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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system. This report will assist the plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

2

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help to improve the reliability of and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

3

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area provides the fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help improve the reliability and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on these systems. This guide will assist plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for these areas of their scrubber system.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Leaching Assessment of Fly Ash, Flue Gas Desulfurization Filter Cake, and Fixated Scrubber Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The by-products of coal combustion (for example, fly ash and flue gas desulfurization filter cake) are an important environmental concern due to potential leaching of trace constituents and the large volume of residues produced. About 40% of these by-products may be utilized as raw materials outside of the energy sector; the remaining 60% of the coal combustion products (CCPs) are disposed of as waste. At Plant 14090, the subject of this report, fly ash and scrubber sludge are blended with quicklime ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

SciTech Connect

The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing volumes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum will become available for agricultural use as more utilities install forced oxidation scrubbers and the wallboard market for the resulting gypsum becomes saturated. This interim report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to develop a national research network to gain data and experience to support the beneficial uses of FGD products, especially FGD gypsum, in agriculture and other land applications.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

8

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater Characterization and Management: 2007 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tightened air regulations on acid-gas-forming emissions are leading more electric utilities to install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, typically wet scrubbers. However, there are challenges associated with such decisions in terms of utility wastewater management. Volatile metals, such as selenium and mercury, are better captured in wet scrubber systems than in electrostatic precipitators and may be present at higher concentrations in utility wastewater systems. This report is designed to help pow...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Guidelines for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Water Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are being installed on coal-fired power plants in response to federal and state air pollution regulations limiting sulfur dioxide emissions. FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous waste stream that contains metals adsorbed from flue gas. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is reviewing, and may tighten, water discharge limits on trace metals. Collection of accurate data on the trace metal composition of FGD water discharges is therefore esse...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

10

Trace Metals Determination in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. While effective for this purpose, wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water has proven to be a very difficult matrix to analyze a...

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization State of the Art Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intent of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, including circulating dry scrubbers (CDS), spray dryer absorbers (SDA), and the Alstom Novel Integrated Desulfurization (NID) technology. These can all be considered “semi-dry” technologies, as the flue gas is cooled and humidified as part of each of these processes. This report also discusses a completely dry FGD technology, dry sorbent injection (DSI), which is ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

12

Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the operating flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems throughout the world, materials corrosion leads to considerable costs and downtime. Utilities are often required to maintain, repair, replace, and/or upgrade existing materials to combat corrosion issues. This document provides the results of a recent EPRI survey that examined the various types of corrosion and materials damage in FGD systems.

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

Stabilization of Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge for Application in Marine Environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flue Gas Desulfurization sludge (FGD, CaSO4·2H2O, CaSO3·1/2H2O) is a waste by-product produced when sorbent slurry is passed through wet scrubbers. FGD contains higher concentrations of… (more)

Kour, Tej

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

EPRI Environmental Control Technology Center: FGD Wet Scrubber Performance At High Flue Gas Velocities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the impact of operating a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber system at high flue gas velocities up to 20ft/sec (6.1 m/sec). It includes results for countercurrent spray, tray, and packing designs a variety of nozzle types. The report also describes the effect of adding dibasic acid and the impact of operation of state-of-the-art mist elimination systems. These results will be useful for planning compliance with SO2 emission regulations whether a new system is planned or addition...

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

15

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

been expensive to simulate. Performance results were sufficiently promising to justify a commercial-scale test under the CCT program. A flowsheet of the Recovery Scrubber(tm) is...

16

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has been conducted under the auspices of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, and universities. This report describes work conducted in northwestern New Mexico in 2008–2012 as part of that effort. Two separate ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Demonstration Test of Iron Addition to a Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Absorber to Enhance Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the findings from a full-scale demonstration test of the effects on trace elements of adding iron to a forced oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Three specific effects were evaluated: lowering mercury emissions to the atmosphere; lowering the concentration of soluble or sub-micron-sized mercury particles in FGD purge water, which could improve removal of mercury in FGD purge water treatment; and lowering the concentration of selenate in FGD purge water, which could i...

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Collision/Reaction Cell Technology for Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastew aters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater is produced by pollution control equipment used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. Wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals that have been adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water is a very difficult matrix ...

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

FGDExpert Demonstration at NIPSCO Schahfer Unit 17: Oxidation Reduction Potential Effects on Scrubber Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been shown to remove soluble oxidized mercury (Hg), as well as selenium (Se), from flue gas. However, one phenomenon that has been observed, but not well characterized, is the re-emission of oxidized Hg captured in the FGD scrubber as elemental Hg. Several studies have shown that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) influences the re-emission of Hg from FGD scrubbers. Other studies have demonstrated that ORP influences the speciation of Se in the scrubber ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a solid produced by wet FGD systems with forced air oxidation and is chemically similar to mined gypsum. These gypsums, used as beneficial agricultural amendments, were evaluated for their effects on earthworm populations and trace element concentrations in soils and earthworms at four field sites (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). These sites are part of a network study on agricultural uses of FGD gypsum conducted at sites across the United States. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Flue Gas Desulfurization Equipment Issues Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As electric utilities enter a more competitive environment, every aspect of electric power generation is under scrutiny to determine where costs can be reduced. Because flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems represent significant capital, operating, and maintenance expenses for many coal-fired power plants, identification and implementation of cost reduction options are crucial. This report documents successful approaches for determining the cost-effectiveness of key FGD optimization strategies.

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems are being advanced worldwide for generating electricity from coal due to their superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. Hot gas cleanup offers the potential for higher plant thermal efficiencies and lower cost. A key subsystem of hot-gas cleanup is hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable sorbents. Sorbents based on zinc oxide are currently the leading candidates and are being developed for moving- and fluidized- bed reactor applications. Zinc oxide sorbents can effectively reduce the H{sub 2}S in coal gas to around 10 ppm levels and can be regenerated for multicycle operation. However, all current first-generation leading sorbents undergo significant loss of reactivity with cycling, as much as 50% or greater loss in only 25-50 cycles. Stability of the hot-gas desulfurization sorbent over 100`s of cycles is essential for improved IGCC economics over conventional power plants. This project aims to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature applications, 343 to 538{degrees}C with emphasis on the temperature range from 400 to 500{degrees}. Recent economic evaluations have indicated that the thermal efficiency of IGCC systems increases rapidly with the temperature of hot-gas cleanup up to 350{degrees}C and then very slowly as the temperature is increased further. This suggests that the temperature severity of the hot-gas cleanup devices can be reduced without significant loss of thermal efficiency. The objective of this study is to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) to 538{degrees}C(1OOO{degrees}F) and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.; Turk, B.S.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption by Ambalavanan Jayaraman, Gokhan Alptekin, Margarita Dubovik, Robert ...

25

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Enviropower hot gas desulfurization pilot  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to develop and demonstrate (1) hydrogen sulfide removal using regenerable zinc titanate sorbent in pressurized fluidized bed reactors, (2) recovery of the elemental sulfur from the tail-gas of the sorbent regenerator and (3) hot gas particulate removal system using ceramic candle filters. Results are presented on pilot plant design and testing and modeling efforts.

Ghazanfari, R.; Feher, G.; Konttinen, J.; Ghazanfari, R.; Lehtovaara, A.; Mojtahedi, W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, Lee D. (Washington, PA); Atimtay, Aysel T. (Cankaya, TR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hot gas desulfurization sorbent and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200{degrees} to about 1600{degrees}F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Atimtay, A.T.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hot gas desulfurization sorbent and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200[degrees] to about 1600[degrees]F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Atimtay, A.T.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

30

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Investigation of Flue Gas Desulfurization Chemical Process Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An understanding of flue gas desulfurization process chemistry is crucial in troubleshooting problems in operating FGD systems. This report discusses a variety of problems and solutions associated with process chemistry for 25 different wet FGD systems, including lime/limestone and double alkali processes. Among the problems addressed are SO2 removal, mist eliminator scaling, poor solids dewatering, and water management.

1990-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

2009 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents results of four research and development projects focused on understanding and enhancing mercury emissions control associated with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The first project was directed at characterizing partitioning of elemental and oxidized mercury species in solid, liquid, and gas phases within process streams involved in an operating commercial system. The second project explored dewatering options with an objective of producing low-mercury-conten...

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Evaluation of Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. The trace element selenium is found in coal and can become concentrated in the wastewater from the FGD process. Some chemical forms, or species, of selenium are more resistant to removal by water treatment processes than others; thus, understanding the speciation of selenium is important to designing effective wastewater treatment systems. In additi...

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

38

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

NONE

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Fluid Placement of Fixated Scrubber Sludge in Abandoned Deep Mines To Abate Surface Subsidence and Reduce Acid Mine Drainage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the field-scale demonstration of a novel use of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber by-product in mine reclamation at Indianapolis Power & Light Company's (IP&L) Petersburg Generating Station. The report addresses the use of a fixated FGD scrubber by-product to reduce surface subsidence of abandoned deep coal mines and to act as a control for acid mine drainage.

1997-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

40

HYDROFLUORIC ACID SCRUBBER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Each year over a million gallons of water are used to scrub hydrogen fluoride (HP) vapors from waste off-gas streams. Use of other potential scrubber solutions such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN), and monobasic aluminum nitrate (monoban) would result in significant volume reductions. A laboratory study was initiated to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of these scrubber solutions to sorb HF, (2) determine if unexpected reactions occurred at flowsheet conditions, and (3) determine the consequences of deviation from flowsheet conditions. Caustic or aluminum scrubber solutions remove hydrogen fluoride from off-gas streams. Solids which appear with aluminum could be avoided by heating the scrubber solution.

PANESKO JV; MERRITT HD

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Spray type wet scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A spray type wet scrubber includes a plurality of spray nozzles installed in parallel banks across the path of gas stream within the scrubber body, and partition walls held upright in grating fashion to divide the path of gas stream into a plurality of passages, each of which accommodates one of the spray nozzles.

Atsukawa, M.; Tatani, A.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

Saleem, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Identification of Unknown Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. In a wet FGD system, circulating water must be periodically blown down and treated to remove solids and dissolved chemicals. Along with SO2, other substances in flue gas may dissolve in water, including selenium (Se). In addition to the common selenium species selenite and selenate, past research has identified selenium-containing species that...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

47

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the WES, which involves injection into the flue gas duct upstream of the existing electrostatic 11 precipitator (ESP). The hot flue gas evaporates the water and the...

48

Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

Harris, Harry A. (Rifle, CO); Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

49

Process for the desulfurization of flue gas  

SciTech Connect

A process for the removal of sulfur oxides from gases is described that is comprised of the steps of contacting the gas with a cerium oxide sorbent at conditions whereby the sulfur oxides present in the gas are sorbed by the cerium oxide sorbent and regenerate the cerium oxide sorbent by contacting it with a reducing atmosphere at conditions whereby the sorbent is substantially converted to a sulfur-free state. The gas may be an exhaust gas, e.g., from an automobile or a flue gas. This invention is especially preferred for treating flue gas. In this preferred embodiment, the flue gas may be contacted with the cerium oxide sorbent at a temperature of from 300/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C, to form cerium sulfate and/or sulfite and the sorbent is regenerated by contacting with a reducing gas, for example, hydrogen in admixture with steam or other inert gases at a temperature of from 500/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C to convert the cerium sulfate or sulfite to cerium oxide. During the regeneration step, the desorbed species is initially sulfur dioxide. However, when about 50% of the sulfur is removed from the sorbent, the desorbed species becomes H/sub 2/S. Thus, the instant invention provides SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in admixture with the excess reducing gas, which can be fed conveniently to the Claus plant for conversion into elemental sulfur.

Longo, J.M.

1977-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

50

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2H{sub 2}S {yields} 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O; Regeneration: 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2SO{sub 2} The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

Unknown

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project A DOE Assessment August 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

54

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

Tilly, Jean

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Indiana Kingman Research Station (Corn and Soybeans)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that is created when sulfur dioxide is removed from the exhaust gases during the combustion of coal for energy production. Research on FGDG has been conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. EPA, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural ...

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

A Review of Manufacturing Uses for Gypsum Produced by Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gypsum is widely used as a source material to manufacture products for building construction applications8212primarily wallboard, cement, and concrete8212and has a number of other commercial applications. The mineral is mined throughout the world (natural gypsum) and also is produced as a result of various industrial processes (synthetic gypsum). The largest source of synthetic gypsum used for manufacturing applications is flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the product of wet flue gas desulfurization...

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Kinetics of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents for transport reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, to understand effects of space time of reaction gas mixtures on initial reaction kinetics of the sorbent-hydrogen sulfide system, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 sorbent and AHI-1 was examined. These sorbents were obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbents in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 1,000--4,000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 450--600 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.03--0.09 s. The range of reaction duration is 4--14,400 s.

K.C. Kwon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

Fu, Yuan C. (Bethel Park, PA)

1977-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

62

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

K.C. Kwon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

K.C. Kwon

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. In this report, the reactivity of AHI-5 was examined. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 9000-18000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-500 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.071-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-10800 s.

K.C. Kwon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas desulfurization Sorbents.  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 {degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a one-half inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel- gases. Screening criteria will include chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

METC fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization PDU  

SciTech Connect

METC is constructing an on-site, hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process development unit (PDU) to support the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems program. With industrial participation, this PDU will be used for the further development of fluid-bed and transport reactor HGD configurations. The fluid-bed absorber and regenerator in the PDU were designed to operate in a turbulent as well as a bubbling regime. In addition, when encouraging results from a small-scale transport reactor unit became known, the decision was made to incorporate transport reactor provisions on both the sulfidation and regeneration sides of the PDU. With completion of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, the preliminary process and equipment design, and the April groundbreaking to prepare the project site, the project is now proceeding at a faster, more visible pace. Equipment installation should be completed in about 2 years. This report describes the project.

Bissett, L.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

SciTech Connect

According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

Vivak Malhotra

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO{sub 3}{sup -} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion.

Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

Jothimurugesan, K.

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

76

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

Vivak M. Malhotra

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 20 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually, and the quantity is expected to increase as utilities institute further controls to comply with Clean Air Act requirements. This report presents the results of the second phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications of these by-products.

1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

80

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 3 Topical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers conducted field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury at a coal-fired power plant equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results, while confounded by measurement difficulties, showed that under bituminous coal flue gas conditions, two catalysts, Pd #1 and Carbon #6, continued to oxidize at least 85 percent of the inlet elemental mercury after three months.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of the NeuStream-S™ Flue Gas Desulfurization Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Harris Group Inc. (HGI) of Denver, Colorado, was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to monitor, evaluate, and prepare this report on a dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process developed by Neumann Systems Group, Inc. (NSG). The process is being demonstrated in a nominal 20-MW demonstration plant, treating a slip stream of flue gas from the Colorado Springs Utilities 142-MW Drake Unit 7. HGI evaluated performance, operability, and readiness for scale-up of the process. Co...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thermal Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment Processes for Zero Liquid Discharge Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a worldwide inventory of power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) blowdown treatment systems using thermal technologies to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) water management. The number of thermal treatment systems presently operating is very few, with the majority using chemical pretreatment followed by evaporation in a brine concentrator and crystallizer and finally dewatering of the residual salts. Of the operating thermal ZLD systems identified, six are located in Italy and o...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 1 and 2 (Wheat)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum at two sites in North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGD gypsum in agriculture. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of FGD gypsum applications on soil quality and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and seed quality. Three application rates of FGD gypsum were compared with s...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Performance Evaluation of a Radial Deionization System for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed effluent limitation guidelines for steam electric power generating units could affect not only how power plants use water but also how they discharge it. The revised guidelines propose discharge limits for selenium, mercury, arsenic, and nitrite/nitrate in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Final rule approval is expected by the middle of 2014. Additional regulation of these contaminants and other constituents may occur through ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Review of Agricultural and Other Land Application Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, especially FGD gypsum, is expected to increase substantially over the next ten to twenty years in response to clean air initiatives. There are a large number of agricultural and other land application uses of FGD products that have received previous research and development attention, but only in specific locations of the United States and under limited conditions of crops, climate and soil types. This report discusses current and potential futur...

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

87

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually in the United States -- a quantity that is expected to increase as utilities apply new controls to comply with Clean Air Act Amendments. This report presents results of the third and final phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications for these by-products.

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

88

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New sulfur dioxide removal technologies produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products that contain sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. The scarcity of landfill disposal sites for such flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has led to a long-term study on possible large-volume beneficial applications. To date, FGD by-products have been successfully used in agriculture, construction, and strip mine reclamation.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

Grindley, T.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products  

SciTech Connect

Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, OH (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

Steinfeld, G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs.

Jeffrey W. Portzer; Santosh K. Gangwal

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of a hot-gas desulfurization system for IGCC applications  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal because of their superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. One key component of an advanced IGCC power plant is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing regenerable sorbents. To carry out hot-gas desulfurization in a fluidized-bed reactor, it is necessary that the sorbents have high attrition resistance, while still maintaining high chemical reactivity and sulfur absorption capacity. Also, efficient processes are needed for the treatment of SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration off-gas to produce environmentally benign waste or useful byproducts. A series of durable zinc titanate sorbents were formulated and tested in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor system. Reactive sorbents were developed with addition resistance comparable to fluid-bed cracking (FCC) catalysts used in petroleum refineries. In addition, progress continues on the development of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for converting SO{sub 2} in the regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Plans are under way to test these bench-scale systems at gasifier sites with coal gas. This paper describes the status and future plans for the demonstration of these technologies.

Gupta, R.; McMichael, W.J.; Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Jain, S.C.; Dorchak, T.P. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

The Fate of Mercury Absorbed in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are known to remove a percentage of the mercury in coal flue gases. This raises several questions about the fate of mercury removed by wet FGD systems: Does the absorbed mercury stay in the FGD liquor or does it leave with the byproduct solids? What happens to mercury in the FGD liquor and solid byproducts when they leave the FGD system? To address such questions, this report describes results from an EPRI project that involves field sample collection and labora...

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

99

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Wisconsin Arlington Research Station Fields 295 and 27 (Alfalfa)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes field research in Wisconsin as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) Agricultural Network. The objective of this study, conducted during 2009-2010, was to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG as a soil amendment to improve alfalfa production. FGDG was compared to a commercially available gypsum product (C-GYP) widely sold in the U.S. Midwest and other areas. A study was established in two fields (Field 295 in 2009/2010 and Field 27 in 2010) at ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

100

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 2 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installation...

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 3, 4, and 5 (Canola)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a very pure form of gypsum that is a by-product from the combustion of coal for energy production. This report describes 2008-2009 work to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG at three sites near Langdon, North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGDG in agriculture, in this case, fertilization of dryland canola by FGDG. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine the influence of FGD...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel as a matrix material, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Desulfurization mixture and process for desulfurizing pig iron  

SciTech Connect

Process and composition for desulfurizing pig iron in which the desulfurization agent consists essentially of calcium carbide, a gas-evolving component and fluorspar; the advantage of the process and composition is that it reduces dust pollution and danger of flaming in the handling of the slag after the desulfurization of pig iron.

Freissmuth, A.; Gmohling, W.; Rock, H.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air purification system, called Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). Abatement of these waste products is a growing concern, not only for the industry, but the environment as well. It is possible to produce a gypsum brick unit that can meet the engineering properties required by the Americans Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards by using these by-products. This can be accomplished at a cost less than the least expensive common fired clay brick that is used in construction operations. The gypsum brick can be manufactured using established methods that are currently in operation.

Berryman, Charles Wayne

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Desulfurization of Fisher-Tropsch synthesis gas in coal-to-gasoline pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, a coal-to-gasoline pilot plant was installed and operated successfully in China, and a dry desulfurization process was used in this plant. This paper presents an overview of the dry desulfurization process. It includes design and operation of the process, and a description of ST801, T305 adsorbents and TGH COS hydrolysis catalyst. In addition, the desulfurization process used in a planned demonstration plant scheduled for completion in 1991 is presented.

Shishao, T.; Ju, S.; Shenzhao, L.; Maoqian, M.; Hanxian, G. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (CN))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

A pilot-scale Process Development Unit for transport and fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has designed and is currently constructing an on-site, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) Process Development Unit (PDU). The PDU is designed to use regenerable solid metal oxide sorbents that absorb hydrogen sulfide from high-temperature, high-pressure simulated coal-gasification fuel gas that is generated by a METC designed syngas generator. The simulated coal gas is a mixture of partially combusted natural gas, water, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. PDU process conditions will be representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling. The PDU supports the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) mission at METC by providing a test bed for development of IGCC cleanup systems that offer low capital cost, operating costs, and costs of electricity. METC intends to develop additional industrial involvement opportunities as the project progresses towards operations. The primary objectives of the PDU are to (1) fill the gap between small-scale testing and large-scale demonstration projects by providing a cost effective test site for transport and fluid-bed desulfurization reactor and sorbent development, (2) demonstrate sorbent suitability over a wide range of parameters, and (3) generate significant information on process control for transport and fluidized bed based desulfurization. PDU data is expected to be used to optimize process performance by expanding the experience for larger scale demonstration projects such as Sierra Pacific Power Company`s Clean Coal Technology project.

McMillian, M.H.; Bissett, L.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Evaluation of the Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon and the Treatability of Mercury in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations for reducing the dissolved mercury (Hg) concentrations in wastewater discharged by electric generating power plants are becoming more stringent via federal regulatory limits proposed by the EPA and regulatory limits set by select states. Data obtained in a previous EPRI study conducted in 2009 suggested a potential negative impact of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iodide concentrations present in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater on mercury treatability (EPRI report 1019867). ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Corrosion in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems: Technical Root Cause Analysis of Internal Corrosion on Wet FGD Alloy Absorbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been or are being installed on most large coal-fired electric generating units in response to new regulatory emission requirements. Aggressive corrosion has been noted in some of these systems, presumably from the low pH, high chloride environments created in the FGD process. There exists a plethora of material systems (metallic, organic, plastics, coating, and so forth) available to construct these systems, but, because of cost, fabricabi...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Advanced gasifier-desulfurizer process development for SNG (substitute natural gas) application. Final report, August 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

KRW conducted investigations of calcium-promoted coal pyrolysis and gasification by means of bench-scale studies and an oxygen-blown PDU test. Results were used in a design study of a commercial KRW gasifier-desulfurizer, operating on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and limestone for production of SNG. Bench-scale fluid-bed reactor studies were conducted with various fluidizing gases at temperatures and pressures of 1650 to 1950 F and 40 to 450 psig, with and without limestone, to give methane-yield and tar-yield data. The gasification kinetics studies of chars produced gave data which showed that limestone increases char reactivity and exerts a catalytic effect. Methane yields correlated exponentially to pressure. The bench-scale test results lead to an expectation that feeding some of the coal to the upper portion of the gasifier will increase methane yield and decrease oxygen consumption. In two PDU test-set points, expected operability and performance of the oxygen-blown gasifier-desulfurizer were confirmed. In Set Point 2, in-bed desulfurization efficiency was 88% and the product-gas higher heating value was 302 Btu/scf. The test results provided inputs to the design study of a KRW gasifier-desulfurizer island for production of 125 MM Btu/day of SNG. Results included a 4 to 6% improvement in feedstock inputs when compared to an earlier GRI-sponsored study. Methane yield decreased but the number of operating gasifier-desulfurizers remained at five. Equipment costs are expected to remain well within the previous + or - 25% cost estimate.

Blinn, M.B.; Cover, A.E.; Haldipur, G.B.; Datta, S.C.; Holmgren, J.D.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Recycle/reuse of boiler chemical cleaning wastes in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler chemical cleaning wastes (BCCW) are generated by the periodic waterside cleaning of utility boilers to remove metallic deposits from boiler tube surfaces. Depending on boiler metallurgy, BCCW generally contain high concentrations of iron and copper or both, as well as other heavy metals such as chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. BCCW treatment and disposal methods include precipitation, coponding in an ash pond, evaporation in the fireside of an operating boiler (for organic solvents), and contracted off-site disposal. Depending on the type of BCCW chemical treatment methods achieve varying degrees of success. BCCW which contain organic chelating agents can be especially difficult to treat to national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) limits (1 mg/L for both iron and copper) with conventional lime precipitation.Research is being done to evaluate different BCCW treatment and disposal methods. One waste management option under consideration is reuse of BCCW in utility wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. To investigate this option, a series of laboratory tests were performed in which five different types of BCCW were added to the reaction tank of EPRI's bench-scale wet limestone FGD system. This paper presents the results and conclusions from this study.

Stohs, M.; Owens, D.R. (Radian Corp. (US)); Micheletti, W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

Underkoffler, V.S.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Fifth Quarterly Report documents progress in pellet testing via thermogravimetric analysis of pellet formulation FORM4-A of a manganese ore/alumina combination. This formulation, described more fully in the Quarterly Technical Progress Report of October 15, 1993, consists of manganese carbonate combined with alundum. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration; however, a minor problem has arisen during the regeneration cycle in that sulfur tends to form and plug the exit tube during the early stage of regeneration. This problem is about to be overcome by increasing the flow rate of air during the regeneration cycle resulting in more oxidizing conditions and hence less tendency for sulfide sulfur (S{sup =}) to oxidize to the intermediate elemental form (S{sup o}) rather than to 4-valent (S{sup +4}).

Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Optimization on Seawater Desulfurization Efficiency Based on LSSVM-GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seawater flue gas Desulfurization (SFGD) was adopted in many coal-fired power plants of littoral for its low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. Operating Parameters would seriously affect SFGD efficiency, the desulfurization efficiency can be ... Keywords: SFGD, desulfurization efficiency, LSSVM, GA, optimization

Liu Ding-ping; Li Xiao-wei

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

Dismukes, E.B.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this project, simulated gasifier-product streams were contacted with the zinc titanate desulfurization sorbent in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 538 to 750 {degree}C (1000 to 1382 {degree}F). The first set of experiments involved treating a medium-Btu fuel gas (simulating that of a ``Texaco`` oxygen-blown, entrained-bed gasifier) containing 1.4 percent H{sub 2}S and HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 1500 ppmv. The second experimental set evaluated hot-gas desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas (simulating the product of the ``U-Gas`` air-blown gasifier), with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppmv. These operating conditions were typical of the gas-treatment requirements of gasifiers fueled by Illinois basin coals containing up to 0.6 percent chlorine. The results of the experiments at 538 and 650 {degree}C at all the HCl concentrations revealed no deleterious effects on the capability of the sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from the fuel gas mixtures. In most cases, the presence of the HCl significantly enhanced the desulfurization reaction rate. Some zinc loss, however, was encountered in certain situations at 750 {degree}C when low-steam operating conditions were present. Also of interest, a portion of the incoming HCl was removed from the gas stream and was retained permanently by the sorbent. This behavior was examined in more detail in a limited set of experiments aimed at identifying ways to modify the sorbents composition so that the sorbent could act as a simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination agent in the hot-gas cleanup process.

O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Effect of H{sub 2}O on the desulfurization of simulated flue gas by an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) have been demonstrated to absorb SO{sub 2} from mixed gases or simulated flue gases efficiently. However, after absorbing a large amount of SO{sub 2}, the viscosity of the ILs increases greatly, which might limit their eventual applications in large-scale desulfurization from mixed gases or flue gases. In this work, the effect of the presence of water in a simulated flue gas on the absorption of SO{sub 2} by a functionalized ionic liquid, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate, has been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the presence of water in the simulated flue gas can decrease the viscosity of the IL greatly, and it has no effect on the absorptivity of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. The densities of the IL absorbing SO{sub 2} from the flue gas with or without water are also studied. They increase with the increase of the amount of SO{sub 2} absorbed from the flue gas in both cases.

Ren, S.H.; Hou, Y.C.; Wu, W.Z.; Chen, X.T.; Fan, J.L.; Zhang, J.W. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization process: an experimental pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect

In previous articles by the authors on seawater S(IV) oxidation kinetics, a significant catalytic effect was demonstrated by means of a commercially available activated carbon. The aims of this study carried out at pilot plant scale were to assess the use of high-efficiency structured packing and to validate the positive results obtained previously in laboratory studies. A comparison between a packed tower and a spray column was made by maintaining the same desulfurization efficiency. A 47% reduction in seawater flow can be obtained with a packed tower. This option seems to be more economical, with a reduction in operation costs of least of 33%. With the appropriate activated carbon, it is possible to reach a greater oxidation rate at a low pH level than by operating conventionally at a high pH level without a catalyst. A preliminary technical and financial comparison between the advanced seawater desulfurization process (equipped with a packed tower and a catalytic oxidation plant) and the conventional process (spray tower and noncatalytic oxidation) was carried out. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

F. Vidal B.; P. Ollero; F.J. Gutierrez Ortiz; A. Villanueva [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Selenium Removal by Iron Cementation from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater in a Continuous Flow System-- a Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes work funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and performed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) at a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal (identified in this report as Plant E). This work was based on encouraging results obtained during previous EPRI-funded work on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatability testing by MSE, which focused on selenium removal from a variety of FGD wastewater sources. The results from th...

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Hybrid Zero-Valent Iron Water Treatment Technology: Removing Trace Metals from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In previous laboratory- and field bench-scale tests, the hybrid zero-valent iron (hZVI) process had been demonstrated capable of removing selenium, mercury, nitrates, and other pollutants from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. By incorporating zero-valent iron (ZVI) with magnetite and certain Fe(II) species, the hZVI technology creates a highly reactive mixture that can transform and immobilize various trace metals, oxyanions, and other impurities from aqueous streams. To further evaluate ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It also simultaneously removes noxious, corrosive and odor-bearing gases from flue gas streams as well as coarse particulate matter above 1 micron in diameter. Due to its simplified design and low pressure drop, operating energy costs of the IWS are only a fraction of those for alternative air pollution control equipment. Pressure drop through a single-stage IWS is only 0.5 to 1.5 in. Water (125 to 374 pa) column and is controlled primarily by pressure drop through the wet scrubber section. Total system energy usage is approximately 2.0-2.5 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min (0.7-0.9 kw/m/sup 3//min) for a single-stage IWS and 4.0-5.0 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min for a two-stage installation. These energy requirements represent a significant savings as opposed to other air pollution control systems such as Venturi scrubbers.

Sheppard, S.V.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

Schrodt, J.T.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effects of Ammonia and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater on Power Plant Effluent Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments and subsequently the Clean Air Interstate Rule and other state-level actions have resulted in implementation of a variety of technologies to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and to further reduce emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx). Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and SNCR (non-catalytic) are two of the primary NOx emission reduction technologies. Often, ammonia is injected into flue gas as the reductant for the chemical reaction that converts NOx to nitrogen gas. ...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

136

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hybrid Zero Valent Iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment platform that has shown great potential in our previous bench-scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and other pollutants from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. This integrated treatment system employs new iron chemistry to create highly reactive mixture of Fe^0, iron oxides (FeOx) and various forms of Fe (II) for the chemical transformation and mineralization of various heavy metals in water. To further evaluate and develop the hZVI technology, a pilot-scale demonstration had been conducted to continuously treat 1-2 gpm of the FGD wastewater for five months at Plant Wansley, a coal-fired power plant of Georgia Power. This demonstrated that the scaled-up system was capable of reducing the total selenium (of which most was selenate) in the FGD wastewater from over 2500 ppb to below 10 ppb and total mercury from over 100 ppb to below 0.01 ppb. This hZVI system reduced other toxic metals like Arsenic (III and V), Chromium (VI), Cadmium (II), Lead (II) and Copper (II) from ppm level to ppb level in a very short reaction time. The chemical consumption was estimated to be approximately 0.2-0.4 kg of ZVI per 1 m^3 of FGD water treated, which suggested the process economics could be very competitive. The success of the pilot test shows that the system is scalable for commercial application. The operational experience and knowledge gained from this field test could provide guidance to further improvement of technology for full scale applications. The hZVI technology can be commercialized to provide a cost-effective and reliable solution to the FGD wastewater and other metal-contaminated waste streams in various industries. This technology has the potential to help industries meet the most stringent environmental regulations for heavy metals and nutrients in wastewater treatment.

Peddi, Phani 1987-

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed-bed gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system, and turbine simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. The HGCU Program is based on the design and demonstration of the HGCU system in a test facility made up of a pilot-scale fixed bed gasifier, a HGCU system, and a turbine simulator in Schenectady, NY, at the General Electric Research and Development Center. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at 2,350 F rotor inlet temperature and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions on low-Btu fuel gas. The turbine simulator program also includes the development and operation of experimental combustors based on the rich-quench-lean concept (RQL) to minimize the conversion of ammonia and other fuel-bound nitrogen species to NO{sub x} during combustion. The HGCU system and turbine simulator have been designed to process approximately 8,000 lb/hr of low heating value fuel gas produced by the GE fixed bed gasifier. The HGCU system has utilized several mixed metal oxide sorbents, including zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb, with the objective of demonstrating good sulfur removal and mechanical attrition resistance as well as economic cost characteristics. Demonstration of halogen removal and the characterization of alkali and trace metal concentrations in the fuel gas are subordinate objectives of the overall program. This report describes the results of several long-duration pilot tests.

Bevan, S.; Ayala, R.E.; Feitelberg, A.; Furman, A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Method and apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fluidized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen- containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bissett, L.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Method and apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fluidized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen- containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bissett, L.A.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Case Studies to Evaluate Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Physical/Chemical Treatment Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on physical/chemical wastewater treatment technologies used to remove trace metals from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater. The scope of this study includes FGD wastewater treatment for trace metals.BackgroundThe United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently revising the Effluent Limitations Guidelines (ELGs) for the steam electric power generating industry. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Integrated operation of a pressurized gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system and turbine simulator  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. This technology will ultimately be incorporated into advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at F conditions (2,350 F rotor inlet temperature) and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions of such a combustor. Testing of the GE HGCU system has been underway since December 1990. The two most recent tests, Test 5 and Test 6, represent the latest advancements in regenerator configuration, type of sorbent, and chloride control systems. Test 5 was based on the use of zinc titanate sorbent and included a revised regenerator configuration and a sodium bicarbonate injection system for chloride control. Test 6 incorporated the use of Z-Sorb, a chloride guard in the regenerator recycle loop, and further modifications to the regenerator internal configuration. This report describes the test conditions in detail and discusses the test results.

Bevan, S.; Najewicz, D.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.; Feitelberg, A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

None

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology  

SciTech Connect

Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

Lynch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Ohio Sites 1 (Mixed Hay) and 2 (Corn)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work conducted during 2008–2010 were to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulphurization gypsum (FGDG) in eastern Ohio and to assess the potential for environmental effects of the use of FGDG. Two field experiments were conducted at the eastern Ohio research site, one involving a mixed-grass hay field and the other a corn (Zea mays L.) field. FGDG and mined gypsum product were applied one time at rates of 0.2, 2.0, and 20 megagrams ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

147

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

148

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke ... " Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke Beyond 1600'C" by Christopher A. Paul of Great Lakes ...

150

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover. 1 fig.

Bissett, L.A.; Strickland, L.D.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` program is one of the largest programs ever undertaken by the Mining Engineering Department of Southern Illinois university, both in terms of complexity and in terms of funding. Total funding over the expected four-year extent of the program, including both Department of Energy, matching Southern Illinois University funds, and contributed funds, this program exceeds three million dollars. The number of cooperating organizations adds to the management complexity of the program. It was believed, therefore, that sound management plan and management base is essential for the efficient and effective conduct of the program. This first quarter period (i.e., October 1--December 31, 1993) was developed to establishing the management base, developing a sound management plan, developing a test plan, and developing sound fiscal management and control. Actual technical operations, such as residue sample acquisition, residue analyses, groundwater sample acquisition and analyses, and material handling studies will get underway early in the next quarter (i.e., January 1--March 31, 1994). Some early results of residue analyses and groundwater analyses should be available by the end of the second quarter. These results will be reported in the next Technical Progress Report.

Thomasson, E.M.; Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevin, H.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

155

EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER  

SciTech Connect

Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was contracted by MET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the potential of a wet ESP for reducing SO{sub 3} emissions. The work consisted of pilot-scale tests using the EERC's slagging furnace system (SFS) to determine the effectiveness of a wet ESP to control SO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol emissions in conjunction with a dry ESP and MET's NH{sub 3}-based FGD. Because these compounds are in the form of fine particles, it is speculated that a relatively small, highly efficient wet ESP following the MET scrubber would remove these fine aerosol particles. The performance target for the wet ESP was a particulate mass collection efficiency of >90%; this level of performance would likely ensure a stack opacity of <10%.

Dennis L. Laudal

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Dry regenerative sorption processes have recently attracted increasing attention in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) because of their several advantages over the conventional wet-scrubbing processes. Dry sorbents are usually made by coating a transition or alkaline earth metal precursor on the surface of a porous support. Major disadvantages of these sorbents prepared by the conventional methods include relatively poor attrition resistance and low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity. The physical and especially chemical attrition (associated with the sulphation-oxidation-reduction cycles in the process) deteriorates the performance of the sorbents. The low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity is primarily due to the small surface area of the support. Materials with a high surface area are not used as the supports for FGD sorbents because these materials usually are not thermally stable at high temperatures. In the past year, the research supported by Ohio Coal Development Office was focused on synthesis and properties of sol-gel derived alumina and zeolite sorbents with improved properties for FGD. The sol-gel derived alumina has large surface area, mesopore size and excellent mechanical strength. Some alumina-free zeolites not only posses the basic properties required as a sorbent for FGD (hydrophobicity, thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength) but also have extremely large surface area and selective surface chemistry. The major objectives of this research program were to synthesize the sol-gel derived sorbents and to explore the use of the zeolites either directly as adsorbents or as sorbent support for FGD. The research was aimed at developing novel FGD sorbents possessing better sorption equilibrium and kinetic properties and improved physical and chemical attrition resistance.

Lin, Y.S. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) in flue gas from coal combustion. The project was conducted from July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. It was conducted with cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, "Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System." Private secto...

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was… (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1985-2010 (Megawatts) Year Coal Petroleum and Natural Gas Total 1 Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization (Scrubbers) Total 2 Particulate Collectors Cooling...

162

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

165

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petroleum and Natural Gas",,,,"Total 1" ,,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2" ,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization" ,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)"

166

Method for desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

Kelland, D.R.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

167

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGULATIONS Although incinerator flue gas emission limits for acid gases have been imposed by the federal, such as sodium chlorite (NaCI02), is added to oxidize flue gas NO to N02, which can be removed by a sodium of saturated flue gas to approximately 60°C ( 140°F), the total (par ticulate and gaseous) mercury emissions

Laughlin, Robert B.

169

Development of Advanced Environmental Control Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mercury, on the other hand, is more readily captured because it is soluble in the liquids typically present in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers. Successful ionization of...

170

A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia at -33 C, although the yield of biphenyl was only about 20 to 30%. On the other hand, benzothiophene gave a high yield of 2-ethylthiophenol under these conditions. Although our superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N, which is now commercially available, is a more effective desulfurizing agent for a variety of organophosphorus compounds than PPh{sub 3} or its acyclic analogue P(NMe){sub 3}, it does not desulfurize benzothiophene or dibenzothiophene.

John G. Verkade

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS FOR SUBMERGED BED SCRUBBER CONDENSATE DISPOSAL PRECONCEPTUAL STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Pre conceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

PAJUNEN AL; TEDESCHI AR

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study  

SciTech Connect

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

Evaluation of the Impact of Limestone on Gypsum Crystal Habit in Wet FGD Scrubbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the results of a laboratory program focused on determining what key limestone components are responsible for impacting wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct gypsum properties. Tests were conducted using several commercial limestone samples for which documented full-scale limestone forced oxidation wet FGD operating experience exists. These include limestone samples known to produce FGD gypsum with both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ crystallization ...

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate derivatives of the entire IGTS8 BDS plasmid that will allow for its easy transfer and manipulation into a variety of hosts. To support this activity and to gain an understanding of additional genes that may potentially affect BDS activity, the nucleotide sequence of the entire complement of plasmids in IGTS8 is being determined. Lastly, we continue to develop genetic screens and selections for the discovery and improvement of the biodesulfurization genes and strains.

Scott Collins; David Nunn

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Desulfurization sorbent regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

1980-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Spray-dryer scrubbers for high-sulfur coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spray-dryer scrubbers for sulfur-dioxide removal from flue gases have been a developing technology for several years. Because spray-dryer scrubbers offer several potential advantages over wet scrubbing, they are attractive to the utility industry. Some of these advantages are: 1) a simpler waste-disposal problem, 2) higher energy efficiency, 3) lower water comsumption, 4) lower capital cost, 5) lower operating costs, 6) less exotic materials of construction, 7) simpler operation, and 8) ability to consume some plant waste water in the spray dryer. The paper provides a broad survey of the state of the art as it might be useful to electric utilitites using high-sulfur coal.

Henry, J.M.; Robards, R.F.; Wells, W.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective refineries led to the conclusion that there were not likely prospects for the licensing of the CED process.

James Boltz

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

184

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification  

SciTech Connect

This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

186

Desulfurization with transition metal catalysts. Quarterly summary  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research is to develop desulfurizing transition metal catalysts, which are active in homogeneous media at moderate temperatures and pressures for the purification of coal-derived fuels and chemicals. To this end, the mechanism of action is being examined whereby newly identified nickel(0) complexes desulfurize organosulfur compounds in solution at 65 to 70/sup 0/C. The sulfur compounds under investigation are typical of those commonly encountered in coal-derived liquids and solids, such as thiophenes, sulfides and mercaptans. The following studies on the homogeneous, stoichiometric desulfurizing agent, bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel(0) ((COD)/sub 2/Ni), were continued: (a) activation of the agent by means of added mono-, bi-/sup 2/ and tri-dentate amines, either of the tertiary or primary amine type; (b) labeling studies designed to reveal the source of the hydrogen that replaces the sulfur in the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene; (c) comparison of the desulfurizing activity of (COD)/sub 2/Ni, both in the presence and in the absence of lithium aluminum hydride; and (d) testing for the role of any biphenylene intermediate in these desulfurizations. Results are reported.

Eisch, J J

1980-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

187

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control David Gabriel* and Marc A. Deshusses Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chem

188

Hydrogen Sulfide, Oil and Gas, and People's Lana Skrtic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at sewage treatment plants, manure-handling plants, tanneries, and coke oven plants.5 2 EPA, "Report standard cubic feet)."9 Sour gas is routinely `sweetened' at processing facilities called desulfurization Process for Desulfurizing Ultra-deep Natural Gas Near the Wellhead," presented at Natural Gas Technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

189

Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

2000-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

A BP neural network predictor model for desulfurizing molten iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desulfurization of molten iron is one of the stages of steel production process. A back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed to predict the operation parameters for desulfurization process in this paper. The primary objective ...

Zhijun Rong; Binbin Dan; Jiangang Yi

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

193

Plume Rise from Stacks with Scrubbers: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of the art of predicting plume rise from stacks with scrubbers is evaluated critically. The significant moisture content of the scrubbed plume upon exit leads to important thermodynamic effects during plume rise that are unaccounted for ...

Michael Schatzman; Anthony J. Policastro

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

Rambosek, John (Seattle, WA); Piddington, Chris S. (Seattle, WA); Kovacevich, Brian R. (Seattle, WA); Young, Kevin D. (Grand Forks, ND); Denome, Sylvia A. (Thompson, ND)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reactivity of target compounds for chemical coal desulfurization. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to identify representative organosulfur compounds which are removed by known coal desulfurization reactions. Demineralized coals are solvent extracted and the extracts fractionated to concentrate organosulfur compounds for analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. After sulfur compounds are characterized, the parent extracts are subjected to reactions previously shown to reduce the organic sulfur content of Illinois coals, fractionated and again analyzed for organosulfur content to determine if the identified compounds reacted during the chemical treatment. The original coal also will be subjected to chemical desulfurization, extraction, fractionation and analysis in order to correlate changes in organic sulfur content of the coal with reactions of specific sulfur compounds. These compounds can thus be reliably considered as target molecules for the next generation of desulfurization processes. Work during this quarter has shown that fractionation and chromatography of pyridine extracts to isolate suitable samples for GC/MS analysis, although time-consuming, appears to be better than direct toluene extraction in terms of providing a representative set of compounds for analysis. The toluene soluble fractions prepared by this route contain aromatic sulfur compounds and O, N, S-containing hetrocycles. A set of these compounds has been identified and their fate following desulfurization of the parent coal extracts is under investigation. Previously studied desulfurization reactions using the single electron transfer reagent, K/THF/naphthalene, and the reactive nickel boride reagent have been repeated and analyzed by GC/MS. SET and nickel boride reactions of the THF soluble portions of pyridine coal are currently in progress.

Buchanan, D.H.; Amin, M.; Cunningham, R.; Galyen, J.; Ho, K.K.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Edward S. Steinfeld Richard K. Lester  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The exceptions are 9 small units that burn oil, one that burns coke oven gas, and 13 that burn coal gangue in the combustion unit. In other cases, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or "scrubbers," enabling post-combustion flue-gas desulfurization systems. Should Chinese environmental regulations strengthen in the near term

198

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur removal will be mandatory for all power generation coal gas applications in order to comply with future environmental standards. Two promising technologies that are currently being optimized for coal-based power generation are the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and the gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems. Zinc ferrite is currently the leading candidate to serve as a sulfur removal agent in the IGCC systems. GE has developed a patented moving-bed coal gas desulfurization system that has been shown to achieve a reduction in complexity and cost in a simplified IGCC system relative to conventional IGCC configurations (Cook et al, 1988).

Ayala, R.E. (GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA)); Gal, E. (GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (USA)); Gangwal, S.K. (Research Triangle Institute, NC (USA)); Jain, S. (Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improve NOx regeneration calibration developed in DECSE Phase I project to understand full potential of NOx adsorber catalyst over a range of operating temperatures. Develop and demonstrate a desulfurization process to restore NOx conversion efficiency lost to sulfur contamination. Investigate effect of desulfurization process on long-term performance of the NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tomazic, Dean

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept that has been developed and tested on a limited scope for feasibility. From environmental as well as the economic viewpoints, it is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization and MHD spent seed regeneration options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. UTSI`s anion-exchange, resin-based concept uses the available technology and is believed to satisfy this requirement. In this DOE-sponsored project, UTSI, will perform the following investigations: Screening of commercially available resins; process variables study and improving resin performance; optimization of resin-regeneration step; evaluation of performance enhancers; development of Best-Process Schematic and related economics, and planning for proof-of-concept (POC) scale testing. The above activities have been grouped into five major tasks and the entire project is expected to take thirty-six months to complete.

Sheth, A.C.; Dharmapurikar, R.; Strevel, S.D.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate. 2 figs.

Grindley, T.

1986-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed wetland treatment system are repositories for As, Hg, and Se and the bioavailability of these elements decreased after deposition, the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system contributed significantly to mitigation of risks to aquatic life from these elements.

John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION SUBMERGED BED SCRUBBER CONDENSATE DISPOSITION PROJECT - ABSTRACT # 13460  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

YANOCHO RM; CORCORAN C

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Communications to the Editor Room-Temperature Desulfurization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

difficult to remove in the hydroprocessing of crude oil.3 In homogeneous models, orga- nometallic nickel of polynuclear complexes in the desulfurization of various thiophenes,6 led us to prepare a dinuclear nickel

Jones, William D.

208

Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

Sublette, K.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Huang, Hann-Sheng (Darien, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

A method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

THERMODYNAMIC DATA FOR FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy, Div. of Fossil Energy, Report FE-2710-1, pg. 24 (by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Coalby the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Off1ce of Coal

Brewer, Leo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Inspection Guideline for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Severe corrosion attack has occurred in several absorber vessels constructed of duplex 2205 and 255 stainless steels. There are also mounting concerns that earlier generation absorber vessels fabricated with austenitic stainless steels may also be subject to underdeposit and pitting corrosion attack. This corrosion attack has been found in several of the spray tower/ tray tower and jet bubble reactor designs constructed of stainless steels and are reported to be occurring with relatively little service l...

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

216

THERMODYNAMIC DATA FOR FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N.T. Ioffe, et. al. Thermodynamic Constants of Materials,Heats and Related Thermodynamic Quan- ti ties , John W i 1 eN.P.L. Computer Analysed Thermodynamic Data: Organic and

Brewer, Leo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

THERMODYNAMIC DATA FOR FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

De Carvalho, J. Chern. Thermodynamics D. Detry, J. Drowart,Vanderzee, J. Chern. Thermodynamics ! Q,lll3-36 (1978). (43)L.G. Hepler, J. Chern. Thermodynamics~~ (45) J.E. Desnoyers,

Brewer, Leo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Flue Gas Desulfurization Bid Preparation and Proposal Review Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The prospect of more stringent limits for sulfur dioxide (SO2) has led power producers to begin planning for the future installation of FGD systems to meet new emission limits for their power plants. Major activity has already begun with the announcements of system-wide FGD system installations by many utilities in the southeastern United States. Contractor selection is a critical component to the successful compliance with regulatory requirements. This document provides utilities with the tools that the...

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

219

Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA); Bosuego, Gail P. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixtures derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the flue gas in a separate activation reactor, which increases SO 2 removal. An electrostatic precipitator downstream from the point of injection captures the reaction...

224

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

225

Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

NETL's Gas Process Development Unit for Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objectives for the GPDU project are to: (1) assess transport and fluidized bed reactor control and performance to determine the most suitable mode for continuous gas desulfurization, and (2) evaluate candidate sorbents for bulk removal of sulfurous compounds from syngas to assess the readiness of sorbents for commercial scale. The DOE has funded desulfurization and sorbent research for over 20 years and extensive laboratory-scale and bench-scale work has been conducted by government, academia and industry on the development and testing of regenerable sorbents for bulk sulfur removal from syngas (Cicero, et.al, 2000; Mitchell, 1998; Lew, 1989). However, the technologies still need to be proven in controlled conditions at a larger scale. Several Clean Coal Technology projects (i.e, the Toms Creek IGCC Demonstration Project, the Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project and the Tampa Electric Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Project) had proposed demonstrations of hot-gas desulfurization technology, but were not seen to completion (Clean Coal Technology Compendium website, 2002). As a result, there is a lack of data on sorbent and reactor performance under longer-term continuous conditions at a large scale. For commercial acceptance of hot- or warm-gas desulfurization, technology reliability is a question yet to be answered. The GPDU will fill the gap and has the objective to provide the proof-of-concept that is needed to foster commercialization of hot (greater than 538 C (1,000 F)) and/or warm (260 to 427 C (500 to 800 F)) gas desulfurization for IGCC processes. The GPDU facility, which includes a separate Syngas Generator (SGG) that supplies a simulated coal gas to the GPDU, is in the shakedown phase of operations with an initial reactor configuration of transport absorber-transport regenerator. The status and preliminary results of shakedown activities are presented to provide insight into startup and operations of a continuous transport desulfurization process.

Everitt, E.; Bissett, L.A.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

231

Method for processing coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process  

SciTech Connect

The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

Knight, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Environmental Legislation 1.0 Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, inorganic arsenic, and coke oven emissions. This was a fraction of the total, and EPA's inability to list.obtaining additional allowances; 3.installing "scrubbers" (Flue gas desulfurization is a post combustion in the form of acid rain. About 66% produced by coal-fired power plants (natural gas combustion emits no SO2

McCalley, James D.

234

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 13, October 1993--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Dec 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1993 through the end of December 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in Aug 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to evaluate the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted that used 0, 5, and 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum only. Field studies were concluded 41 and 45 months after treatment application at the two locations. No effect of material on alfalfa yield or tissue mineral concentration was observed. Also, rate did not affect yield. However, there were differences in plant tissue mineral concentration in several harvests that were related to rate. Soil was sampled periodically to 120 cm and indicated movement of Ca and S into the soil profile to depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. Subsoil pHH2O and pHCaCl2 were not affected by treatment. Extractable and exchangeable Al were not reduced by movement of Ca and S into the soil. In the glasshouse study, alfalfa yields and root growth were not affected by gypsum rate. As gypsum rate increased, plant tissue S increased, but K and Mg decreased. Alfalfa roots did not grow below 60 cm, even though there was indication of material movement to 90 cm in the soil. Although sulfur moved to 75 cm, no effect on soil Al was observed. Leachate collected from the bottoms of columns indicated that soil cations were leached as a result of gypsum application. Gypsum and the flue gas desulfurization by-product did not significantly affect the acid soils used in these studies or improve alfalfa growth.

Chessman, Dennis John

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Floor Sweeper-Scrubbers: Demonstration of Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries and High-Power Charging in Commercial Warehouse Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric walk-behind and riding floor scrubbers are in widespread and growing use in the commercial and industrial building sectors. This demonstration indicates that the weight, bulk, and battery capacity of existing equipment could be significantly reduced in equipment used for certain "spot-cleaning" and other limited use duty-cycles. Further, results show that for sealed lead-acid batteries, recharge rates on the same order as discharge rates are sufficient for extending peak daily run-time to 200 pe...

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Table 11.7 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization (Scrubbers) Total 2 1985 302,056 120,591 56,955 304,706 36,054 28,895 65 62,371 338,110 149,486 57,020 367,078

240

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

41 41 LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

242

DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was mercury adsorption onto calcium sulfate (CaSO4), a byproduct of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wet., Powers K.W., and Pitoniak E.R. (2004) Method for Purifying Flue Gases from Combustion Sources. PatentCoupling of Advanced Oxidation and Adsorption Processes onto Silica-Titania Composites for Low

Columbia University

243

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The three project phases are: (1) Design; (2A) Long Lead Procurement; (2B) Construction; and (3) Operations. The design phase began on August 8, 1990 and was scheduled to last six months. Phase 2A, long lead procurement, overlaps the design phase and was expected to require about four months to complete. The construction phase was then to continue for another seven months, while the operations phase was scheduled to last about twenty-six months. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the twelfth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1993 through the end of September 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stone, flue gas desulfurization, and glass manufacturing), soda ash production and consumption, titaniumExecutive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations

Little, John B.

245

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fate of Mercury in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a bench-scale, laboratory investigation of the fate of flue gas mercury species in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers that are used for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in coal-fired power plants. Data collected in the EPA mercury Information Collection Request (ICR), and in research projects sponsored by EPRI show that most wet scrubbers used for SO2 control achieve high removals of oxidized mercury and little or no elemental mercury removal. However, some scru...

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

Goldin, I.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Integrating desulfurization with CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical-looping combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC which maintain high reactivity and high-temperature stability even when sulfur contaminated fuels are used in CLC. Here, we propose a novel process scheme for in situ desulfurization of syngas with simultaneous CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical looping combustion by using these robust nanocomposite oxygen carriers simultaneously as sulfur-capture materials. We found that a nanocomposite Cu-BHA carrier can indeed strongly reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration in the fuel reactor effluent. However, during the process the support matrix is also sulfidized and takes part in the redox process of CLC. This results in SO{sub 2} production during the reduction of the oxygen carrier and thus limits the degree of desulfurization attainable with this kind of carrier. Nevertheless, the results suggest that simultaneous desulfurization and CO{sub 2} capture in CLC is feasible with Cu as oxygen carrier as long as appropriate carrier support materials are chosen, and could result in a novel, strongly intensified process for low-emission, high efficiency combustion of sulfur contaminated fuel streams.

Solunke, Rahul; Veser, Goetz

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems: 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With proposed changes in current emissions regulations and recent EPA initiatives, most power producers have concluded that tighter limits on mercury, NOx, SO2, and primary particulates are inevitable. Likewise, more stringent controls for power plant emissions emphasize the need for more cost-effective pollutant reduction approaches. This report provides an update on results from an ongoing EPRI project directed at enhancing “co-benefit” capture of mercury and ...

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury, Trace Elements, and Major Ions Around a Coal-fired Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a multiyear study to measure mercury (Hg), trace elements, and major ions in precipitation around Plant Crist, a four-unit coal-fired power plant in Pensacola, Florida. The main purpose of the study was to see if Hg emissions from Plant Crist could be detected and quantified in local wet deposition. Specifically, the study evaluated whether the significant reduction in Hg emissions that accompanied the installation of a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber ...

2013-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

Impacts of Dibasic Acid (DBA) Addition on the Performance of a Pilot Vertical Flow Cell: Duke Energy Marshall Steam Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a pilot study conducted to test the potential impact of dibasic acid (DBA) on vertical flow cells (VFCs) constructed to remove selenium and mercury from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber discharge. VFCs are a passive treatment technology with very low operational and maintenance costs and the potential for order-of-magnitude savings over conventional treatment methods. A full-scale VFC system has been constructed at a power generating facility based on ...

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

257

Predict particle collection in spray towers  

SciTech Connect

Spray tower wet scrubbers are used for control of particulates (as well as gaseous pollutants). The author has found that in cocurrent spray scrubbers, the most important parameter in determining particle collection efficiency is inlet dust particle size, followed by (in decreasing order of importance) gas velocity, collector droplet size, liquid-to-gas ratio, and length of scrubber. In countercurrent scrubbers, the most important parameters are collector droplet size, liquid-to-gas ratio, length of scrubber, and gas velocity. Note that some of these factors are directly related to collection, and some are related indirectly. This article provides equations, based on theoretical considerations and empirical data, for predicting particle collection efficiencies. The parameter ranges covered are typical of those encountered in the practical operation of conventional spray towers that use a ``cool`` (or cooled) inlet gas stream, so the equations are applicable to many industrial spray tower systems. The results are limited based on the ranges of the parameters evaluated, and while it may be possible to extrapolate beyond that, this has not been verified. (The initial model was for a flue-gas desulfurization system at a large power station that requires both particulate removal and SO{sub 2} absorption.)

Hesketh, H.E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

John J. Kilbane II

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Assessment of hot gas contaminant control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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261

FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

Marshall, Douglas William

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Design and Performance of a Low Btu Fuel Rich-Quench-Lean Gas Turbine Combustor  

SciTech Connect

General Electric Company is developing gas turbines and a high temperature desulfurization system for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. High temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), offers many advantages over conventional low temperature desulfurization processes, but does not reduce the relatively high concentrations of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) that are typically found in low Btu fuel. When fuels containing bound nitrogen are burned in conventional gas turbine combustors, a significant portion of the FBN is converted to NO{sub x}. Methods of reducing the NO{sub x} emissions from IGCC power plants equipped with HGCU are needed. Rich-quench-lean (RQL) combustion can decrease the conversion of FBN to NO{sub x} because a large fraction of the FBN is converted into non-reactive N{sub 2} in a fuel rich stage. Additional air, required for complete combustion, is added in a quench stage. A lean stage provides sufficient residence time for complete combustion. Objectives General Electric has developed and tested a rich-quench-lean gas turbine combustor for use with low Btu fuels containing FBN. The objective of this work has been to design an RQL combustor that has a lower conversion of FBN to N{sub x} than a conventional low Btu combustor and is suitable for use in a GE heavy duty gas turbine. Such a combustor must be of appropriate size and scale, configuration (can-annular), and capable of reaching ``F`` class firing conditions (combustor exit temperature = 2550{degrees}F).

Feitelberg, A.S.; Jackson, M.R.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.; Ritter, A.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Pilot-Scale and Full-Scale Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Mercury and Selenium in Flue Gas Desulphurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall evaluation of the various advanced treatment technologies that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested for removal of mercury and selenium from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water. EPRI conducted a literature survey followed by a preliminary laboratory-scale evaluation to screen promising technologies. For the technologies that were selected based on the success of laboratory-scale testing, EPRI worked with treatment vendors to further evaluate these techn...

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

265

A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining industry slowed progress of the demonstration unit, negotiations with potential partners are proceeding for commercialization of this process.

B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Demonstration/evaluation of the Cat-Ox flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, June 1970-October 1975  

SciTech Connect

The report gives a comprehensive summary of the experience gained and the problems encountered during the Cat-Ox demonstration program. The report outlines the process design and construction, as well as operating experience and problems. Test results and conclusions derived from baseline testing, acceptance testing, ESP testing, transient testing, and a number of special tests and studies associated with the system are reported.

Bee, R.; Reale, R.; Wallo, A.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

Chugh, Y.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Microsoft PowerPoint - IGFC_Cleanup_SECA_Presentation_072910...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the removal of organic sulfur species from various hydrocarbons * Natural gas, LPG and biogas desulfurization * Warm gas and hot reformate gas desulfurization * Diesel fuel and...

271

Development and testing of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) concept represents a highly efficient and environmentally compatible advanced coal fueled power generation technology. When IGCC is coupled with high temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), the efficiency and cost advantage of IGCC is further improved with respect to systems based on conventional low temperature gas cleanup. Commercialization of the IGCC/HGCU concept requires successful development of combustion systems for high temperature low Btu fuel in gas turbines. Toward this goal, a turbine combustion system simulator has been designed, constructed, and fired with high temperature low Btu fuel. Fuel is supplied by a pilot scale fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) demonstration of long term operability of the turbine simulator with high temperature low Btu fuel; (2) characterization of particulates and other contaminants in the fuel as well as deposits in the fuel nozzle, combustor, and first stage nozzle; and (3) measurement of NO{sub x}, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, trace element, and particulate emissions.

Bevan, S.; Abuaf, N.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Samuels, M.S.; Tolpadi, A.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

Jalan, V.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY NEW YORK STATE ELECTRIC & GAS CORPORATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NEW YORK STATE ELECTRIC & GAS CORPORATION NEW YORK STATE ELECTRIC & GAS CORPORATION (NYSEG) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC22-92PC-92642, W(A)-93-016, CH-0773 NYSEG was awarded this cooperative agreement under the fourth round of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to P.L. 101-512 to demonstrate a combination of cost effective emission reduction and efficiency improvement technolo- gies including: Saarberg-Holter Umwelltechnik's (S-H-U) advanced SO2 scrubber technology which uses formic acid enhancement and cocurrent/countercurrent open spray tower absorber design; Stebbins Engineering's tile-lined split module absorber construction; NOxOUT injection and air combustion modeling technology and implementation for NOx control; and heat pipe air heater technology to increase energy

278

An Update of the U.S. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Holds Promise for Effective NO, Control SCR Holds Promise for Effective NO, Control CCT Projects Address Higher Costs, Limited U.S. Experience Clean Coal Briefs This quarter saw several major projects in the Clelm Coal Technology Program complete construction activi- ties and move into initial opcretions, bringing to 17 the total number of operatingf~cilitiesin theprogram Data generated from these projects will help utilities form their stratcgics for corn- pliance with the IYYO Clean Air Act Amendmxlts. Pure Air began running its first advanced flue gas desulfurization unit on June 2. The scrubber is running well, capturing more than YO percent of the SO, emissions from two units at Northern Indiana Public Service k's Bailly Station Construction of the 528 MW scrubber was completed

279

Task 4.7 - diesel fuel desulfurization. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reductions in the maximum permissible sulfur content of diesel fuel to less than 0.05 wt% will require deep desulfurization to meet these standards. In some refineries, a new hydrogenation catalyst may be required for diesel fuel production. The work very briefly described in this document is on the use of hydrotalcite-supported molybdenum sulfide in the catalysis of ethanol. The catalyst reaction was highly selective for 1-butanol, providing a very clean reaction. Since the catalysis contains the MoS{sub 2} needed for the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps, the reaction can be performed at lower temperatures and higher selectivity. The catalyst was very stable and not destroyed by the water produced in the reaction.

Olson, E.S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Intermediates formed during supercritical desulfurization of coal: Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1987 to June 30, 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Last month, data was presented on a series of eight runs performed in the two liter reactor system under different reaction conditions, utilizing an Illinois No. 6 coal. The coal and solvent charges were held constant at 200 g each for all runs, and reaction time was one hour at a reaction temperature of 350/sup 0/C. Four of the runs utilized coal that had been treated with nitric acid solution, employing the ASTM procedure for sulfur forms analysis to remove the pyritic sulfur prior to reaction with alcohol. Both methanol and ethanol were utilized, and the effect of potassium hydroxide addition in an amount equal to 5% of the coal charged was also evaluated. Table 2 from last quarter's report is included here as Table 1 for convenient reference; it summarizes the processing conditions employed, desulfurization attained, and material balance information for the series of eight runs. The main objective of this series of runs was to permit a comparison to be made of the fluid phase composition between the various treatments employed; maximum desulfurization was not possible due to the current lower pressure limitation of the two liter reactor. Chromatographic analyses of the sulfur compounds present in the fluid phase samples taken during the course of the reactions are presented in Figures 1 through 8. All samples were collected at temperatures above supercritical. Vertical lines indicate the time during which the reaction temperature of 350/sup 0/C was maintained. The left vertical line denotes the end of the preheating time period, whereas the right one indicates the last data point completed before the final venting was performed. Relatively little fluid was removed from the reactor by sampling during the main reaction period. 8 figs., 1 tab.

Muchmore, C.B.; Chen, Juh W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the price gap between oil and natural gas and coal continues to widen, Monsanto has carefully searched out and examined opportunities to convert fuel use to coal. Preliminary studies indicate that the low-btu gas produced by fixed-bed, air blown gasifiers could potentially replace the natural gas now used in process heaters. The technology is well established and requires less capital than the higher-btu process heaters. Low-btu gas has sufficient heating value and flame temperature to be acceptable fuel for most process heaters. Economics for gas production appear promising, but somewhat uncertain. Rough evaluations indicate rates of return of as much as 30-40%. However, the economics are very dependent on a number of site- specific considerations including: coal vs. natural gas prices, economic life of the gas-consuming facility, quantity of gas required, need for desulfurization, location of gasifiers in relation to gas users, existence of coal unloading and storage facilities, etc. Two of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis.

Nebeker, C. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to… (more)

Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

Veronica J. Rutledge

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

New 480 ft. Flue Gas Stack and Existing Fly Ash Silo Right: Inlet...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Passamaquoddy Recovery Scrubber Clean Coal Project at Dragon Products Company's cement plant in Thomaston, Maine, started pre-opera- tions equipment checkout in January and...

287

Abart CDS - a New Compact Multi-pollutant Pot Gas and Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A new modular Abart CDS is developed that integrates silos, alumina handling, heat exchangers, fans, SO2 scrubber and stack into a compact

288

NETL: Gasification Systems - Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Project Number: DE-FC26-05NT42459 Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Project ID: DE-FC26-05NT42459 Objective: The objective is to develop a warm multi-contaminant syngas cleaning system for operation between 300 and 700° F. This project will continue development of the RTI warm syngas cleanup technology suite. Based on the field testing results with real syngas from Eastman Chemical Company's gasifier under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99FT40675, additional technical issues need to be addressed to move the technologies used in warm syngas cleaning further towards commercial deployment especially for chemical/fuels production. These issues range from evaluation of startup and standby options for the more developed desulfurization processes to integration and actual pilot plant testing with real coal-derived syngas for the technologies that were tested at bench scale during Phase I. Development shall continue of the warm gas syngas cleaning technology platform through a combination of lab-scale R&D and larger integrated pilot plant testing with real coal-derived syngas as well as process/systems analysis and simulation for optimization of integration and intensification.

289

Vacuum carbonate desulfurization and claus sulfur recovery system at No. 11 battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vacuum carbonate process functions above 90% efficiency and satisfactorily removes the HCN and sulfur compounds from the coke oven gas generated at No. 11 Battery. It has been noted that a large quantity of energy is required for the operation of the vacuum carbonate system. Normally 544,617 kg (1.2 million lbs of steam) and 5.4 thousand kWh of electricity are used per day to maintain the system's temperatures and pressures. The processed coke oven gases from the system satisfy industrial and environmental standards as a combustible fuel. The HCN destruction unit reduces the corrosive HCN to concentrations below .07% of the acid gas stream and offers the necessary protection to the downstream modified Claus unit. The Claus unit at No. 11 Battery operates at 98% efficiency and produces 5896 kg (6.5 tons) of sulfur per day. The liquid sulfur generated in the Claus unit is a high quality product of 99% purity. 7 figures, 3 tables.

Ellis, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

292

Gas Week  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Guy F. Caruso, EIA AdministratorPresented to: Gas WeekHouston, TexasSeptember 24, 2003

Information Center

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government & commercial sectors - update 1998,7/99,3268845  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION/DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS BY GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS - UPDATE 1998 EERC Topical Report DE-FC21-93MC-30097--79 Submitted by: Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett Everett A. Sondreal Edward N. Steadman Kurt E. Eylands Bruce A. Dockter Energy & Environmental Research Center PO Box 9018 Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 99-EERC-07-08 July 1999 i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

294

Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

296

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

297

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

298

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

299

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

300

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

302

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

303

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

304

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

305

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

1996-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

306

Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

Veronica J Rutledge

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

308

Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department supports research and policy options to ensure environmentally sustainable domestic and global supplies of oil and natural gas.

309

Gas separating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

Gollan, A.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

310

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6

311

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

Activation of Noble Metals on Metal-Carbide Surfaces: Novel Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Desulfurization and Hydrogenation Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO{sub 2} at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O{sub 2} and perform the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS{sub x} catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical reactivity of noble metals.

Rodriguez J. A.; Illas, F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

314

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

315

Comparing materials used in mist eliminators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J. [Solvay Advanced Polyers (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

317

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

318

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

319

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

320

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

322

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

323

Natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Over time the electricity mix gradually shifts to lower-carbon options, led by growth in natural gas and renewable generation U.S. electricity net generation trillion kilowatthours 6

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski Usnic; Adam Sieminski Usnic

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

325

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

326

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

327

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

328

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

329

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

330

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

331

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

332

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

333

High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

High Volume--High Volume Usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) By-Products in Underground Mines. Quarterly report, July 1-September 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The focus of activity for this quarter was the final selection and preparation of a mine site for the grout emplacement field demonstration. The site chosen is located in Floyd County, Kentucky and is owned by the Sunny Ridge Mining Company. Specifically, a northeast-trending highwall was selected that contains numerous auger holes of 31 inch diameter and varying depth. The coal has been deep- mined beyond the auger holes thus limiting their length. Access to the site is good, and the overlying strata are relatively un- weathered and competent. Preparation of the site involved culling a road to the highwall, followed by uncovering the auger holes which had previously been partially filled and graded with rock. The auger holes were then extensively characterized in the context of overall dimensions, condition, and extent of communication between holes. For this portion of the work, several types of apparatus were obtained, and constructed. Selection of a grout emplacement method was also completed. It was decided that concrete trucks will transport the dry FBC flyash to the site whereupon a specified amount of water will be added. This grout will then be transferred to a concrete pumping truck that will be used to inject the material into the auger holes. In this quarter, the arrangements necessary to complete the emplacement have been made.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package, Volume 8. [DEA process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 8 contains the design of the fuel gas desulfurization process (DEA) and of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) section of the plant. The removal of acid gases is accomplished by intimately contacting the feed stream with the descending DEA solution. A partially regenerated semi-lean DEA solution is fed to an intermediate tray of the column for the bulk removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ while a fully regenerated lean DEA solution is fed at the top tray for the removal of the remaining acid gases in the top section of the absorber. The lean solution stream temperature is maintained at 10 to 15/sup 0/F above the absorber feed gas temperature to prevent hydrocarbon condensation in the column with consequent foaming and flooding of the column. The overhead gas (Stream 6305) leaving the H.P. DEA absorber is cooled and passed through the Sweet Gas K.O. Drum (bottom section of V-15305) to separate any condensate. The gas leaving the drum is further contacted with a 3 weight percent caustic solution in the bottom section of the Treated Gas Wash Column (T-15303) for removal of residual acid gases in order to comply with the sweet gas specifications of 1 ppMv H/sub 2/S and 10 ppMv CO/sub 2/. The LPG Recovery Unit is designed to process 15.95 MMSCFD of low pressure fuel reject gas from the HPU to recover approximately 60 percent of the propane and most of the heavier hydrocarbons. The recovered hydrocarbons are produced as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product. Specifications for the LPG product are: (1) Ethane/Propane (Vol/Vol) 0.02; and (2) LPG product should meet GPA Publication 2140-77 Commercial B-P mixture specifications.

1983-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Research activities in the second quarter have largely been a continuation of efforts previously described in the first quarterly report as well as a degree of redirection of effort as a result of discussions during the first quarterly meeting held in San Diego. Chemical synthesis efforts have been refined and are currently being used to support generation of substrates for evaluation and evolution of enzymes for their oxidation. Analysis of the sulfur species in Petro Star diesel, CED extract and refinement of the speciation data is nearly complete. Molecular biology efforts continue with the cloning, expression and characterization of the DszA and DszC proteins as well as the flavin reductases to support regeneration of the essential FMN cofactors. In addition, we have initiated an evolution effort for the extension and improvement of DszA enzyme activity using Diversa's Gene Site Saturation Mutagenesis (GSSM{trademark}) technology. To support the evolution effort as well as of characterization of enzyme activities on a variety of substrates, a high-throughput mass spectroscopy-based assay has been developed. Two selection/screen strategies for the discovery and evolution of biocatalyst enzyme have been developed and are being evaluated for performance using gene libraries constructed from known biodesulfurization strains and environmental libraries.

Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Desulfurization of phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Phosphogypsum is mixed with fine coal, balled, and charged to a travelling grate where the charge is heated under reducing conditions to evolve sulfur and/or sulfur dioxide for conversion into sulfuric acid.

Gardner, S.A.; Ban, Th.E.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

GAS TURBINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the age of volatile and ever increasing natural gas fuel prices, strict new emission regulations and technological advancements, modern IGCC plants are the answer to growing market demands for efficient and environmentally friendly power generation. IGCC technology allows the use of low cost opportunity fuels, such as coal, of which there is a more than a 200-year supply in the U.S., and refinery residues, such as petroleum coke and residual oil. Future IGCC plants are expected to be more efficient and have a potential to be a lower cost solution to future CO2 and mercury regulations compared to the direct coal fired steam plants. Siemens has more than 300,000 hours of successful IGCC plant operational experience on a variety of heavy duty gas turbine models in Europe and the U.S. The gas turbines involved range from SGT5-2000E to SGT6-3000E (former designations are shown on Table 1). Future IGCC applications will extend this experience to the SGT5-4000F and SGT6-4000F/5000F/6000G gas turbines. In the currently operating Siemens ’ 60 Hz fleet, the SGT6-5000F gas turbine has the most operating engines and the most cumulative operating hours. Over the years, advancements have increased its performance and decreased its emissions and life cycle costs without impacting reliability. Development has been initiated to verify its readiness for future IGCC application including syngas combustion system testing. Similar efforts are planned for the SGT6-6000G and SGT5-4000F/SGT6-4000F models. This paper discusses the extensive development programs that have been carried out to demonstrate that target emissions and engine operability can be achieved on syngas operation in advanced F-class 50 Hz and 60 Hz gas turbine based IGCC applications.

Power For L; Satish Gadde; Jianfan Wu; Anil Gulati; Gerry Mcquiggan; Berthold Koestlin; Bernd Prade

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Gas laser  

SciTech Connect

According to the invention, the gas laser comprises a housing which accommodates two electrodes. One of the electrodes is sectional and has a ballast resistor connected to each section. One of the electrodes is so secured in the housing that it is possible to vary the spacing between the electrodes in the direction of the flow of a gas mixture passed through an active zone between the electrodes where the laser effect is produced. The invention provides for a maximum efficiency of the laser under different operating conditions.

Kosyrev, F. K.; Leonov, A. P.; Pekh, A. K.; Timofeev, V. A.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 15:

344

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's:

345

How does this stack up for removing SO/sub 2/ and particles  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired boiler emissions are usually controlled by one of the following methods: (1) a high velocity spray tower for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installed downstream of a dry electrostatic precipitator, or a baghouse which removes the fly ash. Lime or limestone is used for neutralization; (2) a high energy venturi scrubber for fly ash removal followed by a high velocity spray tower for FGD. The alkaline ash, with lime or limestone added is used for neutralization and saves alkali costs. Peabody Process Systems has been investigating an additional system comprising a low pressure drop gas quencher and an FRG spray tower with a Wet Tubular Precipitator (WTP) installed on top of the spray tower. The alkalinity in the ash, augmented with lime or limestone, can be used for neutralization if the full fly ash load goes into the tower.

Bakke, E.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

347

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

348

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

349

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

350

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

134,294 32,451 0.37 0 0.00 32 1.09 43,764 0.83 10,456 0.38 39,786 1.26 126,488 0.63 C o n n e c t i c u t Connecticut 54. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Connecticut, 1992-1996...

351

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

352

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

353

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

354

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

355

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

356

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

357

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

358

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

359

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

360

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

362

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3.91 119,251 0.60 229 7.81 374,824 7.15 2,867 0.10 189,966 6.01 915,035 4.57 O h i o Ohio 83. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Ohio, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996...

363

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0.00 53 1.81 147,893 2.82 7,303 0.27 93,816 2.97 398,581 1.99 W i s c o n s i n Wisconsin 97. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wisconsin, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994...

364

Gas Prices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prices Gasoline Prices for U.S. Cities Click on the map to view gas prices for cities in your state. AK VT ME NH NH MA MA RI CT CT DC NJ DE DE NY WV VA NC SC FL GA AL MS TN KY IN...

365

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

10,799 1,953 0.02 0 0.00 0 0.00 2,523 0.05 24 0.00 2,825 0.09 7,325 0.04 V e r m o n t Vermont 93. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Vermont, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995...

366

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

845,998 243,499 2.75 135,000 0.68 35 1.19 278,606 5.32 7,239 0.26 154,642 4.90 684,022 3.42 P e n n s y l v a n i a Pennsylvania 86. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas...

367

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by numerical simulation below. pipeline gas shalecushion gas sand shale CH4 working gas CH4 working gas sand

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Unconventional Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Unconventional Natural Gas Los Alamos scientists are committed to the efficient and environmentally-safe development of major U.S. natural gas and oil resources....

369

Underground Natural Gas Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Underground Natural Gas Storage. Measured By. Disseminated Through. Monthly Survey of Storage Field Operators -- asking injections, withdrawals, base gas, working gas.

370

,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Texas Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Texas Natural Gas Exports...

371

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas...

372

,"Montana Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Montana Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Montana Natural Gas Exports...

373

,"Michigan Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Michigan Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Michigan Natural Gas Exports...

374

2. Gas Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2. Gas Productive Capacity Gas Capacity to Meet Lower 48 States Requirements The United States has sufficient dry gas productive capacity at the wellhead to meet ...

375

FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

376

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

377

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

GAS SEAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

380

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 152 170 165 195 224 Production (million cubic feet)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 280 300 225 240 251 Production (million cubic feet)...

382

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet) Data Series: ... coalbed production data are included in Gas Well totals.

383

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Withdrawals from Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells Repressuring Vented and Flared...

384

Natural Gas Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are either fueled exclusively with compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas (dedicated NGVs) or are capable of natural gas and gasoline fueling (bi-fuel NGVs).

385

Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas: Gas in place at the time that a reservoir was converted to use as an underground storage reservoir, as in contrast to injected gas volumes. Natural Gas: A gaseous mixture...

386

Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Gas Metrology Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... automobile industry meeting more stringent … more. Audit of EPA Protocol Gas Suppliers EPA Protocol gas mixture calibration ...

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

388

Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)  

SciTech Connect

The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Utility FGD survey, Janurary--December 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)) [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)) [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

TERRI, FELLINGER

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

393

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

394

Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad...

395

Cameron, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Cameron, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million...

396

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and...

397

Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price) (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price) (Dollars per...

398

North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

399

Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

400

Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

402

Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

403

Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

404

Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

405

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

406

California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

407

New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

408

Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

409

West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

410

Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

411

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

412

Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

413

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)...

414

Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million...

415

Northeast Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Northeast Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic...

416

South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

417

South Dakota Natural Gas Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Removed from Natural Gas...

418

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois) Eligibility...

419

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas...

420

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 22,442 22,117 23,554 18,774 16,718 Production...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2004 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year... 341,678 373,304 387,772 393,327 405,048 Production...

422

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 1,169 1,244 1,232 1,249 1,272 Production (million...

423

International Energy Outlook - Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas International Energy Outlook 2004 Natural Gas Natural gas is the fastest growing primary energy source in the IEO2004 forecast. Consumption of natural gas is projected...

424

Gas Utilities (New York)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

425

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time is described. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by uv photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the uv photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector. 4 figs.

Huston, G.C.

1989-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

Natural Gas Annual Archives  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

427

Liquefied Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

428

EIA - Natural Gas Publications  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

and a weather snapshot. Monthly Natural Gas Monthly Natural and supplemental gas production, supply, consumption, disposition, storage, imports, exports, and prices in the...

429

Natural Gas Annual 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil and Gas Field Code Master List ... Hawaii, 2001-2005 ... Energy Information Administration/Natural Gas Annual 2005 vii 54.

430

Natural Gas Exports (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimates for Canadian pipeline volumes are derived from the Office of Fossil Energy, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, and EIA estimates of dry natural gas imports.

431

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Natural Gas Processed  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases...

433

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

natural gas prices, successful application of horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing, as well as significant investments made by natural gas companies in production...

434

Natural Gas Dry Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Withdrawals from Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells Repressuring Vented and Flared...

435

Natural Gas Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Production. Measured By. Disseminated Through. Survey of Producing States and Mineral Management Service “Evolving Estimate” in Natural Gas Monthly.

436

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

7, 2009 Next Release: May 14, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 6, 2009) Natural gas...

437

February Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Annual. Preliminary Monthly Data Preliminary monthly data in the "balancing item" cat- egory are calculated by subtracting dry gas production, withdrawals from storage,...

438

November Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Annual. Preliminary Monthly Data Preliminary monthly data in the "balancing item" cat- egory are calculated by subtracting dry gas production, withdrawals from storage,...

439

January Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Annual. Preliminary Monthly Data Preliminary monthly data in the "balancing item" cat- egory are calculated by subtracting dry gas production, withdrawals from storage,...

440

March Natural Gas Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Annual. Preliminary Monthly Data Preliminary monthly data in the "balancing item" cat- egory are calculated by subtracting dry gas production, withdrawals from storage,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas desulfurization scrubbers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

May Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas Annual. Preliminary Monthly Data Preliminary monthly data in the "balancing item" cat- egory are calculated by subtracting dry gas production, withdrawals from storage,...

442

CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

1960-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

443

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

444

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

445

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

446

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study  

SciTech Connect

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study  

SciTech Connect

Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

Chmielewski, Andrzej G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); University of technology, faculty of Process and Chemical Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, Janusz [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland)

2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

450

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

ISSN 1537-744X; doi:10.1100/2011/756264 Measurement of Mercury in Flue Gas Based on an Aluminum Matrix Sorbent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7 % recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg 0 on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg 0 was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field.

Juan Wang; Wei Xu; Xiaohao Wang; Wenhua Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture of thermogenic methane migrated from a deep source and shallow, microbial methane that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or was first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. Studies of well logs and seismic data have documented a large free-gas accumulation trapped stratigraphically downdip of the gas hydrates in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area. The presence of a gas-hydrate/free-gas contact in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area is analogous to that in the Messoyakha gas-hydrate/free-gas accumulation, from which approximately 5.17x10[sup 9] cubic meters (183 billion cubic feet) of gas have been produced from the hydrates alone. The apparent geologic similarities between these two accumulations suggest that the gas-hydrated-depressurization production method used in the Messoyakha field may have direct application in northern Alaska. 30 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Home > Natural Gas > About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines > Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage by State About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through...

455

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

458

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

459

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

460

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...