Sample records for gas desulfurization fsu

  1. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  6. METC hot gas desulfurization program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, D.C.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This overview provides a frame of reference for the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`S) on-going hot gas desulfurization research. Although there are several methods to separate contaminant gases from fuel gases, that method receiving primary development is absorption through the use of metal oxides. Research into high-temperature and high-pressure control of sulfur species includes primarily those sorbents made of mixed-metal oxides, which offer the advantages of regenerability. These are predominantly composed of zinc and are made into media that can be utilized in reactors of either fixed-bed, moving-bed, fluidized-bed, or transport configurations. Zinc Ferrite (ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), Zinc Titanate (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}), Z-SORP{reg_sign}, and METC-2/METC-6 are the current mixed-metal sorbents being investigated. The METC desulfurization program is composed of three major components: bench-scale research, pilot-plant operation, and demonstration that is a portion of the Clean Coal Demonstration projects.

  7. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  8. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixed to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.

  9. Selecting the right pumps and valves for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, D.; Ahluwalia, H. [ITT Engineered Valves, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Limestone slurry needs to move efficiently through a complex process, meaning that selecting the right pumps and valves is critical. The article discusses factors to consider in selecting pumps and values for flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants. 2 photos.

  10. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  12. Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

  13. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  14. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

  15. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  17. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  18. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  19. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Synthetic aggregates prepared from flue gas desulfurization by-products using various binder materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellucci, J.; Graham, U.M.; Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products can be converted into environmentally safe and structurally stable aggregates. One type of synthetic aggregate was prepared using an optimum mixture of (FGD) by-products, fly ash, and water. Mineral reactions have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  1. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  2. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  3. Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, E.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

  4. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  5. EPA reports advances in scrubber technology at Flue Gas Desulfurization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall message of the recent Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization was that the technology for sulfur dioxide scrubbing has matured enough for discussions to focus on future improvements rather than whether scrubbers work at all. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations will not change in the near future, however, unless there are changes in the Clean air Act to deal with acid rain, despite the improvements in performance data. The symposium covered reports on dual-alkali scrubbing, organic buffer additives, the probability that scrubber wastes will not be classified as hazardous, simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and continuous monitoring programs. 3 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  6. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  7. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C. (Arvada, CO); Blandon, Antonio E. (Thornton, CO); Hepworth, Malcolm T. (Edina, MN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Doctor, Richard D. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Wingender, Ronald J. (Deerfield, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  10. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  12. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization With Manganese-Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berns, J.J.; Hepworth, M.T. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a pellet formulation which is capable of achieving low sulfur partial pressures and a high capacity for sulfur, loaded from a hot fuel gas and which is readily regenerable. Furthermore the pellet must be strong for potential use in a fluidized and regenerable over many cycles of loading and regeneration. Regeneration should be in air or oxygen-depleted air to produce a high-concentration sulfur dioxide. Fixed-bed tests were conducted with several formulations of manganese sesquioxide and titania, and alumina. They were subject to a simplified fuel gas of the oxygen-blown Shell type spiked with a 30,000 ppmv concentration of H{sub 2}S. Pellet crush strengths for 4 and 2 mm diameter pellets was typically 12 lbs per pellet and 4 lbs per pellet, respectively. For the most favorable of the formulations tested and under the criteria of break-through at less than 100 ppmv H{sub 2}S and loading temperatures of 5000 {degrees}C and an empty-bed space velocity of 4, 000 per hour, breakthrough occurred an effective loading of sulfur of 27 to 29% over 5 loading and regeneration cycles. At 90% of this saturation condition, the observed level of H{sub 2}S was below 10 ppmv. For regeneration, a temperature of 9000 {degrees}C is required to dissociate the sulfide into sulfur dioxide using air at atmospheric pressure. The mean sulfur dioxide concentration which is achieved during regeneration is 8% with empty-bed space velocities of 700/hr. TGA tests on individual pellets indicate that bentonite is not desirable as a bonding material and that Mn/Ti ratios higher than 7:1 produce relatively non-porous pellets. Whereas the reactivity is rapid below 12% conversion, the kinetics of conversion decreased significantly above this level. This observation may be the result of plugging of the pellet pores with sulfided product creating inaccessible pore volumes or alternately an increase in diffusional resistance by formation of MnS.

  13. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  14. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  15. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  16. CHAPTER FSU-2 ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS FSU-2.004 University Attorney.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Facilities. FSU-2.009 Parking and Traffic Regulations. FSU-2.010 Bicycle Parking and Traffic Code. FSU-2.011 Facilities Leasing Program. FSU-2.013 Commercial Solicitations. FSU-2.0131 Posting, Chalking and Distribution. FSU-2.025 Direct Support Organizations. FSU-2.026 Lost, Abandoned, or Seized Personal Property #12;FSU

  17. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  20. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  1. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  5. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  6. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Grant No. FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfurization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements.

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  8. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  9. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  10. Integrated operation of a pressurized gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system and turbine simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, S.; Najewicz, D.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.; Feitelberg, A.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. This technology will ultimately be incorporated into advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at F conditions (2,350 F rotor inlet temperature) and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions of such a combustor. Testing of the GE HGCU system has been underway since December 1990. The two most recent tests, Test 5 and Test 6, represent the latest advancements in regenerator configuration, type of sorbent, and chloride control systems. Test 5 was based on the use of zinc titanate sorbent and included a revised regenerator configuration and a sodium bicarbonate injection system for chloride control. Test 6 incorporated the use of Z-Sorb, a chloride guard in the regenerator recycle loop, and further modifications to the regenerator internal configuration. This report describes the test conditions in detail and discusses the test results.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  12. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  13. Desulfurization of flue gas by the confined zone dispersion process - Proof-of-concept tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, J.Z.; Blake, J.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to develop more cost-effective approaches to the control of acid rain precursors, the Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting proof-of-concept tests of the Confined Zone Dispersion (CZD) process proposed by Bechtel. This process removes SO/sub 2/ from flue gas by injecting a finely atomized slurry of highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime into the duct of a utility boiler. A slipstream of flue gas at 300/sup 0/F will be withdrawn from the plant ductwork and will pass through a 130-ft run of 3-ft diameter test duct. A two-fluid atomizer will inject the lime slurry into the upstream end of the test duct. A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) will remove reaction products and fly ash before the gas is discharged back into the utility's ESP. An 11-month test program will optimize controllable variables, acquire design data, and demonstrate reliability by a long duration run. Measurements taken will include SO/sub 2/ removal, lime utilization, ESP performance, and characterization of waste solids.

  14. Flue Gas Desulfurization Market Research Report 2018 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergy InformationFlue Gas

  15. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State University; Adams, Todd [Florida State University; Askew, Andrew [Florida State University; Berg, Bernd [Florida State University; Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State University; Okui, Takemichi [Florida State University; Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State University; Reina, Laura [Florida State University; Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State University

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the non-zero neutrino masses or the overwhelming astrophysical evidence for an invisible form of matter, called dark matter, that has had a marked effect on the evolution of structure in the universe. The report highlights the main, recent, experimental achievements of the experimental group, which include the investigation of properties of the W and Z bosons; the search for new heavy stable charged particles and the search for a proposed property of nature called supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions that yield high energy photons. In addition, we report a few results from a more general search for supersymmetry at the LHC, initiated by the group. The report also highlights the group's significant contributions, both theoretical and experimental, to the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties.

  16. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  17. anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization GT Gas Turbine HHV Higher Heating Values HCN Hydrogen Cyanide HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generation... ? Nuclear Power Plants ? Solar Power Plants ? Wind...

  18. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  19. FSU Property Scanning Procedures To Scan Barcodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    1 of 3 FSU Property Scanning Procedures To Scan Barcodes: 1) To power up the scanner BLUE=CONTINUE ESC=DONE 4) Press the yellow button to scan your FSU location tag. When the location tag has been successfully scanned you will hear a beep and the display will look like this: ITEM

  20. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  1. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  2. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective is to determine the feasibility of an alternate concept for the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents in which elemental sulfur, instead of SO{sub 2} is produced. Iron and cerium-based sorbents were chosen on the basis of thermodynamic analysis to determine the feasibility of elemental sulfur production. Experimental effort on the regeneration of FeS using the partial oxidation concept was completed during the quarter, and attention returned to the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} and regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}2S. Progress was made in the process simulation effort involving two-step desulfurization using CeO{sub 2} to remove the bulk of the H{sub 2}S followed by a zinc-titanate polishing step. The simulation effort includes regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S using two concepts - reaction with SO{sub 2} reaction with H{sub 2}O. Elemental sulfur is formed directly in the reaction with SO{sub 2} while H{sub 2}S is the product of the regeneration reaction with steam. Steam regeneration is followed by a Claus process to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. The last test involving partial oxidation regeneration of FeS was completed in early July. Experimental problems were encountered throughout this phase of the program, primarily associated with erratic readings from the total sulfur analyzer. The problems are attributed to variable flow rates through the capillary restrictor, and, in some cases, to steam concentrations which exceeded the capacity of the membrane dryer. Nevertheless, sufficient data was collected to confirm that large fractions of the sulfur in FeS could be liberated in elemental form. Low regeneration temperature ({approximately}600{degrees}C), large steam-to-oxygen ratios, and low space velocities were found to favor elemental sulfur production.

  3. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  4. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  5. fsu

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting8.pdf flash2004-18.pdfflash2007-21Attachment.pdfBPA1-14

  6. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  7. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  8. Mechanistic understanding of microbial desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abín-Fuentes, Andrés

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing global levels of sulfur content in crude oil have motivated the development of alternate desulfurization technologies. Microbial desulfurization or biodesulfurization (BDS) has gained interest due to the ...

  9. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  10. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  11. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  12. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, Januray 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Grant No. FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfurization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSI`s anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements.

  13. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept. It is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange, resin-based concept is believed to satisfy this requirement. Investigators will perform the following investigations: screening of commercially available resins; process variables study and improving resin performance; optimization of resin-regeneration; evaluation of performance enhancers; development of Best-Process Schematic and related economics; and planing for proof-of-concept (POC) scale testing. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  15. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  16. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  17. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  19. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  20. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  1. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  2. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  3. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

  4. Hydrocarbon desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

  5. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  6. FAMU-FSU College of Engineering "This Week In Engineering"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecture: #12;Seminole Success Night - A Celebration of Leadership and Diversity Wednesday, January 30 5:30 - 7 pm FSU Dunlap Success Center Info: Seminole Success Night (http include: EEL3003, Introduction to Electrical Engineering (M 3-5, W 12-1& 6-7, Th. 5-7, F 1-2 & 4-5); EML

  7. FAMU-FSU College of Engineering "This Week In Engineering"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.floridaspacegrant.org For any inquiries about the programs, please email fsgc@ucf.edu #12;Seminole Success Night - A Celebration of Leadership and Diversity Wednesday, January 30 5:30 - 7 pm FSU Dunlap Success Center Info: Seminole Success engineering courses on Monday, February 18th. Courses served include: EEL3003, Introduction to Electrical

  8. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The DTFF is extended to larger sample collecting capability and higher temperatures, resulting in the establishment of the Ash Characterization Facility and the High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace. The Ash Characterization Facility enables continuous coal injection and sampling under controlled conditions. Several hundred milligrams of char or ash can be collected in one-half hour. The High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace uses a plasma torch to preheat the gas to over 2000 K and inject it into a ceramic tube which enters a furnace designed for 1700{degrees}C (1973 K) operation, so that temperatures and heating rates encountered by pulverized coal particles in the flames of large boilers or in the advanced slagging cyclone combustors can be simulated. An aerodynamic coal feeder works well in supplying coal continuously to the drop tube. A watercooled, Helium-quench sampling probe collects the solid samples. A scanning electron microscope is used to study the morphology of ash and char particles. A sulfur determinator, a gas chromatograph provide analytical means in the laboratory, and the Illinois State Geological Survey performs other necessary analyses of the samples. Tests on cofiring coal with I to 4% methane show that sulfur retention in ash was related to temperature and residence time. The addition of methane caused changes in gas temperature profile in the tube and also changes in chemical composition of the gases. The overall effect on sulfur retention is seen to be a result of several complex interacting factors. Further detailed studies are necessary to clarify the contribution of each factor and to provide clues to the mechanism of the process.

  9. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  10. Supercritical Water desulfurization of crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kida, Yuko

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical Water (SCW) desulfurization was investigated for both model sulfur compounds and Arab Heavy crude. In part 1, the reactions of alkyl sulfides in SCW were studied. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in SCW, ...

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  13. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the ...

  14. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  15. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  16. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rambosek, John (Seattle, WA); Piddington, Chris S. (Seattle, WA); Kovacevich, Brian R. (Seattle, WA); Young, Kevin D. (Grand Forks, ND); Denome, Sylvia A. (Thompson, ND)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  17. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  18. The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chessman, Dennis John

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted...

  19. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  20. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  1. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  2. Desulfurization Fuel Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L DBypassDesulfurization Fuel Filter

  3. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  4. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  5. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO REGULATION FSU-2.024, TUITION AND FEES; MS-NURSE ANESTHESIA PROGRAM; MD TUITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    SUMMARY OF PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO REGULATION FSU-2.024, TUITION AND FEES; MS-NURSE ANESTHESIA for a new Master of Science in Nurse Anesthesia program at the Panama City Florida Campus. The new program

  6. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  7. Environ. Scl. Technol. 1994, 28, 277-283 Effects of Salts on Preparation and Use of Calcium Silicates for Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Silicates for Flue Gas Desulfurization Kurt K. Klnd, Phlllp D. Wasserman, and Gary 1.Rochelle' Department is a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology developed for existingcoal to remove sulfur dioxide. High surface area calcium silicate hydrates are made by slurrying Ca(0H

  8. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  9. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  10. KVB coal desulfurization process development. Quarterly technical progress report for May-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the initial technical progress report for the KVB Coal Desulfurization Process Development. The project is a joint effort between Research-Cottrell, Inc. and the College of Engineering of Rutgers University. The process involves oxidation of the sulfur in coal (both organic and pyritic) to soluble forms using nitrogen oxide gas mixtures and subsequent extractive removal. Key features of the process are mild reaction conditions and the use of regenerable reagents. A description of the process chemistry is given, as well as a brief summary of previous experimental studies. The experimental and analytical procedures being used in the current investigation, which is just getting underway, are described in detail. A brief outline of process modelling and commercial evaluation studies which will be a part of the project is also given.

  11. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  12. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USI, IG STEA 1 ANO AIR A Thesis by ROSERT REGINALD STONE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of , 'RASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by ROBERT REGINALD STONE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. . A . Bulli n ( Chai rman of Committee) R. G. Anthony (Member) J. W. J ni ngs ( ber...

  13. No-Scale F-SU(5) in the Light of LHC, Planck and XENON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tianjun Li; James A. Maxin; Dimitri V. Nanopoulos; Joel W. Walker

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We take stock of the No-Scale F-SU(5) model's experimental status and prospects in the light of results from LHC, Planck, and XENON100. Given that no conclusive evidence for light Supersymmetry (SUSY) has emerged from the 7, 8 TeV collider searches, the present work is focused on exploring and clarifying the precise nature of the high-mass cutoff enforced on this model at the point where the stau and neutralino mass degeneracy becomes so tight that cold dark matter relic density observations cannot be satisfied. This hard upper boundary on the model's mass scale constitutes a top-down theoretical mandate for a comparatively light (and testable) SUSY spectrum which does not excessively stress natural resolution of the gauge hierarchy problem. The overlap between the resulting model boundaries and the expected sensitivities of the future 14 TeV LHC and XENON 1-Ton direct detection SUSY / dark matter experiments is described.

  14. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  15. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the current grant (FG22-90PC90309), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the necessary bench scale experiments to further develop it anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. In particular, it is planned to screen commercially available resins and then carry out process optimization work with three selected resins. Further optimization of the resin regeneration step as well as evaluation of the effect of various performance enhancers will then be carried out with one selected resin. A process schematic, to be developed based on the bench scale results, will be used to estimate the related economics. Some limited scope testing will also be carried out using the spent-seed and sorbent materials obtained from both the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the in-duct sorbent injection pilot scale facilities. During this reporting period, 90% of the planned batch mode screening experiments for the eleven samples of candidate resins were completed. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting data is continuing in order to select a smaller number (3--4) of samples for screening in the fixed-bed setup. The installation of the semi-automated fixed-bed setup is about 70% complete and shakedown experiments will be started in 3--4 weeks. Progress made in relation to these activities is presented below. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

  17. KVB coal desulfurization process development. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second technical progress report for the KVB Coal Desulfurization Process Development. The project is a joint venture between Research-Cottrell, Inc. and the College of Engineering of Rutgers University. The process involves oxidation of the sulfur in coal (both organic and pyritic) to soluble forms using nitrogen oxide gas mixtures and subsequent extractive removal. Key features of the process are mild reaction conditions and the use of a regenerable oxidant. Construction of a bench scale oxidation reactor system was completed and a short experimental program was carried out using Illinois No. 6 coal. An investigation of extraction reagents was also conducted. The emphasis to date has been on development and demonstration of procedures rather than on data generation. However preliminary data do indicate reaction of both organic and pyritic sulfur. Preliminary coal characterization work using x-ray fluorescence is also reported. A brief discussion of project plans in the areas of process modelling and commercial evaluation is also given.

  18. Method for processing coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

  19. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  20. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  1. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technology is assumed. Wet scrubber or combination flue-gasFlue Gas Scrubbing Costs Scrubber Lime- Limestone Reduction-Same as lime-limestone scrubber cost. Cap. Cost*4 Since 6236

  2. Unification of Dynamical Determination and Bare Minimal Phenomenological Constraints in No-Scale F-SU(5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tianjun Li; James A. Maxin; Dimitri V. Nanopoulos; Joel W. Walker

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the construction of the viable parameter space of No-Scale F-SU(5), a model built on the F-lipped SU(5)xU(1)_X gauge group, supplemented by a pair of F-theory derived vector-like multiplets at the TeV scale, and the dynamically established boundary conditions of No-Scale Supergravity. Employing an updated numerical algorithm and a substantially upgraded computational engine, we significantly enhance the scope, detail and accuracy of our prior study. We sequentially apply a set of "bare-minimal" phenomenological constraints, consisting of i) the dynamically established boundary conditions of No-Scale Supergravity, ii) consistent radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, iii) precision LEP constraints on the light supersymmetric mass content, iv) the world average top-quark mass, and v) a light neutralino satisfying the 7-year WMAP cold dark matter relic density measurement. The overlap of the viable parameter space with key rare-process limits on the branching ratio for b to s gamma and the muon anomalous magnetic moment is identified as the "golden strip" of F-SU(5). A cross check for top-down theoretical consistency is provided by application of the "Super No-Scale" condition, which dynamically selects a pair of undetermined model parameters in a manner that is virtually identical to the corresponding phenomenological (driven primarily by the relic density) selection. The predicted vector-like particles are candidates for production at the future LHC, which is furthermore sensitive to a distinctive signal of ultra-high multiplicity hadronic jets. The lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass is predicted to be 120+3.5-1 GeV, with an additional 3-4 GeV upward shift possible from radiative loops in the vector-like multiplets. The predominantly bino flavored lightest neutralino is suitable for direct detection by the Xenon collaboration.

  3. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  4. Development and evaluation of two reactor designs for desulfurization of Texas lignites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merritt, Stanley Duane

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibited can be given at this time, but this behavior may be indicative of transformations of inorganic matter, changes in the forms of sulfur present in the lignite, and the overall composition. The results of this test series show a need for further...DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TWO REACTOR DESIGNS FOR DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITES A Thesis by STANLEY DUANE MERRITT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  5. Integrating desulfurization with CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solunke, Rahul; Veser, Goetz

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC which maintain high reactivity and high-temperature stability even when sulfur contaminated fuels are used in CLC. Here, we propose a novel process scheme for in situ desulfurization of syngas with simultaneous CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical looping combustion by using these robust nanocomposite oxygen carriers simultaneously as sulfur-capture materials. We found that a nanocomposite Cu-BHA carrier can indeed strongly reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration in the fuel reactor effluent. However, during the process the support matrix is also sulfidized and takes part in the redox process of CLC. This results in SO{sub 2} production during the reduction of the oxygen carrier and thus limits the degree of desulfurization attainable with this kind of carrier. Nevertheless, the results suggest that simultaneous desulfurization and CO{sub 2} capture in CLC is feasible with Cu as oxygen carrier as long as appropriate carrier support materials are chosen, and could result in a novel, strongly intensified process for low-emission, high efficiency combustion of sulfur contaminated fuel streams.

  6. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  7. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    research attention. With the projected U. S. energy needs in the year ZOOO at more than 2. 6 times the 197Z level, an abundant energy source must be developed (Kaiser, 1974). Coal is the most often mentioned, immediate source of energy. The present... the problems associated with solids handling, maintenance, and disposal of the spent adsorbent. Other methods of chemical desulfuriz ation include solution leaching, bacterial catalyzed removal, gasification followed hy scrubbi ng, thermal treating, and gas...

  8. Performance history over 10 years of super duplex stainless steel in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendall, K.C. [Langley Alloys Ltd., Maidenhead (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25 Cr duplex (austenitic/ferritic) stainless steel containing copper and nitrogen offers a cost effective solution to material selection for pollution control equipment. The properties of duplex stainless steel which make it suitable for this type of application are discussed and long term performance histories presented. It is concluded that high alloy duplex steel has an important role to play in the production of low maintenance reliable equipment for FGD and other pollution control systems.

  9. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons of Gypsum Hemihydrate with Various Inductions of Fly Ash 16 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons Using Various Types of Bottom Ashes 18 Optimum Temperature to Calcine Dihydrate... Gypsum to Hemihydrate Gypsum 21 Optimum Time to Calcine Dihydrate to Hemihydrate 22 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons for Hemihydrate Subjected to Various Size Sieves 25 Temperature of Hemihydrate during Hydration versus Time...

  10. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX D. TEST PROCEDURES APPENDIX E. CONVERSION TABLES VITA 85 90 93 96 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Model for FGD Waste By-Product Research Unconfined Compressive Strength for Fly Ash Mixed with Various Inductions of Portland Cement 15... properties such as weight, durability, strength, density, etc. Varying mixes of bottom ash, fly ash, portland cement, and sand will be tested for possible enhancement of the hemihydrate. Also, a mix design that best utilizes all the waste by...

  11. Desulfurization of a coal model compound by in situ hydrogen generation through water-gas shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Meyyappan

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistiacl Analysis Results for Temperature Profile T3 110 10 Statistical Analysis Results for Temperature Profile T4 CHAPTER I INTRODIJCTION The ever developing problem of an energy crisis has led to the search for alternative energy sources. Some... in industry to produce clean burning low sulfur fuel. As there is a growing need for alternative energy sources, coal liquefaction is likely to be commercialized within the next decade. Since coal contains a high percentage of sulfur compounds, there is a...

  12. Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldin, I.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

  13. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  14. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  15. Revamping AK-Ashland gas cleaning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, H.; Koerbel, R. [Mannesmann Demag Corp., Coraopolis, PA (United States); Haberkamp, K. [Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Keeton, S. [AK Steel Corp., Ashland, KY (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AK Steel`s (formerly Armco) BOF shop was using a static precipitator for the primary collection. The system was designed for full combustion in the gas collecting hoods. No secondary dust collection was in place. A detailed study on alternative solutions led to a completely different system in 1990, and an order was awarded to Mannesmann Demag Corp. (MDC) in Dec. 1990. The new gas collection system is using suppressed combustion with the capability to collect Co at a later stage. The gas cleaning uses the Mannesmann Demag Baumco scrubber with a venturi throat for gas flow control. All auxiliary components, water treatment plant, electric substations and sludge handling were designed and supplied by MDC. The secondary dust collection covers the hot metal and scrap charging into the BOF`s, reladling, desulfurization and deslagging by a pulse jet baghouse. All emission limits set by the EPA and guaranteed by MDC have been met by the systems installed.

  16. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst was expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation were also studied. If successful this project would have lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would have significantly improved the marketability of Illinois coal. However, the phase transfer catalysts, the cerium and the scrubber sledge did not catalize the sulfur removal significantly.

  17. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  18. A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining industry slowed progress of the demonstration unit, negotiations with potential partners are proceeding for commercialization of this process.

  19. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  1. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    materials. These solids are flushed using high pressure jet stream which will fluidise the carbon bed dislodging the particles fixed in the carbon bed. The backwash water should be treated prior to discharge as the concentrations of the pollutants...). This slurry containing gypsum is recycled using recycle pumps and pumped to different levels and sprayed down. This slurry is continuously re-circulated until the percentage of solids and chlorides concentration raises up to certain level. Then a blowdown...

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  3. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 5, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO{sub 2} reduction has been achieved, but the NO{sub x} reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO{sub 2} Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel`s original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO{sub 2} removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  4. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    -MS Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy Mg2+ Magnesium Ion ml millilitre mM millimole Na Sodium Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate NaHCO3 Sodium Bicarbonate NH4 + Ammonium Ion NO3 - Nitrate Ion NaOH Sodium Hydroxide NPDES National Pollutant Discharge....3.1 Performance of hZVI System and Pollutants .............. 54 5.3.2 Corrosion and Removal Mechanism ........................... 74 5.4 Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) ..................................... 77...

  5. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  6. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  8. Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Bruce David

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Lands and Mrnkova, 1966). Singhal et al. (1981a, b) studied DBT desulfurization at 558-623K, 3. 1 MPa, in the gas phase over a standard CoO-MoO, /7-AlsO, catalyst. Both of these mechanisms are consistent with the generalized mechanism for HDS...HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis BRUCE DAVID HOOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  9. Vacuum carbonate desulfurization and claus sulfur recovery system at No. 11 battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum carbonate process functions above 90% efficiency and satisfactorily removes the HCN and sulfur compounds from the coke oven gas generated at No. 11 Battery. It has been noted that a large quantity of energy is required for the operation of the vacuum carbonate system. Normally 544,617 kg (1.2 million lbs of steam) and 5.4 thousand kWh of electricity are used per day to maintain the system's temperatures and pressures. The processed coke oven gases from the system satisfy industrial and environmental standards as a combustible fuel. The HCN destruction unit reduces the corrosive HCN to concentrations below .07% of the acid gas stream and offers the necessary protection to the downstream modified Claus unit. The Claus unit at No. 11 Battery operates at 98% efficiency and produces 5896 kg (6.5 tons) of sulfur per day. The liquid sulfur generated in the Claus unit is a high quality product of 99% purity. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  11. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  12. anaerobic digester gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  13. bectso-adflug | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desulfurization Project PDF-7.2MB (Jan 1991) Environmental Assessment: Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Demonstration Project...

  14. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  15. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  17. Naturalness in F-SU(5) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leggett, Tristan

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    was restricted to 1 TeV, the LHC Higgs mass measurements had not been released yet, and the ?h2 data is taken from WMAP 7. This figure was taken from [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.2 Upon measurement of the lightest Higgs mass at the LHC.... This three pa- rameter model was unfortunately ruled out by not being able to satisfy both the WMAP relic dark matter density constraint and the LHC result for the lightest Higgs boson mass. Finally, we draw our conclusions in chapter 8. 3 2. FOUNDATIONS 2...

  18. Naturalness in F-SU(5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leggett, Tristan

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    . This three pa- rameter model was unfortunately ruled out by not being able to satisfy both the WMAP relic dark matter density constraint and the LHC result for the lightest Higgs boson mass. Finally, we draw our conclusions in chapter 8. 3 2. FOUNDATIONS 2...

  19. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  20. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  1. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  2. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  3. Mathematics(FSU-teach) a Mathematics Major for the FSU teaching program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Philip L.

    . These courses are (mostly, but not entirely) outside Mathematics. The current list of courses is SMT 1043, SMT 1053, MAT 3505, BSC 4933, SMT3100, SMT 3301, ISC 3523C, HIS 3505, SMT 4664, RED 4335, TSL 4324, and SMT

  4. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  5. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

  6. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  7. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  8. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  9. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  10. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  11. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  12. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  13. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  14. Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...

  15. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  16. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  17. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  18. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  19. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  20. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  1. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  2. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  3. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  4. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  5. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  6. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

  7. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  8. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  9. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  10. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  11. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  13. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

  15. Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

  16. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  17. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  18. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  19. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  20. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  1. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  2. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  3. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  4. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  5. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  6. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  7. Gas Cylinders: Proper Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

  8. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  9. Natural Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    . Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration

  10. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  11. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  12. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  13. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  14. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  16. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  17. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  18. Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

  19. Home Safety: Radon Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  20. String Gas Baryogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Alberghi

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Home Safety: Radon Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  3. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  4. Oil and Gas Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Outlook For Independent Petroleum Association of America November 13, 2014 | Palm Beach, FL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Recent...

  5. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  6. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL)...

  7. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  8. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  9. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  10. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  11. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus Group HSS/UnionGlossary Shale GasShale gas

  12. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  13. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  14. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  16. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  17. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  18. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

  19. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  20. Western Europe's future gas supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardaun, G.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.

  1. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  2. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  3. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  4. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  5. Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...

  6. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

  7. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  8. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  9. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  11. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All...

  12. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...

  13. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....

  14. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction. ...

  15. ,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

  16. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  17. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  18. Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

  19. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  20. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  1. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

  2. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  7. Gas only nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (15 Olde Coach Rd., Scotia, NY 12302); Fitts, David Orus (286 Sweetman Rd., Ballston Spa, NY 12020); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (60 St. Stephens La., Glenville, NY 12302)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  8. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  9. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  10. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fossil Natural Gas Natural Gas September 15, 2014 NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the...

  11. Regulations For Gas Companies (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations for Gas Companies, implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority) outline the standards for metering, distribution and electricity generation for utilities using gas....

  12. Citizens Gas- Residential Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to its residential customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances. Rebates are generally available for residential homes...

  13. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 163, January 1, 2005. Battelle, Assessment of Technologymodel, TANK, was developed by Battelle for the Gas Research93/0186. Prepared by Battelle for Gas Research Institute

  14. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  15. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas- Small Business Energy Savings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas, and North Shore Gas fund the Small Business Energy Savings program in which an energy advisor conducts a free on-site energy assessment and provides free installati...

  16. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is a bundled promotion in partnership with ComEd...

  17. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  19. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies...

  20. Gas-Saving Tips

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Properly Tuned Fixing a car that is noticeably out of tune or has failed an emis- sions test can improve its gas mileage by an average of 4 percent. However, results vary based on...

  1. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  2. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  3. Gas Pipelines (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter applies to any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as any...

  4. Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes that entities engaged in the transmission of gas by pipelines are not required to obtain the consent of the Utility Regulatory Commission for issuance of stocks,...

  5. Natural Gas Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation title 805 promulgates the rules and regulations pertaining to natural gas production in Kentucky. In addition to KAR title 405, chapter 30, which pertains to any...

  6. (bulb) , (1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas----saturation methodsaturation methodsaturation methodsaturation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    (bulb) , . . , . . 1. . (1) Gas(1Static MethodStatic Method Isoteniscope bulb U-tube . bulb U-tube bulb . bulb . U bulb . manometer . . Isoteniscope Boling Point Method . #12;2. (1) Boiling

  7. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Gerber, F.B. [BENTEK Energy Research, DeSoto, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  8. (GAS HYDRATES) 2 ()

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : ... ... .... .... «» , 28 2007 : « » #12; · ·· #12; 2 #12; (GAS HYDRATES) #12;Y · µ 2 µ () µ · µ µ · µ µ µ ·µ: - - µ CO2 - - #12; - 3S·2M·1L·34H3S

  9. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  10. Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale The University of Oxford http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/people/profiles/academic/joec Key Words Shale gas, hydraulic fracture, groundwater contamination, transport in porous media Overview Recovery of natural gas from mudstone (shale

  11. acid fgd additives: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Efforts to curb damage to the environment by acid rain has necessitated the construction of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems...

  12. bectso-conzo | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Oct 1989) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Confined Zone Dispersion Flue Gas Desulfurization Demonstration...

  13. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daum, Edward D. (Alliance, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Jankura, Bryan J. (Mogadore, OH); McCoury, Jr., John M. (Mineral City, OH)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  14. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daum, Edward D. (Alliance, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Jankura, Bryan J. (Mogadore, OH); McCoury, Jr., John M. (Mineral City, OH)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  15. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouille, G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  16. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouille; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  18. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

  20. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  1. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  2. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  3. NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Shahab D. Mohaghegh Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Keywords: Gas Storage, Natural Gas, Storage, Deliverability, Inventory

  4. Optimization of condensing gas drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofton, Larry Keith

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - cal, undersaturated reservoir with gas being injected into the crest and oil being produced from the base of the structure. Fractional oil re- covery at gas breakthrough proved to be less sensitive to changes in oil withdrawal rates as the gas... injection pressure was increased. The validity of the model was established by accurately simulating several low pressure gas drives conducted in the laboratory. Oil recoveries at gas breakthrough using the model compared closely with those recoveries...

  5. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  6. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing negotiations of the four sub-awards working toward signed contracts with the various organizations involved. Second, an Executive Council meeting was held at Penn State September 9, 2004. And third, the GSTC participated in the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting in Charleston, West Virginia, on September 16th and 17th. We hosted a display booth with the Stripper Well Consortium.

  7. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  8. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  9. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  10. Dept. of Sol Science, UW-Madison/UW-Extension, 1525 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706/608-262-0485 November 2010 Issue #2 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    /608-262-0485 ____________________________________________________________________________________ November 2010 Issue #2 2010 Using Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum in Wisconsin Dick Wolkowski, Birl plants burn low S coal and some have installed flue gas scrubbers to reduce sulfur emissions. Use of a wet scrubber results in the byproduct flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. FGD gypsum is created

  11. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  12. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  13. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  14. Automated gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Stephen D. (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  15. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  16. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  17. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  18. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  19. Diesel Desulfurization Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * SEnergy studies onDie Casting

  20. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  1. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

    Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

  3. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  9. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  10. Natural Gas Purchasing Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  11. Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contained in cylinders display chemical hazards that include toxic, flammable, corrosive, pyrophoric on their side but stored in a way to prevent damage to the product label. In a free standing gas cylinder the height of the cylinder. So that the cylinder label is easily viewed. On a dry surface allowing no contact

  12. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  13. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  14. Natural Gas Purchasing Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  15. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  16. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  17. Chemically reacting plumes, gas hydrate dissociation and dendrite solidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conroy, Devin Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II Gas hydrates Introductionto gas hydrates . . . . . . . . . . 1.127 Gas hydrate dissociation in porous media . 1.

  18. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    NATURAL GAS HYDRATES – ISSUES FOR GAS PRODUCTION AND GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY A Dissertation by TARUN GROVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering NATURAL GAS HYDRATES – ISSUES FOR GAS PRODUCTION AND GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY A Dissertation by TARUN GROVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  19. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  20. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  2. Molecular Gas in Early-type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alatalo, Katherine Anne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    toward the center (first seen in the molecular gas in A+3.4 Molecular Gas Mass . . . . . . .of the molecular gas . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 Mass of

  3. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  4. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  5. Marine electromagnetic methods for gas hydrate characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitemeyer, Karen Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . .1.2.1 Distribution of Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 Importance of Gas Hydrates . . . . .

  6. Marine Electromagnetic Methods for Gas Hydrate Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitemeyer, Karen A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . .1.2.1 Distribution of Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 Importance of Gas Hydrates . . . . .

  7. Citizens Gas- Commercial Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to commercial customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances, as well as certain equipment upgrades and tune-up services....

  8. Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

  9. Gas Utility Pipeline Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All gas utilities, including any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as...

  10. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  11. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  12. Regulation of Natural Gas (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation provides for the protection of public and private interests with regards to natural gas production, prohibits waste, and compels ratable production to enable owners of gas in a...

  13. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  14. The Gas/Electric Partnership 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as this occurs. Through an Electric Power Research Institute initiative, an inter-industry organization, the Gas/Electric Partnership, has formed between the electric utilities and gas pipelines. The initial focus of this partnership is to explore issues...

  15. Natural Gas Rules (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules apply to any gas utility operating within the State of North Carolina under the jurisdiction of the North Carolina Utilities Commission and also to interstate natural gas companies...

  16. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  17. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  19. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  20. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy coupled with carbon capture and storage, could yieldcoal to natural gas shift, carbon capture and sequestration,

  1. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

  16. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  17. Gas Slow Control System Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Universitŕ di

    AMS-02 TRD Gas Slow Control System Specifications v 4.2 26-06-2006 A. Bartoloni, B. Borgia, F. Bucci, F. R. Spada INFN Sezione di Roma 1- Roma, Italy #12;2/45 #12;3/45 1. ABSTRACT 5 2. GAS SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 5 3. GAS CONTROL SYSTEM 8 4. CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS 12 a. Universal Control System

  18. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Preparation of ammonia synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shires, P.J.; van Dijk, C.P.; Cassata, J.R.; Mandelik, B.G.

    1984-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia synthesis gas having excess nitrogen is produced in a reactor-exchanger primary reformer followed by an autothermal secondary reformer wherein process air for the latter is preheated by heat exchange with gas turbine exhaust and the primary reformer is heated by synthesis gas from the secondary reformer.

  2. greenhouse gas inve green developmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    greenhouse gas inve green developmen energy conservation transportation carbon offs student facult;greenhouse gas inventory green development energy conservation transportation carbon offsets student faculty. Changi natural gas as a primary fuel allowed us to find cleaner and more effici university. Both in 1988

  3. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India i Japan Electricity Q i USA G a s China EnergyIndia Japan USA FSUf 3S4.8 Liquid Gas Electricity Heat fiIndia Japan USA FSU World f H Hydro- electricity Uranium §

  4. Acid gas burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, B.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a burner for combusting a waste gas. It comprises a throat section; a fire tube downstream from the throat section in communication therewith; an air duct section upstream from the throat section in communication therewith; a centrally located nozzle means for introduction of a fuel in the throat section in a downstream direction toward the fire tube; means upstream from the throat section for forming a downstream directed swirling combustion air stream substantially in an annular ring along the sidewalls of the throat section; and means for introducing a waste gas stream into the throat section downstream of the nozzle means in a forwardly biased but swirling direction opposite to that of the swirling combustion air stream.

  5. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  6. Economics of gobar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, A.; Shrestha, P.C.; Fulford, D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This series of reports follows a sequence necessary to start and run a biogas project. The first provides and introduction to biogas, its costs, and its yields. Its use will conserve forests, create clean, healthy fuel and fertilizer, and save Nepal foreign exchange. The feasibility study considered water and dung supply, degree of cooperation among the affected villagers, the need for the plant, and intangibles such as erosion control. The initial survey investigates the community social situation, needs, and cooperation. The Gobar Gas company had had personnel problems which decreased service, but the problems were being worked out. The project has been highly successful. The 11 Chinese plants worked well with no leaks from the cement but the gas valves leaked. The scum breaker also caused problems. The high quality plaster work required is the greatest hindrance.

  7. Automated gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  8. Gas-driven microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  9. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  10. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  11. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  12. Gas stream cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  18. Dealing with natural gas uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.; Graeber, D. (J.R. Clements and Associates (US))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel of choice for generating new power is and will continue over the next two decades to be natural gas. It is the fuel of choice because it is plentiful, environmentally acceptable, and relatively inexpensive. This paper reports that gas reserves on the North American continent continue to be discovered in amounts that may keep the gas bubble inflated far longer than currently estimated. New gas transportation capacity is actively being developed to overcome the capacity bottlenecks and deliverability shortfalls. Natural gas prices will probably remain stable (with expected CPI-related increases) for the short run (2-4 years), and probably will be higher than CPI increases thereafter.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  1. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bynatural gas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source.

  2. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, J.L.; Pace, M.O.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resinous body is placed in gas-insulated electrical apparatus to remove particulate material from the insulating gas.

  4. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  5. AGA encouraging industry to adopt gas option. [American Gas Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Gas Association (AGA) supports a policy of increasing conventional natural gas production and sustaining the higher level for at least 40 years in addition to developing unconventional sources by coal gasification, methane, biomass, and other technologies. International efforts to shift from petroleum to gas are responding to the need for appropriate policies. With gas supplying 40% of the energy consumed by American buildings and by industry and agriculture, the country has a significant financial investment in equipment and distribution systems. Although deregulation of gas prices will not prevent a decline in conventional production for the next decade, new sources and technologies will combine to maintain supplies. Policies are needed to enhance the US coal gasification capability and to promote the use of dual-fired furnaces. The worldwide gas option is an appropriate to other oil-importing countries as it is to the US. (DCK)

  6. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  7. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  8. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469DecadeOrigin State Glossary HomeCapacityNatural Gas

  9. Oil and Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and Oil ResearchEnergy OfficeProjectsResearch in

  10. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARMMeasurementsMethane Gas Outreach Home Room

  11. Natural Gas Transportation Resiliency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancyNationalNatural GasImports byTransportation

  12. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee theOil & Gas Efficient recovery

  13. Florida Natural Gas Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May2009 2010 2011 2012

  14. Florida Natural Gas Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May2009 2010 2011

  15. Georgia Natural Gas Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPriceIndustrial Consumers48 4.95

  16. Hawaii Natural Gas Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAINCommercialPipeline22.38

  17. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-Month Week 1 Year in6 The

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-Month Week 1 Year in6 The7

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-Month Week 1 Year in6 The78

  20. Idaho Natural Gas Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-MonthExportsLeaseThousand4.37

  1. Shale Gas Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a eviequestionnairesMillionNovember 200061:WaterGas

  2. Washington Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, WetCubicYearYear

  3. NIPSCO (Gas and Electric)- Residential Natural Gas Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Indiana Public Service Corporation (NIPSCO) offers rebates to residential customers that install energy efficient gas and electric measures in homes through the NIPSCO Energy Efficiency...

  4. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  5. Molecular Gas in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the molecular component of the ISM is fundamental to understand star formation. The H2 component appears to dominate the gas mass in the inner parts of galaxies, while the HI component dominates in the outer parts. Observation of the CO and other lines in normal and starburst galaxies have questioned the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, and detection of CO in dwarfs have shown how sensitive the conversion f actor is to metallicity. Our knowledge has made great progress in recent years, because of sensitivity and spatial resolution improvements. Large-scale CO maps of nearby galaxies are now available, which extend our knowledge on global properties, radial gradients, and spiral structure of the molecular ISM. Millimetric interferometers reveal high velocity gradients in galaxy nuclei, and formation of embedded structures, like bars within bars. Galaxy interactions are very effective to enhance gas concentrations and trigger starbursts. Nuclear disks or rings are frequently observed, that concentrate the star formation activity. Since the density of starbursting galaxies is strongly increasing with redshift, the CO lines and the mm dust emission are a privileged tool to follow evolution of galaxies and observe the ISM dynamics at high redshift: they could give an answer about the debated question of the star-formation history, since many massive remote starbursts could be dust-enshrouded.

  6. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  7. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  9. Method of Liquifying a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of liquefying a gas is disclosed and which includes the steps of pressurizing a liquid; mixing a reactant composition with the pressurized liquid to generate a high pressure gas; supplying the high pressure gas to an expansion engine which produces a gas having a reduced pressure and temperature, and which further generates a power and/or work output; coupling the expansion engine in fluid flowing relation relative to a refrigeration assembly, and wherein the gas having the reduced temperature is provided to the refrigeration assembly; and energizing and/or actuating the refrigeration assembly, at least in part, by supplying the power and/or work output generated by the expansion engine to the refrigeration assembly, the refrigeration assembly further reducing the temperature of the gas to liquefy same.

  10. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  11. SYSTEM DESIGN Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autothermal Guard Desulfurizer / Low Regenerable Reformer High Temperature Temperature Desulfurizer(s) Shift

  12. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  17. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  18. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

  19. NYSEG (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NYSEG is offering residential natural gas customers rebates for installing energy efficient equipment. Customers can complete one rebate application for multiple pieces of equipment as long as...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  1. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  2. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  3. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  4. BNL experiment with gas jet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of Hot Electron Transport and Subsequent Ion Acceleration using Overdense Gas Jet Target and Ultrafast TW CO2 Laser System Vitaly Yakimenko, Igor Pogorelsky ATF,...

  5. Peoples Gas- Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contact Peoples Gas for information on limited-time bonus incentive offerings. Bonus incentives of $250 - $450 are available for eligible purchases made before May 31, 2013.

  6. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  7. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","12015","1151989" ,"Release Date:","331...

  8. The Great Gas Hydrate Escape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hydrogen pack into gas hydrates could enlighten alternative fuel production and carbon dioxide storage January 25, 2012 | Tags: Carver, Chemistry, Energy Technologies,...

  9. Oil and Gas Exploration (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to activities conducted for the purpose of obtaining geological, geophysical, or geochemical information about oil or gas including seismic activities but excluding...

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  11. Natural Gas Pipeline Safety (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states minimum safety standards for the transportation of natural gas by pipeline and reporting requirements for operators of pipelines.

  12. Natural Gas Pipeline Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to entities seeking to develop and operate natural gas pipelines and provide construction requirements for such pipelines. The regulations describe the authority of the...

  13. Gas Dynamics in Galaxy Mergers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua E. Barnes

    2000-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In interacting and merging galaxies, gas is subject to direct hydrodynamic effects as well as tidal forces. One consequence of interactions is the rapid inflows of gas which may fuel starbursts and AGN. But gas dynamics is not limited to inflows; a small survey of equal-mass and unequal-mass encounters produces a wide variety of features, including plumes between galaxies, extended disks formed by infall of tidal debris, and counterrotating nuclear disks. An even richer spectrum of behavior awaits better thermodynamic models for gas in merging galaxies.

  14. Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization Bruce Kelly Nexant, Inc. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland 2 Analysis of Market Demand and Supply...

  15. Renewable Natural Gas- Developer Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsRenewable Natural Gas - Developer PerspectiveDavid Ross, Managing Director, MultiGen International, LLC

  16. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collett, T.S. , 1993. Natural gas hydrates of the Prudhoe2008. Mechanical Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Bearinggas hydrate reservoir. Natural Gas Hydrate: In Oceanic and

  18. Easing the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices Through Electricity Supply Diversification -- Testimony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANGAS (North American Natural Gas Analysis System), E2020 (Modeling Forum (EMF). 2003. Natural Gas, Fuel Diversity and2003. Increasing U.S. Natural Gas Supplies: A Discussion

  19. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    1980-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  20. Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komar, C.A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

  1. Trinity Gas to explore for gas in Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trinity Gas Corp. officials signed an agreement on May 20, 1997, with the Cauca Valley Corp. (CVC) allowing Trinity to use CVC data to explore for natural gas in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. CVC, Colombia`s Valle del Cauca water resources and environmental division, is evaluating Colombia`s underground water reserves to protect, control and preserve fresh water aquifers, some of which contain natural gas pockets that cause blowouts in farmers` water wells. Preparations now are underway for drilling Trinity`s first well at the Palmira 1 site on the San Jose Hacienda, the largest privately owned sugar cane plantation in the valley. Trinity also entered into an agreement with the Cauca Valley Natural Gas and Electricity Project to furnish natural gas, generated electricity and energy fuel for the industrial district in the region. According to this contract, many valley residents will have electric service for the first time.

  2. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  3. Detection of gas leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven (Peralta, NM); Brown, Jason (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  4. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  5. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  6. EIS-0164: Pacific Gas Transmission/Pacific Gas and Electric and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has prepared the PGT/PG&E and Altamont Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Environmental Impact Statement to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. This project addresses the need to expand the capacity of the pipeline transmission system to better transfer Canadian natural gas to Southern California and the Pacific Northwest. The U.S. Department of Energy cooperated in the preparation of this statement because Section 19(c) of the Natural Gas Act applies to the Department’s action of authorizing import/export of natural gas, and adopted this statement by the spring of 1992. "

  7. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  8. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    more on imported supplies, including liquefied natural gas (LNG). Currently, the U.S. has four LNG have proposed to site LNG import facilities in California, in other locations in the U.S, and in Baja California, Mexico. In the early 1970s, California's gas utilities were planning to build an LNG import

  9. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  11. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50NY3","N3010NY3","N3020NY3","N3035NY3","N3045NY3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New York Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

  12. The outlook for natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the Institute of Gas Technology`s Houston Conference on the Outlook for Natural Gas held October 5, 1993 are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. HERA-B Gas Systems The gas mixture, the gas volume of the corresponding detector and the required gas flow are given. All detectors are operating at nominal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HERA-B Gas Systems The gas mixture, the gas volume of the corresponding detector and the required gas flow are given. All detectors are operating at nominal pressure within a given tolerance p. The pipes connecting the external gas hut with the third floor of the electronics trailer are listed on page

  15. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas, and metals. Tar resid- uals were produced from the vola- tiIe component of bituminous coals in coal

  16. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  17. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

  18. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  19. Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Natural Gas Disruptions Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Because natural gas is distributed through underground...

  20. Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Natural Gas Disruptions Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Because natural gas is distributed through underground...

  1. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas...

  2. Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental margins: Impact on gas. Gregory F. Moore, University of Hawaii (USA) http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/moore/ Key Words Gas Hydrates, Faults, Fluid Flow, gas prospectivity Overview Fig. 1. Research on gas hydrates is often undertaken

  3. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATIONengine that runs on landfill gas. The project team led bygas and simulated landfill gas as a fuel source. This

  4. Measurement of work function in CF? gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Ian C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CF4 gas is useful in many applications, especially as a drift gas in particle detection chambers. In order to make accurate measurements of incident particles the properties of the drift gas must be well understood. An ...

  5. Peoples Gas- Commercial & Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program is funded by customers of Peoples Gas, through a line item on the bill called the Enhanced Efficiency Program. The Program is guided by Peoples Gas, the...

  6. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Supperalloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J. Metals, Q,OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS Donald H. Boone1970, p. 545. R. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference

  7. Australian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Access to different pore structure evaluation techniques including low pressure nitrogen adsorptionAustralian Shale Gas Assessment Project Reza Rezaee Unconventional Gas Research Group of natural gas in many countries. According to recent assessments, Australia has around 437 trillion cubic

  8. Sauget Plant Flare Gas Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratkowski, D. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical analysis of stack gas heating value allowed the Afton Chemical Corporation Sauget Plant to reduce natural gas flow to its process flares by about 50% while maintaining the EPA-required minimum heating value of the gas streams....

  9. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Supperalloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J. Metals, Q,FT4, JT9D and other gas turbines, and their use continues toOVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS Donald H. Boone

  10. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  11. ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION HISTORICAL ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION Formsand of Power Plants Semi-Annual Report ..................................... 44 CEC-1306D UDC Natural Gas Tolling Agreement Quarterly Report.......................... 46 i #12;Natural Gas Utilities and Retailers

  12. Thermionic gas switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  13. GAS PIPELINE PIGABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Clark; Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-line inspection equipment is commonly used to examine a large portion of the long distance transmission pipeline system that transports natural gas from well gathering points to local distribution companies. A piece of equipment that is inserted into a pipeline and driven by product flow is called a ''pig''. Using this term as a base, a set of terms has evolved. Pigs that are equipped with sensors and data recording devices are called ''intelligent pigs''. Pipelines that cannot be inspected using intelligent pigs are deemed ''unpigable''. But many factors affect the passage of a pig through a pipeline, or the ''pigability''. The pigability pipeline extend well beyond the basic need for a long round hole with a means to enter and exit. An accurate assessment of pigability includes consideration of pipeline length, attributes, pressure, flow rate, deformation, cleanliness, and other factors as well as the availability of inspection technology. All factors must be considered when assessing the appropriateness of ILI to assess specific pipeline threats.

  14. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, November 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during November 1988, were estimated at 1755 billion cubic feet, 1.3 percent above withdrawals during November 1987. Of the total quantity, an estimated 215 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 35 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 13 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1492 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 70 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1422 billion cubic feet, similar to the November 1987 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988 was estimated at 1702 billion cubic feet, including 173 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 12 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 95 billion cubic feet that were imported. In November 1987, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1684 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988, an estimated 1467 billion cubic feet were consumed, 148 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs, and 5 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 82 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

  16. Natural gas monthly, March 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during March 1989, were estimated at 1777 billion cubic feet, 0.4 percent below withdrawals during March 1988. Of the total quantity, an estimated 211 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 36 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 12 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1518 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 71 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1447 billion cubic feet, similar to the March 1988 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989 was estimated at 1881 billion cubic feet, including 319 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 14 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 101 billion cubic feet that were imported. In March 1988, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1841 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989, an estimated 1837 billion cubic feet were consumed, 93 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs and 8 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 57 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

  17. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  18. Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Business Energy SavingsCentral program is for non-residential gas customers of Central Hudson. This includes businesses, local governments, not-for-profits, private institutions, public and...

  19. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  20. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.