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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Gas Exchange of Algae: II. Effects of Oxygen, Helium, and Argon on the Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...verify that nitrogen, helium...and exit gases was identical...that the solubility of the gases in the algal...dioxide in nitrogen, helium...error due to water vapor pressure...properties of the gas molecules...closely matches nitrogen (Handbook...

Elizabeth C. B. Ammann; Victoria H. Lynch

1966-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Performance Assessment of a Recuperative Helium Gas Turbine System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Helium is considered an ideal working fluid for closed cycle gas turbines powered by the heat of nuclear reactors or solar concentrators. Energetic and exergetic based thermodynamic analyses ... applied to an act...

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m2 d1 at...

4

A Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Direct Cycle with Partial Condensation for Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A carbon dioxide gas turbine power generation system with a partial condensation cycle has been proposed for thermal and fast nuclear reactors, in which compression is done partly in the liquid phase and partly in the gas phase. This cycle achieves higher cycle efficiency than a He direct cycle mainly due to reduced compressor work of the liquid phase and of the carbon dioxide real gas effect, especially in the vicinity of the critical point. If this cycle is applied to a thermal reactor, efficiency of this cycle is about 55% at a reactor outlet temperature of 900 deg. C and pressure of 12.5 MPa, which is higher by about 10% than a typical helium direct gas turbine cycle plant (PBMR) at 900 deg. C and 8.4 MPa; this cycle also provides comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate core outlet temperature of 600 deg. C with that of the helium cycle at 900 deg. C. If this cycle is applied to a fast reactor, it is anticipated to be an alternative to liquid metal cooled fast reactors that can provide slightly higher cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature; it would eliminate safety problems, simplify the heat transport system and simplify plant maintenance. A passive decay heat removal system is realized by connecting a liquid carbon dioxide storage tank with the reactor vessel and by supplying carbon dioxide gasified from the tank to the core in case of depressurization event. (authors)

Yasuyoshi Kato; Takeshi Nitawaki; Yoshio Yoshizawa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exhaust Gas Sensor Based On Tin Dioxide For Automotive Application Arthur VALLERON a,b , Christophe, Engineering Materials Department The aim of this paper is to investigate the potentialities of gas sensor based on semi-conductor for exhaust gas automotive application. The sensing element is a tin dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

7

Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li, Yuguang Ma, M. Colin McCarthy, Julian Sculley, Jiamei Yu,...

8

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

9

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

10

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

11

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the storage of natural gas and prior to the exercise of eminent domain by any person, firm, or corporation having such right under laws of the state of Louisiana, the commissioner, shall have found all of the following:

12

Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon #12;2 ABSTRACT Since gas flows in micro/nano devices are dominated by the interaction of gas molecules accommodation of gas molecules on surfaces. The scattering of gas molecules on quartz surfaces covered with VA

Maruyama, Shigeo

13

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Control of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure argon plasma characteristics by helium gas mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of plasma characteristics is one of the important issues in many atmospheric pressure plasma applications. In order to accomplish this control, a feasibility study was performed by investigating the role of helium gas in an argon glow plasma that were produced in ambient air by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to measure rotational temperature and emission spectra acquired between 300 and 840 nm. Based on electrical and optical measurements, parameters such as gas temperature, breakdown voltage, power coupling efficiency, spatial uniformity of rotational temperature, and the sum of the emission intensity were controlled by varying the argon and helium gas mixing ratio. The addition of helium gas (from 0 to 10 lpm) to the argon flow (of 10 lpm) lowered the breakdown voltage (from 430 to 300 V{sub pk}) and the rotational temperature (from 465 to 360 K). However, an excessive addition of helium resulted in a reduction of the spatial uniformity and efficiency of power coupling. When the ratio of helium to argon flow was between 0.3 and 0.5, a high spatial uniformity with a relatively low gas temperature and breakdown voltage was achieved. This suggests that mixing of the supply gas is a useful way of controlling the plasma characteristics that may be utilized for applications with specific required discharge conditions.

Moon, Se Youn; Han, Jewoo; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Process for Gas Separation from a Shifted Synthesis Gas Stream  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestration and Sequestration and Gasification Technologies Carbon DioxiDe HyDrate ProCess for Gas seParation from a sHifteD syntHesis Gas stream Background One approach to de-carbonizing coal is to gasify it to form fuel gas consisting predominately of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This fuel gas is sent to a shift conversion reactor where carbon monoxide reacts with steam to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen. After scrubbing the CO 2 from the fuel, a stream of almost pure hydrogen stream remains, which can be burned in a gas turbine or used to power a fuel cell with essentially zero emissions. However, for this approach to be practical, it will require an economical means of separating CO 2 from mixed gas streams. Since viable options for sequestration or reuse of CO

16

Diameters of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Depending on Helium Gas Pressure in an Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diameters of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Depending on Helium Gas Pressure in an Arc Discharge ... So far, relatively large quantities of SWNTs have been produced by using Y?Ni and Fe?Ni catalysts for the electric arc discharge method28-30 and by using a Co?Ni catalyst for the pulsed laser ablation method. ... The electric current of the arc discharge also affected the yield of SWNTs though its effect was not as serious as the helium pressure. ...

Yahachi Saito; Yoshihiko Tani; Atsuo Kasuya

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Gas Separation on B80 Fullerene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Gas Separation on B80 Fullerene ... All other clusters show the optimized chemisorbed configurations of CO2 captured on B80. ... Although air capture will cost more than capture at power generating facilities when both are operated under the same economic conditions, air capture allows one to apply industrial economies of scale to small and mobile emission sources and enables a partial decoupling of C capture from the energy infrastructure; advantages which may compensate for the intrinsic difficulty of capturing C from air. ...

Qiao Sun; Meng Wang; Zhen Li; Aijun Du; Debra J. Searles

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

18

Impact of carbon dioxide sequestration in depleted gas-condensate reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Depleted gas-condensate reservoirs are becoming important targets for carbon dioxide sequestration. Since depleted below the dew point, retrograde condensate has been deposited in the pore… (more)

Ramharack, Richard M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen the mole fraction of CO2 in the carbon dioxide + nitrogen + cyclopentane mixed hydrate phase, both defined;2 {water +carbon dioxide + nitrogen}, the equilibrium pressure of the mixed hydrate is reduced by 0.95 up

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D. [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Evaluation of High-Temperature Alloys for Helium Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

C. 1. Mechanical Property / Status of Metallic Materials Development for Application in Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor / Material

Wolfgang Jakobeit; Jörn-Peter Pfeifer; Georg Ullrich

22

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant co...

Gilbert, M R; Nguyen-Manh, D; Zheng, S; Packer, L W; Sublet, J -Ch

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Effect of Dissolved Helium on the Density and Solvation Power of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Lincoln, NE) using nitrogen and water, respectively. After...the known densities of nitrogen and water at selected temperatures...used for making the solubility measurements is illustrated...Figure 1. Here, the gas booster pump and syringe......

Zhouyao Zhang; Jerry W. King

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Geology of Bravo Dome carbon dioxide gas field, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bravo Dome carbon dioxide gas field is located in Union and Harding Counties of northeast New Mexico. The Bravo Dome field covers approximately 800,000 acres, but areal boundaries of the field have not been fully defined. Production in 1989 was 113 bcf of gas from 272 wells. Cumulative production at the end of 1989 was 626 bcf. Estimated recoverable reserves are more than 10 tcf. The gas is 98-99% CO{sub 2}. Most CO{sub 2} produced from Bravo Dome is used for enhanced oil recovery in the Permian basin. The Bravo Dome is a faulted, southeast-plunging, basement-cored anticlinal nose. It is bordered on the east and south by large high-angle faults of Pennsylvanian and Wolfcampian (Early Permian) age. The principal reservoir in the Bravo Dome field is the Tubb sandstone (Leonardian-Permian) at depths of 1,900 to 2,950 ft. The Tubb consists of 0-400 ft of fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted, orange feldspathic sandstone. It rests unconformably on Precambrian basement on the highest parts of the Bravo Dome and is not offset by late Paleozoic faults that form the dome. The Cimmaron Anhydrite (Leonardian-Permian) conformably overlies the Tubb and is a vertical seal. The trap at Bravo Dome has structural and stratigraphic aspects. Drape of Tubb sandstone over the dome created structural closure on the northeast, southeast, and southwest flanks of the field. Trapping on the northwest flank of the field is associated with regional northwest thinning of the Tubb.

Broadhead, R.F. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

27

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A....

29

Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest...2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and...2..., is one...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ground-based zenith sky abundances and in situ gas cross sections for ozone and nitrogen dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground-based zenith sky abundances and in situ gas cross sections for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, in situ ambient absorption gas cell mea- surements for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and ground-based zenith for ozone and nitrogen dioxide that are retrieved from measured spectra of the zenith sky

Dirksen, Ruud

32

Storage characteristics of fresh fish packed in modified gas atmospheres containing carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH FISH PACKED IN MODIFIED GAS ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MICHEL LANNELONGUE FAVRE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH FISH PACKED IN MODIFIED GAS ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MICHEL LANNELONGUE FAVRE Approved as to style...

Lannelongue-Favre, Michel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

33

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov October 2012 Significance * Energy mixing is maximized * Mobilizing of the particulates is complete * No "dead zones" exist * Packing of material is minimized * Eroding effects are significantly reduced Applications * Mixing nuclear waste at Hanford * Any similar industrial process involving heavy solids in a carrier fluid Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from

34

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

35

DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field May 21, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- In a newly awarded project, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are partnering with European scientists to track injected carbon dioxide (CO2) in the world's first and longest running carbon storage operation located at the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea. The researchers--from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) in New York--will conduct surveys on the seafloor to monitor injected CO2 in the 1 kilometer-deep reservoir, where more than

36

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the U.S.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the US.

McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxidedissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Improvement of LNG production technology in gas-distribution stations with an increased content of carbon dioxide in supply-line gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility is considered of reducing the weight of absorbent in a carbon dioxide gas cleaning system during liquefied natural gas production in gas-distribution stations (due to use of a pressure drop ... is...

S. P. Gorbachev; S. V. Lyugai

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Carbon dioxide removal and capture for landfill gas up-grading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the frame of an EC financially supported project - LIFE05 ENV/IT/000874 GHERL (Greenhouse Effect Reduction from Landfill)–a pilot plant was set up in order to demonstrate the feasibility of applying chemical absorption to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas. After proper upgrading - basically removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and other trace gas compound–the gas might be fed into the distribution grid for natural gas or used as vehicle fuel, replacing a fossil fuel thus saving natural resources and carbon dioxide emissions. Several experiences in Europe have been carried out concerning the landfill gas - and biogas from anaerobic digestion - quality up-grading through CO2 removal, but in all of them carbon dioxide was vented to the atmosphere after separation, without any direct benefit in terms of greenhouse gases reduction. With respect to those previous experiences, in this work the attention was focused on CO2 removal from landfill gas with an effective capture process, capable of removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere, through a globally carbon negative process. In particular, processes capable of producing final solid products were investigated, with the aim of obtaining as output solid compounds which can be either used in the chemical industry or disposed off. The adopted absorption process is based on using aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide, with the final aim of producing potassium carbonate. Potassium carbonate is a product which has several applications in the chemical industry if obtained with adequate quality. It can be sold as a pulverised solid, or in aqueous solution. Several tests were carried out at the pilot plant, which was located at a landfill site, in order to feed it with a fraction of the on-site collected landfill gas. The results of the experimental campaign are reported, explained and commented in the paper. Also a discussion on economic issues is presented.

Lidia Lombardia; Andrea Corti; Ennio Carnevale; Renato Baciocchi; Daniela Zingaretti

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

42

The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), high efficiency, cost competitive, nuclear energy for the next century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a small passively safe reactor with key technology developments in the US during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines, large active magnetic bearings, and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. The GT-MHR is the only reactor concept which provides a step increase in economic performance combined with increased safety. This is accomplished through its unique utilization of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the high temperature helium primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cannot be accomplished with another reactor concept. It retains the high levels of passive safety and the standardized modular design of the steam cycle MHTGR, while showing promise for a significant reduction in power generating costs by increasing plant net efficiency to a remarkable 47%.

Zgliczynski, J.B.; Silady, F.A.; Neylan, A.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection David H.-S. Law (law@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5034) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 L.H.G. (Bert) van der Meer (l.vandermeer@nitg.tno.nl; +31-30-256-4635) Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands W.D. (Bill) Gunter (gunter@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5467) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 Abstract The injection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in deep, unmineable coalbeds is a very attractive option for geologic CO 2 storage: the CO 2 is stored and at the same time the recovery of

44

Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

45

Gas-chromatographische Bestimmung von Wasserstoff bei Verwendung von Helium als Trägergas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die bei dem Trägergas Helium zuweilen auftretenden M-förmigen Wasserstoffpeaks lassen sich durch Vergrößern oder Verkleinern des Probenvolumens in eine auswertbare Form bringen.

Holm Pauschmann

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Carbon dioxide recovery from an integrated coal gasifier, combined cycle plant using membrane separation and a CO2 gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is described for electricity production based on coal gasification with recovery of carbon dioxide. In this scheme, coal is gasified into a coal gas, consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A ...

Chris Hendriks

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An improved approach for hydrogen analysis in metal samples using single laser-induced gas plasma and target plasma at helium atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report in this paper the results of an experimental study on hydrogen analysis of solid samples in high pressure helium ambient gas employing the basic scheme of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)....

S.N. Abdulmadjid; M.M. Suliyanti; K.H. Kurniawan; T.J. Lie; M. Pardede…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission of hydrogen from zircaloy-2 samples in atmospheric and low pressure ambient helium gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study has been performed to demonstrate the advantage of employing ambient helium gas in the spectral quality improvement of hydrogen emission in laser-induced plasma from zircaloy-2 samples at...

M. Pardede; R. Hedwig; M.M. Suliyanti; Z.S. Lie; T.J. Lie…

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Adsorption of methane and carbon dioxide on gas shale and pure mineral samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We have measured methane and carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms at 40 °C on gas shale samples from the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Marcellus and Montney reservoirs. Carbon dioxide isotherms were included to assess its potential for preferential adsorption, with implications for its use as a fracturing fluid and/or storage in depleted shale reservoirs. To better understand how the individual mineral constituents that comprise shales contribute to adsorption, measurements were made on samples of pure carbon, illite and kaolinite as well. We were able to successfully fit all adsorption data for both gases in accordance with a Langmuir isotherm model. Our results show carbon dioxide to have approximately 2–3 times the adsorptive capacity of methane in both the pure mineral constituents and actual shale samples. In addition to obvious microstructural and compositional differences between real rocks and pure minerals, we hypothesize that water adsorption plays an important role in regulating surface area availability for other molecules to adsorb. The resultant volumetric swelling strain was also measured as a function of pressure/adsorption. We observe both clay and pure carbon to swell an amount that is approximately linearly proportional to the amount of adsorption.

Robert Heller; Mark Zoback

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The interaction second virial coefficient for the helium-carbon dioxide system between 230 and 300 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the differential pressure cell, associated tubing, valves and heat transfer system are encased by a stainless steel Dewar. The jacket of the Dewar is insulated by polystyrene foam and wood. It is sealed by a k" thick brass plate with an 0-ring gasket. All... by successive expansiors without measurirg volume. Initially, one cell is filled with gas to some pressure and the other cell is evacuated. The temperature and pressure are measured. The connecting valve is opened~ time is allowed for equilibration...

Watson, Michael Quealy

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements of 1-propanol in helium: The effect of carrier gas pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapor of 1-propanol was studied using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a noncondensable carrier gas and the influence of its pressure on observed nucleation rates was investigated. The isothermal nucleation rates were determined by a photographic method that is independent on any nucleation theory. In this method the trajectories of growing droplets are recorded using a charge coupled device camera and the distribution of local nucleation rates is determined by image analysis. The nucleation rate measurements of 1-propanol were carried out at four isotherms 260 270 280 and 290 K . In addition the pressure dependence was investigated on the isotherms 290 K (50 120 and 180 kPa ) and 280 K (50 and 120 kPa ). The isotherm 270 K was measured at 25 kPa and the isotherm 260 K at 20 kPa . The experiments confirm the earlier observations from several thermal diffusion chamber investigations that the homogeneous nucleation rate of 1-propanol tends to increase with decreasing total pressure in the chamber. In order to reduce the possibility that the observed phenomenon is an experimental artifact connected with the generally used one-dimensional description of transfer processes in the chamber a recently developed two-dimensional model of coupled heat mass and momentum transfer inside the chamber was used and results of both models were compared. It can be concluded that the implementation of the two-dimensional model does not explain the observed effect. Furthermore the obtained results were compared both to the predictions of the classical theory and to the results of other investigators using different experimental devices. Plotting the experimental data on the so-called Hale plot shows that our data seem to be consistent both internally and also with the data of others. Using the nucleation theorem the critical cluster sizes were obtained from the slopes of the individual isotherms and compared with the Kelvin prediction. The influence of total pressure on the observed isothermal nucleation rate was studied in another experiment where not only temperature but also supersaturation was kept constant as the total pressure was changed. It was shown that the dependence of the nucleation rate on pressure gets stronger as pressure decreases.

David Brus; Vladimír Ždímal; Frank Stratmann

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Gas Helium Storage Tank Pressure Vessel Engineering Note  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is to certify that Beaird Industries, Inc. has done a white metal blast per SSPC-SP5 as required per specifications on the vessel internal. Following the blast, a black light inspection was performed by Beaird Quality Control personnel to assure that all debris, grease, etc. was removed and interior was clean prior to closing vessel for helium test.

Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

1996-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

57

Response to “Comment on ‘Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning’ ” [Phys. Plasmas17, 014701 (2010)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

Han S. Uhm; Chul H. Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate- Ammonium Bicarbonate Process Description Current commercial processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from conventional power plants are expensive and energy intensive. The objective of this project is to reduce the cost associated with the capture of CO 2 from coal based gasification processes, which convert coal and other carbon based feedstocks to synthesis gas.

59

Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Mechanical characterization of metallic materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors in air and in helium environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the French R and D program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), three metallic alloys were studied: steel Chromesco-3 with 2.25% chromium, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy-X. The Chromesco-3 and alloy 800H creep behavior is the same in air and in HTGR atmosphere (helium). The tensile tests of Hastelloy-X specimens reveal that aging has embrittlement and hardening effects up to 700/sup 0/C, but the creep tests at 800/sup 0/C show opposite effects. This particular behavior could be due to induced precipitation by aging and the depletion of hardening elements from the matrix. Tests show a low influence of cobalt content on mechanical properties of Hastelloy-X.

Sainfort, G.; Cappelaere, M.; Gregoire, J.; Sannier, J.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

CeO2 Promoted Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst in Combined Steam and Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane for Gas to Liquid (GTL) Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ceria promotion over Ni/Al2O3...catalysts on the catalytic activity and coke formation was investigated in combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CSCRM) to produce synthesis gas (H2

Kee Young Koo; Hyun-Seog Roh; Un Ho Jung; Wang Lai Yoon

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Intracollisional interference of R lines of HD in mixtures of deuterium hydride and helium gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Line shapes of the R0(0) and R0(1) lines in the pure rotational band, and of the R1(0) and R1(1) lines in the fundamental band of HD are computed from first principles for HD molecules that interact collisionally with He atoms. Interference of the permanent dipole of the HD molecule and the interaction-induced dipole of HD–He supermolecular complex shapes these profiles. We use the close-coupling scheme for the scattering calculations which take into account the anisotropy of the HD–He interaction potential. Thus rotational level mixing is accounted for in a non-perturbative manner. The treatment is fully quantum mechanical and takes into account single binary collisions between HD and He. Spectral absorption profiles and line shape parameters of the R-lines are computed for comparison with existing measurements at 77 K. Agreement between theory and measurements is observed in the low-helium-density limit of the measured absorption as expected.

Magnus Gustafsson and Lothar Frommhold

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

64

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of electronics for the temperature control of cavity windows and helium gas return lines for the superconducting cavities of the LEP200 radio frequency system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of electronics for the temperature control of cavity windows and helium gas return lines for the superconducting cavities of the LEP200 radio frequency system

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts ... A potential way of utilizing these bioliquids as fuels could be the direct hydrotreatment(6) or the cohydrotreatment with petroleum fractions,(7) such as atmospheric gas oils, to achieve the technical and environmental fuel standards, especially in terms of sulfur content. ...

Ana Pinheiro; Nathalie Dupassieux; Damien Hudebine; Christophe Geantet

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fission signal detection using helium-4 gas fast neutron scintillation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the unambiguous detection of the fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a high pressure {sup 4}He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. The energy deposition by individual neutrons is quantified, and energy discrimination is used to differentiate the induced fission neutrons from the mono-energetic interrogation neutrons. The detector can discriminate between different incident neutron energies using pulse height discrimination of the slow scintillation component of the elastic scattering interaction between a neutron and the {sup 4}He atom. Energy histograms resulting from this data show the buildup of a detected fission neutron signal at higher energies. The detector is shown here to detect a unique fission neutron signal from a natural uranium sample during active interrogation with a (d, d) neutron generator. This signal path has a direct application to the detection of shielded nuclear material in cargo and air containers. It allows for continuous interrogation and detection while greatly minimizing the potential for false alarms.

Lewis, J. M., E-mail: lewisj@ufl.edu; Kelley, R. P.; Jordan, K. A. [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Murer, D. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., 8045 Zurich (Switzerland)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Application of a Microwave-Induced Helium Plasma Detector at Atmospheric Pressure for Gas Chromatographic Capillary Columns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......microwave-induced plasma emission detector...microwave- induced plasma that operates at atmospheric pressure using helium...to within 1 cm of the plasma discharge. The quartz...Raytheon PGM-10X2 2450 MHz microwave power supply......

Stanley P. Wasik; Frederick P. Schwarz

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama...

71

The Helium Question  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1976 1977 1978 (%) Kansas 55.34 51.58 48...U.S. naturai gas production, except from Alaska...Cryogenic transmis-sion of electricity, already technically...are so inefficient or site-dependent. Superconductivity...to supplement its own production with heli-um purchased...

Earl Cook

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

filled by one or more gases. In marine sediments gas hydrates are found in regions where high pressure, low temperature and gas in excess of solubility are present. Low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWH), I. e. methane through butane, carbon dioxide... loop at a helium carrier flow of 12 ml/min with an elution order of methane, ethane, carbon dioxide and propane. Each fraction was trapped in a U- shaped Porpak-Q filled glass tube immersed in LN2. Butanes and heartier weight gases were trapped...

Cox, Henry Benjamin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine- Appended Metal-Organic Framework, stationary sources like coal-fired power plants, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed.4 viable absorbents for carbon capture under the aforementioned conditions, and they are presently used

74

Improving the performance of stainless-steel DC high voltage photoelectron gun cathode electrodes via gas conditioning with helium or krypton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas conditioning was shown to eliminate field emission from cathode electrodes used inside DC high voltage photoelectron guns, thus providing a reliable means to operate photoguns at higher voltages and field strengths. Measurements and simulation results indicate that gas conditioning eliminates field emission from cathode electrodes via two mechanisms: sputtering and implantation, with the benefits of implantation reversed by heating the electrode. We have studied five stainless steel electrodes (304L and 316LN) that were polished to approximately 20 nm surface roughness using diamond grit, and evaluated inside a high voltage apparatus to determine the onset of field emission as a function of voltage and field strength. The field emission characteristics of each electrode varied significantly upon the initial application of voltage but improved to nearly the same level after gas conditioning using either helium or krypton, exhibiting less than 10 pA field emission at ?225 kV bias voltage with a 50 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of ~13 MV/m. Field emission could be reduced with either gas, but there were conditions related to gas choice, voltage and field strength that were more favorable than others.

Bastaninejad, Mahzad [ODU; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed [ODU; Forman, Eric I. [JLAB; Clark, James [JLAB; Covert, Steven R. [JLAB; Grames, Joseph M. [JLAB; Hansknecht, John C. [JLAB; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos [JLAB; Poelker, Bernard [JLAB; Suleiman, Riad S. [JLAB

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

Seo, Jeong Gyu

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

78

Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Sciample Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

80

Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature pressure rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

J. Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

Rau, Gregory Hudson

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

83

Waste Package Neutron Absorber, Thermal Shunt, and Fill Gas Selection Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials for neutron absorber, thermal shunt, and fill gas for use in the waste package were selected using a qualitative approach. For each component, selection criteria were identified; candidate materials were selected; and candidates were evaluated against these criteria. The neutron absorber materials evaluated were essentially boron-containing stainless steels. Two candidates were evaluated for the thermal shunt material. The fill gas candidates were common gases such as helium, argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and dry air. Based on the performance of each candidate against the criteria, the following selections were made: Neutron absorber--Neutronit A978; Thermal shunt--Aluminum 6061 or 6063; and Fill gas--Helium.

V. Pasupathi

2000-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

87

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

David A Lesch

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

93

Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Study of Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plants Integrated with MCFC for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the field of fossil-fuel based technologies, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are currently the best option for electricity generation, having an efficiency close to 60%. However, they produce significant CO2 emissions, amounting to around 0.4 tonne/MWh for new installations. Among the carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, the process based on chemical absorption is a well-established technology, but markedly reduces the NGCC performances. On the other side, the integration of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is recognized as an attractive option to overcome the main drawbacks of traditional CCS technologies. If the cathode side is fed by NGCC exhaust gases, the MCFC operates as a CO2 concentrator, beside providing an additional generating capacity. In this paper the integration of MCFC into a two pressure levels combined cycle is investigated through an energy analysis. To improve the efficiency of MCFC and its integration within the NGCC, plant configurations based on two different gas recirculation options are analyzed. The first is a traditional recirculation of exhaust gases at the compressor inlet; the second, mainly involving the MCFC stack, is based on recirculating a fraction of anode exhaust gases at the cathode inlet. Effects of MCFC operating conditions on energy and environmental performances of the integrated system are evaluated.

Roberto Carapellucci; Roberto Saia; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

EOS7C Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen inNatural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EOS7C is a TOUGH2 module for multicomponent gas mixtures in the systems methane carbon dioxide (CH4-CO2) or methane-nitrogen (CH4-N2) with or without an aqueous phase and H2O vapor. EOS7C uses a cubic equation of state and an accurate solubility formulation along with a multiphase Darcy s Law to model flow and transport of gas and aqueous phase mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to subsurface geologic carbon sequestration sites and natural gas reservoirs. EOS7C models supercritical CO2 and subcritical CO2 as a non-condensible gas, hence EOS7C does not model the transition to liquid or solid CO2 conditions. The components modeled in EOS7C are water, brine, non-condensible gas, gas tracer, methane, and optional heat. The non-condensible gas (NCG) can be selected by the user to be CO2 or N2. The real gas properties module has options for Peng-Robinson, Redlich-Kwong, or Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations of state to calculate gas mixture density, enthalpy departure, and viscosity. Partitioning of the NCG and CH4 between the aqueous and gas phases is calculated using a very accurate chemical equilibrium approach. Transport of the gaseous and dissolved components is by advection and Fickian molecular diffusion. We present instructions for use and example problems to demonstrate the accuracy and practical application of EOS7C.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Moridis,George J.; Spycher, Nicholas; Pruess, Karsten

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

96

NETL: News Release - Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9, 2009 9, 2009 Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Approach Washington, D.C. - Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites. These new methods are an excellent way to determine environmental impact without disrupting habitats surrounding sequestration sites and can ensure the effectiveness of carbon storage options used to prevent CO2, a greenhouse gas, from escaping into the atmosphere. The carousel, lifted by Apogee's balloon, carries sorbent tubes aloft to sample for tracer above the carbon dioxide injection area in this NETL research project.

97

Chemical-Looping Gasification of Biomass for Hydrogen-Enriched Gas Production with In-Process Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This may help to increase the carbon dioxide capture on one hand but, on other hand, also increases the size of the gasifier and regenerator and the heat requirement of the regenerator. ... Steam was used as the fluidizing medium. ...

Bishnu Acharya; Animesh Dutta; Prabir Basu

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

98

Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas Nitric Oxide/Nitrogen Dioxide Neal Road LandfillThe methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations ofmethane, 30% nitrogen and 30% carbon dioxide. The recorded

Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

100

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through beneficial uses of carbon dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Perspective Correspondence to: Darin Damiani, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA. E-mail: darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov † This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Received June 24, 2011; revised July 26, 2011; accepted July 27, 2011 Published online at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ghg.35 The US Department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through benefi cial uses of carbon dioxide † Darin Damiani and John T. Litynski, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

102

A method for the determination of dissolved organic carbon in sea water by gas chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of organic matter was carried out at elevated temperature and pressure after collection of a large number of samples. The resulting carbon dioxide was flushed through a gas chromatograph with helium as the carrier gas and the signal was recorded on a strip... chart recorder. Chromatographic analysis time was approximately eleven minutes per sample with a precision of + Q. 1 mg C/l. The organic carbon content of the sample was determined by measurement of the peak area using an appropriate carbon dioxide...

Fredericks, Alan D

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Modelling and simulation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) bottoming cycles for offshore oil and gas installations at design and off-design conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improved energy efficiency is an issue of increasing importance in offshore oil and gas installations. The power on offshore installations is generated by gas turbines operating in a simple cycle. There is an obvious possibility for heat recovery for further power generation from the exhaust heat. However, the limited space and weight available makes the inclusion of bottoming cycles challenging. Due to its high working pressure and thereby compact components CO2 (carbon dioxide) could be a viable solution, combining compactness and efficiency. An in-house simulation tool is used to evaluate the performance of CO2 bottoming cycles at design and off-design conditions. Both a simple recuperated single stage cycle and a more advanced dual stage system are modelled. Results from simulations show a potential for 10–11%-points increase in net plant efficiency at 100% gas turbine load. Also off-design simulations taking the variation in heat exchanger performance into account are performed showing that the bottoming cycle improves the off-design performance compared to the standard gas turbine solution. Even at 60% GT (gas turbine) load, the combined cycle with CO2 bottoming cycle can achieve up to 45% net plant efficiency, compared to 31% for only the gas turbine.

Harald Taxt Walnum; Petter Nekså; Lars O. Nord; Trond Andresen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Bisphosphine dioxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

Moloy, K.G.

1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

105

Distribution and Chemical Fate of 36Cl-Chlorine Dioxide Gas during the Fumigation of Tomatoes and Cantaloupe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

D. J. Smith *†, W. Ernst ‡, and J. M. Giddings † ... Dry media chlorine dioxide generation employed FruitGard granules (ICA TriNova; Atlanta, GA). ... medium and as 10NaClO2 ? 2NaClO8 + 6NaCl + 2NaClO4 + 3O2 in the acid range. ...

D. J. Smith; W. Ernst; J. M. Giddings

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

David E. Shropshire

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A determination of air-sea gas exchange and upper ocean biological production from five noble gasses and tritiugenic helium-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The five noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) are biologically and chemically inert, making them ideal oceanographic tracers. Additionally, the noble gases have a wide range of solubilities and molecular ...

Stanley, Rachel H. R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

Chang Oh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the region’s deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the region’s large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The effect of helium nano-bubbles on the structures stability and electronic properties of palladium tritides: a density functional theory study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effect of helium nano-bubbles on the structures stability and electronic properties...found to contain helium gas bubbles. The stability of metal tritides decreases...The effects of helium bubbles on metal tritides are clearly...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

113

Carbon dioxide capture and storage: Seven years after the IPCC special report  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) entails separating carbon dioxide from coal-, biomass- or gas ... or other large industrial sources, transporting the carbon dioxide by pipeline, injecting it deep undergr...

Haroon Kheshgi; Heleen de Coninck…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

Mechery, Shelly John (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Starkville, MS)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

115

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

116

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

117

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

118

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

other characterization capabilities. User Portal Name: Helium Ion Microscope Instrument ID: 34104 Availability: 10 hours a day, 5 days a week Facility: Quiet Wing Quick Specs...

124

Helium corona-assisted air discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Dynamics of nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission under elevated carbon dioxide in semi-arid cropping systems in Australia and China.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Within less than 50 years, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] will likely be double that observed in 1950. In this higher [CO2] world the sustainability… (more)

Lam, Shu Kee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the highest values in the valley, and indicate that similar to 7.5% of the total helium is derived from the mantle. A lack of recent volcanics or other potential sources requires flow of mantle-derived helium up along the

127

Neutron-induced helium implantation in GCFR cladding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neutron-induced implantation of helium atoms on the exterior surfaces of the cladding of a prototypic gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been investigated analytically. A flux of recoil helium particles as high as 4.2 x 10/sup 10/ He/cm/sup 2/.s at the cladding surface has been calculated at the peak power location in the core of a 300-MWe GCFR. The calculated profile of the helium implantation rates indicates that although some helium is implanted as deep as 20 ..mu..m, more than 99% of helium particles are implanted in the first 2-..mu..m-deep layer below the cladding surface. Therefore, the implanted helium particles should mainly affect surface properties of the GCFR cladding.

Yamada, H.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sevy, R. H.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Potential applications of high temperature helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program`s recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal.

Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Potential applications of high temperature helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program's recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal.

Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the...

131

Atmospheric Pressure Helium Plasma Jet with Different Types of Discharge Setup  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New techniques are demonstrated to generate cold plasma inside the glass capillary and hollow optical fiber. The plasma jet is generated using helium gas and experiments are carried...

Hosseinzadeh Kassani, Sahar; Lee, Changyoung; Yoon, Changsik; Choi, Honggu; Oh, Kyunghwan

132

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and  the number of (liquefied natural gas, nitrogen  dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, particle  number,  and 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Julian P. Sculley, Daqiang Yuan, Rajamani Krishna, Zhangwen Wei,...

136

Carbon dioxide sequestration underground laser based detection system.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is a known greenhouse gas. Due to the burning of fossil fuels by industrial and power plants the atmospheric concentration of… (more)

Barr, Jamie Lynn.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Parametric Investigation of Brayton Cycle for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. In this project, we are investigating helium Brayton cycles for the secondary side of an indirect energy conversion system. Ultimately we will investigate the improvement of the Brayton cycle using other fluids, such as supercritical carbon dioxide. Prior to the cycle improvement study, we established a number of baseline cases for the helium indirect Brayton cycle. These cases look at both single-shaft and multiple-shaft turbomachinary. The baseline cases are based on a 250 MW thermal pebble bed HTGR. The results from this study are applicable to other reactor concepts such as a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), fast gas-cooled reactor (FGR), supercritical water reactor (SWR), and others. In this study, we are using the HYSYS computer code for optimization of the helium Brayton cycle. Besides the HYSYS process optimization, we performed parametric study to see the effect of important parameters on the cycle efficiency. For these parametric calculations, we use a cycle efficiency model that was developed based on the Visual Basic computer language. As a part of this study we are currently investigated single-shaft vs. multiple shaft arrangement for cycle efficiency and comparison, which will be published in the next paper.The ultimate goal of this study is to use supercritical carbon dioxide for the HTGR power conversion loop in order to improve the cycle efficiency to values great than that of the helium Brayton cycle. This paper includes preliminary calculations of the steady state overall Brayton cycle efficiency based on the pebble bed reactor reference design (helium used as the working fluid) and compares those results with an initial calculation of a CO2 Brayton cycle.

Chang Oh

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

Chang H. Oh

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Gas Chromatography—Microwave-Induced Plasma for the Determination of Halogenated Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Spectroscopic Microwave generator: Applied Research...helium and argon at atmospheric pressures. Spec...plasma in helium at atmospheric pressure as an element-selective...organic compounds in water by gas chromatography (atmospheric pres sure helium......

M.M. Abdillahi

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

142

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pub/oil/ Data_Catalog/Oil_and_Gas/Oil_?elds/CA_oil?elds.DAT.1993) A history of oil- and gas-well blowouts in California,Health Administration (2007), Oil and gas well drilling and

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A current assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, current utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.

Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

148

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

The Helium Question  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inland. high-temperature gas reactors, high-tem-perature gas turbines, laser-based mis-sile-defense...all U.S. proved natural-gas reserves and prob-ably exceeds...content of all natural gas remaining to be produced in the United...

Earl Cook

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Faraday and Cotton-Mouton Effects of Helium at = 1064 nm A. Cad`ene1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faraday and Cotton-Mouton Effects of Helium at = 1064 nm A. Cad`ene1 , D. Sordes1 , P. Berceau1 of the Faraday and the Cotton-Mouton effects of helium gas at = 1064 nm. Our apparatus is based on an up and Cotton-Mouton effect. Our measurements give for the first time the experimental value of the Faraday

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Raman spectroscopy of solutions and interfaces containing nitrogen dioxide, water, and 1,4 dioxane: Evidence for repulsion of surface water by NO{sub 2} gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of water, 1,4 dioxane, and gaseous nitrogen dioxide, has been studied as a function of distance measured through the liquid-vapour interface by Raman spectroscopy with a narrow (<0.1 mm) laser beam directed parallel to the interface. The Raman spectra show that water is present at the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is absent, but is virtually absent from the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is present. This is consistent with recent theoretical calculations that show NO{sub 2} to be mildly hydrophobic.

Murdachaew, Garold [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Varner, Mychel E.; Veer, Wytze E. van der [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Gerber, R. Benny [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel) [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Phillips, Leon F., E-mail: leon.phillips@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrochemical studies of the corrosion behavior of carbon and weathering steels in alternating wet/dry environments with sulfur dioxide gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical impedance techniques were used to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (CS) and weathering steel (WS) in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2})-containing environments. Impedance measurements were conducted in a modified three-electrode electrochemical cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer during the wet/dry period. Results showed WS was more resistant to SO{sub 2}-induced atmospheric corrosion than CS. Three forms of impedance spectra were observed, depending upon exposure period. Accordingly, three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic impedance data and corrosion behaviors in different stages of exposure. The proposed models and equivalent circuits produced good agreement with experimental impedance data.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

156

Continuous Photoelectric Absorption Cross Section of Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continuous photoelectric absorption cross section of helium has been measured in the spectral region extending from 180 to 600 A with greater accuracy and the observations are found to agree with the calculations of Huang and Stewart and Wilkinson. A grazing incidence spectrometer with a photomultiplier was used for a single measurement at 180 A while the remaining measurements were carried out in a normal incidence spectrometer utilizing photographic techniques. Whereas in previous experiments the absorbing gas sample was allowed to fill the entire spectrometer chamber, in the current measurements the gas was confined to a small cell provided with sufficiently transparent windows. The use of an absorption cell reduces contamination and facilitates the measurement of gas pressures. The results indicate that the cross section varies from a value of 0.98±0.04 Mb at 180 A to a value of 7.7±0.3 Mb at the absorption edge located at 504 A.

D. J. Baker; Jr.; D. E. Bedo; D. H. Tomboulian

1961-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Natural Gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Gas Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 86. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 13. Natural Gas Supply, Disposition, and Prices Table 14. Oil and Gas Supply Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central Table 27. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South

158

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

159

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been warming, and the development of efficient methods for capturing CO2 from industrial flue gas has become

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

162

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and/or changes in the safety culture in the oil and gasand/or changes in safety culture in the oil and gasand/or changes in safety culture in the oil and gas

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007), Oil and gas well drilling and servicing etool.from minor oil spills limited to a drilling pad to saltingdrilling nonthermal nonthermal reworking plugging & abandoning thermal thermal a) oil

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Corrosion behavior of zirconia-coated Hastelloy X in a high-temperature helium environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of Hastelloy X coated with (NiCrAl)/(ZrO/sub 2/-CaC/sub 2/) was examined, after serving as the liner tube of helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) hot gas duct. The Hastelloy X with the ceramic coating system was exposed to high-temperature helium gas for --6000 h. The compositions of oxide films formed on Hastelloy X were entirely different between the noncoated and ceramic-coated tubes.

Kondo, Y.; Fukaya, K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

166

Viscosity of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We use a large unbalanced panel data ... the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Haverford College Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Hopper Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford College. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels for energy and

169

The Viscosity of Liquid Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 September 1935 research-article The Viscosity of Liquid Helium J. O. Wilhelm A. D. Misener A. R. Clark The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Roughening transition and helium crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystal shapes or crystal growth mechanisms depend drastically on whether the crystal surface is smooth or rough, i.e. whether the temperature is lower or higher than its roughening temperature. Helium appeared r...

S. Balibar; F. Gallet; E. Rolley; P. E. Wolf

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Liquid helium cryo TEM | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cryo TEM Liquid helium cryo TEM The JEOL JEM-3000SFF was designed for high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological samples and expands EMSL...

172

Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3 David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3 Resources with Additional Information David M. Lee and Douglas D. Osheroff received the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics for 'their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3'. "In 1976, Lee shared with Richardson and Osheroff their earliest recognition for studies of superfluidity, the Simon Memorial Prize of the British Physical Society. The Buckley Prize of the American Physical Society followed for the trio in 1981. ... Douglas D. Osheroff Douglas D. Osheroff Courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, AIP Meggers Gallery of Nobel Laureates David Lee David M. Lee Photo by Janerik Henriksson, Courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archievs, W.F. Meggers Gallery of Nobel Laureate From 1966-67, Lee was a visiting scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory ... ."1 His research at Cornell University includes " Low Temperature Physics: Normal and superfluid 3He, studies of the orientation of solid helium by optical birefringence, solid 3He and 4He, lambda phase diagram of 3He - 4He mixtures, quasiparticle tunneling in superconductors, magnetic resonance and ultrasound techniques, cooling by adiabatic demagnetization and the Pomeranchuk technique, spin waves in spin polarized hydrogen gas, high concentrations of hydrogen and nitrogen atons via matrix isolation by impurity-helium solids, magnetism, electron spin resonance."2

174

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

175

What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy...

176

Dense gas-compatible enzymes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An enzymatic reaction system including a modified enzyme, and a dense gas system; modified enzymes; and methods of reacting modified enzymes in a dense gas system or liquid carbon dioxide.

Kao, Fu-jung (Dracut, MA); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Sivils, L. Dale (Jupiter, FL); Spall, W. Dale (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin... dioxide to clean oilfield brines. The new treatment method, described in this work, is actually an enhancement of existing gas flotation technology. The enhancement results from the use of carbon dioxide as the sweeping gas combined with its ability...

Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

180

Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800/sup 0/C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo.

Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

Srinivasachar, Srivats

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ammonia synthesis gas purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes the purification of a reformed gas mixture following water gas shift conversion to produce a purified ammonia synthesis gas stream. The improved processing sequence consisting essentially of: (A) Selectively catalytically oxidizing the residual carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to carbon dioxide so as to reduce the carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to less than about 20 ppm, the selective catalytic oxidation being carried out with an excess of air, with the excess oxygen being catalytically reacted with a small amount of hydrogen so that the residual oxygen level is reduced to less than about 3 ppm; (B) removing the bulk of the carbon dioxide content of the gas mixture by liquid absorption; (C) Removing residual amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water by selective adsorption on the fixed beds of a thermal swing adsorption system, a dry, purified ammonia ammonia synthesis gas stream containing less than a total of 10 ppm of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide being recovered from the thermal swing adsorption system; (D) Passing the resulting dry, purified ammonia synthesis gas stream having a low content of methane to an ammonia production operation without intermediate passage of the ammonia synthesis gas stream to a methanation unit or to a cryogenic unit for removal of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide therefrom; whereby the efficiency of the overall purification operation and the effective utilization of hydrogen are enhanced.

Fuderer, A.

1986-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase feasibility study that will examine beneficial uses in a variety of ways, including mineralization to carbonates directly through conversion of CO2 in flue gas; the use of CO2 from power plants or industrial applications to grow algae/biomass; and conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Each project will be subject to

184

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

185

Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: kome64@yo.rim.or.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Development and application of a steady state code for supercritical carbon dioxide cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercritical CO2 power conversion system is of interest for advanced nuclear reactor applications because the same efficiencies are obtained as for the most developed of the closed gas-turbine cycles (helium-Brayton), ...

Legault, David M. (David Michael)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

189

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

190

Enhancing Shale Gas Recovery by High-Temperature Supercritical CO2 Flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine a new technology for shale gas recovery: high-temperature supercritical carbon dioxide flooding ... of supercritical carbon dioxide, the characteristics of shale gas reservoirs, the adsorption/desorpti...

Feiying Ma; Yongqing Wang; Lin Wang

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

192

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Mathematical modeling of a Fermilab helium liquefier coldbox  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility is operated 24 hours-a-day to supply 4.6{degrees}K for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider Ring and to recover warm return gases. The centerpieces of the CHL are two independent cold boxes rated at 4000 and 5400 liters/hour with LN{sub 2} precool. These coldboxes are Claude cycle and have identical heat exchangers trains, but different turbo-expanders. The Tevatron cryogenics demand for higher helium supply from CHL was the driving force to investigate an installation of an expansion engine in place of the Joule-Thompson valve. A mathematical model was developed to describe the thermo- and gas-dynamic processes for the equipment included in the helium coldbox. The model is based on a finite element approach, opposite to a global variables approach, thus providing for higher accuracy and conversion stability. Though the coefficients used in thermo- and gas-dynamic equations are unique for a given coldbox, the general approach, the equations, the methods of computations, and most of the subroutines written in FORTRAN can be readily applied to different coldboxes. The simulation results are compared against actual operating data to demonstrate applicability of the model.

Geynisman, M.G.; Walker, R.J.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

197

Polarity Programmed Gas-Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......component on the carrier gas, is investigated...component of the carrier gas. Introduction One...strength, i.e., the solubility of the solute in...temperature programming in gas-liquid chromatography...of carrier gas for nitrogen, helium, methane...of other solutes. Water vapor or steam are......

Jon F. Parcher; Theodore N. Westlake

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

199

Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

Sun Yanpeng (???); Nie Yong (??); Wu Angshan (???); Ji Dengxiang (???); Yu Fengwen (???); Ji Jianbing (???)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035 graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher and J.S. Walker Carbon Dioxide Research Group Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California 92093-0444, U.S.A. Period of Record 1958-2008 Methods Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using a Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5

202

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

203

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 from

Yaghi, Omar M.

204

On the Triplets of Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that the inversion of the helium triplets and their deviation from interval rule are due to the spin-other-orbit and to the magnetic spin-spin interactions (respectively), which may be neglected in comparison with the spin-orbit interaction in treating the spectra of heavy elements. The preliminary calculation of Heisenberg is compared with the correct calculation of Breit for the lowest triplet. The extension to higher triplets, by Araki, is simplified and generalized, and the comparison with experiment is discussed.

D. R. Inglis

1942-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large Momentum Transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......letter Letters to the Editor Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Vol. 46 (1971), No. 1 Neutron Scattering from Liquid Helium at Large...Feynman diagram for the elastic scattering of a neutron from liquid helium, where......

Sigenobu Sunakawa; Kazuo Okajima; Kiyohisa Matsuda

1971-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Carbon Dioxide Storage in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery: Geologic Evaluation, Capacity Assessment and Field Validation of the Central Appalachian Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane are benefits to sequestering carbon dioxide in coal seams. This is possible because… (more)

Ripepi, Nino Samuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Multiple reheat helium Brayton cycles for sodium fast reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium fast reactors (SFR) traditionally adopt the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The resulting potential for water-sodium reaction remains a continuing concern which at least partly delays the SFR technology commercialization and is a contributor to higher capital cost. Supercritical CO2 provides an alternative, but is also capable of sustaining energetic chemical reactions with sodium. Recent development on advanced inert-gas Brayton cycles could potentially solve this compatibility issue, increase thermal efficiency, and bring down the capital cost close to light water reactors. In this paper, helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling states are presented for SFRs with reactor outlet temperatures in the range of 510°C to 650°C. The resulting thermal efficiencies range from 39% and 47%, which is comparable with supercritical recompression CO2 cycles (SCO2 cycle). A systematic comparison between multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle and the SCO2 cycle is given, considering compatibility issues, plant site cooling temperature effect on plant efficiency, full plant cost optimization, and other important factors. The study indicates that the multiple reheat helium cycle is the preferred choice over SCO2 cycle for sodium fast reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

210

Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

211

Refractive index of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Dielectric constant of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Carbon dioxide capture and utilization in petrochemical industry: potentials and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an ever-increasing challenge for production units and power plants in view of the global warming concerns. Carbon dioxide capturing from petrochemical process streams ...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane...4) have increased significantly during the twentieth century (IPCC 2001). Compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), the amounts of CH4 are low in the atmosphe...

Sven G. Sommer; Søren O. Petersen; Peter Sørensen…

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Helium corona-assisted air discharge Nan Jiang, Lei Gao, Ailing Ji, and Zexian Caoa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge of vacuum. In order to reduce the expense associated with vacuum systems, many atmospheric non- thermal profit the application of non-thermal plasmas. Inspired by our own research on gas discharges, espe

Zexian, Cao

216

Superfluid helium as a technical coolant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The characteristics of superfluid helium as a technical coolant, which derive from its specific transport properties, are presented with particular reference to the working area in the phase diagram (saturated or pressurised helium II). We then review the principles and scaling laws of heat transport by equivalent conduction and by forced convection in pressurised helium II, thus revealing intrinsic limitations as well as technological shortcomings of these cooling methods. Once properly implemented, two-phase flow of saturated helium II presents overwhelming advantages over the previous solutions, which dictated its choice for cooling below 1.9 K the long strings of superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference particle collider now under construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva (Switzerland). We report on recent results from the ongoing research and development programme conducted on thermohydraulics of two-phase saturated helium II...

Lebrun, P

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and on substitut- ing noncarbon renewable or nuclear en- ergy sources for fossil fuel (coal, oil and natural gas to be surmountable. Carbon Dioxide Capture the combustion of fossil fuels pro- duces huge quantities of carbon and how these developments might af- fect human health and well-being. Our

O'Donnell, Tom

219

Coping with carbon: a near-term strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions from power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dioxide from power stations. According to the...source, natural gas. On top of this...can be applied to gas-fired plants too...build large power stations. Individual plants...A nuclear power station is both cost effective...lower greenhouse gas emissions than any...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

223

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part II: Assessment of exposure to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained from 1988 to 1991 in the homes of 1,205 infants living in Albuquerque, NM. Passive diffusion samplers were used to obtain a series of two-week integrated measurements from the home of each infant for use in a cohort study of the relation of residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses. Information on stove use and time spent inside the residence was collected at two-week and two-month intervals, respectively. During the winter, in the bedrooms of homes with gas cooking stoves, mean nitrogen dioxide concentrations were 21 parts per billion (ppb); mean concentrations in the living room and kitchen were 29 ppb and 34 ppb, respectively. In homes with electric cooking stoves, the mean bedroom concentration was 7 ppb during the winter. Lower indoor concentrations were observed during the summer in homes with both gas and electric stoves. On average, infants spent approximately 12.3 hours per day in their bedrooms, 7.3 hours in the living rooms, 35 minutes in the kitchens, and 3.8 hours out of their homes. (As a condition of participation, none of the infants spent more than 20 hours per week in day care outside of their homes). The mean time infants spent in the kitchen during cooking was approximately nine minutes per day. We tested whether exposures of infants living in homes with gas stoves could be reasonably estimated by measurements in the bedroom in comparison with time-weighted average concentrations based on time-activity data and simultaneous nitrogen dioxide measurements in the kitchen, living room, and bedroom. In 1,937 two-week intervals from 587 infants, 90% of time-weighted exposure (on the three-level classification used in this study) estimates were in agreement with estimates based on bedroom concentrations alone.

Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Hunt, W.C.; Skipper, B.J.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Environmental Services Air Resources Division The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes...

225

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 July 1912 research-article The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide P. Phillips The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Application of JLab 12GeV helium refrigeration system for the FRIB accelerator at MSU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The planned approach to have a turnkey helium refrigeration system for the MSU-FRIB accelerator system, encompassing the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the 4.5-K refrigerator cold box(es), cold compression system, warm compression system, gas management, oil removal and utility/ancillary systems, was found to be cost prohibitive. Following JLab’s suggestion, MSU-FRIB accelerator management made a formal request to evaluate the applicability of the recently designed 12GeV JLab cryogenic system for this application. The following paper will outline the findings and the planned approach for the FRIB helium refrigeration system.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Casagrande, F. [MSU-FRIB, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

230

Nanometer-scale tunnel formation in metallic glass by helium ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have shown that upon high fluence helium ion irradiation, metallic glass Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 45}Ti{sub 5} becomes highly porous at the depth of the helium projected range. The resulting porous region is characterized by the formation of a tunnel like structure and self-linkage of nanometer size gas bubbles. Furthermore, the irradiation leads to the formation of nanometer size Cu{sub x}Zr{sub y} crystals that are randomly distributed. The results of this study indicate that the He-filled bubbles have attractive interactions and experience considerable mobility. Movement of the bubbles is believed to be assisted by ballistic collisions.

Shao Lin [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Gorman, Brian P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Aitkaliyeva, Assel [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); David Theodore, N. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States); Xie Guoqiang [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Blundell and Fraser Armstrong Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage Sam...Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a...80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

233

NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate.

Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Simultaneous Gas Chromatographic Determination of Four Toxic Gases Generally Present in Combustion Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...to the solubility of A HCN in water, which was...thevariationin gas con- centrations......

Boyd R. Endecott; Donald C. Sanders; Arvind K. Chaturvedi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...improved, lower-cost strategies. The key need now...climate-change mitigation strategy (IPCC 2007; Macfarlane...from industrial gas streams, a process...process still under development-CO2 isolation...separated from the flue gas produced when coal...which drives a turbine generator (Fig...

Edward S. Rubin

237

Phase transitions of helium in aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of dilute quenched impurities on the liquid-vapor critical point, superfluid and He3?He4 phase separation transitions were studied by introducing liquid helium into aerogel. Aerogel is a highly porous ...

M. H. W. Chan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Equation of state of metallic helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective ion-ion interaction, free energy, pressure, and electric resistance of metallic liquid helium have been calculated in wide density and temperature ranges using perturbation theory in the electron-ion interaction potential. In the case of conduction electrons, the exchange interaction has been taken into account in the random-phase approximation and correlations have been taken into account in the local-field approximation. The solid-sphere model has been used for the nuclear subsystem. The diameter of these spheres is the only parameter of this theory. The diameter and density of the system at which the transition of helium from the singly ionized to doubly ionized state occurs have been estimated by analyzing the pair effective interaction between helium atoms. The case of doubly ionized helium atoms has been considered. Terms up to the third order of perturbation theory have been taken into account in the numerical calculations. The contribution of the third-order term is significant in all cases. The electric resistance and its temperature dependence for metallic helium are characteristic of simple divalent metals in the liquid state. The thermodynamic parameters-temperature and pressure densities-are within the ranges characteristic of the central regions of giant planets. This makes it possible to assume the existence of helium in the metallic state within the solar system.

Shvets, V. T., E-mail: tarval@breezein.net [Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration (Ukraine)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

High-temperature gas-cooled-reactor steam-methane reformer design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of the long distance transportation of process heat energy from a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) heat source, based on the steam reforming reaction, is currently being evaluated as an energy source/application for use early in the 21st century. The steam-methane reforming reaction is an endothermic reaction at temperatures approximately 700/sup 0/C and higher, which produces hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The heat of the reaction products can then be released, after being pumped to industrial site users, in a methanation process producing superheated steam and methane which is then returned to the reactor plant site. In this application the steam reforming reaction temperatures are produced by the heat energy from the core of the HTGR through forced convection of the primary or secondary helium circuit to the catalytic chemical reactor (steam reformer). This paper summarizes the design of a helium heated steam reformer utilized in conjunction with a 1170 MW(t) intermediate loop, 850/sup 0/C reactor outlet temperature, HTGR process heat plant concept. This paper also discusses various design considerations leading to the mechanical design features, the thermochemical performance, materials selection and the structural design analysis.

Impellezzeri, J.R.; Drendel, D.B.; Odegaard, T.K.

1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

Yaghi, Omar M.

242

STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE FISH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water by species of low oil content, such as sole and cod, and an increase in total salt. Con- trolling, NO. Z, 1971. Use of carbon dioxide gas dissolved in re- frigerated seawater seemed promising as an in experiments on holding fish in tanks, carbon dioxide decreased the rate at which their quality was degraded

243

Carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen and methane clathrate hydrates:1 thermodynamic modelling, investigation of their stability in Martian2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen and methane clathrate hydrates:1 thermodynamic modelling-4Dec2012 #12;3 Keywords: Mars, clathrate hydrate, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, methane, equilibrium and allows to simulating a Martian gas, CO2 dominated (95.3%) plus nitrogen6 (2.7%) and argon (2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

K Hashimoto; N Kumagai; K Izumiya; Z Kato

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Helium enhancements in globular cluster stars from Asymptotic Giant Branch star pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a chemical evolution model we investigate the intriguing suggestion that there are populations of stars in some globular clusters (e.g. NGC 2808, omega Centauri) with enhanced levels of helium (Y from about 0.28 to 0.40) compared to the majority of the population that presumably have a primordial helium abundance. We assume that a previous generation of massive low-metallicity Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars has polluted the cluster gas via a slow stellar wind. We use two independent sets of AGB yields computed from detailed models to follow the evolution of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the cluster gas using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and a number of top-heavy IMFs. In no case were we able to fit the observational constraints, Y > 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. Depending on the shape of the IMF and the yields, we either obtained Y approximately greater than 0.30 and large increases in C+N+O or Y < 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. These results suggest that either AGB stars alone are not responsible for the large helium enrichment or that any dredge-up from this generation of stars was less than predicted by standard models.

Amanda Karakas; Yeshe Fenner; Alison Sills; Simon Campbell; John Lattanzio

2006-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

The Natural Gas Advantage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental think-tank leaders and the new energy secretary are singing the praises of the ever-expanding U.S. natural gas bonanza, but at the same time, they worry about permanent dependence on this fossil fuel. ... This flood of shale-based natural gas finds has been great for U.S. chemical companies because it is a cheap feedstock and fuel source. ... Equally important, it is also revising the greenhouse gas-climate change equation because, when burned to generate electricity, natural gas produces the same electrical output as coal but emits half the amount of carbon dioxide. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

247

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

248

Study of the vapor-gas front of a variable conductance thermosyphon using advanced optical techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were clearly seen for the helium case. As gas loads increased condenser temperatures decreased and evaporator temperatures increased. Also as power increased a decrease in the noncondensable gas blocked length shut-off to condensation occurred for a...

Doerksen, Glenn Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value. The usual chemical composition range of natural gas is shown in Table I. l. Table 1. 1 Natural Gas Composition Component Methane Ethane Pro ane iso-Butane normal-Butane iso-Pentane normal-Pentane Hexane s lus Nitro en Carbon Dioxide... Acetylene Carbon Ethylene Hydrogen Methane Water Carbon Dioxide CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Challenge for Natural Gas Natural Gas (NG), which is comprised priinarily of methane, is found throughout the world, burns cleanly, and processes a high caloric...

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Carbon Dioxide Recovery from Flue Gas using Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbents Project No.: FG02-04ER83885 SBIR Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Virtual Depiction of a Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. has completed a small business innovative research (SBIR) project that initiated development of a novel sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. The primary goal of this project wa s to develop a process using a supported amine for CO2 capture that exhibits better system efficiency, lower cost, and less corrosion than current aqueous amine-based processes. The project was to demonstrate performance of carbon-supported amine sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. Three tasks were undertaken:

251

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

252

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

253

Neutron Irradiation Tests of Pressure Transducers in Liquid Helium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The superconducting magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will operate in pressurised superfluid helium (1 bar, 1.9 K). About 500 pressure transducers will be placed in the liquid helium bath for monitoring the filling and the pressure transients after resistive transitions. Their precision must remain better than 100 mbar at pressures below 2 bar and better than 5% for higher pressures (up to 20 bar), with temperatures ranging from 1.8 K to 300 K. All the tested transducers are based on the same principle: the fluid or gas is separated from a sealed reference vacuum by an elastic membrane; its deformation indicates the pressure. The transducers will be exposed to high neutron fluence (2 kGy, 1014 n/cm2 per year) during the 20 years of machine operation. This irradiation may induce changes both on the membranes characteristics (leakage, modification of elasticity) and on gauges which measure their deformations. To investigate these effects and select the transducer to be used in the LHC, a...

Amand, J F; Casas-Cubillos, J; Thermeau, J P

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration 46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas Overview DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2 Use . Based on the analyses in the EA DOE determined that its proposed action - awarding a grant to Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. to design and demonstrate a state-of-the-art system to concentrate carbon dioxide (CO,) from two steam

255

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

256

NETL: Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Project No.: DE-FE0007634 FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed a novel system concept for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane. The proposed membrane has its genesis from the company's patented Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) technology. The prominent feature of the DFC membrane is its capability to produce power while capturing CO2 from the flue gas from a pulverized coal (PC) plant. The DFC membrane does not require flue gas compression as it operates on the principles of electrochemistry, resulting in net efficiency gains. The membrane utilizes a fuel (different from the plant flue gas, such as coal-derived syngas, natural gas, or a renewable resource) as the driver for the combined carbon capture and electric power generation. The electrochemical membrane consists of ceramic-based layers filled with carbonate salts, separating CO2 from the flue gas. Because of the electrode's high reaction rates, the membrane does not require a high CO2 concentration in its feed gas. The planar geometry of the membrane offers ease of scalability to large sizes suitable for deployment in PC plants, which is an important attribute in membrane design. The membrane has been tested at the laboratory scale, verifying the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. is advancing the technology to a maturity level suitable for adaption by industry for pilot-scale demonstration and subsequent commercial deployment.

257

Creep rupture properties of Hastelloy-X and Incoloy-800H in a simulated HTGR helium environment containing high levels of moisture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture tests on Incoloy-800H and Hastelloy-X have been carried out in a simulated steamcycle high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium environment containing a high level of moisture. For the maximum test time of 16 000 h, the creep rupture behavior of Incoloy-800H in the helium environment was not significantly different from that in air. Hastelloy-X showed a slightly lower rupture life in helium in comparison with standard air tests. Surface cracks initiated at the grain boundaries penetrating surface and cavities formed at the grain boundary triple points have been identified as major fracture mechanisms in both environments. Oxidation was the only gas/metal interaction observed in the helium environment.

Lee, K.S.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Enhanced CO2 Gas Storage in Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) is largely believed to be a primary contributor to global warming. ... Four coals of various rank exploited from four main coal seams in China were tested. ...

Shu-Qing Hao; Sungho Kim; Yong Qin; Xue-Hai Fu

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

259

Physicochemical aspects of the adsorption of sulfur dioxide by carbon adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Literature data on the chemistry of the adsorption of sulfur dioxide on carbon adsorbents are surveyed and described systematically. The influence of various factors (the nature of the carbon matrix, the activation method, the chemistry of the adsorbent surfaces, temperature, the composition of the gas stream, etc.) on the sorption of SO2 by activated carbons and semicokes is examined. The possible ways in which sulfur dioxide interacts with the carbon surface are discussed. The bibliography includes 128 references.

Sergey A Anurov

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Detector housing for the CCD camera lens, mirror, and scintillator. For more information, contact Instrument Scientist: Hassina Bilheux, bilheuxhn@ornl.gov, 865.384.9630 neutrons.ornl.gov/instruments/HFIR/factsheets/Instrument-cg1d.pdf The CG-1D beam is used for neutron imaging measurements using a white beam. Apertures (with different diameters D (pinhole geometry) are used at the entrance of the helium-filled flight path to allow L/D variation from 400 to 800. L is the distance between the aperture and the detector (where the image is produced). Samples sit on a translation/ rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for CG-1D include

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sorption, Dilation, and Partial Molar Volumes of Carbon Dioxide and Ethane in Cross-Linked Poly(ethylene oxide)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, carbon dioxide is a common impurity in natural gas that must be removed for heating value improvement. ... A database of PMV values for these two gases in liquids and rubbery polymers was constructed, and a correlation between PMV and solubility parameter was observed, so the chemical structure of the polymer can influence the PMV of the sorbed gas. ... Cylinders of ethane (99% purity) and carbon dioxide (99.999% purity) were purchased from Airgas Southwest Inc. (Corpus Christi, TX). ...

Cláudio P. Ribeiro, Jr.; Benny D. Freeman

2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

262

Design of oilfree all turbo-type helium refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have designed a high efficient, compact 300 W oilfree all turbo-type heliumrefrigerator capable of long maintenance free continuous operation. The main compressor at ambient temperature which is driven by a helium gas turbine attached to the same shaft, is supported by magnetic bearings, and, has an inlet and outlet pressure of 0.35 \\{MPa\\} and 0.7 MPa. Four turbo expanders are employed, including one at 80 K because LN2 is not used in this system. Each expander drives a cold compressor, accompanying a generator brake by use of an induction motor. This provides very easy control. Variable nozzles are adopted to the expanders, and the number of valves are diminished as much as possible to reduce line pressure loss. Concerning a heat exchanger, we have examined a micro tube laminar flow heat exchanger which is compact and enables high efficiency at low temperature. This heat exchanger can reduce pressure loss greatly.

N. Saji; S. Nagai; H. Asakura; Y. Kaneko

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Underground helium travels to the Earth's surface via aquifers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carried to the surface with the flow of water. The only place where helium is made on Earth is underground, where deep veins of uranium and thorium give off atoms of helium as...

264

Fluid helium at conditions of giant planetary interiors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the nonmetal-to-metal transition in fluid helium . Phys Rev Lett 98 : 190602 . 41 Ternovoi VY Filimonov AS Pyalling AA Mintsev VB Fortov VE ( 2002 ) Thermophysical properties of helium under multiple shock compression in Shock Compression of Condensed...

Lars Stixrude; Raymond Jeanloz

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Great Gas Hydrate Escape  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Great Gas Great Gas Hydrate Escape The Great Gas Hydrate Escape Computer simulations revealing how methane and hydrogen pack into gas hydrates could enlighten alternative fuel production and carbon dioxide storage January 25, 2012 | Tags: Carver, Chemistry, Energy Technologies, Hopper, Materials Science PNNL Contact: Mary Beckman , +1 509 375-3688, mary.beckman@pnl.gov NERSC Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov The methane trapped in frozen water burns easily, creating ice on fire. For some time, researchers have explored flammable ice for low-carbon or alternative fuel or as a place to store carbon dioxide. Now, a computer analysis of the ice and gas compound, known as a gas hydrate, reveals key details of its structure. The results show that hydrates can hold hydrogen

266

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Landfill Gas Using a Solar Regenerable Adsorbent.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Landfill gas is a complex mix of gases, containing methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide, created by the action of microorganisms within the landfill.… (more)

Kalapala, Sreevani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Quantum cascade laser spectrometer for trace-gas detection of exhaled Carbonyl Sulfide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simultaneous concentration measurements of exhaled carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide were demonstrated using a pulsed quantum cascade laser based gas sensor. This sensor has...

Wysocki, Gerard; So, Stephen; McCurdy, Matt; Roller, Chad; Weidmann, Damien; Kosterev, Anatoliy a; Frantz, J Patrick; Curl, Robert F; Tittel, Frank K

271

Analysis of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for flue gas desulfurization wastewater.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal-fired generation accounts for 45% of the United States electricity and generates harmful emissions, such as sulfur dioxide. With the implementation of Flue Gas Desulfurization… (more)

Talley, Mary Katherine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

An Atomistic study of Helium Resolution in bcc Iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of gas-stabilized bubbles in irradiated materials can be a significant factor in the microstructural processes that lead to mechanical property and dimensional changes in structural materials exposed to high-energy neutrons. Helium generation and accumulation is particularly important under DT fusion irradiation conditions. Although the process of ballistic resolutioning of gas from bubbles has been long-discussed in the literature, there have been few computational studies of this mechanism. Resolutioning could limit bubble growth by ejecting gas atoms back into the metal matrix. A detailed atomistic study of ballistic He resolutioning from bubbles in bcc iron has been carried out using molecular dynamics. A newly-developed Fe-He interatomic potential was employed, with the iron matrix described by the potential of Ackland and co-workers from 1997. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600K), iron knock-on atom energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (~0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) in order to obtain an assessment of this dynamic resolutioning mechanism. The results presented here focus on the 5 keV cascades which indicate a modest, but potentially significant level of He removal by this process.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Stewart, David M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have, that using natural gas for electricity generation is better than coal for the long-term healthSpeaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

274

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

275

Creep and rupture behavior of a special grade Hastelloy-X in simulated HTGR helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep and rupture tests were conducted for Hastelloy-XR (a modified version of the conventional Hastelloy alloy X) at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C in simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium. Creep testing machines with special control of helium chemistry were used. As a result, the scatter of creep-rupture data could be reduced, and the variability of creep-rupture behavior due to manufacturing history could be resolved. Results of metallography and carbon analysis of ruptured specimens showed that the material improved resistance to corrosion in the helium environment, and carbon intrusion during the steady-state creep stage was suppressed to a negligible level. Under refined test conditions combined with the quality controlled material, it was demonstrated that there was little significant difference between helium and air in the creep-rupture results obtained at 800 to 1000/sup 0/C up to about 10/sup 4/h. The importance of maintaining the protective function of the surface oxide film of alloys was stressed in securing reproducibility and predictability of long-time creep performance.

Kurata, Y.; Kondo, T.; Ogawa, Y.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion will be by direct combustion for the generation of power, but an increasing proportion will be con verted to syngas for chemical and fuel uses. Coal gasification is projected to become a major industry in the next decade. For every ton of coal... entering the gasification process, 1.88 lons of carbon dio xide are produced. This carbon dioxide is removed in virtually pure form by existing technology. This same technology can be applied to remove carbon dioxide from stack gases produced by power...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenaël Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research ...

John D. Spengler; Benjamin G. Ferris Jr.; Douglas W. Dockery; Frank E. Speizer

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gas Separation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Separation Separation Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Separation Modules Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Separation Modules Gas separation unit operations represent major cost elements in gasification plants. The gas separation technology being supported in the DOE program promises significant reduction in cost of electricity, improved thermal efficiency, and superior environmental performance. Gasification-based energy conversion systems rely on two gas separation processes: (1) separation of oxygen from air for feed to oxygen-blown gasifiers; and (2) post-gasification separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide following (or along with) the shifting of gas composition when carbon dioxide capture is required or hydrogen is the desired product. Research efforts include development of advanced gas separation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

Hall, Sharon J.

282

Design and test of a wet type helium turbo-expander with an alternator as a brake  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wet type helium turbo-expander with expected adiabatic efficiency of 70% at inlet pressure, temperature, and outlet pressure of 1.3 MPa, 6.0 K, and 0.2 MPa, respectively, has been developed. An alternator is adopted as a brake where a permanent magnet is held in the turbine shaft. And a self-acting gas bearing is used at thrust and journal bearings. An electromagnet supports thrust bearing to lift up the thrust disk when initiating operation. Design mass flow rate of the turbine is determined to be 60 g/s, corresponding to the JT mass flow rate in the existing helium liquefier/refrigerator. In the cryogenic performance test, the turbine had increased helium liquefaction rate by four times larger than the liquefaction rate without turbine operation.

Kato, T.; Miyake, A.; Kawano, K.; Hamada, K.; Hiyama, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Ebisu, H.; Tsuji, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Saji, N.; Kaneko, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Helium enhancements in globular cluster stars from Asymptotic Giant Branch star pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a chemical evolution model we investigate the intriguing suggestion that there are populations of stars in some globular clusters (e.g. NGC 2808, omega Centauri) with enhanced levels of helium (Y from about 0.28 to 0.40) compared to the majority of the population that presumably have a primordial helium abundance. We assume that a previous generation of massive low-metallicity Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars has polluted the cluster gas via a slow stellar wind. We use two independent sets of AGB yields computed from detailed models to follow the evolution of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the cluster gas using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and a number of top-heavy IMFs. In no case were we able to fit the observational constraints, Y > 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. Depending on the shape of the IMF and the yields, we either obtained Y approximately greater than 0.30 and large increases in C+N+O or Y < 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. These results suggest that eith...

Karakas, A I; Sills, A; Campbell, S; Lattanzio, J C; Karakas, Amanda; Fenner, Yeshe; Sills, Alison; Campbell, Simon; Lattanzio, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

285

Chapter 10 - Natural Gas Sweetening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Acid gas constituents present in most natural gas streams are mainly hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Many gas streams, however, particularly those in a refinery or manufactured gases, may contain mercaptans, carbon sulfide, or carbonyl sulfide. The level of acid gas concentration in the sour gas is an important consideration for selecting the proper sweetening process. Some processes are applicable for removal of large quantities of acid gas, and other processes have the capacity for removing acid gas constituents to ppm range. This chapter covers the minimum process requirements, criteria, and features for accomplishment of process design of gas sweetening units. The basic principles for process design of main equipment, piping, and instrumentation together with guidelines on present developments and process selection in the gas sweetening process are the main objectives throughout this chapter.

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology titled "Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Carbon sequestration entails a multi-step process in which CO 2 is first separated / captured from gas streams followed by permanent storage. Carbon capture represents a critical step in the process and accounts for a considerable portion of the overall cost. Newly developed, high capacity amine-based sorbents offer many advantages over existing technology including increased CO

287

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

288

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Simultaneous measurements of super-radiance at multiple wavelengths from helium excited states: (I) Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we report the results of measurements of the intensities and delays of super-radiance decays from excited helium atoms at multiple wavelengths. The experiment was performed using extreme ultraviolet radiation produced by the free electron laser at the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator facility as an excitation source. We observed super-radiant transitions on the $1s3p \\to 1s2s$ ($\\lambda=$502 nm), $1s3d \\to 1s2p$ ($\\lambda=$668 nm), and $1s3s \\to 1s2p$ ($\\lambda=$728 nm) transitions. The pulse energy of each transition and its delay time were measured as a function of the target helium gas density. Several interesting features of the data, some of which appear to contradict with the predictions of the simple two-level super-radiance theory, are pointed out.

Nakajima, Kyo; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Kuma, Susumu; Miyamoto, Yuki; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Ohae, Chiaki; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Shigemasa, Eiji; Sasao, Noboru

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

293

In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

David, M.-L., E-mail: marie-laure.david@univ-poitiers.fr; Pailloux, F. [Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS-Université de Poitiers, SP2MI, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil cedex (France); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L. [Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS-Université de Poitiers, SP2MI, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil cedex (France); Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A. [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

294

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

295

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

296

Table 2. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,,,," Shares " "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas" "Alabama",67.81545193,35.95576449,28.97505976,132.7462762,0.5108651925,0.2708608145,0.218273993 "Alaska",1.364880388,19.58916888,17.77313443,38.72718369,0.03524347131,0.5058247724,0.4589317562 "Arizona",43.2377726,34.82066125,17.85460129,95.91303514,0.4508018387,0.3630440972,0.1861540641 "Arkansas",27.72445786,23.82768621,14.56726112,66.11940519,0.4193089424,0.3603735717,0.2203174859 "California",5.157135123,241.2575077,123.3955377,369.8101805,0.01394535736,0.6523820067,0.3336726359

297

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Project No.: FG02-04ER83925 SBIR CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridge [6" (D) X 17" (L)] Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. developed and tested a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system for flue gas streams from large point sources that offers improved mass transfer rates compared to conventional technologies. The project fabricated perfluorinated membranes on hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane contactors, demonstrated CO2 removal from a simulated flue gas mixture via amine absorption using the fabricated membranes, examine chemical compatibility of the membrane with amines, and demonstrate enhanced stability of the perfluoro-coated membranes. In addition, an economic analysis was performed to demonstrate that the perfluoro-coated

298

A Combined Experimental-Computational Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Capture in a Series of Isoreticular Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for their carbon dioxide capture and gas separation properties.2 However, little is known about the factors). This simplifies the task of relating gas uptake properties to the nature of the functional group in ZIF structures Charles E. Young DriVe East, Los Angeles, California 90095, Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Kansas

Yaghi, Omar M.

299

Analysis of a duo-selecting membrane reactor for the water-gas shift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The water-gas shift reaction is an exothermic and reversible catalytic process that converts carbon monoxide and water (steam) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In regard to energy-related issues, the water-gas shift is part ...

Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Shale Gas Formations and Their Potential for Carbon Storage: Opportunities and Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale gas resources are proving to be globally abundant...2...(carbon dioxide) to mitigate the climate impacts of global carbon emissions from power and industrial sectors. This paper reviews global shale gas res...

Roozbeh Khosrokhavar; Steve Griffiths; Karl-Heinz Wolf

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol gas additives Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alcohol. In addition, you will not want to use... , methyl gas, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, wood alcohol, carbon, water, and a lot of other... if gas storage tanks...

302

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) pyridine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) ethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,4-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) toluene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1-methylnapthalene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Viscosity of the mixture (1) 1,3-dioxolane; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Viscosity of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,3-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrofuran; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,2-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

315

Helium 4 Dimer in Two Coaxial Adjacent Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ground state properties of the helium 4 dimer, within the geometry defined by two adjacent nanotubes with different radii and hard core walls,...

J. Brana; S. Kili?; L. Vranješ

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaluation of cation-exchanged zeolite adsorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of cation-exchanged zeolite adsorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture Tae anthro- pogenic sources.1 Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means of limiting evaluated for potential application in post-combustion CO2 capture using a new high-throughput gas

317

An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

MARUSICH, R.M.

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

318

Alternatives for Helium-3 in Multiplicity Counters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternatives to helium-3 are being actively pursued due to the shortage and rising costs of helium-3. For safeguards applications, there are a number of ongoing investigations to find alternatives that provide the same capability in a cost-effective manner. One of the greatest challenges is to find a comparable alternative for multiplicity counters, since they require high efficiency and short collection or die-away times. Work has been progressing on investigating three commercially available alternatives for high efficiency multiplicity counters: boron trifluoride (BF3) filled proportional tubes, boron-lined proportional tubes, and lithium fluoride with zinc sulfide coated light guides. The baseline multiplicity counter used for the investigation is the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter with 121 helium-3 filled tubes at 10 atmosphere pressure, which is a significant capability to match. The primary tool for the investigation has been modeling and simulation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport program, with experiments to validate the models. To directly calculate the coincidence rates in boron-lined (and possibly other) detectors, the MCNPX code has been enhanced to allow the existing coincidence tally to be used with energy deposition rather than neutron capture reactions. This allows boron-lined detectors to be modeled more accurately. Variations of tube number and diameter along with variations in the amount of inter-tube moderator have been conducted for the BF3 and boron-lined cases. Tube pressure was investigated for BF3, up to two atmospheres, as well as optimal boron thickness in the boron-lined tubes. The lithium fluoride was modeled as sheets of material with light guides in between, and the number and thickness of the sheets investigated. The amount of light guide, which in this case doubles as a moderator, was also optimized. The results of these modeling and simulation optimization investigations are described and results presented.

Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon dioxide turbo-expander and heat exchangers project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop a megawatt-scale s-CO2 hot-gas turbo-expander optimized for the highly transient solar power plant profile. The team is also working to optimize novel printed circuit heat exchangers for s-CO2 applications to drastically reduce their manufacturing costs.

320

Gas separation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The method for production of high purity hydrogen and high purity carbon monoxide from a mixed gas stream comprising these components together with carbon dioxide and a zero to a minor amount of one or more other gaseous contaminants is described comprising the steps of: (a) passing the mixed gas stream into and through a first bed of solid adsorbent capable of selectively adsorbing carbon dioxide and water while discharging from the bed a dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (b) introducing the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent into a cryogenic environment for cooling the same therein under conditions effective for condensation of at least the major part of the carbon monoxide present in the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (c) withdrawing from the cryogenic environment carbon monoxide of high purity; (d) separately withdrawing from the cryogenic environment an uncondensed first gas stream product comprised of crude hydrogen and subjecting the first gas stream product to selective adsorption of non-hydrogen components therefrom in a second bed of solid absorbent, while recovering from the second bed the non-sorbed fraction as a product stream of essentially pure hydrogen; (e) purging the second solid adsorbent bed to desorb non-hydrogen components sorbed therein in step (d), and withdrawing from the bed a gas stream comprising the desorbed non-hydrogen components.

Nicholas, D.M.; Hopkins, J.A.; Roden, T.M.; Bushinsky, J.P.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in Helium Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, Xetv York 14853 (Received 4 November 1988) The superAuid response of helium Alms with transition temperatures ranging from 70 mK to 0.5 K has been studied using a torsional oscillator technique. A... KOSTERLITZ- THOULESS TRANSITION IN. . . 8935 =n ~Koln(R/ro)+E, (T), (1.2) where R is the size of the system and Ko =p, o( T)(A'/m) . In the above expression the core radius ro serves to cut off the divergence of the flow fields at small distances...

Agnolet, Glenn; MCQUEENEY, DF; REPPY, JD.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

323

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide emissions Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News &...

324

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Simulation, experimental validation and kinematic optimization of a Stirling engine using air and helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A Stirling engine with nominal output power of 1 kW is tested using air and helium as working gases. The influence of working pressure, engine speed and temperature of the hot source is studied, analyzing instantaneous gas pressure as well as instantaneous and stationary temperature at different positions to derive the effective power. A zero dimensional finite-time thermodynamic, three zones model of a generic Stirling engine is developed and successfully validated against experimental gas temperature and pressure in each zone, providing the effective power. This validation underlines the interest of different working gases as well as different geometric configurations for different applications. Furthermore, the validated model allows parametric studies of the engine, with regard to geometry, working gas and engine kinematics. It is used in order to optimize the kinematic of a Stirling engine for different working points and gases.

Juliette Bert; Daniela Chrenko; Tonino Sophy; Luis Le Moyne; Frédéric Sirot

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Miguel Gonzalez | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the interaction of a variety of small gas molecules (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen, and argon) with Co2(dobdc) (dobdc4- 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzene-dic...

327

Natural Gas Hydrate Dissociation by Presence of Ethylene Glycol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Gas Hydrate Dissociation by Presence of Ethylene Glycol ... solids that form from mixts. of water and light natural gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane. ... Pulse Combustion Characteristics of Various Gaseous Fuels ...

Shuanshi Fan; Yuzhen Zhang; Genlin Tian; Deqing Liang; Dongliang Li

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

328

NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PARAMETERS BASED ON IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS AND TEST PARTICLE CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its high ionization potential and weak interaction with hydrogen, neutral interstellar helium (NISHe) is almost unaffected at the heliospheric interface with the interstellar medium and freely enters the solar system. This second most abundant species provides some of the best information on the characteristics of the interstellar gas in the local interstellar cloud. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is the second mission to directly detect NISHe. We present a comparison between recent IBEX NISHe observations and simulations carried out using a well-tested quantitative simulation code. Simulation and observation results compare well for times when measured fluxes are dominated by NISHe (and contributions from other species are small). Differences between simulations and observations indicate a previously undetected secondary population of neutral helium, likely produced by interaction of interstellar helium with plasma in the outer heliosheath. Interstellar neutral parameters are statistically different from previous in situ results obtained mostly from the GAS/Ulysses experiment, but they do agree with the local interstellar flow vector obtained from studies of interstellar absorption: the newly established flow direction is ecliptic longitude 79.{sup 0}2, latitude -5.{sup 0}1, the velocity is {approx}22.8 km s{sup -1}, and the temperature is 6200 K. These new results imply a markedly lower absolute velocity of the gas and thus significantly lower dynamic pressure on the boundaries of the heliosphere and different orientation of the Hydrogen Deflection Plane compared to prior results from Ulysses. A different orientation of this plane also suggests a new geometry of the interstellar magnetic field, and the lower dynamic pressure calls for a compensation by other components of the pressure balance, most likely a higher density of interstellar plasma and strength of interstellar magnetic field.

Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Hlond, M. [Space Research Centre PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Leonard, T.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Schwadron, N. A. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Crew, G. B. [Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Westford, MA (United States); Fuselier, S. A. [Lockheed Martin, Space Physics Lab, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); McComas, D. J., E-mail: stephen.a.fuselier@linco.com [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

Determination of effective axion masses in the helium-3 buffer of CAST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a ground based experiment located in Geneva (Switzerland) searching for axions coming from the Sun. Axions, hypothetical particles that not only could solve the strong CP problem but also be one of the favored candidates for dark matter, can be produced in the core of the Sun via the Primakoff effect. They can be reconverted into X-ray photons on Earth in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. In order to look for axions, CAST points a decommissioned LHC prototype dipole magnet with different X-ray detectors installed in both ends of the magnet towards the Sun. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV/c{sup 2}. During the second phase, CAST extends its mass sensitivity by tuning the electron density present in the magnetic field region. Injecting precise amounts of helium gas has enabled CAST to look for axion masses up to 1.2 eV/c{sup 2}. This paper studies the determination of the effective axion masses scanned at CAST during its second phase. The use of a helium gas buffer at temperatures of 1.8 K has required a detailed knowledge of the gas density distribution. Complete sets of computational fluid dynamic simulations validated with experimental data have been crucial to obtain accurate results.

Ruz, J

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

332

A Miniature Helium Turbo-Expander for Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter highlights the features of a miniature helium turbo expander for cryogenic refrigeration systems. The Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards has investigated the use of small, high speed turbines, supported by gas lubricated journal bearings, in small capacity refrigeration system. Two systems have been studied, one that operates at 4.2 K and another at 30 K. As a result of optimization studies, a 20:1 pressure ratio was used for the 4.2 K system. It is found that although the final low temperature is obtained with an expansion valve, work extraction is necessary for system operation. Refrigeration at 30 K is accomplished by shutting the expansion valve, and leaving the low temperature loop of the system unused. Refrigeration is obtained downstream of the turbine. It is found that for this system, optimization studies indicated best performance at 4:1 pressure ratio. A program was initiated to investigate the performance of a 4:1 pressure ratio turbine for this application. A design goal of 70% was selected from the qualitative reasoning that in larger sizes 80 to 90% was common, but in small machines friction and leakage losses tend to be relatively high.

M.T. NORTON

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thermal behavior of bovine serum albumin after exposure to barrier discharge helium plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-thermal plasma jets at atmospheric pressure are useful tools nowadays in plasma medicine. Various applications are tested such as cauterization coagulation wound healing natural and artificial surfaces decontamination and sterilization. In order to know more about the effects of gas plasma on biological supramolecules we exposed proteinpowders to a barrier discharge helium plasma jet. Then spectroscopic investigations were carried out in order to obtain information on protein secondary tertiary and quaternary structures. We obtained a reduction of the protein alpha-helix content after the plasma exposure and a different behavior for both thermal denaturation/renaturation kinetics and thermal aggregation process.

R. Jijie; V. Pohoata; I. Topala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

509 RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1 C. JOHANNES Service de Recherches Appliquées, L boiling, forced convection heat transfer. Relations between critical nucleate flux and some parameters confronted with the problem of calculating the heat transfer from the helium to the superconducting material

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

DIRECT EVALUATION OF THE HELIUM ABUNDANCES IN OMEGA CENTAURI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A direct measure of the helium abundances from the near-infrared transition of He I at 1.08 {mu}m is obtained for two nearly identical red giant stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. One star exhibits the He I line; the line is weak or absent in the other star. Detailed non-local thermal equilibrium semi-empirical models including expansion in spherical geometry are developed to match the chromospheric H{alpha}, H{beta}, and Ca II K lines, in order to predict the helium profile and derive a helium abundance. The red giant spectra suggest a helium abundance of Y {<=} 0.22 (LEID 54064) and Y = 0.39-0.44 (LEID 54084) corresponding to a difference in the abundance {Delta}Y {>=} 0.17. Helium is enhanced in the giant star (LEID 54084) that also contains enhanced aluminum and magnesium. This direct evaluation of the helium abundances gives observational support to the theoretical conjecture that multiple populations harbor enhanced helium in addition to light elements that are products of high-temperature hydrogen burning. We demonstrate that the 1.08 {mu}m He I line can yield a helium abundance in cool stars when constraints on the semi-empirical chromospheric model are provided by other spectroscopic features.

Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: eavrett@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

336

A VACANCY MODEL IN SOLID HELIUM IV B. CASTAING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

536 A VACANCY MODEL IN SOLID HELIUM IV B. CASTAING Groupe de Physique des Solides de l here a new approach to the problem of vacancies in solid Helium 4, describing them as small liquid droplets. In this model the vacancy effective mass is very small : 0.1 mHe, where mHe is the atomic mass

Boyer, Edmond

337

Sulfolane-Cross-Polybenzimidazole Membrane For Gas Separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cross-linked, supported polybenzimidazole membrane for gas separation is prepared by reacting polybenzimidazole (PBI) with the sulfone-containing crosslinking agent 3,4-dichloro-tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1-dioxide. The cross-linked reaction product exhibits enhanced gas permeability to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and methane as compared to the unmodified analog, without significant loss of selectivity, at temperatures from about 20 degrees Celsius to about 400 degrees Celsius.

Young, Jennifer S. (Los Alamos, NM); Long, Gregory S. (Los Alamos, NM); Espinoza, Brent F. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

338

Definition: Liquid natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid natural gas Liquid natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Liquid natural gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a

339

Steam reformers heated by helium from high temperature reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The manifold possibilities of the application of helium-heated steam reformers combined with high temperature nuclear reactors are elucidated in this article. It is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the processes does not cause difficulties because of the good heat transfer in helium at high pressure and that helium peak temperatures of 950°C are sufficient for carrying out the process. The mechanical design of the reformer tube does not lead to problems because the helium and process pressures are so chosen as to be approximately equal. The problems of hydrogen and tritium permeation as well as the contamination of the reformer tube with solid fission products seem to be solvable using the knowledge available at present. Furthermore, the various possibilities for the design arrangements of helium-heated reformer tube furnaces are shown. The status of development attained to date is outlined and in conclusion there is a survey regarding the next steps to be taken in steam reformer technology.

K. Kugeler; M. Kugeler; H.F. Niessen; K.H. Hammelmann

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Double photoionization of helium with synchrotron x-rays: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains papers on the following topics: Overview and comparison of photoionization with charged particle impact; The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: the relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization; Double photoionization of helium at high energies; Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements; Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium; Elimination of two atomic electrons by a single energy photon; Double photoionization of helium at intermediate energies; Double Photoionization: Gauge Dependence, Coulomb Explosion; Single and Double Ionization by high energy photon impact; The effect of Compton Scattering on the double to single ionization ratio in helium; and Double ionization of He by photoionization and Compton scattering. These papers have been cataloged separately for the database.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Direct formation of aerogels by sol-gel polymerizations of alkoxysilanes in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sol-gel polymerization of alkoxysilanes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) was used to directly prepare aerogels. Polymerizations of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BESP) were performed by dissolving the monomers and formic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD). Monolithic gels were obtained in under 12 hours. The silica and polysilsesquioxane gels were readily dried to afford aerogels by slowly venting the SCCD. The aerogels were high surface area mesoporous materials that were characterized by solid state NMR, SEM, TEM, and gas sorption porosimetry.

Loy, D.A.; Yamanaka, A.; Carpenter, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Landfill Gas Sequestration in Kansas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Road Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26505-0880 304-285-4132 Heino.beckert@netl.doe.gov David newell Principal Investigator Kansas Geological Survey 1930 Constant Avenue Lawrence, KS 66045 785-864-2183 dnewall@kgs.uk.edu LandfiLL Gas sequestration in Kansas Background Municipal solid waste landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States, accounting for about 34 percent of these emissions in 2004. Most methane (CH 4 ) generated in landfills and open dumps by anaerobic decomposition of the organic material in solid-waste-disposal landfills is either vented to the atmosphere or converted to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by flaring. The gas consists of about 50 percent methane (CH 4 ), the primary component of natural gas, about 50 percent carbon dioxide (CO

343

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

344

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005 are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price (baseline IGCC), and IGCC with pre-investments that make future retrofit for CO2 capture less expensive (pre

345

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

346

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...1978012175 air atmosphere biosphere carbon...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth, which...synchronization rate of 16 khz and the picture...the interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

347

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

348

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

349

Recovery of Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Energy Conversion Processes Using a Membrane Reactor Ashok S. Damle * Research Triangle Institute P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Phone: (919) 541-6146 Fax: (919) 541-6965 E-mail: adamle@rti.org Thomas P. Dorchak National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, Mail Stop C04 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Phone: (304) 285-4305 E-mail: tdorch@netl.doe.gov Abstract Increased awareness of the global warming trend has led to worldwide concerns regarding "greenhouse gas" emissions, with CO 2 being the single greatest contributor to global warming. Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) currently supply over 85% of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of

350

Near-Infrared Constraints on the Presence of Warm Dust at Metal-Rich, Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here, we present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 15 helium atmosphere, metal-rich white dwarfs obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. While a connection has been demonstrated between the most highly polluted, hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs and the presence of warm circumstellar dust and gas, their frequency at the helium atmosphere variety is poorly constrained. None of our targets show excess near-infrared radiation consistent with warm orbiting material. Adding these near-infrared constraints to previous near- and mid-infrared observations, the frequency of warm circumstellar material at metal-bearing white dwarfs is at least 20% for hydrogen-dominated photospheres, but could be less than 5% for those effectively composed of helium alone. The lower occurrence of dust disks around helium atmosphere white dwarfs is consistent with Myr timescales for photospheric metals in massive convection zones. Analyzing the mass distribution of 10 white dwarfs with warm circumstellar material, we search for similar trends between the frequency of disks and the predicted frequency of massive planets around intermediate mass stars, but find the probability that disk-bearing white dwarfs are more massive than average is not significant.

Mukremin Kilic; J. Farihi; Atsuko Nitta; S. K. Leggett

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1-3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20-200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30-40 GHz at frequencies f{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 110-180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy {Delta}{sub r}(T) in the temperature range 1.4-2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms ({sup 4}He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170-200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t{sub r-r} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f{sub 0}(T) = {Delta}r(T)/2{pi}h appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of {sup 4}He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to the resonator surface, which explains the experimentally observed symmetric doublet splitting of the resonance absorption line in an external dc electric field perpendicular to the resonator surface. We show that negative absorption (induced emission) of EM field quanta observed after triggering a Kapitza 'heat gun' occurs when the occupation numbers for roton states due to 'pumping' of rotons exceed the occupation numbers of EM field photons in the resonator.

Pashitskii, E. A., E-mail: pashitsk@iop.kiev.ua; Pentegov, V. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Carbon Dioxide Sorption Isotherms and Matrix Transport Rates for Non-Powdered Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For enhanced coalbed methane/carbon dioxide sequestration field projects, carbon dioxide isotherms and the rate of diffusion of the carbon dioxide from the cleats into the matrix are important parameters for predicting how much carbon dioxide actually will be sequestered under various operating conditions. Manometric (or pressure swing) experiments on powdered coal provide a quick, simple, and relatively inexpensive method for measuring sorption isotherms. However, determination of the rate of transport from cleat into matrix from the rate of gas pressure drop is difficult, if not impossible. (The characteristic time constant for the transport depends on the cleat spacing as well as the rate of diffusion.) Manometric measurements often yield isotherms that are extremely problematic in the region of the carbon dioxide critical point; perhaps even worse, available data seem to indicate that the sorption isotherms measured for powders are much larger than the isotherms of coal cores. Measurements on centimeter-sized samples can take weeks or months to reach equilibrium; for such equilibration times gas leakage rates that would be of no significance in powdered-coal measurements can completely invalidate manometric measurements on coal cores. We have tested and used a simple, inexpensive method for measuring isotherms and carbon dioxide transport rates in coal cores. One or more cores are placed in a simple pressure vessel, and a constant pressure is maintained in the vessel by connecting it to a gas supply (which contains a very large amount of gas compared to amount that could leak over the course of the experiment). From time to time the gas supply is shut off, the sample is removed, and its weight is recorded at ambient pressure at frequent time intervals for a period of about one hour. The sample is then returned to the pressure vessel, the carbon dioxide pressure restored to its previous value, and the equilibration resumed until the next sample weighing. For a point on the isotherm, the process is repeated until the sample weight reaches a constant value (i.e., typically equilibration times of several weeks). The slope of a plot of sample weight vs. square root of elapsed desorption time gives a measurement for the rate of diffusion. In order to advance all three experimental methods, results from this “ambient-pressure gravimetry” method were compared with data obtained by conventional manometry and by computer tomography. The isotherm and “diffusion” rate measured for the core can be directly used in simulators for reservoir engineering studies of coalseam sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production.

Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.; Seshadri, K.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Scattering of Fast Neutrons by Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements have been made of the angular distribution of helium recoils for incident neutrons of energies from 0.6 to 1.6 Mev. The distribution curves also permit estimates of the total cross section in this energy range. The results confirm the existence of a cross-section peak of about 6.8×10-24 cm2 around 1 Mev and indicate, under the assumption of s- and p-wave scattering only, that the peak is double. But preliminary attempts to fit the data to Bloch's detailed theory of s- and p-scattering with a split p-level have not been successful, and the sign of the postulated splitting is not established.

T. A. Hall and P. G. Koontz

1947-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Helium in the outer solar atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We construct models of the outer solar atmosphere comprising the region from the mid chromosphere and into the solar wind in order to study the force and energy balance in models with a significant helium abundance. The corona is created by dissipation of an energy flux from the Sun. The energy flux is lost as radiation from the top of the chromosphere and as gravitational and kinetic solar wind energy flux. We find that in models with significant ion heating of the extended corona most of the energy flux is lost in the solar wind. The ion temperatures are higher than the electron temperature in these models and the ?-particle temperature is much higher than the proton temperature. Roughly speaking we find that the relative ?-particle and proton fluxes are set by the degree of chromospheric mixing while the speeds are set by the details of the coronal heating process.

V. H. Hansteen; E. Leer; T. E. Holzer

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Helium solubility in SON68 nuclear waste glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Helium behavior in a sodium borosilicate glass (SON68) dedicated to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste is examined. Two experimental approaches on nonradioactive glass specimens are implemented: pressurized helium infusion experiments and {sup 3}He ion implantation experiments. The temperature variation of helium solubility in SON68 glass was determined and analyzed with the harmonic oscillator model to determine values of the energy of interaction E(0) at the host sites (about -4000 J/mol), the vibration frequency (about 1.7 x 10{sup 11} s{sup -1}), and the density of solubility sites (2.2 x 10{sup 21} sites cm{sup -3}). The implantation experiments show that a non diffusive transport phenomenon (i.e., athermal diffusion) is involved in the material when the helium concentration exceeds 2.3 x 10{sup 21} He cm{sup -3}, and thus probably as soon as it exceeds the density of solubility sites accessible to helium in the glass. We propose that this transport mechanism could be associated with the relaxation of the stress gradient induced by the implanted helium profile, which is favored by the glass damage. Microstructural characterization by TEM and ESEM of glass specimens implanted with high helium concentrations showed a homogeneous microstructure free of bubbles, pores, or cracking at a scale of 10 nm. (authors)

Fares, Toby; Peuget, Sylvain; Bouty, Olivier; Broudic, Veronique; Maugeri, Emilio; Bes, Rene; Jegou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD SECM LMPA, F-30207 Marcoule, Bagnols Sur Cez, (France); Chamssedine, Fadel; Sauvage, Thierry [CNRS, CEMHTI, F-245071 Orleans, (France); Deschanels, Xavier [LNAR, Marcoule Inst Separat Chem, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sorbents sorbents B-14 Pre-Combustion sorbents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture teChnology for low-rank Coal integrateD gasifiCation CombineD CyCle (igCC) systems primary project goals TDA will investigate the technical and economic advantages of using an integrated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent and water-gas shift (WGS) catalyst system in an integrated gasifi- cation combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, fueled with low-rank coal, and designed to capture more than 90% of the CO 2 emissions. technical goals * TDA will evaluate the physical mix of the sorbent and catalyst pellets within the same

357

APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS PRE-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES POST-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS POST-COMBUSTION SORBENTS POST-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES OXY-COMBUSTION OXYGEN PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LOOPING ADVANCED COMPRESSION R&D COLLABORATIONS B-1 APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS B-6 SRI International - CO 2 Capture Using AC-ABC Processt B-7 PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS B-14 TDA Research - CO 2 Capture for Low-Rank Coal IGCC Systems B-15 URS Group - Sorbent Development for WGS B-18 Air Products and Chemicals - Advanced Acid Gas Separation B-24 Ohio State University-Department of Chemical Engineering - Calcium Looping for Hydrogen Production B-33

358

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the

359

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/PubDetails.aspx?Action=View& Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carben-version-3-multisector-carbon-d Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation and is not intended to be used

360

NETL: News Release - Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

19, 2004 19, 2004 Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide Researchers Perform Small Scale, Short Term Carbon Sequestration Field Test HOUSTON, TX - In the first U.S. field test to investigate the ability of brine formations to store greenhouse gasses, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy are closely monitoring 1,600 tons of carbon dioxide that were injected into a mile-deep well in Texas in October. The test is providing unique data to help investigators understand the viability of geologic sequestration as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Frio Brine Pilot experimental site is 30 miles northeast of Houston, in the South Liberty oilfield. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology drilled a 5,753 foot injection well earlier this year, and developed a nearby observation well to study the ability of the high-porosity Frio sandstone formation to store carbon dioxide.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NETL: Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic Carbonate Membrane Reactor Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic Carbonate Membrane Reactor Project No.: DE-FE0000470 Arizona State University is developing a dual-phase, membrane-based separation device which will separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from typical water gas shift (WGS) mixture feeds and produce hydrogen, which can be introduced into the combustion turbines of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. The objectives of the project are experimental studies of the synthesis of a high-temperature, chemically and thermally stable and CO2 perm-selective dual-phase membrane and its use as a membrane reactor for WGS reaction to produce H2 and CO2 rich streams. Concept of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes for CO2 separation. Concept of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes for CO2 separation.

362

The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the titratable alkalinity is not reduced. The by-product of the reaction is ammonium hydroxI. de which keeps the alkalinity of the sol the same as that of the starting diluted sodium silicate. The usual method for producing N-Sol A Is to mix dI. lute sodium... safely at about twice the safe storage concen- tration of the Baylis sol. This permits a twofold de- crease in the capaci. ty of the storage tanks (10). Hay also has done a great deal of development wozk 10 in which he has suggested the use of carbon...

Hayes, William Bell

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

364

Thermophysical Properties of Helium under Multiple Shock Compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results on measurements of thermodynamic properties and electrical conductivity of Helium compressed with shock wave reverberation technique up to pressure and density of 200 GPa and 1.4 g/cc are presented. The increase of the Helium conductivity up to the values of 1000 1/(Ohm?cm) was found at the densities more than 0.7 g/cc and temperature more than 15 kK. Comparison of the experimental results with different theoretical models of thermodynamic and transport properties of shocked Helium was done.

Vladimir Ya. Ternovoi; Alexander S. Filimonov; Alexei A. Pyalling; Viktor B. Mintsev; Vladimir E. Fortov

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

366

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced

Combes, Stacey A.

367

Effect of helium addition on discharge characteristics in a flat fluorescent lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discharge characteristics of a multielectrode dual coplanar in a mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp were investigated using brightness-efficiency measurement and the infrared (IR) spectrum and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) characteristics. The level of brightness was above 14 900 cd/m{sup 2} under the conditions of neon--50% xenon-8% He gas composition, 150 Torr pressure, and 20 kHz alternating current pulse. The ICCD results revealed a faster and wider discharge with a Ne-50% Xe-8% He gas composition. The effect of adding helium (He) to Ne-50% Xe revealed a faster peak emission, as confirmed by ICCD images. From the gated IR emission spectrum, the intensity ratio of I{sub 823nm}/I{sub 828nm} was {approx}8% higher with Ne-50% Xe-8% He than with Ne-50% Xe under the same pressure and applied voltage conditions.

Lee, Seong-Eui; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Lee, Kyo Sung; Choi, Kyung Cheol [Materials and Devices Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol: Enhanced methanol production in silica sol-gel matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strategies for effective conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to methanol offer promising new technologies not only for recycling of the greenhouse gas but also for an efficient production of fuel alternatives. Partial hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been accomplished by means of heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Oxide-based catalysts are predominantly used for industrial fixation of carbon dioxide. A unique approach in this direction involves the use of enzymes as catalysts for conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The use of enzymes is particularly appealing since it provides a facile low-temperature route for generation of methanol directly from gaseous carbon dioxide. The authors report an enzymatically coupled sequential reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a series of reactions catalyzed by three different dehydrogenases. Overall, the process involves an initial reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (F{sub ate}DH), followed by reduction of formate to formaldehyde by formaldehyde dehydrogenase (F{sub ald}DH), and finally formaldehyde is reduced to methanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this process, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) acts as a terminal electron donor for each dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction.

Obert, R.; Dave, B.C.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

Comparison of carbon dioxide and nuclear waste storage costs in Lithuania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear power and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are key greenhouse gas mitigation options under consideration across the world. Both technologies imply long-term waste management challenge. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nuclear waste has much in common, and valuable lessons can be learnt from a comparison. Seeking to compare these technologies economic, social and environmental criteria need to be selected and expressed in terms of indicators. Very important issue is costs and economics of geological storage of carbon dioxide and nuclear waste. The costs of storage are one of the main indicators for assessment of technologies in terms of economic criteria. The paper defines the costs of the geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste in Lithuania, drawing also on insights from other parts of the world. The costs of carbon dioxide and nuclear waste storage are evaluated in UScnt/kWh and compared. The paper critically compares the characteristics and location of the both sources of and storage options for CO2 and nuclear waste in Lithuania. It discusses the main costs categories for carbon dioxide and nuclear waste storage. The full range of potential geological storage options is considered and the most reliable options for carbon dioxide and nuclear waste are selected for the comparative costs assessment.

Dalia Streimikiene

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

SRS upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > SRS upgrades helium recovery system SRS upgrades helium recovery system Posted By Office of Public Affairs Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Programs recently completed a project to design, build and relocate a new system for separating and capturing

372

Regional And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pathways Abstract Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as 6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent...

373

Heat Transfer in Liquid Helium below 1 degrees K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...September 1955 research-article Heat Transfer in Liquid Helium below 1 degrees...is proportional to the specific heat and the diameter of the specimen. Thus the sole mechanism of heat transfer appears to be by phonons which...

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of...

375

Development of High Expansion Ratio Helium Turbo Expander  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors developed a high expansion ratio radial inflow turbine for a helium liquefier of 100 L/h capacity for use with a 70 MW superconductive generator. The following results were obtained from this devel...

N. Ino; A. Machida; K. Ttsugawa; Y. Arai; M. Matsuki…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Creep properties of Hastelloy-X in impure helium environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In impure helium environments, Hastelloy-X is susceptible to carburization and oxidation. These effects are investigated separately, and are related to the creep behavior of the alloy. Experiments were carried out at 900/sup 0/C in both helium and air. Carburization resulted in a slight increase of the creep strength up to the onset of the tertial creep. Suppression of the creep crack growth by oxidation was confirmed using notched plate specimens of Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy-X. Although the difference of creep strength in air and in helium was very small and considered to be inclusive in the usual scatter, a pessimistic ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was estimated to be 0.9.

Nakanishi, T.; Kawakami, H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

we present the helium and carbon isotope results from the initial study of a fluid chemistry-monitoring program started in the summer of 2001 near the South Sister volcano in...

378

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon- Evidence For Renewed Volcanic Activity Or A Long Term Steady State System(Question) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon- Evidence For Renewed Volcanic Activity Or A Long Term Steady State System(Question) Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Here we present the helium and carbon isotope results from the initial study of a fluid chemistry-monitoring program started in the summer of 2001 near the South Sister volcano in central Oregon. The Separation Creek area which is several miles due west of the volcano is the locus of

379

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A New Wide Range Equation of State for Helium-4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NEW WIDE RANGE EQUATION OF STATE FOR HELIUM-4 A Dissertation by DIEGO ORLANDO ORTIZ VEGA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... Copyright 2013Diego Orlando Ortiz Vega ii ABSTRACT A multiparametric and fundamental equation of state is presented for the fluid thermodynamic properties of helium. The equation is valid for temperatures from the ?- line (~2.17 K) to 1500 K...

Ortiz Vega, Diego O

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

383

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments 10...efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts...sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment...repositories. Offshore geological repositories...between Scotland and Norway and far out of...

Daniel P. Schrag

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

385

Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

Omole, Olusegun

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Refractive index of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields M. Ferer, (mferer@wvu.edu) Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, Grant S. Bromhal, (bromhal@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; and Duane H. Smith, (dsmith@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 & Department of Physics, West Virginia University. Underground injection of gas is a common practice in the oil and gas industry. Injection into deep, brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO 2 . However, it has long been known that displacement of a connate fluid by a less viscous fluid produces unstable displacement fronts with significant fingering. This fingering allows only a

391

Separation of gas mixtures by thermoacoustic waves.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Geller, D. A. (Drew A.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reagent gas solubilities, mass trans- fer, stoichiometry, and reaction rate were not systematicallyKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ for the oxidation of these compounds and their incorpo- ration into atmospheric liquid water are not fully

Schwartz, Stephen E.

393

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant Nicolas R?hault 1 and Doreen Kalz 2 1 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany 2 Fraunhofer Institute... for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany Email: nicolas.rehault@ise.fraunhofer.de Abstract: A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative...

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

395

Waste-gas C02 feeds algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waste-gas C02 feeds algae ... The new scheme calls for algae found growing on highly alkaline shallow ponds in Central Africa to metabolize carbon dioxide in waste gases to produce highprotein food. ... IFF has been studying the blue-green algae since the beginning of 1963. ...

1966-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

396

Process and apparatus for ammonia synthesis gas production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved process is described for the production of ammonia synthesis gas which consists of: (a) catalytically reacting a hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a primary reforming unit to form a primary reformed gas mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide; (b) passing the primary reformed gas mixture to a secondary reforming unit for reaction of unconverted methane present therein with air, the amount of the air introduced to the secondary reforming unit being considerably in excess of that required to furnish the stoichiometric amount of nitrogen required for reaction with hydrogen for the ammonia synthesis; (c) subjecting the secondary reformed gas mixture to water gas shift conversion to convert most of the carbon monoxide present in the reformed gas mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide; (d) passing the thus-shifted gas mixture containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, residual carbon monoxide, methane, argon and the excess nitrogen, without necessary treatment for removal of a major portion of the carbon dioxide content thereof and without methanation to remove carbon oxides to low levels, to a pressure swing adsorption system capable of selectively adsorbing carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and other impurities from the hydrogen and from a portion of the nitrogen present in the gas passed to the system.

Fuderer, A.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

397

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;CenterTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

398

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Table 2. Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon equivalent per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Dioxide Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.36 0.990 19.17 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.18 0.995 17.09 Used as Feedstock 16.88 0.200 3.38 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 26.00 0.990 25.74 Metallurgical 25.56 0.990 25.30 Industrial Other 25.63 0.990 25.38 Electric Utility1 25.76 0.990 25.50 Natural Gas

399

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Novel Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.doe Richard Willis Principal Investigator UOP LLC 50 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, IL 60016 847-391-3190 Richard.Willis@uop.com Carbon DioxiDe Separation with novel MiCroporouS Metal organiC FraMeworkS Background UOP LLC, in collaboration with Vanderbilt University and the University of Edinburgh, is working to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated process for the removal of CO 2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. This innovative project will exploit the latest discoveries in an extraordinary class of materials (MOFs) having extremely high adsorption capacities. MOFs have previously exhibited

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Separation and Fixation of Carbon Dioxide Using Polymeric Membrane Contactor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Natural Science Foundation of China. National Natural Science Foundation of China. Separation and Fixation of Carbon Dioxide Using Polymeric Membrane Contactor Zhikang XU, Jianli WANG, Wei CHEN, Youyi XU Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, 310027, Hangzhou, P. R. China Tel: +86-571-7951342-8218, E-mail: xuzk@ipsm.zju.edu.cn ABSTRACT: Polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (PPHFM) contactor, with aqueous solution absorbent such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA), was designed and used to separate and fix CO 2 from CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures. The factors that influence the separation properties of CO 2 /N 2 were investigated. It was found that the CO 2 removal efficiency is the best by using MEA solution as absorbent. The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) increases

402

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration by Adsorption on Activated Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Activated Carbon (AC) materials was selected as suitable adsorbent for the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and a numerical analysis was carried out to study the rate of adsorption of the gas on ACs. A one dimensional mathematical model was proposed based on the Dubinin's Theory of Volume Filling of Micropores, and analyzed along with the unsteady heat transfer. A parametric analysis was carried out to study the effect of various crucial parameters like radius of bed, cooling fluid temperature, initial bed temperature and heat transfer coefficient on the adsorption amount. The results show that lower bed radius was ideal for obtaining high amount of CO2 adsorbed assuming constant packing density. Also, a high heat transfer coefficient up to 100 Wm-2K-1 and low cooling fluid temperature of 283 K was necessary for speeding up the process. High initial bed temperature also supports greater adsorption amount under the same conditions.

Reema Saxena; Vinod Kumar Singh; E. Anil Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

Fischer, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Carbon dioxide emission reduction using molten carbonate fuel cell systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contribution of the molten carbonate fuel cell system (MCFCs) to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in power application is analyzed. \\{MCFCs\\} can separate and concentrate CO2 emitted from traditional thermal power plants (PPs) without reducing the plant's overall energy efficiency. \\{MCFCs\\} can also be used by itself as an effective CO2 separator or concentrator by managing the anode gas stream to increase the heat utilization of the system. The CO2 separated and concentrated by \\{MCFCs\\} is most effectively captured by condensation. \\{MCFCs\\} is currently used as a CO2 separator only to a limited extent due to its high cost and relatively small scale operation. However, \\{MCFCs\\} will substantially contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation applications in the near future.

Jung-Ho Wee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modeling Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Injection in Heterogeneous Porous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the physical processes that occur during the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in liquid-saturated, brine-bearing geologic formations using the numerical simulator TOUGH2. CO2 is injected in a supercritical state that has a much lower density and viscosity than the liquid brine it displaces. In situ, the supercritical CO2 forms a gas-like phase, and also partially dissolves in the aqueous phase, creating a multi-phase, multi-component environment that shares many important features with the vadose zone. The flow and transport simulations employ an equation of state package that treats a two-phase (liquid, gas), three-component (water, salt, CO2) system. Chemical reactions between CO2 and rock minerals that could potentially contribute to mineral trapping of CO2 are not included. The geological setting considered is a fluvial/deltaic formation that is strongly heterogeneous, making preferential flow a significant effect, especially when coupled with the strong buoyancy forces acting on the gas-like CO2 plume. Key model development issues include vertical and lateral grid resolution, grid orientation effects, and the choice of characteristic curves.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten

2003-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Characteristics of a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closed-cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers have been developed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) with the aim of realizing a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K. The latest JT cryocooler at NMIJ/AIST consists of a {sup 3}He JT cooling circuit and a pulse tube mechanical refrigerator. The characteristics of the apparatus including a residual gas analysis of the JT cooling circuit are presented in this paper. Currently the initial cool-down is performed using a heat-exchange gas. It normally takes about 30 h to reduce the temperature from room temperature to 5 K at the thermometer comparison block of the apparatus. The correct timing of the removal of the heatexchange gas is important for the efficient operation of the apparatus. Incomplete removal of the heat-exchange gas induces excess heat load on the apparatus and thermal disturbances. Some examples of abrupt temperature bursts are discussed in this paper. Mechanical refrigerators generate cyclic mechanical vibrations, and precision resistance thermometers are usually very sensitive to a mechanical vibration. The measured vibration level of the developed apparatus is reported. The damage to the apparatus due to the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011, and possible countermeasures in the case of future earthquakes are also discussed.

Shimazaki, T. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

410

Coexistence of superfluid and solid helium in aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of recent neutron scattering studies of solid helium in silica aerogel are discussed. Previously I.V. Kalinin et al., Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 87 (1), 743 (2008) [JETP Lett. 87 (1), 645 (2008)], we detected the existence of a superfluid phase in solid helium at a temperature below 0.6 K and a pressure of 51 bar, although, according to the phase diagram, helium should be in the solid state under these conditions. This work is a continuation of the above studies whose main goal was to examine the detected phenomenon and to establish basic parameters of the existence of a superfluid phase. We have determined the temperature of the superfluid transition from solid to superfluid helium, T{sub C} = 1.3 K, by analyzing experimental data. The superfluid phase excitation parameters (lifetime, intensity, and energy) have a temperature dependence similar to that of bulk helium. The superfluid phase coexists with the solid phase in the entire measured temperature range from T = 0.05 K to T{sub C} and is a nonequilibrium one and disappears at T{sub C}.

Kalinin, I. V. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Kats, E. I.; Koza, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Lauter, V. V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Lauter, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Puchkov, A. V., E-mail: puchkov@ippe.r [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Impact of nuclear irradiation on helium bubble nucleation at interfaces in liquid metals coupled to permeation through stainless steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of nucleating gas bubbles in the form of a dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation at interfaces between liquid metals, like LLE, and structural materials, like stainless steel, has been studied. Liquid metal to structural material interfaces involving surfaces, may lower the nucleation barrier promoting bubble nucleation at active sites. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control at interfaces may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. He bubbles as a permeation barrier principle is analysed showing a significant impact on hydrogen isotope permeation, which may have a significant effect on liquid metal systems, e.g., tritium extraction systems. Liquid metals like LLE under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

413

Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (New Hampshire)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes a statewide annual CO2 budget allowance of 8,620,460 tons between...

414

Multifrequency Diagnostics of a Vibrationally Equilibrium CO2-Containing Gas Mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a technique which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the temperature T and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in a vibrationally equilibrium gas mixture at atmospheric pressure by using ...

K. I. Arshinov; N. S. Leshenyuk; V. V. Nevdakh

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Prediction of gas-hydrate formation conditions in production and surface facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to binary, ternary, and natural gas mixtures. I used the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) to find the best correlations among variables such as specific gravity and pseudoreduced pressure...

Ameripour, Sharareh

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

Sulfur geochemistry of thermogenic gas hydrate and associated sediment from the Texas-Louisiana continental slope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

total reduced sulfide (TRS), acid volatile sulfide, and citrate-dithionate and HCl extractable iron. Pore-fluid measurements included []H?S, chloride, sulfate, ammonia and total dissolved inorganic carbon. Gas hydrate hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide...

Gledhill, Dwight Kuehl

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Strong nuclear force in cold antihydrogen-helium collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and annihilation in antihydrogen-helium collisions at low energies. The calculations are based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and incorporate the effects of the strong interaction through a scattering length approach. We find that the strong nuclear force not only causes significant annihilation, but also cannot be neglected in the elastic channel. In the zero energy limit we obtain the scattering length a=-7.69-3.80i a.u. for ground state antihydrogen-helium collisions. Annihilation is found to dominate over elastic scattering up to a temperature about 3 K. Loosely bound metastable antihydrogen-helium states are also investigated, and it is found that a number of relatively long-lived states with up to three units of angular momentum exist.

Jonsell, S. [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Froelich, P.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Box 518, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Strasburger, K. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Propane, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ford F-150 (Dual-Fuel LPG) Propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines. LPG-fueled vehicles can produce significantly lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). LPG is usually less expensive than gasoline, it can be used without degrading vehicle performance, and most LPG used in U.S. comes from domestic sources. The availability of LPG-fueled light-duty passenger vehicles is currently limited. A few light-duty vehicles-mostly larger trucks and vans-can be ordered from a dealer with a prep-ready engine package and converted to use propane. Existing conventional vehicles can also be converted for LPG use.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

Anderson, Diana

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

Anderson, Diana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Cost of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in Geologic Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure anD sTorage in geologiC formaTions The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in geologic formations is a viable option for achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions without hindering economic prosperity. Due to the abundance of fossil fuels in the United States and around the globe as compared to other energy sources, there is strong interest in geologic sequestration, but cost is a key issue. The volume of CO 2 emitted from power plants and other energy systems is enormous compared to other emissions of concern. For example, a pulverized coal (PC) boiler operating on Illinois #6 coal (2.5 percent sulfur) may generate 0.03 pounds of sulfur dioxide per kilowatt hour (kWh) and emit CO 2 at a rate of 1.7 pounds per kWh.

424

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

425

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

426

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

427

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Direct Gas Chromatographic Determination of Magnesium in Aluminum Alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......column 70 x 0.8 cm, packing-char- coal (1-2 mm), carrier gas (helium...institute of Instrument& Analytical Chemistry, Czechosiovak Academy of Sciences...analysis of organic compounds by the Dumas combustion procedure. Introduction The shortcomings......

D. N. Sokolov; N. A. Vakin

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Faraday and Cotton-Mouton Effects of Helium at $\\lambda = 1064$ nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present measurements of the Faraday and the Cotton-Mouton effects of helium gas at $\\lambda =~1064$\\,nm. Our apparatus is based on an up-to-date resonant optical cavity coupled to longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This cavity increases the signal to be measured by more than a factor of 270\\,000 compared to the one acquired after a single path of light in the magnetic field region. We have reached a precision of a few percent both for Faraday effect and Cotton-Mouton effect. Our measurements give for the first time the experimental value of the Faraday effect at $\\lambda$=\\,1064\\,nm. This value is compatible with the theoretical prediction. Concerning Cotton-Mouton effect, our measurement is the second reported experimental value at this wavelength, and the first to agree at better than 1$\\sigma$ with theoretical predictions.

Cadène, Agathe; Berceau, Paul; Fouché, Mathilde; Battesti, Remy; Rizzo, Carlo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 100190 Beijing (China); Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong [Department of Oral Biology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 100080 Beijing (China); Yang Size [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 100190 Beijing (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Driving frequency effects on the characteristics of atmospheric pressure capacitive helium discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure helium discharge characteristics were investigated for varying driving radio frequencies in the range between 1.86 and 27.1 MHz. As the driving frequency is raised, both gas breakdown and {alpha}-{gamma} transition voltages decrease due to the reduction in the electron drift loss. In addition, different discharge features such as normal, abnormal, {alpha}, and {gamma} modes show certain dependences on the frequency. Using a simple circuit model, the changes in sheath thickness from 2.35 to 0.11 mm, electron density from 0.26 to 15.6x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} was obtained by raising the frequency from 1.86 to 27.1 MHz.

Moon, Se Youn; Kim, D. B.; Gweon, B.; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal Conductivity of Hexagonal Close-Packed Solid Helium Four at High Densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity measurements between 1.1° K and 7° K have been made on solid helium samples grown under constant pressures from 185 atm to 1050 atm. At high temperatures the phonon mean free path l¯ for the highest conductivity samples at six different densities is in good agreement with the expression, l¯=Aexp(?DbT), where ?D is the Debye temperature at T=0° K, A=2.5×10-8 cm, b=2.13. Several samples grown from gas repurified by an adsorption trap exhibited mean free paths in agreement with this expression over almost four orders of magnitude. Slightly impure samples showed a considerable attenuation in the peak thermal conductivity at pressures above 320 atm. There was some evidence for anisotropy of the thermal conductivity in the umklapp region and for Poiseuille flow in the low-temperature region, but both these effects were considerably smaller than reported by other investigators for specimens grown at lower pressures.

W. D. Seward, D. Lazarus, and S. C. Fain, Jr.

1969-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

434

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterial carbon dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reactivity. inserm-00495071... , manufactured nanoparticles, especially carbon or titanium dioxide nanoparticles, could be relevant surrogate... of carbon or titanium dioxide...

435

Supercritical Helium Cooling of the LHC Beam Screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cold mass of the LHC superconducting magnets, operating in pressurised superfluid helium at 1.9 K, must be shielded from the dynamic heat loads induced by the circulating particle beams, by means of beam screens maintained at higher temperature. The beam screens are cooled between 5 and 20 K by forced flow of weakly supercritical helium, a solution which avoids two-phase flow in the long, narr ow cooling channels, but still presents a potential risk of thermohydraulic instabilities. This problem has been studied by theoretical modelling and experiments performed on a full-scale dedicated te st loop.

Hatchadourian, E; Tavian, L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

White Dwarfs in NGC 6791: Avoiding the Helium Flash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose that the anomalously bright white dwarf luminosity function observed in NGC 6791 (Bedin et al 2005) is the consequence of the formation of 0.5 Msun white dwarfs with Helium cores instead of Carbon cores. This may happen if mass loss during the ascent of the Red Giant Branch is strong enough to prevent a star from reaching the Helium flash. Such a model can explain the slower white dwarf cooling (relative to standard models) and fits naturally with scenarios advanced to explain Extreme Horizontal Branch stars, a population of which are also found in this cluster.

Brad Hansen

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

437

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS KATHARINE HAYHOE. Substitution of natural gas for coal is one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, natural of coal by natural gas are evaluated, and their modeled net effect on global mean-annual temperature

Jain, Atul K.

438

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Definition: Natural gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Natural gas Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Natural gas A hydrocarbon gas obtained from underground sources, often in association with petroleum and coal deposits.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is found in

440

Radial characterisation of the helium plasma produced by the axial injection torch (TIA) at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents the radial characterisation of a helium plasma produced by the “Torch à Injection Axiale ... using a collisional-radiative model for helium at atmospheric pressure, the electronic density and e...

R. Álvarez; A. Rodero; M. C. Quintero

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Date: Thursday May 23, 2013 Program: UHV Helium Ion Microscopy HR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date: Thursday May 23, 2013 Program: UHV Helium Ion Microscopy HR Speakers: Gregor Hlawacek Helium selected investigations performed with the UTwente UHV-HIM in the last few years. The actual challenge, why

Twente, Universiteit

442

Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

444

Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

446

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ã? 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may

447

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

448

Review of Helium and Xenon Pure Component and Mixture Transport Properties and Recommendation of Estimating Approach for Project Prometheus (Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The selected configuration for the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant was a direct coupling of Brayton energy conversion loop(s) to a single reactor heat source through the gas coolant/working fluid. A mixture of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) gas was assumed as the coolant/working fluid. Helium has superior thermal conductivity while xenon is added to increase the gas atomic weight to benefit turbomachinery design. Both elements have the advantage of being non-reactive. HeXe transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity) were needed to calculate pressure drops and heat transfer rates. HeXe mixture data are limited, necessitating the use of semi-empirical correlations to calculate mixture properties. Several approaches are available. Pure component properties are generally required in the mixture calculations. While analytical methods are available to estimate pure component properties, adequate helium and xenon pure component data are available. This paper compares the sources of pure component data and the approaches to calculate mixture properties. Calculated mixture properties are compared to the limited mixture data and approaches are recommended to calculate both pure component and mixture properties. Given the limited quantity of HeXe mixture data (all at one atmosphere), additional testing may have been required for Project Prometheus to augment the existing data and confirm the selection of mixture property calculation methods.

Haire, Melissa A.; Vargo, David D. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

449

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What are people doing now to manage CO2? What are people doing now to manage CO2? SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi. A combined portfolio of carbon management options is being implemented to reduce current emission levels associated with energy production while enhancing energy security and building the technologies and knowledge base for export to other countries faced with reducing emissions. The U.S. portfolio includes: (1) use fuels with reduced carbon intensity - renewables, nuclear, and natural gas; (2) adopt more efficient technologies on both the energy demand and supply sides; and (3) use carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. CCS is a viable emission management option

450

Chapter 4 - Natural Gas–fired Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gas turbines can burn a range of liquid and gaseous fuels but most burn natural gas. Power plants based on gas turbines are one of the cheapest types of plant to build, but the cost of their electricity depends heavily on the cost of their fuel. Two types of gas turbine are used for power generation: aero-derivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines. The former are used to provide power to the grid at times of peak demand. The latter are most often found in combined cycle power stations. These are capable of more than 60% efficiency. There are a number of ways of modifying the gas turbine cycle to improve efficiency, including reheating and intercooling. Micro-turbines have been developed for very small-scale generation of both electricity and heat. The main atmospheric emissions from gas turbines are carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

Paul Breeze

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Control of scale in flue gas scrubbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a flue gas desulfurization system in which sulfur dioxide-containing flue gas is passed in countercurrent flow with an aqueous calcium-bearing scrubbing liquor whereby the sulfur dioxide is removed from the flue gas by being absorbed by the scrubbing liquor and converted to calcium sulfite and/or calcium sulfate. The improvement of minimizing the formation of calcium scale on the surfaces of the system comprises maintaining in the scrubbing liquor about 0.1-25 ppm of a 1:1 diisobutylene-maleic anhydride copolymer having an average molecular weight of 11000. The copolymer is incorporated in the scrubbing liquor as a 10-15% aqueous dispersion.

Thomas, P.A.; Dewitt-Dick, D.B.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

455

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to energy-consuming activities that burn fossil fuels. On a yearly basis, the average Ameri- can produces 22 of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this period sea life that depend on the health and avail- ability of these shelled organisms. At present, ocean

456

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth...interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies of 500 Mhz, this amounts...chang-ing the atmospheric carbon dioxide...in the polar areas. Although...The shaded area indicates the...per-missible atmospheric CO2 level might...emission rates are largest between 2000...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

457

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

459

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT X.R. Wanga , S Consulting, Fliederweg 3, 76351 Linkenheim, Germany A helium-cooled plate-type divertor design concept has of the concept in the high heat flux zone. This paper describes the design optimization of the helium

Raffray, A. René

460

Some Results of Researches of Powerful Pulse Discharges in Dense Gas Media P.G.Rutberg, A.A.Bogomaz, A.V.Budin, V.A.Kolikov, M.E.Pinchuk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some Results of Researches of Powerful Pulse Discharges in Dense Gas Media P.G.Rutberg, A of the working gas P0 - (0.1-40) MPa. Energy introduced into gas (0.05-10) MJ Working gases - hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, air and argon. The kind of heat transfer between the arc and environmental gas and temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

Computational investigation of thermal gas separation for CO2 capture.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 09-1351, 'Computational Investigation of Thermal Gas Separation for CO{sub 2} Capture'. Thermal gas separation for a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics. Molecular models for nitrogen and carbon dioxide are developed, implemented, compared to theoretical results, and compared to several experimental thermophysical properties. The molecular models include three translational modes, two fully excited rotational modes, and vibrational modes, whose degree of excitation depends on the temperature. Nitrogen has one vibrational mode, and carbon dioxide has four vibrational modes (two of which are degenerate). These models are used to perform a parameter study for mixtures of carbon dioxide and nitrogen confined between parallel walls over realistic ranges of gas temperatures and nominal concentrations of carbon dioxide. The degree of thermal separation predicted by DSMC is slightly higher than experimental values and is sensitive to the details of the molecular models.

Gallis, Michail A.; Bryan, Charles R.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Torczynski, John Robert; Brooks, Carlton, F.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60 to 150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17) % in helium, 22.1(13) % in neon, and 17.0(10) % in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

P. Dendooven; S. Purushothaman; K. Gloos

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

464

Turbulent Mixing on Helium-Accreting White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for...

Piro, Anthony L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Heat Transfer Between Solids and Liquid Helium II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...February 1961 research-article Heat Transfer Between Solids and Liquid Helium...According to this author, the transfer of heat from the solid surface to the...least, some other mechanism of heat transfer may be involved. The Royal Society...

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide - an energy resource perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most energy used to meet human needs is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal), which releases carbon to the atmosphere, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surficial temperature of the Earth will rise in response. Global warming studies predict that climate changes resulting from increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will adversely affect life on Earth. In the 200 years since the industrial revolution, the world's population has grown from about 800 million to over 6 billion people and the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has risen from about 280 to about 360 parts per million by volume, a 30 percent increase. International concern about potential global climate change has spurred discussions about limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Robert C. Burruss; Sean T. Brennan

2003-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

469

Trade, transport, and sinks extend the carbon dioxide responsibility of countries: An editorial essay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some land-use emissions. However, at least three additional factors can significantly alter a country's impact on climate from carbon dioxide emissions. First, international trade causes a separation of consumption from production, reducing domestic pollution at the expense of foreign producers, or vice versa. Second, international transportation emissions are not allocated to countries for the purpose of mitigation. Third, forest growth absorbs carbon dioxide and can contribute to both carbon sequestration and climate change protection. Here we quantify how these three factors change the carbon dioxide emissions allocated to China, Japan, Russia, USA, and European Union member countries. We show that international trade can change the carbon dioxide currently allocated to countries by up to 60% and that forest expansion can turn some countries into net carbon sinks. These factors are expected to become more dominant as fossil-fuel combustion and process emissions are mitigated and as international trade and forest sinks continue to grow. Emission inventories currently in wide-spread use help to understand the global carbon cycle, but for long-term climate change mitigation a deeper understanding of the interaction between the carbon cycle and society is needed. Restructuring international trade and investment flows to meet environmental objectives, together with the inclusion of forest sinks, are crucial issues that need consideration in the design of future climate policies. And even these additional issues do not capture the full impact of changes in the carbon cycle on the global climate system.

Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Saikku, Laura [University of Helsinki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Instructions for filling liquid Helium for the 800 MHz magnet This is a twoperson job and will require 2 x 100 liter tanks of liquid helium if filling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and will require 2 x 100 liter tanks of liquid helium if filling from 207 mm (41%). · Move the ladder to the side and place the helium tank to the right of the leg facing the 500 system and as close to the magnet as possible. · Cut all ties from the helium tanks · Hand tighten the homemade fitting to the vent port

Oliver, Douglas L.

471

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solvents solvents B-6 Pre-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 Co 2 CaPture from igCC gas streams using aC-abC ProCess primary project goals SRI International is developing, for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)-based power plants, a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture technology based on the use of a high-ca- pacity and low-cost aqueous ammoniated solution containing ammonium carbonate (AC), which reacts with CO 2 to form ammonium bicarbonate (ABC).

472

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solvents solvents B-198 Post-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 DeveloPment anD Demonstration of Waste heat integration With solvent ProCess for more effiCient Co 2 removal from Coal-fireD flue gas primary project goals Southern Company Services is developing viable heat integration methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) produced from pulverized coal (PC) combustion. The project will quantify energy-efficiency improvements to the CO 2 capture process by utilizing a waste heat recovery technology, High-Efficiency System (HES). technical goals * Reduction of the amount of extraction steam required for sensible heat load in the

473

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Infiltrating the Ocean Floor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Grant S. Bromhal, Duane H. Smith, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; M. Ferer, Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered to be a potentially important method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (US DOE, 1999). Oceans are currently the largest atmospheric carbon dioxide sink; and certainly, enough storage capacity exists in the oceans to hold all of the CO 2 that we can emit for many years. Additionally, technologies exist that allow us to pump liquid CO 2 into the oceans at depths between one and two kilometers for extended periods of time and five times that deep for shorter durations. The biggest unknown in the ocean sequestration process, however, is the fate and

474

The cost of carbon-dioxide abatement in Nigeria's energy sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of carbon dioxide abatement in Nigeria's energy sector has been estimated using MARKAL, a large-scale linear optimisation model, for the period between 1990 and the year 2030. The baseline scenario is based on the concept of the most-likely development-path in the energy system. An integrated abatement scenario is then developed by augmenting the baseline scenario with a set of abatement options: demand-side options, supply-side options, options for increased use of renewable resources, and options for increased use of the associated natural gas that is currently being flared in Nigerian oil fields. The options are assessed and ranked on the basis of their incremental costs per ton of carbon dioxide reduced. Finally, results of a sensitivity study of the model based on perturbations in energy demand growth assumptions are discussed.

F.I. Ibitoye; A.O. Adegbulugbe; J-F.K. Akinbami

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

477

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

478

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Hydrate Formation Process Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is a method and device for producing gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas such as methane (CH 4 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone, which may be contained within the body of the spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction vessel, under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for gas hydrate formation. The reaction