liu, Z.; Verdict, M.; Muns, S.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Turner, W. D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2006-10-30

    -06-07 ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPACT IN THE TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTION PLAN (TERP) VOLUME I ? SUMMARY REPORT Annual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality September 2004 ? December 2005 Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P... P. O. Box 13087 Austin, TX 78711-3087 Dear Chairman White: The Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) at the Texas Engineering Experiment Station of the Texas A&M University System is pleased to provide its fourth annual report, ?Energy Efficiency/Renewable...

  9. Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide Extrusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide with constant carbon composition. In the case of stainless steels, the protective layer of chrome oxide must the surface hardness of steel by introducing a carbon-rich gas environment to a specimen at an elevated

  10. Technology Makes Solid State Multi-Gas Emission Monitoring Possible 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    NEUTRAL BEAM GAS-FILTER CELL BEAM (al D~~~:_]IIl] '~05~~1, (bl lliill:~~:':_::JIIIII SO, 'N "ACFilter... arsenic se1enide (TAS) on a production basis has made it possible to buLld an electronically controlled acousto ,-,ptie tunable filter (AOTF) capable of operating in the infrared. Such a filter with integral .11 t rasonic trifnsduce r can be used...

  11. Inspection and recertification of gas filled composite pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.R.; Temowchek, S.J. [Physical Acoustics Corp., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion resistance and light weight have made composite materials the best choice for many high pressure gas applications. However, progress has been hampered by the limitations of traditional NDT inspection methods and lack of understanding about failure mechanisms. One solution which has emerged is the use of Acoustic Emission to monitor the composite pressure vessel during periodic proof tests. The emission generated can be used to determine the existence of hidden mechanical defects and corrosion which may have significantly lowered the burst strength. A data base of over 4,000 NGV (natural gas vehicle) containers will be used to exemplify the usefulness of the method.

  12. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  13. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes and

  15. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.

  16. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshow explains the workEnergy A fact

  17. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshow explains the workEnergy A

  18. New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 2008 Next3,4,04,5,797

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digglaws-incentivesFuels andNatural GasSafetyNatural

  20. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergy U.S.Safety, CostStates |

  1. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory | Department of EnergyofWASHINGTON,

  2. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE X-RAY EMISSION-LINE GAS IN NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. Michael, E-mail: kraemer@yancey.gsfc.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ?160 km s{sup –1}, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = –0.05 and 1.22 and logN {sub H} = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC 1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  3. Quantifying the fuel use and greenhouse gas reduction potential of electric and hybrid vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Hazard, N.; Lewis, G.; Energy Systems; Northeast Sustainable Energy Association; Univ. of Michigan

    2000-01-01

    Since 1989, the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) has organized the American Tour de Sol in which a wide variety of participants operate electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for several hundred miles under various roadway conditions (e.g., city center and highway). The event offers a unique opportunity to collect on-the-road energy efficiency data for these EVs and HEVs as well as comparable gasoline-fueled conventional vehicles (CVs) that are driven under the same conditions. NESEA and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated on collecting and analyzing vehicle efficiency data during the 1998 and 1999 NESEA American Tour de Sols. Using a transportation fuel-cycle model developed at ANL with data collected on vehicle fuel economy from the two events as well as electric generation mix data from the utilities that provided the electricity to charge the EVs on the two Tours, we estimated full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of EVs and CVs. This paper presents the data, methodology, and results of this study, including the full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emission reduction potential of the EVs operating on the Tour.

  4. Energy Efficiency as a Low-Cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    Summarizes the scale and economic value of energy efficiency for reducing carbon emissions and discusses barriers to achieving the potential for cost-effective energy efficiency.

  5. Sound emission from the gas of molecular superrotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milner, A A; Milner, V

    2015-01-01

    We use an optical centrifuge to deposit a controllable amount of rotational energy into dense molecular ensembles. Subsequent rotation-translation energy transfer, mediated by thermal collisions, results in the localized heating of the gas and generates strong sound wave, clearly audible to the unaided ear. For the first time, the amplitude of the sound signal is analyzed as a function of the experimentally measured rotational energy. The proportionality between the two experimental observables confirms that rotational excitation is the main source of the detected sound wave. As virtually all molecules, including the main constituents of the atmosphere, are amenable to laser spinning by the centrifuge, we anticipate this work to stimulate further development in the area of photo-acoustic control and spectroscopy.

  6. Ultraviolet Diagnostics for the Emission Line Gas in Active Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Allen; M. A. Dopita; Z. I. Tsvetanov

    1998-01-06

    Optical diagnostic diagrams are frequently ambiguous as a test of the photoionization or fast shock models of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. Here, we present a set of UV line ratio diagrams which can discriminate between pure shock and photoionization modes of excitation, and to some extent, also discriminate shocks with ionized precursors from photoionization. These diagrams use relatively bright emission lines and reddening insensitive ratios and provide a practical observational test for separating the excitation mechanisms of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. The most useful diagrams are those involving the various ionization stages of Carbon, [OIII]5007/H-beta vs. CIV 1550/ HeII 1640 and the purely UV ratio pair CII] 2326 / CIII] 1909 vs. CIV 1550 / CIII]909. Temperature sensitive FUV lines CIII 977 and NIII 991 also provide good discriminants. The models are compared to observations of nearby AGN, and also to high redshift objects where the UV lines are shifted into the optical.

  7. ARTICLE IN PRESS Modeling hydrogen sulfide emissions across the gas liquid interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    ARTICLE IN PRESS Modeling hydrogen sulfide emissions across the gas­ liquid interface-film theory Hydrogen sulfide Process-based model Lagoon flux Mass transfer a b s t r a c t Hydrogen sulfide (H waste treatment lagoons are widely used to store and treat hog excreta at commercial hog farms. Hydrogen

  8. City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through in multifamily housing and more than 10 percent of households do not own a car. 61 percent of Los Angelenos over. Los Angeles Commute Mode Split Car Transit Walk Other Source: US Census Figure 1 Approximately three

  9. City Profile: Berkeley A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Berkeley A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through activism and a liberal political bent. Berkeley Commute Mode Split (2000) Car Transit Walk Other Source: US not own a car. 56 percent of Berkeley residents over 16 years of age are employed. The US Census reports

  10. Response to Comment on "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures and renewable energy technologies in the near term. However, much of their rationale reflects costs and levelized costs of electricity, we refer readers to Table 1.9 of the Global Energy Assessment that nuclear power is unable to displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as effectively as energy efficiency

  11. EPA 236-R-01-001 INVENTORY OF U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Forestry 6-1 6. Land-Use Change and Forestry This chapter provides an assessment of the net carbon dioxide soil carbon stock changes due to agricultural land use and land management (i.e., use and management estimated using EPAs method of analyzing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and sinks associated with solid

  12. Greenovate Composting Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25% by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    effort to divert food waste on a large scale. If successful, it can influence food waste diversion Composting Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25, healthy, and innovative city. A Greenovate community composting program was piloted in 2014, and met

  13. Gas-phase CO2 emission toward Cepheus A East: the result of shock activity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sonnentrucker; E. González-Alfonso; D. A. Neufeld; E. A. Bergin; G. J. Melnick; W. J. Forrest; J. L. Pipher; D. M. Watson

    2006-09-05

    We report the first detection of gas-phase CO2 emission in the star-forming region Cepheus A East, obtained by spectral line mapping of the v2 bending mode at 14.98 micron with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The gaseous CO2 emission covers a region about 35'' x 25'' in extent, and results from radiative pumping by 15 micron continuum photons emanating predominantly from the HW2 protostellar region. The gaseous CO2 exhibits a temperature distribution ranging from 50 K to 200 K. A correlation between the gas-phase CO2 distribution and that of H2 S(2), a tracer of shock activity, indicates that the CO2 molecules originate in a cool post-shock gas component associated with the outflow powered by HW2. The presence of CO2 ice absorption features at 15.20 micron toward this region and the lack of correlation between the IR continuum emission and the CO2 gas emission distribution further suggest that the gaseous CO2 molecules are mainly sputtered off grain mantles -- by the passage of slow non-dissociative shocks with velocities of 15-30 km/s -- rather than sublimated through grain heating.

  14. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  15. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  16. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    electric (MWe) natural gas power plant (Calera 2012). Other2 in the flue gas of cement plants over power plants, thusgas purity requirements, and a combined heat and power plant

  17. Assessing ``Dangerous Climate Change'': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America, 9 Marine Institute, PlymouthC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting

  18. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN CANADA by Rose: Analysis of Measures for Reducing Transportation Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Canada Project Number the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions

  19. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

  20. 1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use and Transport Patterns in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    use electricity, natural gas and other energy sources regularly52 for space conditioning and powering1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use 2030 household energy 26 demands and GHG emissions estimates are compared under five different land use

  1. OY Car in Outburst: Balmer emission from the red star and the gas stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. T. Harlaftis; T. R. Marsh

    1995-10-04

    We present observations of OY Car, obtained with the Anglo-Australian telescope, during a normal outburst in 1991. Two sinusoidal components are resolved in the Hbeta trailed spectra and we determine the location of the narrow component to be on the secondary star with a maximum contributed flux of ~2.5 per cent to the total flux. Imaging of the line distribution reveals that the other emission component is associated with the gas stream. This follows a velocity close to the ballistic one from the red star to a distance of ~0.5 R_L1 from the white dwarf. Then. its kinematics changes from 0.5-0.2 R_L1 (accretion disc) following velocities now closer to (but lower than) the keplerian velocities along the path of the gas stream. We finally dicsuss the implications of having observed simultaneously line emission from the gas stream and the red star during outburst.

  2. A DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS EMISSION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 080517

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Van der Laan, T. P. R., E-mail: e.r.stanway@warwick.ac.uk [Institute de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d'Heres, Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the host galaxy of the low-redshift, low-luminosity Swift GRB 080517 at 105.8 GHz using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We detect an emission line with integrated flux S?? = 0.39 ± 0.05 Jy km s{sup –1}—consistent both spatially and in velocity with identification as the J = 1-0 rotational transition of carbon monoxide (CO) at the host galaxy redshift. This represents only the third long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy with molecular gas detected in emission. The inferred molecular gas mass, M{sub H{sub 2}}?6.3×10{sup 8} M {sub ?}, implies a gas consumption timescale of ?40 Myr if star formation continues at its current rate. Similar short timescales appear characteristic of the long GRB population with CO observations to date, suggesting that the GRB in these sources occurs toward the end of their star formation episode.

  3. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European 2008 Abstract Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European

  4. The Ecological Society of America wwwwww..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Emissions of the principal greenhouse gas (GHG), car-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battles, John

    ..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Emissions of the principal greenhouse gas (GHG), car- bon dioxide (CO2), are driven primarily by the burn accumulation in forests and CO2 emissions from tropical deforestation (Canadell and Raupach 2008). Particular fixation by plant photosynthesis) and heterotrophic res- piration (CO2 emission by non-photosynthetic organ

  5. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  6. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from-based, single vehicle dynamometer testing, and on-road measurements in roadway tunnels.3-12 Emission factors

  7. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  8. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  9. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  10. A Methodology for Calculating Integrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs Across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    . Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System A METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING INTEGRATED NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY (EE/RE) PROGRAMS... reductions for municipally owned utilities and electric cooperatives reporting to SECO. INTEGRATED NOx SAVINGS Energy Systems Laboratory 2012 p. 5 IN 2005 TCEQ INITIATED A PROGRAM TO DETERMINE INTEGRATED EMISSIONS SAVINGS (from 2005 to 2020) TO REPORT...

  11. Calculation of NOx Emissions Reductions From Energy Efficient Residential Building Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.

    2006-05-23

    . These areas face severe sanctions if attainment is not reached by 2007. This paper provides an overview of the procedures that have been developed and used to calculate the electricity savings and NOx reductions from code-compliant residential construction...

  12. TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES - Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anya Breitenbach

    2013-03-15

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use.

  13. Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

  14. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  15. Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Junsang

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

  16. Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2013-01-01

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  17. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  18. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Report on NOx Emissions Reduction from Voluntary Energy Efficiency Projects within the Alamo Area Council of Governments to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, August 2003 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Verdict, M.; Yazdani, B.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    for credit within their 2004 Clean Air Plan. The purpose of this study is two-fold: 1) estimate the creditable emissions reductions from energy efficiency actions in AACOG regions, and 2) serve as a pilot project for documenting and calculating emissions...

  20. A Study of Cooling Time Reduction of Interferometric Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Detectors Using a High-Emissivity Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Sakakibara; N. Kimura; T. Suzuki; K. Yamamoto; D. Chen; S. Koike; C. Tokoku; T. Uchiyama; M. Ohashi; K. Kuroda

    2013-09-19

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  1. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  2. Uncle Sam goes to market: Federal agency disposal of emission reduction credits under the Federal property management regulations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, V.J.

    1994-01-30

    With the realignment and closure of Federal facilities, especially Department of Defense installations, Federal agencies have been presented with a unique opportunity: the chance to create and dispose of air emission reduction credits (ERCs). This situation and current commitments by the Congress and EPA to expand the use of market based pollution control programs have generated interest in certain circles as to whether and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs and similar pollution rights and allowances. This paper will discuss ERCs, why the disposal of ERCs by Federal agencies is a pressing issue, and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs under existing Federal property laws and regulations.

  3. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, Marco; J. Roberts, Timmons

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  4. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  5. Alleviation of effective permeability reduction of gas-condensate due to condensate buildup near wellbore 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto

    2006-04-12

    When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...

  6. Application of Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalyst Technology for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Baskaran, Suresh; Kupe, J.

    2000-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of a non-thermal plasma assisted catalyst system as applied to a small displacement diesel powered vehicle. In addition to effectively reducing NOx emissions, it has been found that a non-thermal plasma can also destroy a portion of the particulate matter (PM) that is emitted from diesel engines. Delphi Automotive Systems in conjunction with Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has been developing such an exhaust aftertreatment system to reduce emissions form diesel vehicles. The results of testing and system evaluation will be discussed in general, and the effectiveness on reducing oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles. Published in Future Engines-SP1559, SAW, Warrendale, PA

  7. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  8. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures- Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation's total carbon emissions. The TEF project explores how combining multiple strategies could reduce GHG emissions and petroleum use by 80%. Researchers examined four key areas – lightduty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand – in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, technology and the energy and transportation infrastructure. The TEF reports support DOE long-term planning. The reports provide analysis to inform decisions about transportation energy research investments, as well as the role of advanced transportation energy technologies and systems in the development of new physical, strategic, and policy alternatives.

  10. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  11. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume III 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman; Gilman, Don; Fitzpatrick, Tom; Muns, Shirley; Verdict, Malcolm; Ahmed, M.; Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Cynthia; McKelvey, Katherine; Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Degelman, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Systems Laboratory, in fulfillment of its responsibilities under Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. § 388.003 (e), Vernon Supp. 2002, submits its third annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions...

  12. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  13. Cars on a diet : the material and energy impacts of passenger vehicle weight reduction in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheah, Lynette W. (Lynette Wan Ting)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is a known strategy to address growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and fuel use by passenger vehicles. We find that every 10% reduction in vehicle weight can cut fuel consumption by ...

  14. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all six melter runs (bubbled and non-bubbled runs for each of the three feeds). The steady state selection was made by limiting the standard deviation of the average vapor space temperature readings from two bare thermocouples (TT-03 and TT-05) to less than 5 C in most cases at a constant feed rate. The steady state data thus selected were mass and heat balanced and the off-gas data were re-baselined to assess the flammability potential of each feed under the DWPF melter operating conditions. Efforts were made to extract as much information out of the data as possible necessary to extend the applicability of the existing baseline cold cap and off-gas combustion models to the glycolic and sugar flowsheet feeds. This report details the outcome of these activities.

  15. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about more »20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO?, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO? is highest for switchgrass and CH? is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  16. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ? Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ? Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ? Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ? Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  17. Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (2015) 034012 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/3/034012 An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data Stephen M.ogle@colostate.edu Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions inventory, atmospheric inversion modeling, emissions verification, carbon cycle Abstract Verifying national greenhouse gas(GHG)emissionsinventoriesis a criticalstep

  18. Determination of landfill gas composition and pollutant emission rates at fresh kills landfill. Volume 1. Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-07

    Air emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, NY, were estimated based on three weeks of sampling of flow, concentration, and flux at passive vents, gas extraction wells, gas collection plant headers, and the landfill surface conducted by Radian Corporation in 1995. Emission rates were estimated for 202 pollutants, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, speciated volatile organic compounds, methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane, and carbon dioxide. Results indicate that large amounts of mercury enter the methane recovery plant. Emission factors based on the results are presented.

  19. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    feet (~26.2'x26.2'x26.2') 5 CO2 Content by Fuel Type (lbs of CO2 per Million Btu of Fuel) Coal Type (lbs of CO2 per Megawatt-hour of Power) Coal-fired generation Coal-fired generation Existing PNW Sectors, by Fuel Type Annual 2012Annual 2012 Millions of Metric Tons Fuel Type Coal 1,657 Natural Gas 1

  20. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.