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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 In 1992, the United the relative contribution of different emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. 2 Parties

Little, John B.

2

Improving the Accuracy of Vehicle Emissions Profiles for Urban Transportation Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Inventories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving the Accuracy of Vehicle Emissions Profiles for Urban Transportation Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Inventories ... Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. ... Older vehicles tend to have higher levels of CAP not only because of less-advanced pollution control technology, but also because of the deterioration of aging control systems. ...

Janet L. Reyna; Mikhail V. Chester; Soyoung Ahn; Andrew M. Fraser

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery B. Greenblatt Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 November 2013 This work was supported by the Research Division, California Air Resources Board under ARB Agreement No. 12-329. LBNL-6451E DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of

5

Monitoring the progress of emission inventories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L. [Exponent Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability. GHG INVENTORY DESIGN .............................................................................. 6 ................................................................................................................................. 6 2.2. GHG EMISSION SOURCES

Brownstone, Rob

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - air emissions inventory Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) The goals of the inventory were to determine how much greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions Duke is responsible... Emissions Inventoried 12;2004 Greenhouse Gas...

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - air emission inventory Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) The goals of the inventory were to determine how much greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions Duke is responsible... Emissions Inventoried 12;2004 Greenhouse Gas...

9

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Agency/Company /Organization: Future Perfect Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Training materials Website: www.gpstrategiesltd.com/divisions/future-perfect/ Country: South Korea Eastern Asia Language: English References: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling[1] Logo: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jointly sponsored by Greenhouse Gas Inventory & Research (GIR) Center of

10

Practical guide: Tools and methodologies for an oil and gas industry emission inventory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the preparation of Title V Permit applications, the quantification and speciation of emission sources from oil and gas facilities were reevaluated to determine the {open_quotes}potential-to-emit.{close_quotes} The existing emissions were primarily based on EPA emission factors such as AP-42, for tanks, combustion sources, and fugitive emissions from component leaks. Emissions from insignificant activities and routine operations that are associated with maintenance, startups and shutdowns, and releases to control devices also required quantification. To reconcile EPA emission factors with test data, process knowledge, and manufacturer`s data, a careful review of other estimation options was performed. This paper represents the results of this analysis of emission sources at oil and gas facilities, including exploration and production, compressor stations and gas plants.

Thompson, C.C. [C-K Associates, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Killian, T.L. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ................................................................................................................................. 6 1.2. GHG EMISSION SOURCES .............................................................................................................. 7 1.3. REPORTED GHG EMISSIONS

Brownstone, Rob

13

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”industrial emissions e. Landfills f. Solid waste treatmentreductions Forests, dairy, landfills 75% overall savings HFC

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address climate in 2010. This is the fourth inventory report. This inventory report accounts for GHG emissions from

Abolmaesumi, Purang

15

U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

Heath, G.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance The Federal Energy Management Program provides performance data illustrating...

17

Aviation emission inventory development and analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An up to date and accurate aviation emission inventory is a prerequisite for any detailed analysis of aviation emission impact on greenhouse gases and local air quality around airports. In this paper we present an aviation emission inventory using real ... Keywords: Air traffic, Aviation emission, Emission inventory, Environmental modelling

Viet Van Pham; Jiangjun Tang; Sameer Alam; Chris Lokan; Hussein A. Abbass

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation of agricultural waste burning occurs at multipleexample, agricultural waste burning is managed by individualalso take agricultural waste- burning emissions into

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Preliminary GHG Emissions Inventory for the Slovak Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results of a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the Slovak Republic. The key gases included are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons are excluded ...

Katarína Mare?kova; Pavol Bielek; Stanislav Kucirek…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARB, 2013b) from 2000-2010: 1. Commercial a. CHP (NG) 2.Industrial a. CHP (NG, refinery gas, coal) b. Oil and gas3%/yr retrofits, ZNE 37% RPS, CHP, DG PV, nuclear relicense,

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

k. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal l. PCIntegrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant,Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant,

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-on support of this project through data collection and review. School of Engineering Prof. Rudy Husar..........................................................2-3 2.2 Global Warming Potential and Carbon Dioxide Equivalents................................................................................................3-1 3.2 Intensity Ratio

Subramanian, Venkat

24

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20112012 Office of Sustainability September 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20112012 Office of Sustainability ................................................................................................................................. 7 1.2. GHG EMISSION SOURCES .............................................................................................................. 8 1.3. REPORTED GHG EMISSIONS

Brownstone, Rob

25

The IPCC/OECD/IEA Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme: International Methods for the Estimation, Monitoring and Verification of GHG Emission Inventories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aims of this paper are to summarise the current status in international methods for the estimation of GHG inventories and the relevance of this work...

Dr. Bo Lim; Pierre Boileau; Yamil Bonduki

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Inventories and Performance Inventories and Performance Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance October 7, 2013 - 10:07am Addthis The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides links to progress data tables illustrating Federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by the Federal agencies: Federal GHG Requirements Overview E.O. 13514 required Federal agencies to set individual targets for reduction of combined Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions in FY 2020 compared to FY 2008. When all agency targets are combined, the overall target for the entire Federal Government is a 28% reduction in FY 2020 compared to FY 2008. GHG emissions from certain

27

Regional spatial inventories (cadastres) of GHG emissions in the Energy sector: Accounting for uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An improvement of methods for the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to ensure effective control ... do not reflect specifics of regional processes of GHG emission and absorption for large-a...

Khrystyna Boychuk; Rostyslav Bun

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY #12;OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYGHG UNIVERSITYGHG Report - FY10 3 Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people Oil: Amber Sams · Enterprise Rent-A-Car: Davion Reese · First Student: Brian Maxwell · Good Company

Escher, Christine

29

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Oregon State University Greg Smith Sustainability Program #12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many - First Student: Brian Maxwell - Carson Oil: Gena Conner Government Organizations - Baker County: Jason

Escher, Christine

30

Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Inventories and Performance to someone by E-mail Inventories and Performance to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance

31

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides links to progress data tables illustrating Federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by the Federal agencies.

32

Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Land Focus Area Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policiesdeployment programs...

33

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols GHG Inventory Protocols Petroleum Industry Guidelines for Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions (PDF 2.0 MB) Download Acrobat Reader IPIECA, as part of a joint industry task force with the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), has developed, on behalf of the petroleum industry, a voluntary industry-endorsed approach for measuring and reporting GHG emissions. The petroleum industry has recognized the need for GHG accounting and reporting guidance that is focused specifically on the industry. Current approaches vary among government reporting programs. Companies also differ in how they voluntarily report their emissions data. This variability in approaches has resulted in a lack of comparability of reported GHG

34

Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Agency/Company /Organization: Colorado State University Partner: United States Agency for International Development, United States Forest Service, United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/ghgtool/index.php Cost: Free Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Screenshot References: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software[1]

35

Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, S.K.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

S. K. Zohner

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Agency/Company /Organization: BOC foundation, U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: sei-international.org/rapidc/gapforum/html/emissions-manual.php Cost: Free Related Tools Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) Energy Development Index (EDI) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A manual that provides formulation of methods and assessment of good

39

Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environment Facility Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Guide/manual, Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices Website: ncsp.undp.org/document/managing-national-greenhouse-gas-inventory-proc Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Screenshot References: Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process[1] The objective of the handbook is to provide non-AnnexI Parties with a strategic and logical approach to a sustainable inventory process. About "The handbook was developed by United Nations Development Programme with

40

BNL-68198-AB COMPILATION OF INVENTORIES OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BNL-68198-AB COMPILATION OF INVENTORIES OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS Carmen M. Benkovitz Atmospheric-5000 March 2001 To be presented at the International Workshop on Emissions ofChemical Species and Aerosols perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Benefits of dealing with uncertainty in greenhouse gas inventories: introduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The assessment of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on the international political and scientific agendas. Growing international concern and cooperation regarding the climate change problem have increased the need for policy-oriented solutions to the issue of uncertainty in, and related to, inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approaches to addressing uncertainty discussed in this Special Issue reflect attempts to improve national inventories, not only for their own sake but also from a wider, systems analytical perspective-a perspective that seeks to strengthen the usefulness of national inventories under a compliance and/or global monitoring and reporting framework. These approaches demonstrate the benefits of including inventory uncertainty in policy analyses. The authors of the contributed papers show that considering uncertainty helps avoid situations that can, for example, create a false sense of certainty or lead to invalid views of subsystems. This may eventually prevent related errors from showing up in analyses. However, considering uncertainty does not come for free. Proper treatment of uncertainty is costly and demanding because it forces us to make the step from 'simple to complex' and only then to discuss potential simplifications. Finally, comprehensive treatment of uncertainty does not offer policymakers quick and easy solutions. The authors of the papers in this Special Issue do, however, agree that uncertainty analysis must be a key component of national GHG inventory analysis. Uncertainty analysis helps to provide a greater understanding and better science helps us to reduce and deal with uncertainty. By recognizing the importance of identifying and quantifying uncertainties, great strides can be made in ongoing discussions regarding GHG inventories and accounting for climate change. The 17 papers in this Special Issue deal with many aspects of analyzing and dealing with uncertainty in emissions estimates.

Jonas, Matthias [IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria; Winiwarter, Wilfried [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Austria; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; White, Thomas [Canadian Forest Service; Nahorski, Zbigniew [Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, Poland; Bun, Rostyslav [Lviv Polytech National University, Lviv, Ukraine

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Agency/Company /Organization: World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Guide/manual, Training materials References: 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories[1] Logo: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories "The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006 Guidelines) were produced at the invitation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) to update the Revised 1996 Guidelines and associated good practice guidance which provide internationally agreed

43

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

44

Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Name Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Agency/Company /Organization Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Dataset, Technical report Website http://www.fao.org/climatechan References MICCA Website[1] The overall objective of the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

46

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

title Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory address Berkeley abstract p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and

48

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

Frederick, J. D.

49

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluating a Federal agency's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile means getting a solid understanding of the organization's largest emission categories, largest emission sources, and its potential for improvement.

50

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia Agency/Company /Organization: Center for Global Environmental Research Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.nies.go.jp/gaiyo/media_kit/9.WGIA_I067.pdf Country: Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia Screenshot

51

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Agency/Company /Organization: American Public Transportation Association Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.aptastandards.com/Portals/0/SUDS/SUDSPublished/APTA_Climate_Change This Recommended Practice provides guidance to transit agencies for quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, including both emissions generated by transit and the potential reduction of emissions through efficiency and displacement How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes

52

Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory Protocol (GRIP) Website | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory Protocol (GRIP) Website Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory Protocol (GRIP) Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory Protocol (GRIP) Website Focus Area: Other Crosscutting Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.getagriponemissions.com/index-cycle.html Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/greenhouse-gas-regional-inventory-pro Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: "Lead by Example" is not in the list of possible values (Audit Programs, Demonstration & Implementation, Green Power/Voluntary RE Purchase, High Performance Buildings, Industry Codes & Standards, Project Development, Public Tenders, Procurement, & Lead Examples, Public-Private Partnerships, Retrofits, Ride Share, Bike Share, etc., Technical Assistance, Training & Education, Voluntary Appliance & Equipment Labeling, Voluntary Industry Agreements) for this property.

53

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country Mexico Central America References Greenhouse Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials for Buildings[1] Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report represents the first comprehensive description of the factors that determine the present and future impacts of residential and commercial

54

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

Stirrup, T.S.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Patti Wieser April 25, 2011 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. In an effort to respond to President Obama's call to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 28 percent by the year 2020, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have identified ways to cut emissions that will allow the facility to exceed that goal - a decade early. Staff members at the laboratory, where scientists are finding ways to produce fusion energy, have trimmed the facility's greenhouse gas emissions

57

A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christopher D. Dresser OF WISCONSIN - MADISON Abstract A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions Christopher Studies This study presents a "bottom-up" emissions inventory for NOx, PM2.5, SO2, CO, and VOCs from heavy

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

58

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

59

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development Toolkit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development Toolkit Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development Toolkit Jump to: navigation, search Stage 2 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities Develop_BAU Stage 4: Prioritizing and Planning for Actions Begin execution of implementation plans 1.0. Organizing the LEDS Process 1.1. Institutional Structure for LEDS 1.2. Workplan to Develop the LEDS 1.3. Roles and responsibilities to develop LEDS 2.1. Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities 2.2. Compile lessons learned and good practices from ongoing and previous sustainable development efforts in the country 2.3. Assess public and private sector capacity to support initiatives 2.4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic and resource data as needed for LEDS development

60

Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Registry (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to establish a method for collecting emissions estimates from producers of greenhouse gases. Reporting is mandatory for some entities, and the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery Greenblatt November 2013 For decades, California has used groundbreaking tools to collect and analyze emissions data from a variety of sources to establish a scientific basis for policy making. As its scope has expanded to include greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, it has sought out similar tools to use to achieve the goals of legislation such as the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32). To support this effort, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model funded by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), to explore the impact of combinations

62

Gas-storage calculations yield accurate cavern, inventory data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses how determining gas-storage cavern size and inventory variance is now possible with calculations based on shut-in cavern surveys. The method is the least expensive of three major methods and is quite accurate when recorded over a period of time.

Mason, R.G. (Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp., Houston, TX (US))

1990-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

63

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

64

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Agency/Company /Organization: Pew Center on Global Climate Change Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Technical report Website: www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/aviation-and-marine-report-2009.pdf Cost: Free References: Greenhouse Gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation: mitigation potential and policies[1] "This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to

65

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduction Act (Maryland) Reduction Act (Maryland) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Maryland Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Maryland Department of the Environment The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires the State to reduce statewide

66

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country South Africa UN Region Southern Africa References South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings[1] South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report aims to provide: a summary quantification of the influence of buildings on climate

67

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Profile Emissions Profile Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile October 7, 2013 - 10:14am Addthis Evaluating a Federal agency's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile means getting a solid understanding of the organization's largest emission categories, largest emission sources, and its potential for improvement: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. While the data required for annual GHG reporting are sufficient to establish an agency's overall emission inventory, these data are not typically enough information for effectively managing emissions. A detailed, bottom-up assessment can provide the foundation for much more robust Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans. Because detailed analyses of all assets can be time-intensive, strategic planning helps the

68

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - autoradiographic inventory methods Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES: WHAT HAS BEEN DONEWHAT NEEDS... in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Paris, France October 13-15, 1998 12;- 1 - ... Source: Brookhaven...

70

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

72

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

73

Impact of fuel price and emissions on inventory policies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of changes in fuel prices and the imposition of a carbon tax on emissions from transport on shipment lot sizes and supply chain costs. An analysis is done to show that increases in fuel prices should be dealt with differently than other costs. Further, a function to calculate future fuel prices has been developed. This function has been used to calculate transport cost in the future. The EOQ models have been modified to include increasing transport cost and a carbon tax to demonstrate its impact on various inventory policies. Due to increases in fuel prices, the cost of every subsequent order will also increase, thus resulting in an increase of average order cost for all the shipments in a production cycle. Organizations that have their vendors in relatively close proximity will be at an advantageous position in managing their supply chain costs more effectively in the future. On the other hand, organizations that have invested heavily in global supply chains will need to re-examine their supply chain strategy to overcome cost challenges. This research presents a new challenge for supply chains/logistics management strategies for organizations with global supply chains.

Amulya Gurtu; Mohamad Y. Jaber; Cory Searcy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Development of an air emissions inventory for Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate air emissions inventory is important in an effective Clean Air Act (CAA) compliance program; without it, a facility may have difficulty proving compliance with regulations or permit conditions. An emissions inventory can also serve for evaluating the applicability of new regulations (eg, Title V of CAA) and in complying with them. Therefore it is important for the inventory to be well-planned and comprehensive. Preparation of an emissions inventory for a large R&D facility such as ORNL can be a challenging task. ORNL, a government facility managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. for US DOE, consists of more than 300 buildings on about 1,500 acres. It has several thousand diverse emission sources, including small laboratory hoods, several wastewater treatment facilities, and a steam plant. This paper describes the development of ORNL`s emissions inventory with emphasis on setting goals and identifying the scope of the inventory, identifying the emission points, developing/implementing the inventory methodology, compiling data, and evaluating the results.

Skipper, D.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

77

Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

78

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

80

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 sources and sinks of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. In 1992, the United States signed and ratified and make available...national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks

Little, John B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

82

TY RPRT T1 Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model A1 J Greenblatt AB p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources Starting from basic drivers such as population numbers

83

Life Cycle Inventory Energy Consumption and Emissions for Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fueled Construction Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Inventory Energy Consumption and Emissions for Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fueled Construction Vehicles ... In general, LCI emissions of HC and CO are lower if NSPS-compliant soyoil plants are used. ... The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and ... ...

Shih-Hao Pang; H. Christopher Frey; William J. Rasdorf

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

credit for renewable energy, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas combustion. Wastewater treatment, including both domestic wastewater (about two-thirds) and industrial...

86

Atmospheric Environment 39 (2005) 59175933 A high-resolution emission inventory for eastern China in 2000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Both alternative 2020 emission scenarios would reduce emissions relative to BAU. Adoption of ACGT, which meets only 24% of energy service demand in Zaozhuang in 2020 would reduce emissions more than BACT greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions below ground. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All

Mauzerall, Denise

87

EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices References: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building[1] Logo: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building "Developing greenhouse gas inventories is an important first step to managing emissions. U.S. EPA's approach for building capacity to develop GHG inventories is based on the following lessons learned from working alongside developing country experts: Technical expertise for GHG inventories already exists in developing countries.

88

NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Change Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Technical report Website: www.pewclimate.org...

90

GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W.C. KEENE 3, D.S. LEE 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W, and future rely in part on inventories of emissions constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales and the regulatory and policy communities. The production of global emissions inventories is the task of the GlobalEmissions

91

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Starting with the programs contributing the greatest proportion of building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency should next determine which building types operated by those programs use the most energy (Figure 1). Energy intensity is evaluated instead of emissions in this approach because programs may not have access to emissions data by building type.

92

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

Palmer, Paul

93

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The global warming potential, expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents (t e CO2), is determined for seven components of urban inventories: electricity, heating and industrial fuels, industrial processes, ground transportation, aviation, marine, and waste. ... With 92% of South Africa’s electricity generated from combustion of coal, Cape Town has the highest intensity of 969 t e CO2/GWh (Table S1). ... With a warm Mediterranean climate and a dense urban form, Barcelona has the lowest emissions of the ten cities. ...

Christopher Kennedy; Julia Steinberger; Barrie Gasson; Yvonne Hansen; Timothy Hillman; Miroslav Havránek; Diane Pataki; Aumnad Phdungsilp; Anu Ramaswami; Gara Villalba Mendez

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Emissions inventories for MSW landfills under Title V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, many states were either not concerned with, or unaware that, municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) were potential sources of regulated air pollutants. This philosophy is rapidly changing, in part due to US EPA policy documents concerning (and defining) fugitive and non-fugitive emissions from MSWLFs, the attention given to the newly released New Source Performance Standards and a recent lawsuit that gained national notoriety involving landfill air emissions and air permitting applicability issues. Most states now recognize that MSWLFs are sources of regulated air pollutants and are subject to permitting requirements (and pollutant emission fees) as other industries; i.e., state-level minor- and major-source operating permit programs, and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments Title V Operating Permits Program (Title V).

Vogt, W.G. [SCS Engineers, Reston, VA (United States); Peyser, T.R. [SCS Engineers, Birmingham, AL (United States); Hamilton, S.M. [SCS Engineers, Tampa, FL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a MarineTides and the emission of oil and gas from an abandoned oil

Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Title Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6541E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Greenblatt, J. Date Published 10/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

97

Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels This calculator currently focuses on electricity for a number of reasons. The public's interest in vehicles fueled by electricity is high, and as a result consumers are interested in better understanding the emissions created when electricity is produced. For vehicles that are fueled solely by electricity, tailpipe emissions are zero, so electricity production accounts for all GHG emissions associated with such vehicles. Finally, GHG emissions from electricity production vary significantly by region, which makes a calculator like this one-which uses regional data instead of national averages-particularly useful. If you want to compare total tailpipe plus fuel production GHG emissions for an electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle to those for a gasoline

98

Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel...

99

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

100

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Starting with the programs contributing the greatest...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

M. Stockton

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

NETL: Fugitive Gas Emissions Detection Facilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fugitive Gas Emissions Detection Facilities Fugitive Gas Emissions Detection Facilities NETL uses an array of innovative laboratory techniques and field methods to detect and monitor fugitive emissions of CO2 stored in geologic formations. By providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2 and a high level of confidence that the CO2 will permanently remain in storage, these efforts can help ensure the technical soundness and economic viability of carbon sequestration, a technology that is critical to meeting the national goal of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Successful research to establish the stability and integrity of host formations will help developers of sequestration projects secure permits and emissions reduction credits, while preventing damage to ecosystems and ensuring public health and safety.

103

Determine Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For the purposes of portfolio planning, a Federal agency's first data analysis step is to determine which mobile emissions sources represent the largest contributors to the agency's overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agencies can use agency-level data to determine which fleets/locations, which vehicle assets (e.g., fleet vehicles, non-fleet equipment, etc.), and which fuel types are producing the largest amounts of emissions.

104

Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

State Greenhouse Gas State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

105

Information about the Greenhouse Gas Emission Calculations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sources and Assumptions for the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Sources and Assumptions for the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator To estimate your CO2 emissions rates and generate the bar graph, we used the following sources and assumptions. Your CO2 Emissions Rates Tailpipe (grams CO2/mile) This is the tailpipe CO2 emissions rate for combined city and highway driving that is shown on the fuel economy and environment label for the vehicle model you selected. It is the same regardless of where you live. Total (grams CO2/mile) This includes the vehicle's tailpipe emissions and emissions associated with the production of electricity used to charge the vehicle. For plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, it also includes emissions associated with the production of gasoline. It is estimated using the sources and assumptions below, and will vary based on where you live.

106

Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissions Profile to someone by E-mail Emissions Profile to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting

107

NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Reduction A leader in federal greenhouse gas (GHG) management, NREL has conducted GHG inventories, developed reduction goals, and reported emissions since 2000. NREL...

108

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

109

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions to someone by E-mail Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Maintenance & Safety Laws & Incentives Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions Natural gas burns cleaner than conventional gasoline or diesel due to its

111

New gas turbine combustor supports emissions limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas Research Institute, in partnership with Allison Engine Co. of Indianapolis, has introduced a natural gas-fired, low-emissions combustor that it says will give customers of industrial gas turbines a least-cost approach for meeting US emissions regulations. The LE IV combustor uses dry, low-nitrogen oxides (DLN) technology to reduce emissions from the Allison 501K industrial gas turbine to 25 parts per million or less (corrected to 15 percent oxygen)--levels that are expected to meet pending federal emissions regulations. GRI is funding similar efforts with other manufacturers of turbines commonly used at pipeline compressor stations and industrial power generation sites. The Allison combustor features a dual operating mode. During the pilot mode of operation, fuel is directly injected into the combustor`s liner where it is consumed in a diffusion flame reaction. During higher power operation, the fuel and air are uniformly premixed in fuel-lean proportions to control NO{sub x} formation. In addition, optimum engine performance is maintained by the dry, lean-mixed combustion technology as it suppresses NO{sub x} formation in the turbine`s combustion section. An added advantage of the LE IV combustor is its ability to lower emissions without any adverse affect on engine performance and operations, according to GRI> The combustor is available as either a retrofit or as an option on a new engine.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(Minnesota) (Minnesota) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Climate Policies This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80

113

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic in assumptions in estimating emissions · Measured data for some sources of methane emissions during natural gas

Lightsey, Glenn

114

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Contacts Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email, perry.lindstrom@eia.gov). Without the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), this report would not have been possible. In particular we would like to thank Erin Beddingfield, Keith Forbes, Kristin Igusky, Makely Lyon, Michael Mondshine, and Richard Richards. We also wish to acknowledge the

115

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

116

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:34am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Data needs for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning related to Federal agency vehicles and mobile equipment can be described in terms of five key categories: Vehicle Inventory A detailed vehicle profile is essential to right-sizing an agency's vehicle inventory and thereby reducing fuel use, emissions, and operating costs. In combination with vehicle usage and mission data, this information can be used to develop an optimal vehicle acquisition plan and vehicle allocation methodology (VAM) to identify vehicles that may represent good candidates for reassignment or disposal. This data assists in correctly sizing a fleet

117

Life Cycle Boundaries and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Beef Cattle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Beef cattle are estimated to directly contribute 26% of U.S. agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and future climate change policy may target reducing these emissions.… (more)

Dudley, Quentin M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies should establish planned changes in operations that could have a substantial impact on emissions for each greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source.

119

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study By October 13, 2013, the Washington Office of Financial Management must

120

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

122

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Wisconsin Reduces Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on AddThis.com... Oct. 2, 2010 Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks

123

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12, 2014 11:00AM EST to...

124

Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When prioritizing building types and sites for evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Federal agencies should first determine which programs contribute the most to their total building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and focus their analysis on those programs.

125

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Agency/Company /Organization: European Environment Agency Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Maps Website: www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2009_9 Country: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

126

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

127

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:36am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 After a Federal agency has collected detailed information about its vehicle inventory, fuel consumption, usage, mission, and alternative fuel availability, it can analyze the data to determine the most cost-effective options for petroleum reduction and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Data can be analyzed at the agency, program, fleet (or site), or vehicle level for the following purposes: Determining the most important mobile emission sources Determining whether vehicles are performing and being utilized to minimize GHG emissions Identifying mission constraints. Next Step After analyzing data for evaluating an emissions profile, the next step in

128

Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Refrigerant Choices in Room Air Conditioner Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. ... De Kleine, R. D.; Keoleian, G. A.; Kelly, J. C.Optimal replacement of residential air conditioning equipment to minimize energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and consumer cost in the US Energy Policy 2011, 39, 3144– 3153 ... Most of the inventory data have been collected from Thailand, except for the upstream of fuel oil and fuel transmission, which have been computed from Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation version 1.7 and Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems version 4.3. ...

Michael D. Galka; James M. Lownsbury; Paul Blowers

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

129

EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Capacity Building) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices References: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building[1] Logo: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building "Developing greenhouse gas inventories is an important first step to managing emissions. U.S. EPA's approach for building capacity to develop GHG inventories is based on the following lessons learned from working alongside developing country experts: Technical expertise for GHG inventories already exists in developing

130

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the preparation of well pad consist of two parts: the carbon

Jaramillo, Paulina

131

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation 10.1073/pnas.1309334111...of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas...best-performing coal-fired generation under certain...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Life-cycle Energy and Emissions Inventories for Motorcycles, Diesel Automobiles, School Buses, Electric Buses, Chicago Rail, and New York City Rail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Inventories for Motorcycles, Diesel Automobiles, Chen, K.S. , et al. , 2003.  Motorcycle Emissions and Fuel On Road  Mopeds and Motorcycles.  Available online at 

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

08(96) 08(96) Distribution Category UC-950 Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting October 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. For More Information Individuals or members of organizations wishing to report reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases under the auspices of the Voluntary Reporting Program can contact the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Energy Information Administration U.S. Department

134

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for stationary combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

135

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;CenterTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

136

Building GHGs National Inventory Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHGs National Inventory Systems GHGs National Inventory Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Building GHGs National Inventory Systems - Capacity Development for National GHG´s Inventories in Non-Annex I Countries Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1] Program Overview The forthcoming climate regime will include a global mechanism called REDD - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Each developing country must draw up a Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHG Inventory)

137

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Verification of Emissions Control Compliance Speaker(s): Marc Fischer Date: April 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Local to international control of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require systematic estimation of emissions and independent verification. California, the only state in the US with legislated controls on GHG emissions, is conducting research to enable emissions verification of the mandated emissions reductions (AB-32). The California Energy Commission supports the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project at LBNL. In collaboration with NOAA, CALGEM measures mixing ratios of all significant GHGs at two tall-towers and on aircraft in

138

An analysis of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese iron and steel industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With China's increasing pressures on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, Chinese iron and steel industry (ISI) is facing a great challenge. In this paper, we address the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features, and driving forces in Chinese ISI for 2001–2010. First, energy related GHG inventory for ISI is made for both scope 1 (direct emissions) and scope 2 (including imported electricity emission). Then, the driving forces for such emission changes are explored by utilizing the method of logarithmic mean Divisa index (LMDI) decomposition analysis. Results indicate that Chinese ISI experienced a rapid growth of energy related GHG emission at average annual growth rate of 70 million tons CO2e. Production scale effect is the main driving factor for energy related GHG emission increase in Chinese ISI, while energy intensity effect and emission factor change effect offset the total increase and energy structure has marginal effect. Construction, manufacture of general purpose and special purpose machinery and manufacture of transport equipment sectors are main sectors for embodied emissions, amounting for more than 75% of the total embodied emissions from Chinese ISI. Such research findings propose that a detailed consideration can help make appropriate polices for mitigating ISI's energy-related GHG emission.

Yihui Tian; Qinghua Zhu; Yong Geng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF GUIDANCE VALUES FOR CLOSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS O. BOUR*, S. BERGER**, C Gambetta, 74 000 Annecy SUMMARY: In order to promote active landfill gas collection and treatment or natural attenuation, it is necessary to identify trigger values concerning landfill gas emissions

Boyer, Edmond

140

Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program October 7, 2013 - 10:48am Addthis When prioritizing building types and sites for evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Federal agencies should first determine which programs contribute the most to their total building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and focus their analysis on those programs. Using the total buildings energy use by program, these emissions profile can be calculated using the Federal Energy Management Program's Annual GHG and Sustainability Data Report site. In the example below, Agency ABC should focus on Programs B and C first because together they represent over 80% of building emissions. Agencies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Outlook June 4, 2013 Steven Simmons CO2 Emission Outlook for the Pacific NW (ID MW Centralia 1 Centralia WA 1972 2020 730 MW Centralia 2 Centralia WA 1973 2025 730 MW 5 GHG Emission

142

Opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from households in Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to mitigate climate threats should not exclude the household as the household is a major driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through its consumption...2) emissions from kerosene combustion for lighting

O. Adeoti; S. O. Osho

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources...

144

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After assessing the potential for agency size changes, a Federal agency should evaluate its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile using renewable energy in buildings.

145

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobil Sources AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources...

146

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of...

147

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements AgencyCompany Organization: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Sector: Energy, Land...

148

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity AgencyCompany...

149

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods AgencyCompany...

150

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

151

Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Website http:www.ens.dksitesens.dk Program Start 2011 Country Ethiopia Eastern Africa References National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from...

152

Instrumentation for the Measurement of Landfill Gas Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Where problems of gas emission are suspected, the reliable detection and measurement of the gas is essential if solutions to the problem are to be designed, constructed and monitored for their effectiveness. T...

D. Crowhurst

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of {eta}{sub e} {le} 130 and {eta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 4} respectively, with 1 MeV K{sup +} incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as {eta}{sub e} {proportional_to} 1/cos({theta}), where {theta} is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90{sup o}) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62{sup o}. Gas desorption varies more slowly with {theta} (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of {approx}2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K{sup +} ions backscatter when incident at 88-89{sup o} from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within {approx}10{sup o} of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90{sup o}. Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams.

Molvik, A

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

154

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Federal Energy Technology Center Federal Energy Technology Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Morgantown, West Virginia FETC's Customer Service Line: (800) 553-7681 FETC's Homepage: http://www.fetc.doe.gov/ DOE/FETC-98/1058 (DE98002029) FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions John A. Ruether February 1998 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

155

Determine Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources Determine Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources October 7, 2013 - 11:39am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 For the purposes of portfolio planning, a Federal agency's first data analysis step is to determine which mobile emissions sources represent the largest contributors to the agency's overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agencies can use agency-level data to determine which fleets/locations, which vehicle assets (e.g., fleet vehicles, non-fleet equipment, etc.), and which fuel types are producing the largest amounts of emissions. Based on this analysis, the agency can better define which mitigation strategies will be most effective. For instance, if a single fleet comprises over half of the agency's vehicle and equipment emissions, the

156

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type October 7, 2013 - 10:51am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Starting with the programs contributing the greatest proportion of building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency should next determine which building types operated by those programs use the most energy (Figure 1). Energy intensity is evaluated instead of emissions in this approach because programs may not have access to emissions data by building type. Figure 1 - An image of an organizational-type chart. A rectangle labeled 'Program 1' has lines pointing to three other rectangles below it labeled 'Building Type 1,' 'Building Type 2,' and 'Building Type 3.' Next to the building types it says, 'Step 2. Estimate emissions by building type.

157

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Freshwater Consumption of Marcellus Shale Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Freshwater Consumption of Marcellus Shale Gas ... We present results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Marcellus shale gas used for power generation. ... The analysis employs the most extensive data set of any LCA of shale gas to date, encompassing data from actual gas production and power generation operations. ...

Ian J. Laurenzi; Gilbert R. Jersey

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

158

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

159

DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions April 17, 2006 - 10:20am Addthis Announces Revised Guidelines for U.S. Companies to Report and Register Reductions WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced revised guidelines for the department's Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, known as "1605 (b)" that encourage broader reporting of emissions and sequestration by utilities, and industries, as well as small businesses and institutions. The revised guidelines strengthen the existing public registry for emissions and sequestration data and introduce new methods for U.S. businesses and institutions to calculate entity-wide emission reductions that contribute to the President's goal of substantially

160

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Status June 4, 2013 Gillian Charles A few clarifications This presentation and ½ Valmy coal plants) 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 GHG Emissions by Economic Sector in the Pacific Northwest (2010

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for biomass burning in Southeast Asia during 2001–2010  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass burning (BB) emissions from forest fires, agricultural waste burning, and peatland combustion contain large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and observation data, and spatiotemporal variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for BB in Southeast Asia (SEA) during 2001–2010. The 1-km grid was effective for quantifying emissions from small-sized fires that were frequently misinterpreted by coarse grid data due to their large smoothed pixels. The average annual BB emissions in SEA during 2001–2010 were 277 Gg SO2, 1125 Gg NOx, 55,388 Gg CO, 3831 Gg NMVOC, 553 Gg NH3, 324 Gg BC, 2406 Gg OC, 3832 Gg CH4, 817,809 Gg CO2, and 99 Gg N2O. Emissions were high in western Myanmar, Northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia, northern Laos, and South Sumatra and South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Emissions from forest burning were the dominant contributor to the total emissions among all land types. The spatial pattern of BB emissions was consistent with that of the burned areas. In addition, BB emissions exhibited similar temporal trends from 2001 to 2010, with strong interannual and intraannual variability. Interannual and intraannual emission peaks were seen during 2004, 2007, 2010, and January–March and August–October, respectively.

Yusheng Shi; Yasushi Yamaguchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Refinery Gas Other PetroleumPipelines. All still gas/refinery gas in China is reportedlubricants petroleum coke refinery feedstock still gas/

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gas fuels include biogas from animal and agri- cultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills, as well as...

164

Method to Assess the Radionuclide Inventory of Irradiated Graphite from Gas-Cooled Reactors - 13072  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 17,000 t of irradiated graphite waste will be produced from the decommissioning of the six French gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Determining the radionuclide (RN) content of this waste is of relevant importance for safety reasons and in order to determine the best way to manage them. For many reasons the impurity content that gave rise to the RNs in irradiated graphite by neutron activation during operation is not always well known and sometimes actually unknown. So, assessing the RN content by the use of traditional calculation activation, starting from assumed impurity content, leads to a false assessment. Moreover, radiochemical measurements exhibit very wide discrepancies especially on RN corresponding to precursor at the trace level such as natural chlorine corresponding to chlorine 36. This wide discrepancy is unavoidable and is due to very simple reasons. The level of impurity is very low because the uranium fuel used at that very moment was not enriched, so it was a necessity to have very pure nuclear grade graphite and the very low size of radiochemical sample is a simple technical constraint because device size used to get mineralization product for measurement purpose is limited. The assessment of a radionuclide inventory only based on few number of radiochemical measurements lead in most cases, to a gross over or under-estimation that is detrimental for graphite waste management. A method using an identification calculation-measurement process is proposed in order to assess a radiological inventory for disposal sizing purpose as precise as possible while guaranteeing its upper character. This method present a closer approach to the reality of the main phenomenon at the origin of RNs in a reactor, while also incorporating the secondary effects that can alter this result such as RN (or its precursor) release during reactor operation. (authors)

Poncet, Bernard [EDF-CIDEN, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, F-69458 LYON cedex 06 (France)] [EDF-CIDEN, 154 Avenue Thiers, CS 60018, F-69458 LYON cedex 06 (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Emissions Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 10:12am Addthis Federal agencies should establish planned changes in operations that could have a substantial impact on emissions for each greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. Such changes could represent either an additional significant hurdle to overcome or a significant reduction in the effort required to drive emissions down-in the absence of any direct GHG mitigation reduction strategies. This will help each organization establish its "business as usual" emission profile in 2020, the year agencies are expected to meet their Scope 1 and 2 and Scope 3 GHG emission-reduction goals.

166

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used5 Identify carbon emission coefficients and calculate total35 Appendix: Overview of the China Carbon Emissions

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:16am Addthis After assessing the potential for agency size changes, a Federal agency should evaluate its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile using renewable energy in buildings. When using renewable energy in buildings, the approach for evaluating GHG emissions involves evaluating the renewable energy resource potential and determining what type of renewable energy technology to use in a building. To help determine renewable energy resource potential at a site, see FEMP's information on Renewable Energy Resource Maps and Screening Tools. Also see Renewable Energy Project Planning and Implementation.

168

Effects of gas composition on the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is considered to be a promising alternative ... energy security. However, since the composition of natural gas fuel varies with location, climate and other ... emission characteristics and performance...

Byung Hyouk Min; Jin Taek Chung; Ho Young Kim; Simsoo Park

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

170

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Climate Focus Area: - Central Plant, Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: CHP Guidance v1.0[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for allocation of GHG emissions from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator

171

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Electricity Heat, and Steam Purchase Guidance v1.2[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for purchased electricity is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

172

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets October 7, 2013 - 10:24am Addthis Question to Answer What are appropriate GHG emission reduction targets for specific agency programs and sites? Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions. As illustrated in the figure below, two sites may have equal potential to reduce GHG emissions. But a site expecting significant mission-related growth prior to the 2020 target year may have a lower reduction target

173

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

174

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Climate Policies Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

175

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel October 7, 2013 - 1:27pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To evaluate a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile, most of the information required to support air travel demand management is currently available through Federal agency-level travel information systems, such as GovTrip. However, that information may not be distributed to programs, regional offices, and sites, which are in the best position to evaluate opportunities to reduce travel. Considerations that may help the agency determine the level at which data should be collected and analyzed include: Where are budgets and policies regarding travel made and modified?

176

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:45am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Strategic planning for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in buildings requires an understanding of a Federal agency's buildings portfolio, including which programs, building types, and sites contribute the most to the agency's emissions. The data described in Table 1 below will support this type of analysis. It is recommended that this information be collected at the agency and program level. Programs refer to major operating units within the agency where there is a significant degree of autonomy in planning and decision-making. In many cases, the type of data required for portfolio planning may already

177

Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At Alban Hills  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At Alban Hills Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At Alban Hills Volcano (Rome, Italy)- Geochemical Evidence Of Magmatic Degassing? Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At Alban Hills Volcano (Rome, Italy)- Geochemical Evidence Of Magmatic Degassing? Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Recent studies suggested that Alban Hills (Rome) is a quiescent and not an extinct volcano, as it produced Holocene eruptions and several lahars until Roman times by water overflow from the Albano crater lake. Alban Hills are presently characterized by high PCO2 in groundwaters and by several cold gas emissions usually in sites where excavations removed the

178

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Industry Topics: Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/bali_2_copenhagen_egs.pdf References: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods[1] Background "As part of a suite of activities under the From Bali to Copenhagen project, IISD's work on low-carbon goods has focused on trying to measure the actual potential climate gains from what's now on the table in the WTO

179

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:47pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey. The default survey methodology in the Federal GHG Accounting Guidance is designed to collect the minimum data for emissions calculations. Additional information may be necessary to determine which trip reduction strategies are best suited for specific employee populations. The optional questions in the advanced survey methodology or data gathered through an agency-defined employee commute survey can provide this understanding.

180

Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

Howie, James Edward

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Landfill Gas Formation, Recovery and Emission in The Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Landfills are one of the main sources of methane in The Netherlands. Methane emissions from landfills are estimated to be about 180–580 ... at a total of 760–1730 ktonnes. Landfill gas recovery and utilization is...

Hans Oonk

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Compliance and Emissions Trading under the Kyoto Protocol: Rules for Uncertain Inventories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solution is proposed for proving compliance with emission targets and for emissions trading in the event of uncertainties in reported...? and calculating effective emissions for trading are derived. Based on th...

Zbigniew Nahorski; Joanna Horabik; Matthias Jonas

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Gas visualization of industrial hydrocarbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gases leaking from a polyethene plant and a cracker plant were visualized with the gas-correlation imaging technique. Ethene escaping from flares due to incomplete or erratic...

Sandsten, Jonas; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Urban Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Urban Environment L. Pollard,1 M. Sampson,1 M. Palta,1 M. Bernstein,2 T. Combs,1 X. Dong,1 S. Earl,2 N. Grimm, R. Hale, A. Handler, C. Kochert, J. Mc) are less well understood. Cities are potential hot spots for greenhouse gas (GHG) production. We sought

Hall, Sharon J.

185

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transport or Transport or Mobil Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobil Sources Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Transportation, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically from mobile combustion sources, including vehicles under the direct control

186

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and conventional gas are not significantly...harmonized estimates of life cycle GHG emissions...unconventional gas used for electricity...combined cycle turbine (NGCC) compared...explanation of the remaining harmonization...evaluated shale gas LCAs: inclusion of missing life cycle stages...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal efficiency, fuel heating value, power plant...natural gas as a bridge fuel . Clim Change 118 : 609...emissions and freshwater consumption of Marcellus shale gas...following Fig. S1) for the fuel cycle of shale gas...water, and/or oil) Vessel and pipeline blowdowns...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas petroleum waxes coking coal t C/TJ other bituminous coalprocesses of coal washing, coking, petroleum refineries, gaslosses include coal washing, coking, petroleum refining, gas

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Natural Gas Stove Emissions and Respiratory Health: Evidence from NHANES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Stove Emissions and Respiratory Health: Evidence from NHANES Natural Gas Stove Emissions and Respiratory Health: Evidence from NHANES III Speaker(s): Ronald Briggs Date: August 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Brett Singer Do emissions from natural gas stoves in American homes degrade respiratory health? The combustion of natural gas yields byproducts such as NOx , PM2.5 , and CO that the US EPA regulates outdoors. But while ambient air quality has improved in the US over the last few decades as a consequence of the Clean Air Act of and its amendments, the prevalence of asthma and morbidity and mortality associated with asthma continue to rise (Mannino /et al./, 1998). Concentrations of most air pollutants are higher indoors than outdoors in the US, however, and people in the US spend more than 90%

190

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology September 22, 2005 - 10:45am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today released for public review and comment a plan for accelerating the development and reducing the cost of new and advanced technologies that avoid, reduce, or capture and store greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. The technologies developed under the Climate Change Technology program will be used and deployed among the United States' partners in the Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development that was announced earlier this year.

191

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A1. Notes and Sources A1. Notes and Sources Tables Chapter 1: Greenhouse gas emissions overview Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Global warming potentials: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Errata (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008), website http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Errata_2008-12-01.pdf. Table 2. U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the

192

Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

194

LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions are allocated to that sector accordingly. Biogas.The majority of biogas consumed in China is from rural

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions.

197

Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uranium hexafluoride reacting with moisture in air creates the immediate danger of HF hydrogen fluoride or ammonia; hydrofluoric acid is also used in the conversion process) -CO2 emissions involved in mining gases / acid rain: emits Hg, CO2, CO, SOx, NOx (there are pollution controls on SOx and Hg which makes

Toohey, Darin W.

198

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FROM BIOMASS, COAL, AN) ASSESSMENT NATURAL GAS 1 (2002),ASSESSMENT OF GREENiiousE GAS EMISSIONS FROM NATURAL GAS

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Agency/Company /Organization Government of Costa Rica, Peace with Nature Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.paxnatura.org/pax_n Country Costa Rica UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References Costa Rica[1] Overview References ↑ "Costa Rica" Retrieved from

200

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. Land use 6. Land use 6.1. Total land use, land use change, and forests This chapter presents estimates of carbon sequestration (removal from the atmosphere) and emissions (release into the atmosphere) from forests, croplands, grasslands, and residential areas (urban trees, grass clippings, and food scraps) in the United States. In 2008, land use, land use change, and forests were responsible for estimated net carbon sequestration of 940 MMTCO2e (Table 31), representing 16 percent of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The largest sequestration category in 2008 was forest lands and harvested wood pools,49 with estimated sequestration increasing from 730 MMTCO2e in 1990 to 792 MMTCO2e in 2008. The second-largest carbon sequestration category was urban trees,50 responsible for 57 MMTCO2e in 1990 and 94

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kerosene other kerosene shale oil gas/diesel oil residualbituminous coal lignite oil shale other petroleum products (

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:32am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To gain a good understanding of a Federal agency's Scope 1 vehicle and mobile equipment greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency must first collect the necessary data to profile any emissions sources then analyze the data in a way that will clarify the most viable strategies and alternatives. Emissions cannot be managed until they are measured. Through the use of fleet/vehicle management information systems, as well as reporting to the Federal Energy Management Program and General Services Administration, agencies are increasingly collecting and documenting useful data elements at the headquarters-and sometimes at specific site -levels.

204

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions from Gas Field Water in Southern Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to assess correctly the gases emissions from oil/gas field water and its contributions to the source of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the atmospheric temperature and pressure, ... first developed to study th...

Guojun Chen; Wei Yang; Xuan Fang; Jiaai Zhong…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emissions inventory (version 2): Development of the national utility reference file, 1985. Final report, January-September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of a project conducted to create a file containing comprehensive data on all electric utilities in the US. The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) emissions inventory activities focus on the estimation of emissions from pollutants that contribute to acid deposition. Electric utilities, which emit a large share of total acid deposition precursor emissions, are important for modeling analyses. Data reported by states to the National Emissions Data System (NEDS) for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory and data reported to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on EIA Form 759, EIA Form 767, FERC Form 423, and the Integrated Data Base System (IDBS) were matched and combined. The resulting 1985 National Utility Reference File (NURF) contains detailed unit level data for nearly 10,000 electricity generating plants.

Wagner, J.K.; Rothschild, S.S.; Istvan, D.A.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: Greenhouse Gas Emissions | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

207

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

208

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To gain a good understanding of a Federal agency's Scope 1 vehicle and mobile equipment greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency must first collect the necessary data to profile any emissions sources then analyze the data in a way that will clarify the most viable strategies and alternatives. Emissions cannot be managed until they are measured. Through the use of fleet/vehicle management information systems, as well as reporting to the Federal Energy Management Program and General Services Administration, agencies are increasingly collecting and documenting useful data elements at the headquarters-and sometimes at specific site -levels.

209

SMARTTool Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Reporting Entity: University of Northern British Columbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Direct) Emissions Mobile Combustion (Fleet) Litres 6,923.55 15.70 0.00 0.00 16.77 Stationary Combustion.30 Emissions from Biomass Total Biomass Emissions 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 Total Emissions, Calendar Year 2010 5

Northern British Columbia, University of

210

Fact #608: February 1, 2010 Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 1990  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In October of 2009, the United Nations (UN) released greenhouse gas inventory data for 1990 to 2007 for all countries that submitted data in accordance with the UN Framework Convention on Climate...

211

A New High-Resolution N2O Emission Inventory for China in 2008  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Per-capita and per-GDP N2O emissions increase gradually with an increase in the urban population fraction from 0.3 to 0.9 among 2884 counties, and N2O emission density increases with urban expansion. ... (56-58) This decrease of demand would eventually reduce some of the food and energy supplies in these regions. ...

Feng Zhou; Ziyin Shang; Philippe Ciais; Shu Tao; Shilong Piao; Peter Raymond; Canfei He; Bengang Li; Rong Wang; Xuhui Wang; Shushi Peng; Zhenzhong Zeng; Han Chen; Na Ying; Xikang Hou; Peng Xu

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective and Research Associate, respectively, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University. Seniority of Authorship is shared. This research was supported by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station through

McCarl, Bruce A.

214

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric Power Plants in the Upper Colorado-1712 As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable,CaliforniaandtherestoftheWestCoastoftheUnited States started to experience severe shortages of electricity. Investments

Kammen, Daniel M.

215

Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and energy infrastructure. The graduate projects, fully funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. Samples of guiding questions as part of the projects include: � What can explain; (3) demonstrated computer skills (e.g., Linux, R, Matlab, Fortran, GIS); (4) excellent oral

Lin, John Chun-Han

216

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Employee Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To fulfill annual reporting requirements under Executive Order 13514, Federal agencies must estimate the total commute miles traveled by employees using each transportation method. While these data are rolled up to the agency level for reporting purposes, effective planning for commuter greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions requires an understanding of employee commute behavior at the worksite level.

217

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more than 100 life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could

218

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once the relevant data have been collected, the next step is to identify the biggest building energy users and their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribution. Ideally would be done at the program level using actual building characteristic and performance data. However, assumptions may be established about energy performance of buildings based on general location and building type.

219

Landfill gas emission prediction using Voronoi diagrams and importance sampling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are among the nation's largest emitters of methane, a key greenhouse gas, and there is considerable interest in quantifying the surficial methane emissions from landfills. There are limitations in obtaining accurate ... Keywords: Air dispersion modeling, Delaunay tessellation, Kriging, Least squares, MSW landfill, Voronoi diagram

K. R. Mackie; C. D. Cooper

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawai`i And University of Hawai`i Economic Research, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Generating Technology to Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION 30 TH BIRTHDAY CONFERENCE April 7, 2008 Linda G. Stuntz Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 2 The Target * Energy related emissions of CO2 will increase by about 16% in AEO 2008 Reference Case between 2006 and 2030 (5,890 MM metric tons to 6,859 MM metric tons). (#s from Caruso Senate Energy testimony of 3/4/08). * Last year, emissions from electricity generation were 40% of total energy-related GHG emissions. * Based on projected annual electricity demand growth of 1.1%. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 3 The Target Cont'd * 16.4 GW of new nuclear + 2.7 GW Uprates of existing plants less 4.5 GW of retirements. * Coal responsible for 54% of generation in 2030.

225

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...grasslands and in other natural vegetation, the biomass...European Union South: Cyprus, Greece, Italy...and Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CCAFS...Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990 ZZQQhy2020...hectares) Scenario Other Natural Vegetation Pasture...

Avery S. Cohn; Aline Mosnier; Petr Havlík; Hugo Valin; Mario Herrero; Erwin Schmid; Michael O’Hare; Michael Obersteiner

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

228

Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline...

229

Turbine Drive Gas Generator for Zero Emission Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Vision 21 Program seeks technology development that can reduce energy costs, reduce or eliminate atmospheric pollutants from power plants, provide choices of alternative fuels, and increase the efficiency of generating systems. Clean Energy Systems is developing a gas generator to replace the traditional boiler in steam driven power systems. The gas generator offers the prospects of lower electrical costs, pollution free plant operations, choices of alternative fuels, and eventual net plant efficiencies in excess of 60% with sequestration of carbon dioxide. The technology underlying the gas generator has been developed in the aerospace industry over the past 30 years and is mature in aerospace applications, but it is as yet unused in the power industry. This project modifies and repackages aerospace gas generator technology for power generation applications. The purposes of this project are: (1) design a 10 MW gas generator and ancillary hardware, (2) fabricate the gas generator and supporting equipment, (3) test the gas generator using methane as fuel, (4) submit a final report describing the project and test results. The principal test objectives are: (1) define start-up, shut down and post shutdown control sequences for safe, efficient operation; (2) demonstrate the production of turbine drive gas comprising steam and carbon dioxide in the temperature range 1500 F to 3000 F, at a nominal pressure of 1500 psia; (3) measure and verify the constituents of the drive gas; and (4) examine the critical hardware components for indications of life limitations. The 21 month program is in its 13th month. Design work is completed and fabrication is in process. The gas generator igniter is a torch igniter with sparkplug, which is currently under-going hot fire testing. Fabrication of the injector and body of the gas generator is expected to be completed by year-end, and testing of the full gas generator will begin in early 2002. Several months of testing are anticipated. When demonstrated, this gas generator will be the prototype for use in demonstration power plants planned to be built in Antioch, California and in southern California during 2002. In these plants the gas generator will demonstrate durability and its operational RAM characteristics. In 2003, it is expected that the gas generator will be employed in new operating plants primarily in clean air non-attainment areas, and in possible locations to provide large quantities of high quality carbon dioxide for use in enhanced oil recovery or coal bed methane recovery. Coupled with an emission free coal gasification system, the CES gas generator would enable the operation of high efficiency, non-polluting coal-fueled power plants.

Doyle, Stephen E.; Anderson, Roger E.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. ... A common approach in LCA and net energy analysis, known as the “system expansion” method (also known as the “substitution” or “displacement” method) credits saved energy and emissions burdens to coproducts associated with the products displaced in the market. ... Normal Paraffins—World Markets 2000–2010; Colin A. Houston & Associates, Inc. (CAHA): Aiken, SC. ...

Grant S. Forman; Tristan E. Hahn; Scott D. Jensen

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Energy Sources in Aviation, Imperial College London. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Biofuels and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Green or Red?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biofuels and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Green or Red? ... Although it is widely recognized that cellulosic feedstocks have a much lower environmental footprint, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently adjusted the congressionally mandated 2010 100 million gallon yr?1 cellulosic biofuel mandate to 6.5 million gallons, a ?95% reduction, based on the lack of progress in bringing cellulosic biofuels to the marketplace. ... Converting rain forest, peatland, savanna, or grassland to produce food crop-based biofuels in Brazil, southeast Asia, and the US creates a biofuel C debt by releasing 17-420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) redns. ...

Mark O. Barnett

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

234

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions; and over 5 weeks in August--September, the peak GHG emission period, during 2012. (Pacific Northwest

235

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have, that using natural gas for electricity generation is better than coal for the long-term healthSpeaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

236

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Buildings Buildings Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:47am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Once the relevant data have been collected, the next step is to identify the biggest building energy users and their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribution. Ideally would be done at the program level using actual building characteristic and performance data. However, assumptions may be established about energy performance of buildings based on general location and building type. Ultimately, building efficiency measures need to be evaluated at the building level before implementing them, but facility energy managers can evaluate the relative impact of different GHG reduction approaches using assumptions about the building characteristics and estimates of efficiency

237

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions | ENERGY STAR  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager The new ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager How Portfolio Manager helps you save The benchmarking starter kit Identify your property type Enter data into Portfolio Manager The data quality checker

238

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Employee Commuting |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:44pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To fulfill annual reporting requirements under Executive Order 13514, Federal agencies must estimate the total commute miles traveled by employees using each transportation method. While these data are rolled up to the agency level for reporting purposes, effective planning for commuter greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions requires an understanding of employee commute behavior at the worksite level. For agencies with hundreds or thousands of worksites across the country, worksite level analysis may not be feasible for all locations. It is recommended that agencies focus initial analysis on the largest worksites or clusters of worksites in major metropolitan areas with similar commuting

239

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Developing a Federal agency's business travel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile first involves getting a better understanding of the nature and patterns of travel within the organization. Not all travel can be avoided or effectively substituted with information technology solutions. By understanding where people are traveling by air, the purpose of travel, and what parts of the organization travel most frequently, the agency will be in a better position to develop solutions and program-level targets.

240

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 3 To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different. General Services Administration Resources to Support GHG Mitigation Planning TravelTrax provides agencies with several tools that can help plan for reductions in business travel. This includes a tool to help estimate the impact of videoconferencing and a tool that can help conference and event planners to identify event locations that consider where attendees are coming from in order to reduce air travel GHGs. These tools are embedded in the GSA Travel MIS database, thus enabling agencies to link their actual travel to different planning scenarios and evaluate options.

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluation of mobile emissions contributions to Mexico City's emissions inventory using on-road and cross-road emission measurements and ambient data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust ...

Zavala-Perez, Miguel Angel

242

Can alternative car fuels reduce greenhouse gas emissions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There has been controversy in the published literature regarding the scope for alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. This paper aims to resolve this question in an Australian context, and, where possible, to calculate the costs of emission reductions. Fossil-fuel-based alternatives give either marginal or uncertain reductions. Ethanol from sugar cane, the most promising biomass fuel, has high costs per tonne of CO2 reduction, and, when other trace gases are considered, shows no definite improvement over petrol. Electric vehicles, if deployed today in Australia, would exacerbate greenhouse warming. Only if an alternative new energy source such as wind power generated 15% or more of total electricity would emission reductions occur compared to equivalent petrol-fuelled cars.

P. Moriarty

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols GHG Inventory Protocols EPA/IAI PFC Measurement Protocol (PDF 243 KB) Download Acrobat Reader EPA and the International Aluminium Institute have collaborated with the global primary aluminium industry to develop a standard facility-specific PFC emissions measurement protocol. Use of the protocol will help ensure the consistency and accuracy of measurements. International Aluminum Institute's Aluminum Sector Greenhouse Gas Protocol (PDF 161 KB) Download Acrobat Reader The International Aluminum Institute (IAI) Aluminum Sector Addendum to the WBCSD/WRI Greenhouse Gas Protocol enhances and expands for the aluminum sector the World Business Council for Sustainable Development/World Resources Institute greenhouse gas corporate accounting and reporting protocol.

244

A Demand-Centered, Hybrid Life-Cycle Methodology for City-Scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Community-wide electricity and natural gas use across all homes, and all commercial and industrial facilities in Denver were obtained from the local utility (Xcel Energy). ... Xcel’s electricity grid mix is predominately coal (?56%) and natural gas (40%) in Colorado. ... Chapman, D. Xcel Energy’s CO2e Intensity Metric; Xcel Energy: Denver, CO, 2006. ...

Anu Ramaswami; Tim Hillman; Bruce Janson; Mark Reiner; Gregg Thomas

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

245

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production activities to the oil produced from associated...of production in the price environment...for transportation and heating should be...study (51%, higher heating value basis). 1 Olmstead...reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO 2 e) per Passenger-Mile-Traveled Bus Pickup SUV Sedan Idling Manufacture Tire Production Roadway Lighting

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

248

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT EMISSION: NOISE INVENTORY FOR THE SCINTILLATING PULSAR B0834+06  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare signal and noise for observations of the scintillating pulsar B0834+06, using very long baseline interferometry and a single-dish spectrometer. Comparisons between instruments and with models suggest that amplitude variations of the pulsar strongly affect the amount and distribution of self-noise. We show that noise follows a quadratic polynomial with flux density, in spectral observations. Constant coefficients, indicative of background noise, agree well with expectation; whereas second-order coefficients, indicative of self-noise, are {approx}3 times values expected for a pulsar with constant on-pulse flux density. We show that variations in flux density during the 10 s integration accounts for the discrepancy. In the secondary spectrum, {approx}97% of spectral power lies within the pulsar's typical scintillation bandwidth and timescale; an extended scintillation arc contains {approx}3%. For a pulsar with constant on-pulse flux density, noise in the dynamic spectrum will appear as a uniformly distributed background in the secondary spectrum. We find that this uniform noise background contains 95% of noise in the dynamic spectrum for interferometric observations; but only 35% of noise in the dynamic spectrum for single-dish observations. Receiver and sky dominate noise for our interferometric observations, whereas self-noise dominates for single-dish. We suggest that intermittent emission by the pulsar, on timescales <300 {mu}s, concentrates self-noise near the origin in the secondary spectrum, by correlating noise over the dynamic spectrum. We suggest that intermittency sets fundamental limits on pulsar astrometry or timing. Accounting of noise may provide means for detection of intermittent sources, when effects of propagation are unknown or impractical to invert.

Gwinn, C. R.; Johnson, M. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Smirnova, T. V. [Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of Lebedev Physical Institute, 142290 Pushchino (Russian Federation); Stinebring, D. R., E-mail: cgwinn@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: michaeltdh@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: tania@prao.ru, E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074 (United States)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generated by offshore wind farms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For wind power generation offshore sites offer significantly better wind conditions compared to onshore. At the same time, the demand for raw materials and therefore the related environmental impacts increase due to technically more demanding wind energy converters and additional components (e.g. substructure) for the balance of plant. Additionally, due to environmental concerns offshore wind farms will be sited farshore (i.e. in deep water) in the future having a significant impact on the operation and maintenance efforts (O&M). Against this background the goal of this analysis is an assessment of the specific GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions as a function of the site conditions, the wind mill technology and the O&M necessities. Therefore, a representative offshore wind farm is defined and subjected to a detailed LCA (life cycle assessment). Based on parameter variations and modifications within the technical and logistical system, promising configurations regarding GHG emissions are determined for different site conditions. Results show, that all parameters related to the energy yield have a distinctive impact on the specific GHG emissions, whereas the distance to shore and the water depth affect the results marginally. By utilizing the given improvement potentials GHG emissions of electricity from offshore wind farms are comparable to those achieved onshore.

Britta Reimers; Burcu Özdirik; Martin Kaltschmitt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Strategic planning for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in buildings requires an understanding of a Federal agency's buildings portfolio, including which programs, building types, and sites contribute the most to the agency's emissions. The data described in Table 1 below will support this type of analysis. It is recommended that this information be collected at the agency and program level. Programs refer to major operating units within the agency where there is a significant degree of autonomy in planning and decision-making. In many cases, the type of data required for portfolio planning may already be collected under various Federal and agency-specific reporting requirements.

253

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Buildings Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To identify the most cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies across a Federal agency's building portfolio, a Federal agency will need an understanding of building energy performance and the building characteristics that drive performance. The data required to support current Federal GHG reporting requirements (e.g., agency-wide fuel consumption, electricity use by zip code) are typically not sufficient to fully understand where the best opportunities for improvement are located. More detailed information about the building assets being managed-much of which may already be collected for other purposes-can help to inform where to direct investments.

254

Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\ Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten· Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld Image. EAGAR ABSTRACT. An experimental study was carried out to map the light emissions from a gas tungsten arc. The emissions were found to be dramat- ically different with different shielding gases, welding current and base

Eagar, Thomas W.

255

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses involving coal. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuel use and methane releases at coal mines, fuel.5 million metric tons of methane emissions. Close to 95% of domestic coal was consumed by the electricityUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

Jaramillo, Paulina

256

Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. (British Coal Corp., Glos (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. (European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom). Aero and Technology Products)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

Margorie Stockton

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS KATHARINE HAYHOE. Substitution of natural gas for coal is one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, natural of coal by natural gas are evaluated, and their modeled net effect on global mean-annual temperature

Jain, Atul K.

259

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications ... efficiency - gas turbine ?GT ... The studied uncertainties include, (1) uncertainty in emissions factors for petroleum substitutes, (2) uncertainties resulting from poor knowledge of the amt. of remaining conventional petroleum, and (3) uncertainties about the amt. of prodn. of petroleum substitutes from natural gas and coal feedstocks. ...

Joule A. Bergerson; Oyeshola Kofoworola; Alex D. Charpentier; Sylvia Sleep; Heather L. MacLean

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production ... Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. ... The results show which parameters have most influence on GHG emissions intensity and which are relatively unimportant. ...

Trevor Stephenson; Jose Eduardo Valle; Xavier Riera-Palou

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ... † Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. ...

Prem Lobo; Lucas Rye; Paul I. Williams; Simon Christie; Ilona Uryga-Bugajska; Christopher W. Wilson; Donald E. Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield; Simon Blakey; Hugh Coe; David Raper; Mohamed Pourkashanian

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

262

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quantitative analysis of factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions at institutions of higher education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States, emissions from buildings comprise 40% of energy consumption and carbon emissions, not including to have 10 times more effect on emissions per square meter than space such as classroom and office, while to the institution's own greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy and water conservation, and other sustainability

Illinois at Chicago, University of

266

Corporate greenhouse gas management in the context of emissions trading regimes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article analyses the impact greenhouse gas emissions trading (GHG-ET) regimes have on companies ... The main consequences of the European Union’s emissions trading scheme (which, albeit limited to CO2 emissio...

Ralf Antes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biomethane for Transport: Uncertainties and Allocation Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Employing a life-cycle assessment approach, this paper studies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from biomethane used as transportation fuel. It focuses on both GHG allocation methodologies and uncertainties regarding GHG emissions from biomethane. ...

V. Uusitalo; J. Havukainen; V. Kapustina; R. Soukka; M. Horttanainen

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After a Federal agency has collected detailed information about its vehicle inventory, fuel consumption, usage, mission, and alternative fuel availability, it can analyze the data to determine the most cost-effective options for petroleum reduction and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation.

269

Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

injected and stored in underground formations, or liquefied and stored in above ground tanks, during periods of low demand (e.g., summer), and withdrawn, processed, and...

270

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005. Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals2005. Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totalsother categories, such as combustion of biomass fuels in the

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and...

273

Emissions Inventory Report Summary Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds. For 1998, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72 Construction Permits.

Air Quality Group, ESH-17

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Mitigation policies for energy related greenhouse gas emissions in Cyprus: the potential role of natural gas imports  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the possibility of introducing mitigation policies for greenhouse gas emissions in isolated areas with limited availability of alternative energy sources. The Cypriot energy system has been considered as a reference case study and it is concluded that even for an isolated economy with very high rates of growth, enough options are available to reduce significantly greenhouse gas emissions and effectively contribute to sustainable environment. The conclusions of the study are based on analysis done with ENPEP, a hybrid model that employs a market-based simulation approach to project future energy supply/demand balances and the associated air emissions, as well as to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The study also shows that one of the best long-term strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Cyprus is the introduction of natural gas via a submerged gas pipeline to Syria.

S Mirasgedis; Y Sarafidis; E Georgopoulou; D.P Lalas; C Papastavros

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

276

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Business Travel Business Travel Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel October 7, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Once the key information has been compiled, a Federal agency should be well-positioned to address the following questions at the agency, program, or site level, as appropriate: What Proportion of Employees Travel? Developing an understanding of who is traveling will help to establish a more useful baseline and measure of progress than tracking change for all employees. An example of how this can better inform planning is shown in Figure 1. Looking only at the total trips and total employees at Agency ABC, the resulting metric is 2 trips per employee per year. However, because only 40% of employees at Agency ABC travel the average number of

277

Airborne observations of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) greenhouse gas inventory emission rate of 2.7 Ã? 1010 g CH4/yr is not accounted for in the CARB inventory. Citation: Peischl, J., et al. (2012), Airborne observations of methane California, which include livestock, landfills, wastewater treatment, oil and gas drilling and distribution

Cohen, Ronald C.

278

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Inventory...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols Read the Industrial Minerals Association - North America (IMA-NA) Borates and Soda Ash Sections Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol (PDF 75 KB) Download...

279

GEOS-CHEM ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS Table 1. Inventories general features. Use of optional inventories is set in the input.geos file.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X X X X X X X X X X BRAVO 1999 MEXICO X X X 2000 X X X X CH4, CO2 STREETS 2006 S.E. ASIA X X X X X X. for offline simulation GEIA 1985 global X X X X X X X X X X EDGAR 2000 global X X X SHIP 2000 global X X X CO2 Patch for California transport emissions from 2001 SHIP5 20006 global option Yearly, Monthly (SO2) v8

Jacob, Daniel J.

280

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factors for production of coal products -- patent fuel, cokeoven coke,coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and briquettes (BKB) --

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

283

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fleets, non-fleet vehicles, aircraft, ships, and mobile equipment contribute to a large percentage of the Federal government's comprehensive Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory.

284

Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid methane emissions...

285

Forecast and Control Methods of Landfill Emission Gas to Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main component of landfill gas is CH4, its release is a potential hazard to the environment. To understand the gas law and landfill gas production are the prerequisite for effective control of landfill gas. This paper selects three kinds of typical ... Keywords: Landfill gas, German model, IPCC model, Marticorena dynamic model

Wang Qi; Yang Meihua; Wang Jie

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Consumption-Based GHG Inventory for the U.S. State of Oregon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Consumption-Based GHG Inventory for the U.S. State of Oregon ... Many U.S. states conduct greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to inform their climate change planning efforts. ... Accordingly, a consumption-based perspective opens new opportunities for many states and their local government partners to reduce GHG emissions, such as initiatives to advance lower-carbon public sector or household consumption, that are well within their sphere of influence. ...

Peter Erickson; David Allaway; Michael Lazarus; Elizabeth A. Stanton

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit ... Chinese anthracite and bituminous coals produce different amounts of emissions when burned in a fire pit that simulates common rural household use of these fuels. ... Here we present emissions from burning 15 different fuels in a laboratory system designed to mimic the fire pits used in Xuan Wei County, China. ...

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

November 12-13, 2014 DOE's Natural Gas Modernization Initiative Christopher Freitas, Program Manager, Natural Gas Midstream Infrastructure R&D, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, U.S....

289

CLEAN Inventory | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CLEAN Inventory CLEAN Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Home | About | Inventory | Partnerships | Capacity Building | Webinars | Reports | Events | News | List Serve CLEAN Inventory There are a number of international efforts to provide assistance for the creation of low emission development plans and strategies including work on technology needs assessments (TNAs), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), low carbon growth plans and roadmaps. This user-generated inventory presents many of these assistance efforts occurring internationally. The inventory was developed to provide information on relevant activities and tools that can inform and support future work. The goals of this inventory activity are to avoid duplication of effort, to promote efficient use of resources, to assess assistance gaps and to

290

Development of correction factors for landfill gas emission model suiting Indian condition to predict methane emission from landfills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methane emission from landfill gas emission (LandGEM) model was validated through the results of laboratory scale biochemical methane potential assay. Results showed that LandGEM model over estimates methane (CH4) emissions; and the true CH4 potential of waste depends on the level of segregation. Based on these findings, correction factors were developed to estimate CH4 emission using LandGEM model especially where the level of segregation is negligible or does not exist. The correction factors obtained from the study were 0.94, 0.13 and 0.74 for food waste, mixed un-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and vegetable wastes, respectively.

Avick Sil; Sunil Kumar; Jonathan W.C. Wong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy The United States is now the world's largest producer of natural gas. This natural gas revolution is driving economic growth across the country,...

292

The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2 emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall electricity use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013–55 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable electricity, abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

Christine Shearer; John Bistline; Mason Inman; Steven J Davis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of greenhouse gas (N 2 O and CO...Greenhouse gas emissions from...prospect of coal-fired power generation energy-saving...m-3 natural gas, and 0.08...electricity generation using coal, hydro, and nuclear power in China and...

Wei-feng Zhang; Zheng-xia Dou; Pan He; Xiao-Tang Ju; David Powlson; Dave Chadwick; David Norse; Yue-Lai Lu; Ying Zhang; Liang Wu; Xin-Ping Chen; Kenneth G. Cassman; Fu-Suo Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scenarios) k. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)fuels via pyrolysis, gasification, and biochemicalAnalysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

b. Biomass c. Geothermal d. Small hydro e. Central PV f.Large hydro f. Biomass g. Small hydro h. Other renewables i.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accessed 28 June 2013. NETL, 2010a, Life Cycle Analysis:September 30, Report number DOE/NETL-403-110209, http://Accessed August 13, 2013. NETL, 2010b, Life Cycle Analysis:

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of-state fuel consumption was estimated for marine OGV. Themarine OGV electricity use in 2020 (IEPR: Kavalec, 2013) 3. FuelsIn-state jet fuel b. Aviation gasoline 3. Marine ocean-going

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Event:11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading 1th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png 11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading: on 2011/10/03 "The IEA-IETA-EPRI Emissions Trading Workshop has been held annually at the headquarters of the International Energy Agency since 2000. This international workshop focuses on developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading around the world at the international, national and sub-national level. The 2011 workshop will cover topics relevant to the development of global, national and sub-national carbon markets, including scaled-up and new market mechanisms, NAMAs and sectoral crediting policies, MRV and international GHG accounting and 2nd-best trading programmes. As in previous years, the workshop will assemble representatives from government,

299

Event:11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png 11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading: on 2011/10/04 "The IEA-IETA-EPRI Emissions Trading Workshop has been held annually at the headquarters of the International Energy Agency since 2000. This international workshop focuses on developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading around the world at the international, national and sub-national level. The 2011 workshop will cover topics relevant to the development of global, national and sub-national carbon markets, including scaled-up and new market mechanisms, NAMAs and sectoral crediting policies, MRV and international GHG accounting and 2nd-best trading programmes. As in previous years, the workshop will assemble representatives from government,

300

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reply to comment on “Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...Petron G ( 2012a ) Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...Comment on “Hydrocarbon emissions characterization...emissions of methane from combustion or even from tanks...87% (6); HC = heat content of natural...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Europe — A pioneer in greenhouse gas emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decision on the EU directive for emissions trading in June 2003 makes Europe a pioneer ... . The timetable for the enforcement of the emissions trading directive at the national level seems very...

Sonja Butzengeiger; Axel Michaelowa

302

Emissions and fuel economy of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas dual fuelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder turbocharged prechamber diesel engine (Caterpillar 3304) was operated with natural gas and pilot diesel fuel ignition over a wide range of load and speed. Measurements were made of fuel consumption and the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and the oxides of nitrogen. Improvements in fuel economy and emissions were found to be affected by the diesel fuel-gas fraction, and by air restriction and fuel injection timing. Boundaries of unstable, inefficient and knocking operation were defined and the importance of gas-air equivalance ratio was demonstrated in its effect on economy, emissions and stability of operation.

Ding, X.; Hill, P.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 16 (2013) 129144 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc Comparative lifecycle inventory (LCI) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods inventory (LCI) to compare the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emis- sions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR oil recovery CCS Biomass IGCC NGCC Carbon credits a b s t r a c t This study uses a process lifecycle

Jaramillo, Paulina

306

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, {open_quotes}Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchange{close_quotes}. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate.

DeMuth, S.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Inventory of non-CO2 GHG and first estimates of emissions of New Gases in Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the First (1995) and the Second (1998) Russian National Communications to the UNFCCC, estimates of CO2 and non-CO2 emissions for the 1990 and 1994 were presented. Total emissions of CH4 decreased from 557 Mt C...

A. O. Kokorin; A. I. Nakhutin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Tracer method to measure landfill gas emissions from leachate collection systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a method developed for quantification of gas emissions from the leachate collection system at landfills and present emission data measured at two Danish landfills with no landfill gas collection systems in place: Fakse landfill and AV Miljø. Landfill top covers are often designed to prevent infiltration of water and thus are made from low permeable materials. At such sites a large part of the gas will often emit through other pathways such as the leachate collection system. These point releases of gaseous constituents from these locations cannot be measured using traditional flux chambers, which are often used to measure gas emissions from landfills. Comparing tracer measurements of methane (CH4) emissions from leachate systems at Fakse landfill and AV Miljø to measurements of total CH4 emissions, it was found that approximately 47% (351 kg CH4 d?1) and 27% (211 kg CH4 d?1), respectively, of the CH4 emitting from the sites occurred from the leachate collection systems. Emission rates observed from individual leachate collection wells at the two landfills ranged from 0.1 to 76 kg CH4 d?1. A strong influence on emission rates caused by rise and fall in atmospheric pressure was observed when continuously measuring emission from a leachate well over a week. Emission of CH4 was one to two orders of magnitude higher during periods of decreasing pressure compared to periods of increasing pressure.

Anders M. Fredenslund; Charlotte Scheutz; Peter Kjeldsen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

An Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on a Chip Applied as a Molecular Emission Detector in Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A micromachined plasma chip has been developed. To investigate its performance as an optical emission detector it is coupled to a conventional gas chromatograph (GC). In the plasma chamber of 180 nL volume a d...

Jan C. T. Eijkel; Herbert Stoeri; Andreas Manz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

2012 The report ranks the energy use, energy losses, and energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 15 sectors. These sectors collectively account for 94% of all energy use...

312

Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

Martini, Bastien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assessing the Effect of Mercury Emissions from Contaminated Soil at Natural Gas Gate Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of mercury emissions from contaminated soil at natural gas distribution stations is presented. The effects were estimated as part of a risk assessment that included inhalation and multimedia exposure pathways. The purpose of the paper ...

A. Roffman; K. Macoskey; R. P. Shervill

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Evaluation of Freight Truck Anti-Idling Strategies for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??It is important to identify ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to combat climate change. Freight trucks emit 5.5 percent of U.S.… (more)

Kuo, Po-Yao

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cost-Effective Abatement of Acidifying Emissions with Flue Gas Cleaning Vs. Fuel Switching in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acidifying emissions from energy production and industry have decreased considerably during the...e.g. flue gas desulphurization. In this study the Finnish cost curves for SO2 and NOx...were first calculated to p...

N. Karvosenoja; P. Hillukkala; M. Johansson; S. Syril

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest...2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and...2..., is one...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Making: Transportation and Electricity GHG Tradeoffs 5.1generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GHG emissions of aresults for SolFocus . . . SolFocus GHG breakdown using CEDA

Reich-Weiser, Corinne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Management of Fleet Inventory  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

In fulfillment of Executive Order 13514, DOE began a 3-year, 3-phase strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease petroleum use.

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Agency for International Development Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Guide/manual, Training materials Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghginventorycapacitybuilding/templ National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems Screenshot References: National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems[1]

320

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The influence of fuel composition on the combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As global energy demand rises, natural gas (NG) plays an important strategic role in energy supply. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel that has been investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the research on the effects of natural gas composition on combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) and reports the most achievements obtained by researchers in this field. It has been reported that the engine performance and emission are greatly affected by varying compositions of natural gas. The most important NG fuel property is the Wobbe number (WN). Generally, it was agreed by researchers that the fuels with higher hydrocarbons, higher WN, and higher energy content exhibited better fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were also increased for gases with higher levels of higher WN, while total hydrocarbons (THCs), carbon monoxide (CO), showed some reductions for these gases. On the other hand, particulate matter (PM) emissions did not show any fuel effects. Moreover, adding of small fractions of higher alkanes, such as ethane and propane, significantly improved ignition qualities of natural gas engines. The results presented provide a good insight for researchers to pursue their future research on natural gas fueled ICEs.

Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Amin Paykani; Mostafa Ghajar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Land Use Change from Jatropha Curcas-Based Jet Fuel in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Land Use Change from Jatropha Curcas-Based Jet Fuel in Brazil ... Life cycle GHG emissions of biojet fuel derived from Jatropha curcas is quantified based on empirical data from Brazilian producers accounting for land-use change. ... This is the methodology adopted by the European Community in its current Renewable Energy Directive (40). ...

Robert E. Bailis; Jennifer E. Baka

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

XBRL Taxonomy for Estimating the Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Corporate Financial Positions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Companies around the world are increasingly expected to report their greenhouse gas emissions. Currently there are various formulas to calculate emissions, and there are different reporting formats. Most of the reporting formats are paper-based or non-readable-by-machine ... Keywords: Business Data Processing, Data Integration, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Reporting, Finance, Information Systems, XML

Fumiko Satoh

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia Jump to: navigation, search Name Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Policies/deployment programs Program End 2015 Country Tunisia Northern Africa References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1] Program Overview Tunisia has developed NAMA approaches; however, robust systems by which to measure, report and verify (MRV) these measures are still lacking. The project supports the establishment of a comprehensive national MRV system for mitigation measures including greenhouse gas monitoring. This will be

325

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and transportation efficiency. Due to economic efficiency Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines typically do not operate at their optimum design condition. So, most...

326

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey.

327

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On December 18, 2014, CEQ released revised draft guidance for public comment that describes how Federal departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised draft guidance supersedes the draft greenhouse gas and climate change guidance released by CEQ in February 2010.

328

Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Similarly, some authors have used the Kaya identity,(20) which decomposes the change in global or regional emissions into four factors: population, GDP per capita, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy. ... That is, more people and more consumption per person have pushed the demand for final goods and services upward affecting production and global GHG emissions. ... Further reductions in GHG emissions through technological change seem possible, especially in terms of energy efficiency and a shift to cleaner energies,(35) and in particular industries such as power generation and in transport. ...

Iñaki Arto; Erik Dietzenbacher

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

330

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of Background Emissivity on Gas Detection in Thermal Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temper- ature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on net chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume’s physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity have inhibiting effects on the net chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the Adaptive Matched Filter using four chemicals and three distinct background emissivities. Two chemicals (Carbontetrachloride and Tetraflourosilane) in the analysis had a very strong relationship with the background emissivities: they exhibited absorbance over a small range of wavenumbers and the background emissivities showed a consistent ordering at these wavenumbers. Analysis of simulated hyperspectral images containing these chemicals showed complete agreement with the analysis of the physics-based model that described when the background emissivities would have inhibiting effects on gas detection. The other chemicals considered (Ammonia and Tributylphosphate) exhibited very complex absorbance structure across the longwave infrared spectrum. Analysis of images containing these chemicals revealed that the the analysis of the physics-based model did not hold completely for these complex chemicals but did suggest that gas detection was dominated by their dominant absorbance features. These results provide some explanation of the effect of the background emissivity on gas detection and a more general exploration of gas absorbance/background emissivity variability and their effects on gas detection is warranted. i

Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence K.; Metoyer, Candace N.

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

Analysis of emission right prices in greenhouse gas emission trading via agent-based model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a participant nation model for international emission trading; adaptive agents are used to explore the conditions under which an emission trading market is successful. In this study, the participation nation models with and without ... Keywords: Agent-Based Modeling, Compliance Mechanism, Emissions Trading, Kyoto Protocol, Reinforcement Learning

Tomohiro Nakada; Keiki Takadama; Shigeyoshi Watanabe

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both corn and cellulosic ethanol will inform the on-going debate concerning their magnitudes and

334

Greenhouse gas emissions investigation for towns in China: a case study of Xiaolan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The majority of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China are energy-related. Thus, full understanding of energy-related GHG emissions is crucial for local governments to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends and developing mitigation strategies. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emission accounting method for sectoral energy consumption and apply it in Xiaolan, a typical town of Zhongshan. The method combines scope and sectoral analyses on the basis of local statistical approach, and pays more attention to data collection process. Scenarios of core findings in the study are list as below: (1) The energy-related GHG emissions of Xiaolan in 2010 was 2,072,444 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). Of this, 31.83% was Scope 1 emissions (direct emissions) and 68.17% was Scope 2 emissions (indirect emissions); (2) Emissions from “manufacturing”, “residents”, and “power, gas & water production and supply” made up 90.27%, among which, “manufacturing” represents the biggest emitting sector as 69.09%; (3) In 2010, the per capita GHG emissions was lower than that in most of the other Chinese cities, but higher than several Asian cities including Amman and Tokyo. Some strategic approaches to reduce GHG emissions were proposed: (1) save energy and improve energy efficiency; (2) optimize energy structure and develop low-carbon energy; (3) update manufacturing structure; (4) improve GHG emission management for the resident sector. Finally, we identified a number of key research issues to advance the town level GHG emission method for future research needs. This paper provides a useful method to understand and profile GHG emissions for towns.

Chao Feng; Xuenong Gao; Jie Wu; Yuting Tang; Junfei He; Yaqing Qi; Yuansheng Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

Andersen, J.K., E-mail: jka@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1015325 Final Report, July 2007 Each of the ... scenarios showed significant Greenhouse Gas reductions due to PHEV fleet penetration ... ... PHEVs adoption results in significant reduction in the consumption of petroleum fuels. ' ' DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING

338

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ronald E. Hagen, John R. Moens, and Zdenek D. Nikodem Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, Austria November 6-9, 2001 iii Energy Information Administration/ Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contents Page I. The Electric Power Industry and the Greenhouse Gas Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. The Current Role of the U.S. Nuclear Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 III. The Future Role of the U.S. Nuclear Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IV. Factors That Affect Nuclear Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 V. Conclusion

339

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Services Services FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: * FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. * FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. * FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. * As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing

340

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services Services FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: * FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. * FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. * FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. * As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Regional Inventories  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: This year has not started well for gasoline inventories, with inventories being low across regions of the country. The Midwest region (PADD II) had been running lower than most regions, but began to catch up during the last week in April. Gasoline inventories ran about 9% below their 5-year average for this time of year and about 4% below where they were last year. The recent refinery problems in the Midwest, though, could erase some of that recovery. The impacts of Tosco's Wood River refinery and Marathon's St Paul refinery are not fully realized. But inventories were also precariously low along the East Coast (PADD I) and are extremely low in the Rocky Mountain region (PADD IV), although the size of this market mitigates any national impact. While the

344

PIPELINE INVENTORIES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inventory that are in the transportation network, the distribution system, and intermediate stocking points are called . The higher the time for the materials to move through the pipeline the larger the pipel...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Title On-Road Measurement of Gas and Particle Phase Pollutant Emission Factors for Individual Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Dallmann, Timothy R., Steven J. DeMartini, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Scott C. Herndon, Timothy B. Onasch, Ezra C. Wood, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 46 Issue 15 Pagination 8511-8518 Abstract Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO2 emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO2 and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO2 were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.

346

Emission characteristics of GTL fuel as an alternative to conventional marine gas oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study examine the gaseous, smoke and particulate matter emission characteristics of a turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine operated on conventional marine gas oil and gas-to-liquid Fischer–Tropsch fuel under modes of propulsion and generator operation. The gas-to-liquid showed average reductions up to 19% in nitrogen oxides, 25% in carbon monoxide, 4% in carbon dioxide and 30% in smoke with slight increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Particulate number concentrations for gas-to-liquid were up to 21% higher, whereas particulates mass showed a 16% decrease at medium and high loads, while increasing by 12–15% under lower load conditions. Very low aromatic content of gas-to-liquid fuel and nearly zero sulfur level are responsible for particulate reduction.

Sergey Ushakov; Nadine G.M. Halvorsen; Harald Valland; Dag H. Williksen; Vilmar Æsøy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

GAS EXCITATION IN ULIRGs: MAPS OF DIAGNOSTIC EMISSION-LINE RATIOS IN SPACE AND VELOCITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission-line spectra extracted at multiple locations across 39 ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been compiled into a spectrophotometric atlas. Line profiles of H{alpha}, [N II], [S II], [O I], H{beta}, and [O III] are resolved and fit jointly with common velocity components. Diagnostic ratios of these line fluxes are presented in a series of plots, showing how the Doppler shift, line width, gas excitation, and surface brightness change with velocity at fixed position and also with distance from the nucleus. One general characteristic of these spectra is the presence of shocked gas extending many kiloparsecs from the nucleus. In some systems, the rotation curves of the emitting gas indicate motions that suggest gas disks, which are most frequent at early merger stages. At these early merger stages, the emission line ratios indicate the presence of shocked gas, which may be triggered by the merger event. We also report the general characteristics of the integrated spectra.

Soto, Kurt T.; Martin, Crystal L. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...warming potential (GWP) for methane (28). In addition, we perform...GWP Power plant efficiency (HHV) Coproduct allocation EUR (bcf) CH...Description of published methane emission rates and the harmonization...to all GHG emissions except methane leakage, e.g., CO 2 emissions...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links for the  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages contain hypertext links to information created and maintained by other public and private organizations. These links provide additional information that may be useful or interesting and are being provided consistent with the intended purpose of the EIA website. EIA does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. EIA does not endorse the organizations sponsoring linked websites, the views they express, or the products and services they offer. Government Agencies / Associations Energy Information Administration - Annual Energy Outlook: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at 14 percent

350

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, there remains substantial disagreement around the effectiveness, cost, and unintended economic and ecological consequences of GHG reduction policies. ... In calculating emissions from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we assumed that 50% of the vehicle miles traveled would be powered with electricity, and 50% with motor gasoline (18). ...

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

High-pressure reaction and emissions characteristics of catalytic reactors for gas turbine combustors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reaction and emissions characteristics of catalytic reactors comprising noble metal catalysts were investigated using homogeneous mixtures of natural gas and vitiated air at pressures up to 2.9 MPa. The mixture temperatures at inlet ranged from 500 to 700°C and the fuel-air ratio was increased till the exit gas temperature reached about 1200°C. Values of combustion efficiency greater than 99.5% and nitrogen oxides emissions for all catalytic reactors tested were less than 0.2 g NO2/kg fuel (2 ppm (15% 02) ) for all reactors at reactor exit gas temperatures higher than about 1100°C. Combustion efficiency decreased with increasing pressure in the heterogeneous-reaction controlled region, though a pressure increase favored homogeneous, gas phase reactions. Appreciable reactivity deterioration by aging for 1000 h at 1000°C was observed at lower mixture temperatures. A two-stage combustor comprising a conventional flame combustion stage and a catalytic stage was fabricated and its NO,x emissions and performance were evaluated at conditions typical of stationary gas turbine combustor operations. About 80% reduction in NO,x emissions levels compared with flame combustion was attained at 1 \\{MPa\\} pressure and 1180°C exit gas temperature, together with complete hydrocarbon combustion.

S. Hayashi; H. Yamada; K. Shimodaira

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.epa.gov/climateleaders/index.html Cost: Free The EPA Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) is designed to develop an annual GHG inventory based on the EPA Climate Leaders Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol. Overview The EPA Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) is designed to develop

354

Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Data analysis from this study will provide insight into real-world performance of current emissions reduction devices, under various operating conditions, and with respect to greenhouse gas emissions.

355

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

356

2D representation of life cycle greenhouse gas emission and life cycle cost of energy conversion for various energy resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We suggest a 2D-plot representation combined with life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle cost for various energy conversion technologies. In general, life cycle ... use life cycle GHG emissions ...

Heetae Kim; Claudio Tenreiro; Tae Kyu Ahn

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

OY Car During Normal Outburst: Balmer Emission From The Red Star And The Gas Stream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present observations of OY Car, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope, during a normal outburst in August 1991. Two sinusoidal components are resolved in the H$\\beta$ trailed spectra and we determine the location of the narrow component to be on the secondary star with a maximum contributed flux of ~2.5 per cent to the total flux. Imaging of the line distribution reveals that the other emission component is associated with the gas stream. This follows a velocity close to the ballistic one from the red star to a distance of ~0.5 R$_{L_{1}}$ from the white dwarf. This emission penetrates the accretion disc (from 0.5--0.1 R$_{L_{1}}$), with a velocity now closer (but lower) to the keplerian velocities along the path of the gas stream. We finally discuss the implications of having observed simultaneously line emission from the gas stream and the red star during outburst.

E. T. Harlaftis; T. R. Marsh

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

359

Design, Fabrication, and Application of a Dynamic Chamber for Measuring Gas Emissions from Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the emission of trace gases and VOCs from soils to the atmosphere is essential for studying the behavior of gas movement and its fate in the subsurface, for evaluating existing theories and models of trace gas and VOC emissions, for estimating masses of trace gases and VOCs emitted into the atmosphere, and thus, for assessing the effects of such emissions upon the environment. ... (6) The outside surface of the chamber should be able to reflect solar radiation so that the radiant heating or the “greenhouse” effect can be effectively reduced. ... This flow rate was monitored every 1 s using a turbine-wheel gas flow sensor (McMillan Co., Georgetown, TX), averaged over a 5-min interval and recorded by an on-site computer. ...

Fang Gao; S. R. Yates; M. V. Yates; Jianying Gan; F. F. Ernst

1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

360

CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.59 tonnes of CO2 will need to be eliminated in order to reduce the projected total carbon emissions of 2020 in carpooling, and the implementation of SkyTrain with increased carpooling. From literature the carbon intensity of cars, conventional and trolley buses, and SkyTrains are found to be 286.0 g/CO2, 1752.0 g/CO2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Compilation and Application of Japanese Inventories for Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Using Input?Output Tables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan ... Next, for each of the 400 sectors (the 399 sectors of the consolidated Input?Output Table plus the “consumption expenditure of households” sector, which is one of the final demand sectors), various statistics and source materials were used to estimate gross consumptions, expressed as a physical amount for each sector, of 6 coal-based fuels, 12 petroleum-based fuels, 3 natural gas-based fuels, and 5 other fuels. ... LPG. LPG for automobile and household use is more expensive than that used by industry, because of its higher tax rate and less efficient mode of supply. ...

Keisuke Nansai; Yuichi Moriguchi; Susumu Tohno

2003-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

362

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions using various thermal systems in a landfill site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from an uncontrolled landfill site filled with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are compared with those from controlled sites in which collected Landfill Gases (LFG) are utilised by various technologies. These technologies include flaring, conventional electricity generation technologies such as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Gas Turbine (GT) and an emerging technology, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The results show that SOFC is the best option for reducing the GHG emissions among the studied technologies. In the case when SOFC is used, GHG emissions from the controlled site are reduced by 63% compared to the uncontrolled site. This case has a specific lifetime GHG emission of 2.38 tonnes CO2 .eq/MWh when only electricity is produced and 1.12 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh for a cogeneration application.

C. Ozgur Colpan; Ibrahim Dincer; Feridun Hamdullahpur

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation : the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and policy-making in Panama.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The Framework Convention on Climate Change has yet to deal with tropical deforestation although it represents an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. In December… (more)

Guay, Bruno.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Performance and emission characteristics of natural gas combined cycle power generation system with steam injection and oxyfuel combustion.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Natural gas combined cycle power generation systems are gaining popularity due to their high power generation efficiency and reduced emission. In the present work, combined… (more)

Varia, Nitin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

366

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) hosted a workshop, November 12-13, 2014, in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, as a follow-up to the President’s Climate Action Plan and the DOE meeting series on reducing methane emissions from natural gas pipeline systems. The workshop is part of the larger Administration Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions associated with natural gas transmission and distribution infrastructure.

367

Technology Makes Solid State Multi-Gas Emission Monitoring Possible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

single crystal thallium arsenic se1enide (TAS) on a production basis has made it possible to buLld an electronically controlled acousto ,-,ptie tunable filter (AOTF) capable of operating in the infrared. Such a filter with integral .11 t rasonic... trifnsduce r can be used in place of Inechanica1 filter wheels, spinning gas cells, moving mirrors, diffraction gratings and mechanical light choppers. The TAS AOTF produces an electronically controllable narrow banel infrared filter capable of being...

Nelson, R. L.

368

Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...non-CO 2 greenhouse gases (SI Text...valued at exporter prices. In contrast...Republic, and Egypt are among...economies with limited natural resources...National Greenhouse Gas Inventories ( IPCC WGI...Climate, and the Natural World , Socioeconomic...of greenhouse gas emission responsibilities...

Steven J. Davis; Ken Caldeira

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the United States began a programme to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types—categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly—from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

Michael Wang; May Wu; Hong Huo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

EM Rolls Ahead of DOE Goals to Trim Vehicle Fleet Inventory | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rolls Ahead of DOE Goals to Trim Vehicle Fleet Inventory Rolls Ahead of DOE Goals to Trim Vehicle Fleet Inventory EM Rolls Ahead of DOE Goals to Trim Vehicle Fleet Inventory March 12, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers use this mobile survey vehicle in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work at the Hanford site to survey remediated areas for radiological contamination. Workers use this mobile survey vehicle in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work at the Hanford site to survey remediated areas for radiological contamination. WASHINGTON, D.C. - EM exceeded a DOE goal to reduce its vehicle fleet inventory, advancing the Department's broader initiative to cut greenhouse gas emissions and decrease petroleum consumption across the complex. With a 45 percent cut to its fleet in fiscal year 2012, EM beat the Department's goal of a 35 percent drop by fiscal year 2013 a year early.

374

Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV Jump to: navigation, search Name Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Policies/deployment programs Program End 2015 Country Tunisia Northern Africa References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1] Program Overview Tunisia has developed NAMA approaches; however, robust systems by which to measure, report and verify (MRV) these measures are still lacking. The project supports the establishment of a comprehensive national MRV system

375

Long term performance of 137 stack gas continuous emission monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance data were obtained on 137 monitors representing a total operating time of 1,600,000 hours. The monitors were classified as follows: 74 NO/sub x/, 37 SO/sub 2/, 7 combination NO/sub x//SO/sub 2/, 8 O/sub 2/, and 11 opacity. Results show that data processor failure accounted for 84% of O/sub 2/, 74% of the opacity, and 61% of the combination SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ continuous emission monitor malfunctions. Each of these three types of moniters had the same average malfunction time (17 hours). Data from one source, a refinery, estimated operation, calibration, and maintenance costs to be $70,000/yr/monitor. (JMT)

Hebert, R.P. (Scott Environmental Tech., Inc., San Bernardino, CA); Mitchell, W.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rock allow for the release and collection of the natural gas. Fracking can be done in vertical or horizontal wells. Liquids...methods to increase gas flows, such as mechanical or chemical fracking, is often required before the wells are able to produce commercial...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...collection of the natural gas. Fracking can be done in vertical...as mechanical or chemical fracking, is often required...C (2011) The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas...Subgroup of the Operations and Environment Task Group of the National...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Sound emission from the gas of molecular superrotors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use an optical centrifuge to deposit a controllable amount of rotational energy into dense molecular ensembles. Subsequent rotation-translation energy transfer, mediated by thermal collisions, results in the localized heating of the gas and generates strong sound wave, clearly audible to the unaided ear. For the first time, the amplitude of the sound signal is analyzed as a function of the experimentally measured rotational energy. The proportionality between the two experimental observables confirms that rotational excitation is the main source of the detected sound wave. As virtually all molecules, including the main constituents of the atmosphere, are amenable to laser spinning by the centrifuge, we anticipate this work to stimulate further development in the area of photo-acoustic control and spectroscopy.

Milner, A A; Milner, V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...emissions of utility-scale wind power: Systematic review...workover can refer to well maintenance without hydraulic fracturing...compressor blowdowns Engines/turbines Hydraulic fracturing* Pneumatic...recompletion* Engines/turbines Compressors and compressor...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity Title The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2012 Authors Williams, James H., Andrew DeBenedictis, Rebecca Ghanadan, Amber Mahone, Jack Moore, William R. Morrow, Snuller Price, and Margaret S. Torn Journal Science Volume 335 Start Page 53 Issue 6064 Pagination 53-59 Date Published 01/2012 Abstract Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ARTICLE IN PRESS Modeling hydrogen sulfide emissions across the gas liquid interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production methods in the US have led to the emergence of large- scale commeARTICLE IN PRESS Modeling hydrogen sulfide emissions across the gas­ liquid interface-film theory Hydrogen sulfide Process-based model Lagoon flux Mass transfer a b s t r a c t Hydrogen sulfide (H

Aneja, Viney P.

382

Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

McCarl, Bruce A.

383

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Significant changes in agency size and operations can impact future energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at an agency, program, and worksite level. It is recommended that agencies estimate the impact of the following types of changes may have on energy demand.

384

Project Information Form Project Title Reduction of Lifecycle Green House Gas Emissions From Road  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Information Form Project Title Reduction of Lifecycle Green House Gas Emissions From Road@ucdavis.edu Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) US DOT $30,000 Total Project Cost Brief Description of Research Project This white paper will summarize the state of knowledge and state

California at Davis, University of

385

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Consumption of Electric and Electronic Equipment by Norwegian Households  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Consumption of Electric and Electronic Equipment by Norwegian Households ... Conventional wisdom holds that large appliances, in particular washers, dryers, refrigerators and freezers, dominate residential energy consumption apart from heat, hot water and light. ... (16) It excludes lighting, all professional equipment, space heating, hot water, garden or car equipment, fire alarms, and air conditioning. ...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Charlotte Roux

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Assess Potential Changes in Business Travel that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For a Federal agency, changes in the demand for business travel can be difficult to predict. Changes in the nature of the agency's work may have a substantial impact on the demand for business travel. It is therefore important to account for these changes when planning for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction.

387

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The report ranks the energy use, energy losses, and energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 15 sectors. These sectors collectively account for 94% of all energy use in manufacturing. In addition, in-depth profiles of energy flows are available for U.S. manufacturing as a whole and for the five largest energy-consuming sectors.

388

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use Transportation Institute Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77843-3135 Phone (979) 845-9551 FAX (979&M University College Station, TX 77843-3136 Phone (979) 845-9962 FAX (979) 845-0278 d-saylak@tamu.edu #12

389

Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emission Testing of Washington Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Prepared under Task No. FC05-9000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

390

OY Car in Outburst: Balmer emission from the red star and the gas stream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present observations of OY Car, obtained with the Anglo-Australian telescope, during a normal outburst in 1991. Two sinusoidal components are resolved in the Hbeta trailed spectra and we determine the location of the narrow component to be on the secondary star with a maximum contributed flux of ~2.5 per cent to the total flux. Imaging of the line distribution reveals that the other emission component is associated with the gas stream. This follows a velocity close to the ballistic one from the red star to a distance of ~0.5 R_L1 from the white dwarf. Then. its kinematics changes from 0.5-0.2 R_L1 (accretion disc) following velocities now closer to (but lower than) the keplerian velocities along the path of the gas stream. We finally dicsuss the implications of having observed simultaneously line emission from the gas stream and the red star during outburst.

E. T. Harlaftis; T. R. Marsh

1995-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Open-Source LCA Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Crude Oil Production Using Field Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Open-Source LCA Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Crude Oil Production Using Field Characteristics ... OPGEE models oil production emissions in more detail than previous transport LCA models. ... El-Houjeiri, H. and Brandt, A.Exploring the variation of GHG emissions from conventional oil production using an engineering-based LCA model. ...

Hassan M. El-Houjeiri; Adam R. Brandt; James E. Duffy

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

Zhou, Yaoqi

394

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European 2008 Abstract Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European

395

STATUS OF SCOPING PLAN RECOMMENDED MEASURES The estimated 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions for measures described in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATUS OF SCOPING PLAN RECOMMENDED MEASURES The estimated 2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. These regulations, which reflect ARB's progress towards reducing statewide GHG emissions, include comprehensive through the use of an updated GHG emission forecast. The updated forecast was developed using average

396

Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic agriculture is often considered to contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, also on a per unit product basis. For energy, this is supported by a large number of studies, but the body of evidence for \\{GHGs\\} is smaller. Dutch agriculture is characterized by relatively intensive land use in both organic and conventional farming, which may affect their performance in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. This paper presents results of a model study on energy use and GHG emissions in Dutch organic and conventional farming systems. Energy use per unit milk in organic dairy is approximately 25% lower than in conventional dairy, while GHG emissions are 5-10% lower. Contrary to dairy farming, energy use and GHG emissions in organic crop production are higher than in conventional crop production. Energy use in organic arable farming is 10-30% and in organic vegetable farming 40-50% higher than in their respective conventional counterparts. GHG emissions in organic arable and vegetable farming are 0-15% and 35-40% higher, respectively. Our results correspond with other studies for dairy farming, but not for crop production. The most likely cause for higher energy use and GHG emissions in Dutch organic crop production is its high intensity level, which is expressed in crop rotations with a large share of high-value crops, relatively high fertiliser inputs and frequent field operations related to weeding.

Jules F.F.P. Bos; Janjo de Haan; Wijnand Sukkel; René L.M. Schils

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Application of a Rapid Scanning Plasma Emission Detector and Gas Chromatography for Multi-Element Quantification of Halogenated Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Emission Detector and Gas Chromatography for...element-selective detector for gas chromatography...their insolubility in water, they accumulate...usually quantified by gas chromatographic separation...carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. This element selective...because of the moderate solubility of this compound......

Mantay Zerezghi; K.J. Mulligan; J.A. Caruso

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

CO2 emission reduction from natural gas power stations using a precipitating solvent absorption process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been a rapid increase in the use of natural gas for power generation based on gas turbine technology which elevates the importance of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology to reduce CO2 emissions from gas turbine based power stations. The low content of CO2 in the gas turbine exhaust results in low rates of CO2 absorption and larger absorption equipment when compared to studies done on coal fired power stations. Furthermore the high oxygen (O2) content in the exhaust gas adversely affects the solvent stability, particularly for the traditional amine based solvents. This paper describes how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) along with CO2CRC's low cost “UNO MK 3” precipitating potassium carbonate (K2CO3) process can overcome the challenges of CO2 capture from gas turbine power stations. To further bring down the energy requirements of the capture process, heat integration of the UNO MK 3 process with power generation process is carried out. An economic analysis of the various retrofit options is performed. The current study shows that in the case of retrofitting the UNO MK 3 process to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), the use of EGR can reduce the energy penalty of CO2 capture by 15%, whilst a reduction of up to 25% can be achieved with the heat integration strategies described. Significantly the study shows that converting an existing open cycle gas turbine (OCGT) to a combined cycle with steam generation along with retrofitting CO2 capture presents a different steam cycle design for the maximum power output from the combined cycle with CO2 capture. Such a conversion actually produces more power and offers an alternative low emission retrofit pathway for gas fired power. Cost analysis shows that inclusion of the UNO MK 3 CO2 capture process with EGR to an existing NGCC is expected to increase the cost of electricity (COE) by 20%. However, retrofit/repowering of an underutilised or peaking OCGT station with the inclusion of CO2 capture can reduce the COE as well as produce low emission power. This is achieved by increasing the load factor and incorporating a purpose built steam generation cycle.

Jai Kant Pandit; Trent Harkin; Clare Anderson; Minh Ho; Dianne Wiley; Barry Hooper

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Passive landfill gas emission – Influence of atmospheric pressure and implications for the operation of methane-oxidising biofilters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A passively vented landfill site in Northern Germany was monitored for gas emission dynamics through high resolution measurements of landfill gas pressure, flow rate and composition as well as atmospheric pressure and temperature. Landfill gas emission could be directly related to atmospheric pressure changes on all scales as induced by the autooscillation of air, diurnal variations and the passage of pressure highs and lows. Gas flux reversed every 20 h on average, with 50% of emission phases lasting only 10 h or less. During gas emission phases, methane loads fed to a connected methane oxidising biofiltration unit varied between near zero and 247 g CH4 h?1 m?3 filter material. Emission dynamics not only influenced the amount of methane fed to the biofilter but also the establishment of gas composition profiles within the biofilter, thus being of high relevance for biofilter operation. The duration of the gas emission phase emerged as most significant variable for the distribution of landfill gas components within the biofilter.

Julia Gebert; Alexander Groengroeft

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from symbols, and light trucks by large. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity (kg/mi), urban driving cycleLowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross

Edwards, Paul N.

403

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols The Magnesium Industry Partnership's SF6 emissions tracking and reporting software tool (Excel based) can be accessed by visiting the Partnership's...

404

Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Domestic Anaerobic Digesters Linked with Sustainable Sanitation in Rural China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Domestic Anaerobic Digesters Linked with Sustainable Sanitation in Rural China ... (3) A key technology that may permit a switch from solid fuels to cleaner gaseous fuels in rural China is anaerobic digestion, where organic human and animal wastes are digested under anaerobic conditions generating biogas, composed primarily of methane (CH4), which can be sequestered and burned for cooking, heating, and lighting. ...

Radhika Dhingra; Erick R. Christensen; Yang Liu; Bo Zhong; Chang-Fu Wu; Michael G. Yost; Justin V. Remais

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

406

16 - Ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions combustion in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The historical development of gas turbine low \\{NOx\\} combustion from the pioneering NASA work in the early 1970s to the present generation of ultra-low \\{NOx\\} industrial gas turbine combustors is reviewed. The principles of operation of single digit ultra-low \\{NOx\\} gas turbine combustion for industrial applications are outlined. The review shows the potential has been demonstrated by several investigators using different flame stabilizers for \\{NOx\\} to be reduced to 1 ppm at 1700 K, 2 ppm at 1800 K and 3–4 ppm at 1900 K with no influence of operating pressure and with a practical operating flame stability margin. Under these conditions it is shown that no thermal \\{NOx\\} should occur and all the \\{NOx\\} is formed by the prompt \\{NOx\\} mechanisms. The elimination of thermal \\{NOx\\} makes the \\{NOx\\} emissions independent of residence time or reference velocity and independent of pressure. Also there is no influence of air inlet temperature for the same flame temperature. Where legislation requires emissions to be as low as can be achieved, emissions below 4 ppm in production engines are current technology and this review shows the potential to get even lower than this in the future.

G.E. Andrews

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Reductions of NO{sub x} emissions on oil and gas firing at Bowline Unit 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to the NYSDEC, Part 227 regulations for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. (ORU) and Burns & Roe Company (BRC) evaluated the options available to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions at two oil and gas fired units at Bowline Point Generating Station. Replacement of all of the existing burners with new low NO{sub x} burners and possibly overfire air ports presents the most costly method of achieving this goal. Therefore, other methods of NO{sub x} reduction were considered including utilizing some form of off-stoichiometric, burners out of service (BOOS), firing. It was determined that the stringent emission limits could be met utilizing off-stoichiometric firing techniques. New oil gun atomizer tips allowing off-stoichiometric firing with mechanical atomization and swirlers of a new design are replacing the existing atomizers. The new hardware eliminates the problems of opacity while operating with off-stoichiometric firing.

Paschedag, A.E.; Martinsen, R.A.; O`Sullivan, R.C.; Schmidt, D.W. [and others

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from the Combustion of Alternative Fuels in a Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

? Centre of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Within the aviation sector, the development and certification of alternative drop-in fuels are progressing at a rapid pace: a standard specification for aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons was approved by ASTM in 2009,(4) Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA), also often referred to as hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ), qualified as a 50/50 blend with petroleum Jet A-1 in 2011,(4) and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) anticipate fully synthetic Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel to qualify in 2012. ... Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ...

Simon Christie; David Raper; David S. Lee; Paul I. Williams; Lucas Rye; Simon Blakey; Chris W. Wilson; Prem Lobo; Donald Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

409

The effect of reformer gas mixture on the performance and emissions of an HSDI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming is an attractive on-board hydrogen production method, which can open new frontiers in diesel engines. Apart from hydrogen, and depending on the reactions promoted, the reformate typically contains a significant amount of carbon monoxide, which is produced as a by-product. Moreover, admission of reformed gas into the engine, through the inlet pipe, leads to an increase of intake air nitrogen to oxygen ratio. It is therefore necessary to study how a mixture of syngas and nitrogen affects the performance and emissions of a diesel engine, in order to gain a better understanding of the effects of supplying fuel reformer products into the engine. In the current research work, a bottled gas mixture with H2 and CO contents resembling those of typical diesel reformer product gas was injected into the inlet pipe of an HSDI diesel engine. Nitrogen (drawn from a separate bottle) at the same volumetric fraction to syngas was simultaneously admitted into the inlet pipe. Exhaust analysis and performance calculation was carried out and compared to a neat diesel operation. Introduction of syngas + N2 gas mixture resulted in simultaneous reduction of the formation of \\{NOx\\} and smoke emissions over a broad range of the engine operating window. Estimation of the bottled carbon monoxide utilisation showed that by increasing either the load or the speed the admitted carbon monoxide is utilised more efficiently. As a general rule, CO2 emissions increase when the bottled carbon monoxide utilisation is approximately over 88%. Isolation of the H2 and N2 effect revealed that a CO diluted flame promotes the formation of smoke. When the intake air is enriched with syngas + N2, an increase of engine speed results in reduction of maximum pressure rise rate (dp/da). The effect of load on dp/da varies depending on engine speed. Finally, the engine is more fuel efficient when running on neat diesel.

Fanos Christodoulou; Athanasios Megaritis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Constraining the Milky Way's Hot Gas Halo with OVII and OVII Emission Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Milky Way hosts a hot ($\\approx 2 \\times 10^6$ K), diffuse, gaseous halo based on detections of z = 0 OVII and OVIII absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines in blank-sky spectra. Here we improve constraints on the structure of the hot gas halo by fitting a radial model to a much larger sample of OVII and OVIII emission line measurements from XMM-Newton EPIC-MOS spectra compared to previous studies ($\\approx$ 650 sightlines). We assume a modified $\\beta$-model for the halo density distribution and a constant-density Local Bubble from which we calculate emission to compare with the observations. We find an acceptable fit to the OVIII emission line observations with $\\chi^{2}_{red}$ (dof) = 1.08 (644) for best-fit parameters of $n_o r_c^{3\\beta} = 1.35 \\pm 0.24$ cm$^{-3}$ kpc$^{3\\beta}$ and $\\beta = 0.50 \\pm 0.03$ for the hot gas halo and negligible Local Bubble contribution. The OVII observations yield an unacceptable $\\chi^{2}_{red}$ (dof) = 4.69 (645) for similar best-fit parameters, which i...

Miller, Matthew J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions with urban agriculture: A Life Cycle Assessment perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production and supply of food currently accounts for 20–30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK and the government and nongovernmental organisations are seeking to reduce these environmental burdens. Local authorities all over UK establish community farms with the aim to produce more sustainable food for citizens. This study used environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the potential savings of food-related GHG emissions that may be achieved with the establishment of an urban community farm, based on a case study recently found in the London Borough of Sutton. The work identified elements of the farm design that require the greatest attention to maximise these savings. The greatest reductions can be achieved by selecting the right crops: (i) providing the highest yields in local conditions and (ii) usually produced in energy-intensive greenhouses or air-freighted to UK from outside Europe. Implications from further development of the farm on the local, unused land were examined, taking into account market requirements. This showed that land used on an urban fringe for food production could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Sutton by up to 34 t CO2e ha?1 a?1. Although the percentage of this reduction in total diet emissions is relatively low, the result exceeds carbon sequestration rates for the conventional urban green space projects, such as parks and forests.

Michal Kulak; Anil Graves; Julia Chatterton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gas temperature and electron temperature measurements by emission spectroscopy for an atmospheric microplasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microplasma suitable for material processing at atmospheric pressure in argon and argon-oxygen mixtures is being studied here. The microplasma is ignited by a high voltage dc pulse and sustained by low power (1-5 W) at 450 MHz. the mechanisms responsible for sustaining the microplasma require a more detailed analysis, which will be the subject of further study. Here it is shown that the microplasma is in nonequilibrium and appears to be in glow mode. The effect of power and oxygen content is also analyzed in terms of gas temperature and electron temperature. Both the gas temperature and the electron temperature have been determined by spectral emission and for the latter a very simple method has been used based on a collisional-radiative model. It is observed that power coupling is affected by a combination of factors and that prediction and control of the energy flow are not always straightforward even for simple argon plasmas. Varying gas content concentration has shown that oxygen creates a preferential energy channel towards increasing the gas temperature. Overall the results have shown that combined multiple diagnostics are necessary to understand plasma characteristics and that spectral emission can represent a valuable tool for tailoring microplasma to specific processing requirements.

Mariotti, Davide; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto [Nanoarchtectonics Research Center (NARC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Agency/Company /Organization: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Sector: Energy, Water Focus Area: Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.iges.or.jp/en/cdm/report_ers.html Cost: Free CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series Screenshot References: CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series[1] "IGES ERs Calculation Sheet aims at providing a simplified spreadsheet for demonstrating emission reductions based on the approved methodologies corresponding to eligible project activities. The sheet will provide you

416

CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued revised draft guidance on consideration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of climate change in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews on December 18, 2014

417

Building commissioning: a golden opportunity for reducing energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Commissioning is arguably the single most cost-effective strategy for reducing energy, costs, and greenhouse gas emissions in buildings today. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent ...

Evan Mills

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

419

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Role of Galactic Winds on Molecular Gas Emission from Galaxy Mergers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We assess the impact of starburst and AGN feedback-driven winds on the CO emission from galaxy mergers, and, in particular, search for signatures of these winds in the simulated CO morphologies and emission line profiles. We do so by combining a 3D non-LTE molecular line radiative transfer code with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of galaxy mergers that include prescriptions for star formation, black hole growth, a multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), and the winds associated with star formation and black hole growth. Our main results are: (1) Galactic winds can drive outflows of masses ~10^8-10^9 Msun which may be imaged via CO emission line mapping. (2) AGN feedback-driven winds are able to drive imageable CO outflows for longer periods of time than starburst-driven winds owing to the greater amount of energy imparted to the ISM by AGN feedback compared to star formation. (3) Galactic winds can control the spatial extent of the CO emission in post-merger galaxies, and may serve as a physical motivation for the sub-kiloparsec scale CO emission radii observed in local advanced mergers. (4) Secondary emission peaks at velocities greater than the circular velocity are seen in the CO emission lines in all models. In models with winds, these high velocity peaks are seen to preferentially correspond to outflowing gas entrained in winds, which is not the case in the model without winds. The high velocity peaks seen in models without winds are typically confined to velocity offsets (from the systemic) velocity, whereas the models with AGN feedback-driven winds can drive high velocity peaks to ~2.5 times the circular velocity.

Desika Narayanan; T. J. Cox; Brandon Kelly; Romeel Dave; Lars Hernquist; Tiziana Di Matteo; Philip Hopkins; Craig Kulesa; Brant Robertson; Christopher K. Walker

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 46GTR-NRS-P-105 IMAGE-BASED CHANGE ESTIMATION FOR LAND COVER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 46GTR-NRS-P-105 IMAGE are core to applications including: carbon accounting, greenhouse gas emission reporting, biomass effects of natural disturbances and human activities. By extension, our ability to understand and model

426

Large neighborhood search for LNG inventory routing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is steadily becoming a common mode for commercializing natural gas. Due to the capital intensive nature of LNG projects, the optimal design of LNG supply chains is extremely important from a profitability perspective. Motivated ... Keywords: LNG, Liquefied natural gas, Maritime inventory routing, Ship schedule optimization

Vikas Goel; Kevin C. Furman; Jin-Hwa Song; Amr S. El-Bakry

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dust continuum emission as a tracer of gas mass in galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (VLA HI) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2+HI). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust-to-gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H2) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g. PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function ...

Groves, Brent A; Leroy, Adam; Galametz, Maud; Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Kennicutt, Robert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses. Depending on the value of gas, simple, low-cost measures, such as adjusting leaking equipment components, or larger-scale measures, such as installing dry seals on compressors, can be applied.

Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China Lindsey MW Yasarer, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Dr. Zhe Li, Associate Professor, Chongqing University Dr.... Belinda Sturm, Associate Professor, University of Kansas RESERVOIR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (Image from FURNAS www.dsr.inpe.br) HOW TO SCALE UP GHG EMISSIONS? PROJECT OBJECTIVE: Estimate overall greenhouse gas emissions from the Pengxi River Backwater...

Yasarer, Lindsey

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

430

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

Nitrogen gas emissions from stormwater retention basins during wet weather events in the Phoenix Metropolitan area: an additional ecosystem service?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen gas emissions from stormwater retention basins during wet weather events in the Phoenix Special thanks to all of our field and lab help: Rebecca Hale, Stevan Earl, Bony Ahmed, Lin Ye, Jolene. Samples were then taken throughout the day to assess water concentrations and gas losses (see photos

Hall, Sharon J.

433

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a lower estimate for the bunker inventory: Comment on “Transport: Aviation and Marine (Bunker Fuels),” see http://commonly referred to as “bunker fuels” to differentiate them

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential for emissions reduction in the power sector. In general, \\{CCTs\\} cover coal upgrading, efficiency improvements, advanced technologies and zero emissions technologies. Besides these, \\{CCTs\\} also include other emissions reduction technologies and comprehensive utilization technologies in China. This paper review the complete life cycle modeling of CCTs. The advanced technologies include super-critical (super-C), ultra super-critical (USC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The results show that the higher efficiency technologies have lower potential impacts. Compared with the average level of power generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for \\{CCTs\\} in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy structure is continuously being improved and optimized. The potential carbon reduction will be limited in the power system in 2020 by current commercial \\{CCTs\\} with the generation efficiency increase. The most impressive technology is IGCC with CCS which enables greenhouse gas reduction of 37.6% compared with the level in 2005.

Guangling Zhao; Sha Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry – Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271 kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented..., described in Figure 1, 2. The combustion oxygen is carried by a more I I i I' has been used as a design basis. The heater is based on the actual design of a unit built by KTI SpA. The furnace does not include air preheater or steam generation...

Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

438

A review of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation in oil and gas well drilling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The prospect of employing Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) for well drilling in oil and gas industry was examined. In this work, the experimental works carried out on various oil well drilling operations was discussed. The results show that, LASER or LASER-aided oil and gas well drilling has many potential advantages over conventional rotary drilling, including high penetration rate, reduction or elimination of tripping, casing, bit costs, enhanced well control, as well as perforating and side-tracking capabilities. The investigation also reveals that modern infrared \\{LASERs\\} have a higher rate of rock cuttings removal than that of conventional rotary drilling and flame-jet spallation. It also reveals that LASER can destroy rock without damaging formation permeability but rather, it enhances or improves permeability and that permeability and porosity increases in all rock types. The paper has therefore provided more knowledge on the potential value to drilling operations and techniques using LASER.

M OLALEYE B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 2009 Methane Emissions for U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Production, by Fuel Type (1) Fuel Type Petroleum 0.5 Natural Gas 26.8 Coal 0.3 Wood 0.4 Electricity (2) 50.5 Total 78.5 Note(s): Source(s): MMT CO2 Equivalent 1) Sources of emissions include oil and gas production, processing, and distribution; coal mining; and utility and site combustion. Carbon Dioxide equivalent units are calculated by converting methane emissions to carbon dioxide emissions (methane's global warming potential is 23 times that of carbon dioxide). 2) Refers to emissions of electricity generators attributable to the buildings sector. EIA, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2009, Mar. 2011, Table 18, p. 37 for energy production emissions; EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: The pivotal role of electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption (EJ) Primary energy consumption and emissions,Total all sectors Primary energy consumption and emissions,

Williams, J.H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS) UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS) Guidance Manuals and Toolkits Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS) Guidance Manuals and Toolkits Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme Sector: Energy, Land, Climate Focus Area: Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: Finance, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.undp.org/environment/climatestrategies_toolkits.shtml Cost: Free UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS) Guidance Manuals and Toolkits Screenshot

444

Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Gas cofiring in coal-fired stokers for emissions reduction and performance improvement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adding gas burners above the grate of a coal-fired stoker can be an economical method of reducing gaseous and particulate emissions and improving efficiency and operational flexibility. With this cofiring configuration, the improved heat distribution and mixing with the stoker combustion products can give reduced opacity, reduced emissions of particulate, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, improved carbon burnout and lower overall ash, reduced excess air, faster load response, cleaner and quicker lightoffs, improved turndown at both lower and upper capacity limits, and improved performance with problematic coals. To develop and validate the cofiring technology, three cofire field experiments have been conducted. A 165,000 lb/hr spreader stoker and mass feed chain grate stokers rated at 40,000 and 75,000 lb/hr have been retrofit with gas burners and tested in the field. The two larger units used dual, opposed burners, while the smaller unit was retrofit with a single burner. With the spreader stoker, the primary benefits of gas cofire was reduction in opacity episodes with coal quality variability and recovery of lost derate. With the larger chain grate unit, the primary benefit was reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to within Title V limits and elimination of opacity episodes during startup and load swings. With the smaller chain grate, the primary benefit was ability to operate at low loads without unacceptable opacity excursions which had previously required a backup boiler. In all cases, the economics justified the capital burner system retrofit cost and incremental fuel costs.

Mason, H.B.; Drennan, S.; Chan, I.; Kinney, W.L.; Borland, D.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

450

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Guidance and Guidance and Reporting Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting October 7, 2013 - 10:05am Addthis Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Federal Guidance Read the White House Council on Environmental Quality's (CEQ), Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance, and associated Technical Support Document. Accounting and Reporting Resources Visit the FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting website to find the following resources and tools to help complete GHG inventory reporting requirements under Executive Order 13514: FEMP and CEQ Reporting Resources: Core documents for Federal GHG reporting Checklist: Step-by-step introduction to GHG accounting

451

How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions.

M Hauck; Z J N Steinmann; I J Laurenzi; R Karuppiah; M A J Huijbregts

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

DOE Launches Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D Program Enhancing Pipeline and Distribution System Operational Efficiency, Reducing Methane Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Following the White House and the Department of Energy Capstone Methane Stakeholder Roundtable on July 29th, DOE announced a series of actions, partnerships, and stakeholder commitments to help modernize the nation’s natural gas transmission and distribution systems and reduce methane emissions. Through common-sense standards, smart investments, and innovative research, DOE seeks to advance the state of the art in natural gas system performance. DOE’s effort is part of the larger Administration’s Climate Action Plan Interagency Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions.

453

Urban Transportation Emission Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Urban Transportation Emission Calculator Urban Transportation Emission Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Urban Transportation Emission Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Transport Canada Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: wwwapps.tc.gc.ca/Prog/2/UTEC-CETU/Menu.aspx?lang=eng Cost: Free References: http://wwwapps.tc.gc.ca/Prog/2/UTEC-CETU/Menu.aspx?lang=eng The Urban Transportation Emissions Calculator (UTEC) is a user-friendly tool for estimating annual emissions from personal, commercial, and public transit vehicles. It estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions from the operation of vehicles. It also estimates upstream GHG emissions from the production, refining and

454

Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Goals  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

March 31,2010 March 31,2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF FROM: STEVEN CHU SUBJECT: Implementation of Executive Order 135 14, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Addressing the crisis of climate change is the challenge of our time, and a fundamental priority for the Department of Energy. As the agency charged with advancing the Nation's energy security, we are committed to developing energy efficient technologies that support the transformation to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President issued Executive Order (EO) 135 14, "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance." This requires all

455

Reducing California's Greenhouse Gas Emissions through ProductLife-Cycle Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product life-cycle optimization addresses the reduction ofenvironmental burdens associated with the production, use, andend-of-life stages of a product s life cycle. In this paper, we offer anevaluation of the opportunities related to product life-cycleoptimization in California for two key products: personal computers (PCs)and concrete. For each product, we present the results of an explorativecase study to identify specific opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions reductions at each stage of the product life cycle. We thenoffer a discussion of the practical policy options that may exist forrealizing the identified GHG reduction opportunities. The case studiesdemonstrate that there may be significant GHG mitigation options as wellas a number of policy options that could lead to life-cycle GHG emissionsreductions for PCs and concrete in California.

Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Worrell,Ernst

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To evaluate a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile, most of the information required to support air travel demand management is currently available through Federal agency-level travel information systems, such as GovTrip. However, that information may not be distributed to programs, regional offices, and sites, which are in the best position to evaluate opportunities to reduce travel. Considerations that may help the agency determine the level at which data should be collected and analyzed include: Where are budgets and policies regarding travel made and modified? What travel approval processes are in place, and who makes the final approval for travel? The data elements defined in Table 1 below will help these decision-makers to better understand travel patterns and track change over time.

457

Densified Biomass Can Cost-Effectively Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Address Energy Security in Thermal Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Total switchgrass production costs at the farm gate were $79.31/Mg (see SI for production cost detail). ... Replacing natural gas with biomass produces high, positive abatement costs and is not deemed to be a viable alternative. ... Zhang, Y.; McKechnie, J.; Cormier, D.; Lyng, R.; Mabee, W.; Ogino, A.; MacLean, H. L.Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas, and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada Environ. ...

Thomas O. Wilson; Frederick M. McNeal; Sabrina Spatari; David G. Abler; Paul R. Adler

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

458

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

460

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published scientific literature contains many studies estimating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PVs). Despite the volume of published work, variability in results hinders generalized conclusions. Most variance between studies can be attributed to differences in methods and assumptions. To clarify the published results for use in decision making and other analyses, we conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies, harmonizing key performance characteristics to produce more comparable and consistently derived results. Screening 397 life cycle assessments (LCAs) relevant to PVs yielded 13 studies on crystalline silicon (c-Si) that met minimum standards of quality, transparency, and relevance. Prior to harmonization, the median of 42 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from those 13 LCAs was 57 grams carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44 to 73. After harmonizing key performance characteristics, irradiation of 1,700 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m{sup 2}/yr); system lifetime of 30 years; module efficiency of 13.2% or 14.0%, depending on module type; and a performance ratio of 0.75 or 0.80, depending on installation, the median estimate decreased to 45 and the IQR tightened to 39 to 49. The median estimate and variability were reduced compared to published estimates mainly because of higher average assumptions for irradiation and system lifetime. For the sample of studies evaluated, harmonization effectively reduced variability, providing a clearer synopsis of the life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si PVs. The literature used in this harmonization neither covers all possible c-Si installations nor represents the distribution of deployed or manufactured c-Si PVs.

Hsu, D. D.; O'Donoughue, P.; Fthenakis, V.; Heath, G. A.; Kim, H. C.; Sawyer, P.; Choi, J. K.; Turney, D. E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas emissions inventory" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Emissions Implications of Future Natural Gas Production and Use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. ... dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). ... Edwards, P.; Brown, S.; Roberts, J.; Ahmadov, R.; Banta, R.; deGouw, J.; Dubé, W.High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin Nature 2014, 10.1038/nature13767 ...

Jeffrey D. McLeod; Gregory L. Brinkman; Jana B. Milford

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

462

Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production ... Water consumption for nuclear energy could be reduced, while also increasing the safety of nuclear plants, by deploying new high temperature gas reactors that potentially allow for internal operating temperatures in excess of 900 °C and combined cycle turbine designs. ... Whittaker, S.; White, D.; Law, D.; Chalatumyk, R. In IEA GHG Weyburn CO2Monitoring and Storage Project Summary Report 2000 - 2004, 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, Wilson, M.; Monea, M., Eds.; Petroleum Technology Research Centre: Vancouver, Canada, 2004. ...

D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

463

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or usage). The data at the left indicates a 6.9% decline in Harvard's overall GHG Emissions since Fiscal exclude growth. The graph below illustrates the following emissions: Direct (Scope 1) Emissions, including emissions from campus operations and energy sources owned by Harvard; and Indirect (Scope 2) Emissions

Prentiss, Mara

465

CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY Revision 1 10/31/07 Approved by: DOE Records Management Division, IM-23 PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY 1. GENERAL. A records inventory is compiling a descriptive list of each record series or system, including the location of the records and any other pertinent data. A records inventory is not a list of each document or each folder. 2. DEFINE THE RECORDS INVENTORY GOAL(S). The goals of a records inventory should be to: a. Gather information for scheduling purposes; b. Prepare for conversion to other media or to identify the volume of classified and/or permanent records in your organization's custody; and c. Identify any existing shortcomings, deficiencies, or problems with

466

The Effect of Compound Structure on the Elemental Responses in Gas Chromatography-Microwave Induced Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Since microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry...pro totype Model SG-2 atmospheric pressure GC-MIP which...The flow of the He plasma supporting gas was maintained...output frequency: 2450 30 MHz output power: 0-200...by J&D Instruments Plasma discharge tube length......

Huang Yieru; Ou Qingyu; Yu Weile

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions- Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

468

Evaluation of landfill gas production and emissions in a MSW large-scale Experimental Cell in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Landfill gas (LFG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are an important environmental concern in Brazil due to the existence of several uncontrolled disposal sites. A program of laboratory and field tests was conducted to investigate gas generation in and emission from an Experimental Cell with a 36,659-ton capacity in Recife/PE – Brazil. This investigation involved waste characterisation, gas production and emission monitoring, and geotechnical and biological evaluations and was performed using three types of final cover layers. The results obtained in this study showed that waste decomposes 4–5 times faster in a tropical wet climate than predicted by traditional first-order models using default parameters. This fact must be included when considering the techniques and economics of projects developed in tropical climate countries. The design of the final cover layer and its geotechnical and biological behaviour proved to have an important role in minimising gas emissions to the atmosphere. Capillary and methanotrophic final cover layers presented lower CH4 flux rates than the conventional layer.

Felipe Jucá Maciel; José Fernando Thomé Jucá

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels ... Hill, J.; Nelson, E.; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D. Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels Proc. ...

Hong Huo; Michael Wang; Cary Bloyd; Vicky Putsche

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

470

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

471

Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City, Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City, Philippines Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City, Philippines Agency/Company /Organization: International Resources Group (IRG), Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner: United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Ministry of Planning Sector: Land Focus Area: Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use, People and Policy, Transportation Topics: Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Case studies/examples