National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas emissions energy

  1. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages...

  2. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reference Manual, Volume III. IPCC/Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Lynn Price,

  3. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

  4. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    2007. “Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much atDepartment of Energy. 2009. “Greenhouse gas abatement in thefor Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Evan

  5. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

  6. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Y. : 1989, Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth:The Evolution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use inand energy-related carbon dioxide emissions for the WEO 2004

  7. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    data provided were for final energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions for nine worlddata provided were for primary energy use and CO 2 emissions for 11 worldscenario data, respectively. Table 1. World Primary Energy

  8. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    state-level cost and bene?t estimates of renewable portfoliostandards National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technicalnatural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissions

  9. Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting Tool (NEAT) for Long Term Energy and GHG Impacts Evaluation: Domestic Freight Component Documentation and User's...

  10. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theUS exports of natural gas Energy Policy www.bipac.net/dow/

  11. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theThe effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    non-marketed natural gas. g Includes methane emissions related to energy, agriculture, waste management, and industrial processes. h Includes nitrous oxide emissions related...

  13. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President...

  14. A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200806 A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract

  15. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  16. TOPIC: Shale Gas Emissions w/David Allen, Energy Institute HOST: Jeff Tester and Todd Cowen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    the nation's energy landscape. However, the environmental impacts associated with ``fracking'' for shale gasTOPIC: Shale Gas Emissions w/David Allen, Energy Institute HOST: Jeff Tester and Todd Cowen DATE: November 20th , 12:00 -1:00pm, 300 Rice Hall Atmospheric Impacts of Expanded Natural Gas Use Hydraulic

  17. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

  18. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT WITH GAS TURBINES ACHIEVE BOTH ENERGY SAVINGS AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS F. Giacobbe*, G. Iaquaniello**, R. G. Minet*, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT... Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented. INTRODUCTION Petroleum refining...

  19. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerous transportation strategies are directed at reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changing the behavior of individual drivers or travelers. These behavioral changes may have the effect of reducing travel, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing travel. Since the 1970s, federal, regional, state and municipal agencies have tried to reduce energy use, emissions, and congestion by influencing travel behavior. This report reviews and summarizes the literature on relationships between these strategies and transportation-related energy use and GHG emissions to examine how changes to travel behavior can reduce transportation energy use and discuss the potential for federal actions to affect travel behavior.

  20. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application explore the implications for Canada's industrial sector of an economy-wide, compulsory greenhouse gas of the Canadian industrial sector to GHG charges implemented throughout the economy, starting in the year 2006

  1. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol

  2. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  4. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Emissions (Mt CO2) Region Pacific OECD Canada/US Europe Transition Economies Latin America Africa/Middle East Asia World

  5. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Energy Consumption 11and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand theData Historical energy consumption and energy-related CO 2

  6. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    97-110, 1996. International Energy Agency (IEA), 2002. WorldEnergy Outlook. Paris: IEA/OECD.International Energy Agency (IEA), 2004a. Energy Balances of

  7. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    patent fuel, coke oven coke, coke oven gas, blastproduction of steel. Coke oven gas is produced as byproductgas and briquettes (BKB) -- were derived as the ratio of fuel inputs at coke ovens,

  8. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1. World Regions 2. Primary Energy Accounting Methodologies9 Historical and Projected Primary Energy1. World Regions 2. Primary Energy Accounting Methodologies

  9. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    data were performed for biomass energy consumption, for theinformation regarding biomass energy consumption only afterswitching from biomass energy use to a more modern form of

  10. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    and the IEA Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES). An averagetotal energy supply worldwide is lost into upstream processes that transform primary energy

  11. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    produced. Primary energy associated with petroleum productsforms of energy 1 such as electricity, heat, petroleum andof energy use in the processing of petroleum and coal

  12. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2002. World Energy Outlook. Paris: IEA/OECD.Agency (IEA), 2004d. World Energy Outlook, Paris, IEA/OECD.Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook 2004 Reference

  13. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  14. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2002. World Energy Outlook. Paris: IEA/OECD.Agency (IEA), 2004d. World Energy Outlook, Paris, IEA/OECD.Comparison of SRES and World Energy Outlook Scenarios This

  15. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    sector is based on a useful energy demand analysis 1 andif a household has a useful energy need of 700 MJ per yearIt is assumed that the useful energy requirement of Chinese

  16. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Primary Energy (EJ) Centrally Planned Asia Middle East andPrimary Energy (EJ) Centrally Planned Asia Middle East andPrimary Energy (EJ) Centrally Planned Asia Middle East and

  17. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    and nuclear energy which have a conversion efficiency ofnuclear and geothermal electricity, heat is the primary energy form considered and the conventional efficiencies

  18. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Energy Demand China China Japan Cooking, MJ per household Urban Rural Water heating, MJ per household Urban Rural Space

  19. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Consumption iii iv Sectoral Trends in Global Energy Use andenergy consumption scenarios. In applying this approach to global

  20. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program that helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and GHG emissions.

  1. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  2. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

  3. Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Common Sources of Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions Careers & Internships EERE Home Contact EERE Energy.gov...

  4. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotis, S.C. [Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC (United States); Sussman, D. [Poubelle Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  5. Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Without a major change in direction towards more compulsory policies, it seems unlikely that Canada will achieve significant domestic greenhouse gas reductions over and beyond

  6. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    6.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Metrics . . . . . . iii 72.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact Assessment 2.1.3energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external

  7. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

  8. The Regional Incidence of a National Greenhouse Gas Emission Limit: Title VII of the American Clean Energy and Security Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    the macroeconomic costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions under Title VII of the American Clean Energy Clean Energy and Security Act Ian Sue Wing* Dept. of Geography & Environment, Boston University. Introduction Title VII of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (H.R. 2454) has the distinction

  9. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissionsrenewable energy use compared to low supply—and the amountnatural gas supply decreased future renewable energy use and

  10. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    standards National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technicalnatural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissionsuse of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the

  11. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Products Unit Energy Use Emissionis that some energy inputs, in particular “other petroleum4 The energy industry itself (coal mining, petroleum

  12. Well-to-wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael Q.; Vyas, Anant D.; Wade, David C.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2004-07-01

    A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this effort, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H{sub 2} production pathways: (1) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using Light Water Reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H{sub 2} production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using steam from High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR); (3) H{sub 2} production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium ore transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H{sub 2} production in nuclear power plants; H{sub 2} transportation; H{sub 2} compression; and H{sub 2} FCVs operation. Due to large differences in electricity requirements for uranium fuel enrichment between gas diffusion and centrifuge technologies, two scenarios were designed for uranium enrichment: (1) 55% of fuel enriched through gaseous diffusion technology and 45% through centrifuge technology (the current technology split for U.S. civilian nuclear power plants); and (2) 100% fuel enrichment using the centrifuge technology (a future trend). Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H{sub 2} compared to natural gas-based H{sub 2} production via steam methane reforming for a unit of H{sub 2} delivered at refueling stations. In particular, 73-98% of GHG emissions and 81- 99% of fossil energy use are reduced by nuclear-based H{sub 2} relative to natural gas-based H{sub 2}, depending on the uranium enrichment technology and type of nuclear reactor used. When H{sub 2} is applied to FCVs, the WTW results also show large benefit in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. (authors)

  13. A methodology for assessing MIT's energy used and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) actions can be made to decrease losses and therefore increase plant efficiencies. As production efficiencies are maximized, fuel use and thus emissions are minimized. From fiscal year 1998 to 2003, the gas turbine ...

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumptionenergy consumption and GHG emissions in China has taken on a new, globalglobal impacts. On a per capita basis, residential energy consumption

  17. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9...

  18. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus t In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle t Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles

  19. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    renewables, including large hydropower, by 2020. In 2009,coal mining and hydropower), iron and steel, machinery, andoil, and natural gas. Hydropower, nuclear, and wind energy

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    consumption 13 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 14 U.S. carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 15 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions:...

  2. Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas required for building the structure; and 2) the operational energy required for habitation energy used for space heating and cooling during the life of the building. Similar ratios are found

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  5. CLIMATIC CHANGE, GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, FUTURE CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    trends over India, greenhouse gas emissions due to energy consumption, forest and land-use changes the development of renewable, non- conventional energy sources. In all cases, serious institutional barriers an FOR INDIA by Pitta Govinda Rao, Mick Kelly, Mike Hulme and Govindarajan Srinivasan CSERGE Working Paper GEC

  6. An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of OceanAn Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standards Prepared for the U Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 12.3 Second Deliverable

  7. Optimal Design and Allocation of Electrified Vehicles and Dedicated Charging Infrastructure for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions Submitted for Presentation at the 2011 Annual Meeting to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from personal transportation by shifting energy demand from

  8. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley National Laboratory’s Energy Analysis Program forare often national-level energy or GHG programs that combinea national-level energy or GHG emissions mitigation program

  9. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    associated with solar and wind energy occur prior to theemissions associated with wind energy as the lowest of anyenergy resource). 64. Wind energy emissions are also site

  10. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  11. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  12. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  13. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies

  14. Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions -Fuel is cheep -High energy density (1 ton U = 16 abundant elements found in natural crustal rocks) Nuclear Power CONS -High capital cost due to meeting,000 tons of coal to produce same amount of electricity) -Natural abundance of U (48th among the most

  15. Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric-and Nuclear Power: A Life-cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accepted for publication in Energy Policy Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Solar Electric- and Nuclear., 2002). However, all anthropogenic means of energy production, including solar and nuclear, generate Power: A Life-cycle Study Vasilis M. Fthenakis1,2, * and Hyung Chul Kim1 1 Energy Sciences

  16. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  17. The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step Toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, Department ofDetailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and CriteriaNo. 879 The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First

  18. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof Energy Fish and Wildlife Service

  19. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  20. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    F and Paltsev S 2012 Shale gas production: potential versus46] Schrag D 2012 Is shale gas good for climate change?C 2011 Blind rush? Shale gas boom proceeds amid health

  1. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  2. An Analysis of Measures to Reduce the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of California's Personal Computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, A; Masanet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    +C+D+E A+B+C+D+E+F Primary Energy Use (PJ/yr) Direct Total %were converted to primary energy use and GHG emissions inFPD UEC (kWh/yr) Primary Energy Use (MJ/yr) GHG Emissions (

  3. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

  4. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for Electricity Consumption and Carbon IntensityAnalysis for Electricity Consumption and Carbon IntensityCO 2 intensity of net electricity consumption Total emission

  5. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  6. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  7. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Difiglio, C. (2000). Energy efficiency and consumption—theMcNeil, M. (2007). Energy-efficiency standards for electricfor advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in

  8. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    3, 49-71. International Energy Agency (IEA), 2002. WorldEnergy Outlook. IEA/OECD, Paris.International Energy Agency (IEA), 2007. Energy Balances of

  9. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    mitigation options Energy supply and use Energy efficiencyindustry, and energy supply) Potential SD synergies andreduces the reliance on energy supply, it is likely to

  10. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Appendix: Brazil and South Africa energy efficiency programand renewable energy use in Brazil. Energy Policy, 32, 1437–of the energy savings achieved in Brazil and South Africa

  11. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems: A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. This WTW study analyzes energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use and emissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW]) activities.

  12. Integrating Gas Turbines with Cracking Heaters - Impact on Emissions and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platvoet, E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbine Exhaust Gas (TEG) contains high levels of oxygen, typically 15 vol. percent, due to gas turbine blade material temperature limits. As such it can be used as an oxidant for combustion in cracking furnaces and reformers. Its high temperature...

  13. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

  14. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    supply decreased future renewable energy use and increasedand renewable energy technologies in the future. Without afuture decreases in solar energy prices will affect the level of renewable

  15. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    2006. Verification of Energy Consumption in China duringheterogeneity in China's energy consumption: Sector priceChallenge of Reducing Energy Consumption of the Top- 1000

  16. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Difiglio, C. (2000). Energy efficiency and consumption—thein the delivery of energy-efficient products and services.DC: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Najam,

  17. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Roland-Holst, D. , 2008. Energy and Exports in China. ChinaRoland-Holst, D. , 2008. Energy and Exports in China. Chinagrowth. Investment and export energy intensity remained

  18. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    and today generally not monetized; We assume energyCommissioning is today used to save energy in ordinaryemissions in buildings today. Energy savings tend to persist

  19. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    maintaining building energy performance (and other benfits,traditional buildings, energy performance per se is usuallypertains to energy performance in buildings, although other

  20. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    of Building Faults and Energy Savings Potential: FinalGOLDEN OPPORTUNITY FOR SAVING ENERGY, MONEY, AND GREENHOUSEis an underutilized strategy for saving energy and money and

  1. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies and costs for achieving a ZC building or microgrid.

  2. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    and urban areas can take into account both energy efficiencyurban planning to limit heat island effect. Considering energy efficiency

  3. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  4. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    2000). Energy efficiency and consumption—the rebound effect—The declining rebound effect. The Energy Journal, 28(1), 25–to lower energy costs per unit of output (rebound effect),

  5. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Policies in China. Energy Policy 38, 6439-6452. Zhou, W. ,electricity system. Energy Policy, 39, 4032-4041. Kahrl,intensity in China. Energy Policy 38, Kuijs, L. , 2006. How

  6. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    and policies in China. Renewable Energy 35, 1879-1886. Lin,and policies in China. Renewable Energy 35, 1879-1886. Liao,Thoughts on Improving Renewable Energy Pricing Policies [???

  7. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2002. World Energy Outlook. IEA/OECD, Paris.Agency (IEA), 2007. World Energy Outlook 2007. IEA/OECD,Agency (IEA), 2002. World Energy Outlook 2002. IEA/OECD,

  8. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    in our economic and energy data. In 2006 the NBS undertook arevision, this time to energy data, was undertaken in 2006that NBS economic and energy data is not without grounding

  9. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    a dramatic scaling up of alternative energy technologies inChina’s original alternative energy goal was to achieve 15%near-term deployment of alternative energy sources in China.

  10. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    South Korea’s and Brazil’s Energy Intensity by Notes andWe calculate South Korea and Brazil’s energy intensity in MJChina’s current energy intensity and Brazil and South Korea’

  11. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Agency (IEA), 2002. World Energy Outlook. IEA/OECD, Paris.EIA), 2008. Annual Energy Outlook. DOE/EIA, Washington, DC.IEA), 2007. World Energy Outlook 2007. IEA/OECD, Paris.

  12. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    EIA), 2008. Annual Energy Outlook. DOE/EIA, Washington, DC.EIA), 2011. Annual Energy Outlook 2011. EIA/DOE, Washington,EIA), 2010a. Annual Energy Outlook 2010. DOE/EIA,

  13. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries." Energy35 HIGH-TECH FACILITIES: THE COMMISSIONING MOTHERand opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs,

  14. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Snow, C. (2008). Winery carbon footprint calculator online.so-called energy and carbon “footprints” of their products.energy footprint” and “carbon footprint” refer to the total

  15. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the five largest energy-consuming sectors: Chemicals Forest products Petroleum refining Food and beverages Iron and steel The report references the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon...

  16. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    for helpful comments. References [1] IEA 2013 Worldenergy balances IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (

  17. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    Energy 5, 355-371. British Petroleum (BP), 2009. Statistical2009. BP, London. British Petroleum (BP), 2011. StatisticalEnergy 5, 355-371. British Petroleum (BP), 2009. Statistical

  18. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    energy-efficiency measures, commissioning savings are oftenefficiency measures, it has a cost, associated savings, andSavings do not last, especially for “soft” measures that can be and often are defeated Risks to Energy-Efficiency

  19. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar byenergy technologies (hydropower, on- and off-shore wind

  20. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    development of hydroelectric power. Energy, 20(10), 977–981.plants in place of hydroelectric power for instance, but

  1. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Cambridge University Press. IEA (International Energyfrom fuel combustion 1971–2002. Paris, France: IEA.IEA (International Energy Agency) (2004b). Oil crises and

  2. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    by all current demand-side management programs in the USAif energy efficiency (demand-side management) programs avoidenergy supply and demand side management but also specific

  3. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    2005). Assessment of small hydropower potential using remoteSustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy inface reduced exports Hydropower plants may displace local

  4. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development of hydroelectric power. Energy, 20(power plants in place of hydroelectric power for instance,example, although hydroelectric plants have the potential of

  5. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

  6. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conference 2006 Session 11 – Industrial Energy Modeling: What is the State of the Art? Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change ParamitaSinha 1 MarshallWise 2* ,and...StevenSmith 2 1 UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark. 2 PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory,JointGlobalChangeResearch Institute,CollegePark,MD. 1. Introduction Thispaperpresentsanewapproachtounderstandingthepotentiallong-termevolutionofenergy demandsinthe...

  7. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By enabling process heaters to utilize...

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    fuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fromand N 2 O are the major greenhouse gases produced in soils,O is the most important greenhouse gas that is emitted from

  11. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01

    BP is the world’s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, a commodity chemical used in the production of polyester. Through both self-help initiatives and innovations in our state-of-art process technology, the energy efficiency...

  13. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  14. Introduction: U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of EnergyPresentationOverview of Tribal 1

  15. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Goals

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1ResearchUniversityPrepared forProduction PostsLaureates

  16. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateofEnergy Fuel Cell Council: The Voice

  17. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateofEnergy Fuel Cell Council: The Voice iii CONTENTS

  18. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings Michaeland Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings 1 Michaelgoal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (

  19. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Urban form has evolved in response to a variety of demographic, social, economic, technological, and policy drivers. While direct authority over land use resides primarily at the local level, the federal government's transportation and housing policies have indirectly influenced the built environment.Local governments are increasingly implementing smart growth policies in attempts to manage growth and land use change, and constrain sprawl, with governments at higher levels supporting initiatives through funding, technical assistance, and incentives. This study examines the energy implications of the built environment, and the role the federal government could play.

  20. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE. regulatorsEnergy Information CenterLES'WelcomePlug-In

  1. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    (STC) publication Report on Energy Supply and Demand (RESD) is the primary supply and use, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency in British Columbia. It includes total energy use and emissions data for all sectors and some industries

  2. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    a marine seep, University of California Energy InstituteEnergy Development and Technology 009r “Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marinemarine hydrocarbon seeps at Coal Oil Point, CA: Implications for offshore oil production, Final report for University of California Energy

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.6.3.

  4. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin6

  6. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-04-01

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  7. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  8. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a MarineTides and the emission of oil and gas from an abandoned oil

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    or collectively). EMCON Methane Generation Model: A model for estimating the production of methane from municipal solid waste landfills. Emissions: Anthropogenic releases...

  10. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 3. Marnay, C. , G.Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 15. PG&E tariffs (Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management Figures Figure 1.

  11. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    2009, Special Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 3.of Commercial-Building Microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on2009, Special Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 15.

  12. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of PV panels, solar thermal equipment, and storage systems.chiller, energy storage, or solar-based technologies areexpensive solar-based equipment and energy storage Intercept

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01

    to accomplish strategically a reduction in emissions. Through its development, ENERGY STAR has become an integral player with many Green Buildings Program to help them carry the energy efficiency banner to higher levels of cooperation. What is occurring today...

  14. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    home, results in adoption of PV panels, solar thermaladoption of a 200 kW on-site, gas-fired generation system with CHP along with electric storage and PV.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of...

  16. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  17. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) (Redirected from Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

  18. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel...

  19. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods...

  20. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  1. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop The Advanced Manufacturing Office...

  2. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions April 17, 2006 - 10:20am Addthis Announces Revised...

  3. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

  4. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    from heat island control ..Taha, H. 1990. "Summer Heat Islands, Urban Trees, and WhiteGas Emissions, and Urban Heat- island Effects: Findings from

  5. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  6. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of Carbon Tax on Combined Heat and Power Adoption by ain energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment,generation with combined heat and power (CHP) applications

  7. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and energy ratings of a flow battery are independent of eachcapacity electrical flow battery thermal n/a n/a source:$/kWh) thermal storage 30 flow battery 220$/kWh and 2125$/kW

  8. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart & Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level I electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 L MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  9. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bailey, B.K.; Colucci, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart and Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level 1 electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 liter MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  10. Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batiste, Oriol

    . Scientists have done field studies of emissions of one or both gases at some 30 reservoirs, mostly in Canada, the climate change impact of hydropower in Canada and the northern US appears to be well under half coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

  11. Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions andAdministration. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the UnitedAbating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker

  12. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  13. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  14. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Affairs (DEFRA), 2005. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. http://targets through the UK Emissions Trading Scheme. 6 Table 1is to be adjusted for emissions trading. The reports must be

  15. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    is particularly true for liquefied natural gas. LifecycleLiquefied, synthetic, and shale-derived natural gas undergofrom liquefied, synthetic, or shale-derived natural gas

  16. Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

    2012-12-31

    Rising fuel costs and energy demands, combined with growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions, have led to increased interest in the use of renewable fuels to help meet increasing worldwide demand and reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions from...

  17. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  18. Energy and Air Emission Implications of a Decentralized Wastewater System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Energy Consumption Waste Disposal Direct Emissions MaterialConsumption Waste Disposal Direct Emissions Total Table 2:direct and upstream impacts of electricity, natural gas, and liquid fuels use. Waste Disposal

  19. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    has a higher carbon intensity than petroleum), petroleum consumption-in terms of British thermal units (Btu)-made up 45.0 percent of total fossil fuel energy consumption in 2009,...

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes1.

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes1.A2.

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1.

  4. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1--Electronic860‹‹

  5. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Roundtable – Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuelsin Emissions, Energy Use, and Greenhouse Gases,” Journal ofRoundtable – Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels

  6. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    July, 1998. Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine Cogeneration.Economics of Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine CogenerationEconomics of Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine Cogeneration

  7. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  8. Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    CarbonPlanet, 2007, Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country,In this discussion of greenhouse gas emissions and energyGreenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy

  9. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas...

  10. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

  11. European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition* John M. Reilly and Sergey, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    BEST: Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for industry toregarding energy use and energy saving measures. Accordingand quantifies the energy savings and simple payback period

  13. Direct measurements improve estimates of dairy greenhouse-gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitloehner, Frank M; Sun, Huawei; Karlik, John F

    2009-01-01

    that a small quantity of Greenhouse gases measured entericSC, Pain BF. 1994. Greenhouse gas emissions from intensiveT, Hartung E, Brose G. 2001. Greenhouse gas emissions from

  14. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Global Reporting Initiative, Energy Consumption Protocol153 the Global Reporting Initiative’s Energy Consumption

  15. The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

    2009-01-01

    the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits MattNATURE AND EXTENT OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REDUCTIONa similar situation with greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  16. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and water scarcity within the supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Updated state-level greenhouse gas emission coefficients forDA. A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs andpaper A discussion of greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs and

  17. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

  18. Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions University://www.atmos.utah.edu/) seeks multiple graduate students to study greenhouse gas emissions associated with urban development greenhouse gas emissions. Samples of guiding questions as part of the projects include: · What can explain

  19. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    tool called BEST: Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool forinternational best practice energy use levels. Benchmarkingin Australian Wineries: Energy Efficiency Best Practice.

  20. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    www.unescap.org/esd/energy/publications/finance/index.htmlfor an energy efficiency project, limited finances, poorof Finance concluded that the business energy and CO 2 taxes

  1. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    C. Using Biomass and Energy Efficiency as BACT Controlemissions. C. Using Biomass and Energy Efficiency as BACTemissions. The benefits of biomass energy accrue only over

  2. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    See generally, American Clean Energy and Security Act ofoptions related to enacting a "clean energy stan- dard." Theit should define "clean energy," but it is unclear whether

  3. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    d’Utilisation Rationnelle de l’Energie) Database. Availableen de la Maîtrise de l’Energie (ADEME) website: http://Investment Deduction (Energie Investeringsaftrek, EIA)

  4. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Ireland, 2006. Energy Management Systems. I.S. 393:20052004. The Energy Management System Specification withA corporate energy management system can be expanded to

  5. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed Regulation, Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard,from More Than 140 Renewable Energy and Public Health Advo-could subject renewable energy projects to lifecycle

  6. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  7. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  8. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    of companies with the Danish Energy Agency, were made forMay 29, 2003. Danish Energy Agency, 2000. Green Taxes forDanish CO 2 -Tax Scheme,” in International Energy Agency,

  9. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    intensities are measured as useful energy per square meter,climate corrected. Useful energy is based on the aggregatese.g. energy use/economic output) are useful for

  10. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  11. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Condensate Return Automatic Steam Trap Monitoring Flue Gas Heat Recoveryheat recovery Blowdown steam Recovery Steam trap maintenance Automatic steam trap monitoring Leak repair Condensateheat recovery Blowdown steam recovery Steam trap maintenance Automatic steam trap monitoring Leak repair Condensate

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    specified in the “Energy Technology List” on their income orappear on the 2004 Energy Technology List are: air-to-airEnergy, Industrial Technologies Program. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/imf/pdfs/eeroci_dec03a.pdf SenterNovem presents lists

  13. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  14. Greenovate Energy Efficiency Pilot Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25% by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    ; it is economically unsustainable. The City has done extensive outreach driving residential energy efficiency for buildings with four or fewer units. The Greenovate Boston Energy Efficiency Pilot Fellow will provide

  15. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Industrial Technologies Program provides many software tools, such as MotorMaster, for assessing energy efficiency of motors,

  16. Greenovate Energy Efficiency Research Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25% by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    energy efficiency upgrades in multifamily buildings. Specifically, the fellow will: · Review policies that increase the energy efficiency and property value of the building. · Research examples of successful tenant communications skills · Experience in energy efficiency and/or public policy · Basic understanding of building

  17. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  18. CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    H2 CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California goals of criteria pollutant and GHG emission reduction. · Modelers need to work with policy makers more to policy-makers and stakeholders. 5 #12;Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California 2030 #12;

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  20. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid methane emissions...

  1. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    in the pulp and paper industry. Miller Freeman Publications,on the US pulp and paper industry,” Energy Policy, Volumein the pulp and paper industry. Miller Freeman Publications,

  2. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Natural Gas, Coal,of Unconventional Shale-Gas Reservoirs. ” In Society oftight gas reservoirs, shale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and

  3. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  4. Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture Yit Arn Teh,1,2 * Whendee L, California 94702, USA ABSTRACT Agricultural drainage is thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from or global warming potential. We re- port greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, CO2, N2O) from a drained peatland

  5. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why to estimates based on this work (Gg/yr) Production emissions reported in 2011 greenhouse gas inventory (annual is methane important? The role of methane in the national greenhouse gas inventory · Most recent national

  6. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium power system All emissions are displayed in short tons (not metric tons) The Pacific Northwest (PNW

  7. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    See discussion of this report in ETSU, AEA Technology, 2001.environment/ccl/pdf/etsu- analysis.pdf Price, L. , Blok,a report prepared by ETSU (now AEA Energy & Environment) on

  8. Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College 2005 - 2010 *Total campus square(MBtu) based on electricity, light fuel oil, and natural gas. Barnard's CO2 Emissions 2005 to 2010 (lbs/ft2/ft2 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 #12;2 Energy Consumption and Air

  9. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to:...

  10. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised draft...

  11. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Controlling Methane Emissions in the...

  12. GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 2013 MultiGAS, gas emissions, exploration, Peru, Italy, gas geo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    , SO2 and H2S. In geothermal systems, surface manifestations are often com- prised of gas emissions geochemistry is used to help define the geometry of the geothermal system at depth (e.g., zones of upflow geo- chemistry, real-time ABSTRACT Geothermal exploration relies in part on the gas geochemis- try

  13. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

  14. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  15. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    longer-run management of greenhouse gas emis- sions; thatthe California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Severinthe California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Severin

  16. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  17. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H received September 12, 2010. Accepted September 14, 2010. Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (

  18. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  19. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  20. CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Future UBC Transportation Options Curtis Wan Joyce Ying Torrio Louie April 18th 2008 #12;ii Summary: This report analyzes the CO2 emissions and 53.0 g/CO2 respectively. It is determined that the emissions for 2007 were 83646.07 tonnes CO2

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric Power Plants in the Upper Colorado capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE. Introduction In2001

  2. 1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use and Transport Patterns in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    use electricity, natural gas and other energy sources regularly52 for space conditioning and powering1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use 2030 household energy 26 demands and GHG emissions estimates are compared under five different land use

  3. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Emissions Program - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration 2002deergore1.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission...

  4. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Emissions Program - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration 2002deergore2.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission...

  5. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas. This natural gas revolution is driving economic growth across the country, lowering energy prices and creating jobs. It has also contributed to an American manufacturing...

  6. Pricing greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    limits (contraction) · Equalize world per capita emissions (convergence) · Each adult receives a CO2 CO2 emissions Decrease Unchanged Increase Decreases Intensity: Decreases if emissions fall faster and Canadian jurisdictions (initially west coast) ­ Focus on transportation ­ Stationary emitters of CO2 given

  7. Response to Comment on "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures and renewable energy technologies in the near term. However, much of their rationale reflects costs and levelized costs of electricity, we refer readers to Table 1.9 of the Global Energy Assessment that nuclear power is unable to displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as effectively as energy efficiency

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric options is an important step in formulating a cohesive strategy to abate U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG

  9. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    production, thereby saving energy and reducing emissions andCement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cementinto account the costs and energy savings of different

  10. Meeting an 80% Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation by 2050: A Case Study in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from ,Board, 2008. California Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory.A. , 2003. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from US

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    and the Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from AviationD17): 4560. EPA (2006). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from theEPA (2008a). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

  12. Calculating chiller emissions and source energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumann, D.J. [Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various analyses have compared the emissions and over-all source energy use of different chillers. However, these analyses are typically based on national or regional electric power plant annual averages or rely on outdated emissions data that do not account for scrubbers and other pollution controls applied in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Other analyses have used power generation data for a specific utility but require hourly generation profiles, which are difficult to obtain. Thus, many of the existing models are either too general to provide valuable information or too complex to be practical for the day-to-day applications engineers face. This paper introduces a simple yet reliable hand calculation method for estimating the combustion-related emissions and source energy use of gas and electric chillers. The user needs to supply only two inputs: annual chiller system energy use and the utility`s power generation mix during chiller operation. The analysis supplies electric power plant heat rates and emission factors. Referenced guidelines are documented for all calculation inputs.

  13. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  14. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  15. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California, Marineet al. , 2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from aand P.G. Mikolaj, Natural oil seepage at Coal Oil Point,

  16. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  18. Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid...

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    tax increases, larger solar collector/absorption chillerphotovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissions

  20. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  1. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  2. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  3. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    2003. “Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource TechnologyATIONAL L ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for CarbonFirestone 5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon

  4. Energy Efficency and Greenhouse Gas Connection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Energy use for various services has a number of impacts on the environment. Energy combustion by-products include...

  5. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  6. Reducing Freight Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the California Corridor: The potential of short sea shipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Bo; Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Resources Board (CARB). Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data: 1990-CARB) California 1990 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Leve l andfor Designing a Greenhouse Gas Cap -and- Trade System for

  7. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01

    editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emission and sinks:Ishida. 2008. An integrated greenhouse gas assessment of anguidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume

  8. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  9. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  10. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 20172025 Vehicle Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017­2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy in the passenger vehicle fleet to evaluate the economic, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  11. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and A. Schafer, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S.Council. Marintek, Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions fromfor Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions

  12. Review of U.S. and European Regional Modeling Studies of Policies Intended to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are possible (accidents, noise, and greenhouse gas emissions. We reviewto Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Robert A.

  13. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    in unconventional production. Estimates of methane emissions from activities on producing oil and gas sites in unconventional oil and gas production is beinDirect measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania Mary

  14. The new air emission regulations for gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solt, C.

    1998-07-01

    In the US, there are three new regulations now in development that will lower the limits for NO{sub x} emissions from gas turbines: (1) New National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter, and Possibly revision to the Ozone standard (both of these new programs will target NO{sub x} emissions); (2) New regulations stemming from the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) recommendations (again, NO{sub x} is the primary focus); (3) Revision of the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for gas turbines and a new rule that will impose new toxic emission requirements, (the Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking, stemming from revisions to Title III of the Clean Sir Act Amendments of 1990). The toxic rule should be of particular concern to the gas turbine industry in that it may impose the use of expensive toxic emission control techniques that may not provide any significant health benefits to the public. In addition, the European Community is currently drafting a new regulation for combustion sources that will require gas turbines to meet levels that are lower than any in Europe today. This paper will consider all 5 of these regulatory actions and will: review the proposed regulations; discuss timing for regulation development and implementation; assess the probable impact of each regulation; and provide opinions on the fate of each regulation. Both manufacturers and users of gas turbines should be aware of these proceedings and take an active role in the rule development.

  15. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  16. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  17. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Hughes, and C.R. Knittel. Greenhouse Gas Reductions underoil sands industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. EnvironmentalA cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. McKinsey

  18. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.6.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissionsCHP investment. However, solar thermal collectors coupled to

  20. Fugitive Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report toDepartmentSignificantofWhat'sEastern BandFugitive

  1. Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarens, Andres

    Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for Environmentally Adapted Metalworking of environmentally adapted lubricants have been proposed in response to the environmental and health impacts/or deliver minimum quantities of lubricant in gas rather than water, with the former strategy being more

  2. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This chapter provides an assessment of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) flux caused by (1) changes in forest carbon in the form of forest and soil surveys. Carbon dioxide fluxes from forest carbon stocks and from nonInventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 1998 April 15, 2000 U.S. Environmental

  3. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  4. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  5. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  6. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  7. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  8. Energy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    emissions of optimizing a slow pyrolysis-based bioenergy system for biochar and energy production rather pyrolysis systems produce some char as a product. In this paper we refer to this material as biochar (whichEnergy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar Sequestration and Pyrolysis Bioenergy

  9. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source ..67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source EnergyCO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by Fuel Source

  10. Emissions Technology Gives Company Clean Win as Energy Innovator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Umpqua Energy produced an emission control system that can potentially reduce the emissions from vehicles by 90 percent.

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  12. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  13. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    Final Energy Use (Mtce) Oil Products Solid Fuels 2010-30Electricity Heat Natural Gas Oil Products Solid Fuels UnlikeHeat Natural Gas Oil Products Coke Solid Fuels Efficiency

  14. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    many contacts in urban sector and energy efficiency programsin urban sector with significant energy efficiency programsclimate change, energy efficiency, and urban development

  15. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorologicalbillion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorologicalbillion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological

  16. Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline...

  17. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels Title Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

  18. A physics-based emissions model for aircraft gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allaire, Douglas L

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, a physics-based model of an aircraft gas turbine combustor is developed for predicting NO. and CO emissions. The objective of the model is to predict the emissions of current and potential future gas turbine ...

  19. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across...

  20. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 93% methane by mass. NETL, 2012. Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment. See ICF, supra note 11 at 78, fn. 40. 39 This report is available...

  1. Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Taylor, J.; Wayne, W. S.; Smith, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2005-12-01

    An evaluation of emissions of natural gas and diesel buses operated by the Washington Metro Area Transit Authority.

  2. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas- Small Business Energy Savings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas, and North Shore Gas fund the Small Business Energy Savings program in which an energy advisor conducts a free on-site energy assessment and provides free installati...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    emissions intensity of unconventional oil production remainof the forecasts of unconventional oil and gas productionassociated with unconventional production of oil and gas;

  5. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  6. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    air conditioning energy use for East and West buildingsof air-conditioning energy use of the east building as itthe daily cooling energy use in the east building in each of

  7. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    of cool coating on the air conditioning energy use is onlycoating comparison of air-conditioning energy usage for bothtemperature, heat flux, and air conditioning electricity use

  8. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  9. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  10. The solar wind charge-transfer X-ray emission in the 1/4 keV energy range: inferences on Local Bubble hot gas at low Z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Koutroumpa; R. Lallement; J. C. Raymond; V. Kharchenko

    2008-12-19

    We present calculations of the heliospheric SWCX emission spectra and their contributions in the ROSAT 1/4 keV band. We compare our results with the soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) emission detected in front of 378 identified shadowing regions during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Snowden et al. 2000). This foreground component is principally attributed to the hot gas of the so-called Local Bubble (LB), an irregularly shaped cavity of ~50-150 pc around the Sun, which is supposed to contain ~10^6 K plasma. Our results suggest that the SWCX emission from the heliosphere is bright enough to account for most of the foreground emission towards the majority of low galactic latitude directions, where the LB is the least extended. In a large part of directions with galactic latitude above 30deg the heliospheric SWCX intensity is significantly smaller than the measured one. However, the SWCX R2/R1 band ratio differs slightly from the data in the galactic center direction, and more significantly in the galactic anti-centre direction where the observed ratio is the smallest. Assuming that both SWCX and hot gas emission are present and their relative contributions vary with direction, we tested a series of thermal plasma spectra for temperatures ranging from 10^5 to 10^6.5 K and searched for a combination of SWCX spectra and thermal emission matching the observed intensities and band ratios, while simultaneously being compatible with O VI emission measurements. In the frame of collisional equilibrium models and for solar abundances, the range we derive for hot gas temperature and emission measure cannot reproduce the Wisconsin C/B band ratio. We emphasize the need for additional atomic data, describing consistently EUV and X-ray photon spectra of the charge-exchange emission of heavier solar wind ions.

  11. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    Fuel. 44 Figure 41. Industrial Subsector Primary Energy Savings Potential .Energy Savings Potential under Max Tech Rail Electrification "Savings" EV Penetration "Savings Final Energy Demand (Mtce) Fuelenergy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel,

  12. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  13. False optimism for the hydrogen economy and the potential of biofuels and advanced energy storage to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Rory, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Discussion of the general domestic energy situation addresses the motivations which underlie the push for an hydrogen energy economy. The validity of claims about such a hydrogen economy and the official DOE position ...

  14. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    like Brazil, has strong programs on energy efficiency, andenergy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil,energy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil,

  15. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  16. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  17. UES (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    UniSource Energy Services (UES) offers the Commercial Energy Solutions Program for non-residential gas customers to install energy efficient equipment. Incentives are provided for qualified...

  18. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    coating comparison of air-conditioning energy usage for bothtemperature, heat flux, and air conditioning electricity useHourly time series of air conditioning and non-conditioning

  19. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  20. High energy emission from microquasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Fender; Tom Maccarone

    2003-10-20

    The microquasar phenomenon is associated with the production of jets by X-ray binaries and, as such, may be associated with the majority of such systems. In this chapter we briefly outline the associations, definite, probable, possible, and speculative, between such jets and X-ray, gamma-ray and particle emission.

  1. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014Department of Energy Nationwide:Natural Gas

  2. Reference Projections Energy and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are decreasing. Oil and coal consumption increase, renewable energy grows rapidly but plays a modest role. Energy consumption continues to increase Compared to the last decade, the increase in energy consumption, energy consumption increases less rapidly The relatively mild winters of the last 15 years have led

  3. In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug to the power grid to provide higher efficiency, better energy security, and lower greenhouse gas emissionsAbstract In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources

  4. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Bruce A. Mc Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Today society faces important concentrations to stabilize once emissions have stabilized; and c) decades to fully retrofit and/or replace

  5. Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    \\ Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten· Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld Image. EAGAR ABSTRACT. An experimental study was carried out to map the light emissions from a gas tungsten arc. The emissions were found to be dramat- ically different with different shielding gases, welding current and base

  6. Comparative emissions from natural gas and diesel buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.N.; Gadapati, C.J.; Lyons, D.W.; Wang, W.; Gautam, M.; Bata, R.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Kelly, K.; White, C.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods. During the three years of testing, a significant fraction of emissions data was acquired from buses with Cummins L-10 engines designed to operate on either CNG or diesel. The CNG lean burn engines were spark ignited and throttled. Early CNG engines, which were pre-certification demonstration models, have provided the bulk of the data, but data from 9 buses with more advanced technology were also available. It has been found that carbon monoxide (CO) levels from early Cummins L-10 CNG powered buses varied greatly from bus to bus, with the higher values ascribed to either faulty catalytic converters or a rich idle situation, while the later model CNG L-10 engines offered CO levels considerably lower than those typical of diesel engines. The NO{sub x} emissions were on par with those from diesel L-10 buses. Those natural gas buses with engines adjusted correctly for air-fuel ratio, returned very low emissions data. CNG bus hydrocarbon emissions are not readily compared with diesel engine levels since only the non-methane organic gases (NMOG) are of interest. Data show that NMOG levels are low for the CNG buses. Significant reduction was observed in the particulate matter emitted by the CNG powered buses compared to the diesel buses, in most cases the quantity captured was vanishingly small. Major conclusions are that engine maintenance is crucial if emissions are to remain at design levels and that the later generation CNG engines show marked improvement over the earlier models. One may project for the long term that closed loop stoichiometry control is desirable even in lean burn applications.

  7. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions air quality, liquefied natural gas, nitrogen  dioxide, increasing use of liquefied natural gas in California, the 

  8. Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel applicable to investigations of modeling the effect of natural gas interchangeability on urban air quality for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

  9. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  10. Leakage and Comparative Advantage Implications of Agricultural Participation in Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Emission Mitigation Heng-Chi Lee Assistant Professor Institute of Applied Economics National Taiwan Ocean greenhouse gas emissions. Reduction efforts may involve the agricultural sector through options emission reductions. As a consequence, emission reduction efforts in implementing countries may be offset

  11. Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power Plant Cycling Necessary for Increased Wind and Solar in the West Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power Plant...

  12. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  13. DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    DISTRIBUTIONAL IMPACTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING: ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION AND RECYCLING. Phone (714) 907-1123, Fax (213) 821-3926, E-mail fprager@usc.edu Emissions trading, or "cap and trade

  14. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  15. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  16. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  17. A Potential Path to Emissions-Free Fossil Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Potential Path to Emissions-Free Fossil Energy A Potential Path to Emissions-Free Fossil Energy August 20, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis The National Energy Technology Laboratory's...

  18. Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

  19. Berkshire Gas- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Berkshire Gas Company (BCG) provides rebates for its commercial and industrial customers to pursue energy efficient improvements to their facilities. As a part of their energy efficiency program,...

  20. Agricultural Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Uwe A.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the economic potential of agriculture to participate in greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts. Major agricultural mitigation strategies are included simultaneously to capture interactions. ...

  1. Development of Atmospheric Tracer Methods To Measure Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1995-01-01

    to coal and 30% less compared to fuel oil, switching fromcoal and fuel oil to natural gas has the potential to reducehydrocarbon emissions from an oil refinery wastewater

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  3. Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dossary, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings...

  4. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Greenwood, Stuart A. (San Diego, CA); Dutta, Partha (San Diego, CA); Moon, Hee-Koo (San Diego, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  5. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshow explains the workEnergy A fact

  6. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshow explains the workEnergy A

  7. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergy U.S.Safety, CostStates |

  8. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory | Department of EnergyofWASHINGTON,

  9. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions- Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  10. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  11. Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    by multiplying the passenger car emissions estimate by the36 MPG new car to achieve the same GHG emissions reduction.U.S. (CARS) Stimulate auto industry and reduce GHG emissions

  12. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  14. Performances of a bent-crystal spectrometer adapted to resonant x-ray emission measurements on gas-phase samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Journel, Loiec; El Khoury, Lara; Marin, Thierry; Guillemin, Renaud; Carniato, Stephane; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Hague, Coryn F.; Simon, Marc

    2009-09-15

    We describe a bent-crystal spectrometer adapted to measure x-ray emission resulting from core-level excitation of gas-phase molecules in the 0.8-8 keV energy range. The spectrometer is based on the Johann principle, and uses a microfocused photon beam to provide high-resolution (resolving power of {approx}7500). A gas cell was designed to hold a high-pressure (300 mbar) sample of gas while maintaining a high vacuum (10{sup -9} mbar) in the chamber. The cell was designed to optimize the counting rate (2000 cts/s at the maximum of the Cl K{alpha} emission line), while minimizing self-absorption. Example of the K{alpha} emission lines of CH{sub 3}Cl molecules is presented to illustrate the capabilities of this new instrument.

  15. Sound emission from the gas of molecular superrotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milner, A A; Milner, V

    2015-01-01

    We use an optical centrifuge to deposit a controllable amount of rotational energy into dense molecular ensembles. Subsequent rotation-translation energy transfer, mediated by thermal collisions, results in the localized heating of the gas and generates strong sound wave, clearly audible to the unaided ear. For the first time, the amplitude of the sound signal is analyzed as a function of the experimentally measured rotational energy. The proportionality between the two experimental observables confirms that rotational excitation is the main source of the detected sound wave. As virtually all molecules, including the main constituents of the atmosphere, are amenable to laser spinning by the centrifuge, we anticipate this work to stimulate further development in the area of photo-acoustic control and spectroscopy.

  16. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    oil-gas separator, and gas flux turbine. B. Image of oil-gasoil. Absent the oil-gas separator, the turbine would havelines connected the turbine to the oil-gas separator and

  17. Natural Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to:Information Wildlife RefugeNatronEnergyNatural Gas

  18. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech, though the 2020s is a likely turning point for both emission trajectories. Both emission pathways must meet all announced and planned policies, targets and non-fossil generation targets, or an even wider efficiency gap will exist. The savings potential under Max Tech varies by sector, but the industrial sector appears to hold the largest energy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel, and electricity savings are magnified by power sector decarbonization through increasing renewable generation and coal generation efficiency improvement. In order to achieve the maximum energy savings and emission reduction potential, efficiency improvements and technology switching must be undertaken across demand sectors as well as in the growing power sector. From an economic perspective, the cost of conserved energy analysis indicates that nearly all measures for the iron and steel and cement industry are cost-effective. All 23 efficiency measures analyzed for the cement industry are cost-effective, with combined CO2 emission reduction potential of 448 Mt CO2. All of the electricity savings measures in the iron and steel industry are cost-effective, but the cost-effective savings potential for fuel savings measures is slightly lower than total technical savings potential. The total potential savings from these measures confirm the magnitude of savings in the scenario models, and illustrate the remaining efficiency gap in the cement and iron and steel industries.

  19. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  20. Analysis of energy use and carbon emissions from automobile manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raykar, Sumant (Sumant Shreechandra)

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the energy use and emissions arising from automobile manufacturing. The automobile manufacturing sector is the 11th largest industrial sector globally in terms of energy use and emissions. The IPCC ...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence annual reduction of greenhouse gases of 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. The transportation committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012

  2. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn: California regula2on of Greenhouse Gas Emissions · AB 32: Mandates 1990 levels assessed) Policies TelecommuFng Employer-Based Trip ReducFon Car-Sharing Pricing

  3. Samson Sherman President Obama's Energy Plan & Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    of total greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., but account for 8.5 percent of the global warming potential" but includes wind, solar, nuclear, natural gas, and coal plants that can capture and store CO2 emissions

  4. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  5. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand The model can also track CO2 emissions heat rates, emission rates, hydro shapes... Fuel prices Emission Rate Load Heat Rate 10 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 80,000 mmbtu Combined Cycle Plant 212 lb/mmbtu Emission Rate 4 8,000 MWh Load Heat Rate 7 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 56,000 mmbtu 3,276 tons CO2 Emission Rate 117 lb

  6. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net and reducing CH4 emissions (6­8). Second, by removing the living biomass from the peatland surface, the grossJulian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Peat

  7. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters or natural gas furnaces. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or...

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping STD-1128-2013 April 2013DepartmentGreenPaulDepartment of

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle Activity Network Efficiency GHG Emissions Operational Efficiency Alternative EnergyAlternative energy includes the substitution of fuels other than fossil fuels for vehicle

  10. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  11. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  12. PECO Energy (Gas)- Heating Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PECO Smart Natural Gas Efficiency Upgrade Program offers rebates and incentives to commercial or residential customers that install an ENERGY STAR qualified high-efficiency natural gas furna...

  13. High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bicknell, Geoff

    High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption 1 Motivation and the jet. #12;High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 2/114 HST optical image of 3C273 Note the very strong cen- tral point source and the less luminous jet. Objects such as 3C273 radiate as much

  14. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and...

  15. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    forty gallon residential gas-fired storage water heater wasthat could replace a gas-fired storage water heater with adefined a baseline gas-fired storage water heater that meets

  16. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  17. Department of Energy Announces 22 New Projects to Enable Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MONITOR program focuses on reducing methane emissions associated with energy production to build a more sustainable energy future. The program plans to provide 30 million...

  18. Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission for Solar Energy Harvesting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Thermionic Emission for Solar Energy Harvesting Final Report to the Global Climate and Energy Project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photon Enhanced...

  19. HI emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, S N; Allison, J R; Koribalski, B S; Curran, S J; Pracy, M B

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a targeted search for intervening HI absorption in six nearby, gas-rich galaxies using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The sightlines searched have impact parameters of 10-20 kpc. By targeting nearby galaxies we are also able to map their HI emission, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the extended HI distribution. The continuum sightlines intersect the HI disk in four of the six galaxies, but no intervening absorption was detected. Of these four galaxies, we find that three of the non-detections are the result of the background source being too faint. In the fourth case we find that the ratio of the spin temperature to the covering factor ($T_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$) must be much higher than expected ($\\gtrsim$5700 K) in order to explain the non-detection. We discuss how the structure of the background continuum sources may have affected the detection rate of HI absorption in our sample, and the possible implications for future surveys. Future...

  20. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine transportation emissions is more...

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of total HFC emissions, including the group of other HFCsPFCsPFPEs. To encourage vehicle manufacturers to reduce emissions of HFC-134a from mobile air conditioners, the...

  3. The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development Qi, and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 242 April 2013 China Energy & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References Retrieved from "http:...

  5. NorthWestern Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthWestern Energy offers multiple rebate programs for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to their businesses.  The E+ Commercial Natural Gas Savings Program...

  6. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  7. Charlottesville Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charlottesville Gas offers rebates to residential customers for purchasing and installing specified energy efficient equipment. Rebates and utility bill credits of up to $100 are available for...

  8. Economics of Lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    4 Greenhouse gas regulation of fuels: intensity standardsfor biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissionsI. de Carvalho Macedo. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  10. Texas Emissions Reductions Program (TERP) Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2010-01-01

    counties, and near-nonattainmtent counties. LEGISLATIVE RESPONSE Senate Bill 5 (77th Legislature, 2001) Ch. 386. Texas Emissions Reduction Plan Sec. 386.205. Evaluation Of State Energy Efficiency Programs (with PUC) Ch. 388. Texas Building... ST ON E GR IM ES LE E SO ME RV EL L AN DR EW S BO RD EN OS D NO x E mi ss ion s R ed uc tio ns (T on s/y r) County Total OSD NOx Emissions Reductions (SF, MF and Commercial Buildings) Natural Gas (SF...

  11. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Turbines Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of industrial gas turbine packages for the power generation- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  12. Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer from Ho3 + ions Ying Yu October 2010 Accepted 28 October 2010 Available online 4 November 2010 Keywords: Ultraviolet emission Upconversion Energy transfer a b s t r a c t Ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Gd3+ ion were

  13. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  14. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    , the results obtained and the lessons learned in developing an integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System with a major industrial manufacturing company in the Midwest. Key subject areas covered include: Integration of Climate Change and Energy...

  15. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  16. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  17. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  20. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    installed to replace hydro power, in terms of GHG emissions.coal-fired power plant or a hydro-power facility. 4. The GHG

  1. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Natural Gas Many heavy-duty fleets depend on diesel fuel. But an increasing number of trucking companies are transitioning their vehicles to run on liquefied natural...

  2. Danish Energy Authority Poland -Electricity and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector analyses December 2004 #12;Danish Energy Authority Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU Funds Electricity sector

  3. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian-Pacific Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in the U.S. With Implications for Asian&M University Seniority of authorship is shared November 2001 #12;Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Through Energy Crops in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation efforts has increased in recent years. While the original text

  4. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  5. IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimen RiverScoringUtilities CommEnergy,INTA Jump to:Emission

  6. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

  7. Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impervious cover. Gas consists mostly of CO2 with minor H2S and the diffuse CO2 soil flux is locally very high. Accidental gas blowouts, occurred during shallow well...

  8. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  9. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  10. High gas prices. Road construction. Plane delays. Traffic jams. Fuel emission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    1 High gas prices. Road construction. Plane delays. Traffic jams. Fuel emission. Millions of people interdisciplin- ary nature--focusing on economics, engineering and public policy--presents real-life situations

  11. Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry. Another option that needs to be considered for use in wet scrubbers is acidic electrolyzed water (AEW

  12. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  13. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    to natural gas combustion and air pollution were reviewedreports on combustion-related air pollution were alsoCombustion Emissions? Specialty Session, 67th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution

  14. Development and assessment of a soot emissions model for aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martini, Bastien

    2008-01-01

    Assessing candidate policies designed to address the impact of aviation on the environment requires a simplified method to estimate pollutant emissions for current and future aircraft gas turbine engines under different ...

  15. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  16. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    2 emissions. The renewable energy base case assumes 535 GWcase, the low renewable energy sensitivity cases result incase of hydro, the projection to 2020 draws on the NDRC’s Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Renewable Energy

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    GIACC) Third Meeting. IEA (2008a). CO 2 Emissions from Fueland Development (OECD). IEA (2008b). Energy TechnologyCE Delft; Lew Fulton, IEA; Michael Rossell, UK Permanent

  18. School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus Emissions Study School Bus Emissions Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation deer2003slodowske.pdf More Documents &...

  19. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    including delivered hot water and energy losses. Waterand 17% if hot water energy is included. INTRODUCTION Thedrawn, determines the hot water energy output. The current

  20. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  1. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  2. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  3. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  4. Emissions and performance evaluation of a dedicated compressed natural gas saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Taylor, J.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel has been identified as one strategy that can help ameliorate some problems, which include a growing dependence on imported oil (and all its ramifications) and the persistent contributions that mobile sources make to urban air pollution, associated with the use of conventional petroleum fuels. The attributes and limitations of CNG as a fuel for spark-ignition engines have been presented by others. The attributes are associated with its high octane rating, low cost relative to other alternative fuels, its availability, the absence of running and diurnal evaporative emissions, and its demonstrated potential for producing extremely low exhaust emissions-particularly if the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted are expressed in terms of reactivity adjusted non-methane organic gases (RANMOG). The limitations associated with the use of CNG include its limited refueling infrastructure, the cost of refueling facilities, the cost of on-board fuel storage tanks, and its relatively low energy density. Because one impediment to CNG use is the cost associated with producing a CNG-powered vehicle, a study was initiated at the University of Tennessee under sponsorship by the Saturn Corporation to determine how a CNG vehicle (specifically, a 1991 Saturn SL1) could be engineered so it could be produced with a minimal impact on the production of the base vehicle. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the emissions reduction potential of the Saturn CNG vehicle. In the previous study the role of exhaust gas recirculation was not thoroughly investigated. Those involved in the study agreed that the NO{sub x} levels could be brought down well below California ULEV levels without increasing either the non-methane organic gases or the CO levels.

  5. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

  6. The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

  7. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  8. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  10. European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methane emissions between 1996 and 2001 using a three-dimensional global chemical transport model, Yu and ecosystem impacts, and analysis of mitigation strategies, need to be based on realistic evaluation

  11. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    in BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recoverythe use of untapped coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, andthe sensible heat of the coke oven gas (COG) is collected by

  12. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in The Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume III- Technical Appendix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Lewis, C.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J..; Degelman, L.; McKelvey, K.; Clardige, D.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Zilbershtein. G.; Gilman, D.

    2012-01-01

    this sixth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (Preliminary Report) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. In this preliminary report, the NOx emissions savings from the energy...

  13. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated...

  14. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

  15. The Energy and Economic Impacts of Expanding International Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Energy and Economic Impacts of Expanding International Emissions Trading Tianyu Qi, Niven Trading Tianyu Qi* , Niven Winchester , Valerie J. Karplus and Xiliang Zhang Abstract Emissions trading of the European Union's Emissions Trading System with a new system in Australia in 2015, this paper simulates

  16. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  17. Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    balance; Agro-ecosystem model; CERES-EGC; Bayesian calibration; Green- house gases; Nitrous oxidePredicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe gases (GHG) con- tributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact

  18. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider policies or markets are simulated via hypothetical carbon prices. At each carbon price level

  19. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  20. Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment March...

  1. New England Gas Company - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    England Gas Company - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs New England Gas Company - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back...

  2. Energy Department Projects Focus on Sustainable Natural Gas Developmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department Projects Focus on Sustainable Natural Gas Development Energy Department Projects Focus on Sustainable Natural Gas Development January 10, 2013 - 1:00pm Addthis...

  3. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Combined Heat And Power...

  4. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lowers Costs ArcelorMittal's Indiana Harbor plant in East Chicago, Indiana, is the largest steel mill in the Western Hemisphere. It operates five...

  5. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    European Commission, “Germany energy mix fact sheet, http://Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 2006. [114] V.Germany: an example of geographical variability in life-cycle assessment,” Applied Energy,

  6. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  7. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  8. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  9. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  10. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-�������­���¢�������Energy, Carbon-�������­Dioxide-�������­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Evaluation of KDOT's Vehicle Fleet's CO2 Emissions and Possible Energy Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Eric

    2012-12-31

    Increasing energy demands require more energy extraction from fossil fuels. The energy is extracted through combustion and results in mainly CO2 emissions as well as other trace emissions. Reducing energy usage can save money and CO2 emissions...

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    energy challenge with ISO 50001, International Organizationgas emissions. Also, the ISO 50001 standard for Energy

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  14. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  15. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    Potential by Source Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2)CO2 Emissions Reference Agriculture Industrial Transport Commercial Residential Max Tech Agriculture Industrial Transport Commercial Residential In terms of fuel source,

  16. MidAmerican Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers basic energy efficiency incentives for residential customers in Nebraska to improve the comfort and savings in participating homes. These incentives include gas heating...

  17. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore »conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  18. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    2010 Technology Shares District Heating Boiler Gas BoilerReference Scenario District Heating Boiler Gas Boiler Smallwater generation for district heating, preheating combustion

  19. Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emerging gas technologies to enhance industrial energy efficiency, challenges of integrating into the marketplace and an overview of DTE Energy’s energy efficiency programs for natural gas customers.

  20. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    of solar-thermal electricity generation,” Solar Energy, vol.solar, wind, other renewables or electricity technologies, and energysolar energy case study showed reductions of over 25% in the transportation and electricity

  1. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  2. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data analysis from this study will provide insight into real-world performance of current emissions reduction devices, under various operating conditions, and with respect to greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  4. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    management program following national energy managementwith national-level energy or GHG tax programs, LBNLnational level energy efficiency and GHG emissions reduction programs.

  5. (Gas) Commercial and Industrial Gas Rebate Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s i s t a n t S e c r eEnergyHVAC

  6. Energy Saving in Ammonia Plant by Using Gas Turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uji, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1981-01-01

    An ammonia plant, in which the IHI-SULZER Type 57 Gas Turbine is integrated in order to achieve energy saving, has started successful operation. Tile exhaust gas of the gas turbine has thermal energy of relatively high temperature, therefore...

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  8. OY Car During Normal Outburst: Balmer Emission From The Red Star And The Gas Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. T. Harlaftis; T. R. Marsh

    1995-03-07

    We present observations of OY Car, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope, during a normal outburst in August 1991. Two sinusoidal components are resolved in the H$\\beta$ trailed spectra and we determine the location of the narrow component to be on the secondary star with a maximum contributed flux of ~2.5 per cent to the total flux. Imaging of the line distribution reveals that the other emission component is associated with the gas stream. This follows a velocity close to the ballistic one from the red star to a distance of ~0.5 R$_{L_{1}}$ from the white dwarf. This emission penetrates the accretion disc (from 0.5--0.1 R$_{L_{1}}$), with a velocity now closer (but lower) to the keplerian velocities along the path of the gas stream. We finally discuss the implications of having observed simultaneously line emission from the gas stream and the red star during outburst.

  9. Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C and N processes under different fired N processes under different fire frequencies in soils of Sierra Nevada chaparral shrublands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Jay B.

    Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere is lacking. ·Historically, fire played a critical role in shaping

  10. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  11. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  12. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    the economic and environmental impact of energy policy,”ability to reduce environmental impacts and move toward ato minimize cost and environmental impact,” Proceedings of

  13. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Environmental impacts of PV electricity generation - a critical comparison of energy supply options,” Proceedings of the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar

  14. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .variability in life-cycle assessment,” Applied Energy, vol.input-output life-cycle assessment model,” International

  15. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  16. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Reports on Phase 1 testing of new 2007 heavy-duty diesel engines (using a common lubricant) from four manufacturers (Caterpillar,...

  17. Technology Makes Solid State Multi-Gas Emission Monitoring Possible 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    NEUTRAL BEAM GAS-FILTER CELL BEAM (al D~~~:_]IIl] '~05~~1, (bl lliill:~~:':_::JIIIII SO, 'N "ACFilter... arsenic se1enide (TAS) on a production basis has made it possible to buLld an electronically controlled acousto ,-,ptie tunable filter (AOTF) capable of operating in the infrared. Such a filter with integral .11 t rasonic trifnsduce r can be used...

  18. Inspection and recertification of gas filled composite pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.R.; Temowchek, S.J. [Physical Acoustics Corp., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion resistance and light weight have made composite materials the best choice for many high pressure gas applications. However, progress has been hampered by the limitations of traditional NDT inspection methods and lack of understanding about failure mechanisms. One solution which has emerged is the use of Acoustic Emission to monitor the composite pressure vessel during periodic proof tests. The emission generated can be used to determine the existence of hidden mechanical defects and corrosion which may have significantly lowered the burst strength. A data base of over 4,000 NGV (natural gas vehicle) containers will be used to exemplify the usefulness of the method.

  19. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  20. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  1. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  2. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  3. Gauss Bonnet dark energy Chaplygin Gas Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elahe Karimkhani; Asma Alaii; Abdolhossein Khodam-Mohammadi

    2015-02-27

    In this work we incorporate GB dark energy density and its modification, MGB, with Chaplygin gas component. We show that, presence of Chaplygin gas provides us a feature to obtain an exact solution for scalar field and potential of scalar field. Investigation on squared of sound speed provides a lower limit for constant parameters of MGB model. Also, we could find some bounds for free parameters of model.

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  5. Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    programs. Since the 1970 Clean Air Act the nation's transit agencies have served as test beds for emissions transportation systems (4). And in addition to providing energy and emissions efficiency benefits to society itself: by helping to market services to environmentally conscious riders, by reducing the costs

  6. Island Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar Hydro Jump to: navigation, searchreporting ?Gas Jump to:

  7. Gas Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWind Jump2008) |Gas

  8. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  9. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    of natural gas and wind power. Wind and natural gas capacityCapacity (GW) Biomass Solar Wind Power Hydropower NuclearLT 100MW Biomass Solar Wind Power Hydropower Nuclear Power

  10. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    cogeneration units are gas turbine based, using either a simple cycle system (systems in EAF plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Marine diesel oil (MDO), Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Winddiesel oil) or to other renewable energy sources, such as winddiesel oil), or to other renewable energy sources, such as wind

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    United States 2008, DOEEIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Table 14. U.S. carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy fuels, 1990-2009: Source: EIA estimates....

  13. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnualA1. Notes and

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin65.

  15. New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 2008 Next3,4,04,5,797

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digglaws-incentivesFuels andNatural GasSafetyNatural

  17. Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergy MarketingNewOpen EnergyReclamation Project Act

  18. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  19. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE X-RAY EMISSION-LINE GAS IN NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. Michael, E-mail: kraemer@yancey.gsfc.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ?160 km s{sup –1}, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = –0.05 and 1.22 and logN {sub H} = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC 1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2010-01-01

    and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050. Lawrence Berkeley2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECD Publishing.Future Energy and Emissions Outlook Nina Zheng, Nan Zhou and