Sample records for gas desulfurization fgd

  1. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  2. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  3. Synthetic aggregates prepared from flue gas desulfurization by-products using various binder materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellucci, J.; Graham, U.M.; Hower, J.C.; Robl, T.L. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products can be converted into environmentally safe and structurally stable aggregates. One type of synthetic aggregate was prepared using an optimum mixture of (FGD) by-products, fly ash, and water. Mineral reactions have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  4. acid fgd additives: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Efforts to curb damage to the environment by acid rain has necessitated the construction of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems...

  5. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  9. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  10. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  12. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  13. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  14. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  16. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  17. Utility FGD survey, Janurary--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  19. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  20. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  1. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  2. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  3. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  4. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  5. METC hot gas desulfurization program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, D.C.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This overview provides a frame of reference for the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`S) on-going hot gas desulfurization research. Although there are several methods to separate contaminant gases from fuel gases, that method receiving primary development is absorption through the use of metal oxides. Research into high-temperature and high-pressure control of sulfur species includes primarily those sorbents made of mixed-metal oxides, which offer the advantages of regenerability. These are predominantly composed of zinc and are made into media that can be utilized in reactors of either fixed-bed, moving-bed, fluidized-bed, or transport configurations. Zinc Ferrite (ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), Zinc Titanate (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}), Z-SORP{reg_sign}, and METC-2/METC-6 are the current mixed-metal sorbents being investigated. The METC desulfurization program is composed of three major components: bench-scale research, pilot-plant operation, and demonstration that is a portion of the Clean Coal Demonstration projects.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  7. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixed to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.

  8. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FGD survey report is prepared annually by International Technology (IT) Corporation (formerly PEI Associates, Inc.) for the US Department of Energy. The current issue (and preceding issues from 1974 to 1981 and October 1984 to the present) of the utility FGD survey are available only through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Preceding issues covering January 1982 through September 1984 may be purchased from the Research Reports Center of the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI). The information in this report is generated by a computerized data base system known as the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS). The design information contained in the FGDIS encompasses the entire emission control system and the power generating unit to which it is applied. Performance data for operational FGD systems include monthly dependability parameters, service time, and descriptions of operational problems and solutions.

  9. Selecting the right pumps and valves for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, D.; Ahluwalia, H. [ITT Engineered Valves, Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Limestone slurry needs to move efficiently through a complex process, meaning that selecting the right pumps and valves is critical. The article discusses factors to consider in selecting pumps and values for flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants. 2 photos.

  10. Corrosive environments experienced in FGD applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wess, T.J. [Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Crum, J.R.; Shoemaker, L.E. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of corrosive environments are encountered in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Some are intentional, such as the limestone slurry used in the absorber to remove SO{sub 2} gas, and others are unintentional, such as acid condensate in the outlet ducting and chimney. These acid condensate solutions are by far the most corrosive and most unpredictable. Condensate samples have been taken from various locations in an operating FGD unit and associated equipment. Actual samples have been taken from a low point in the bypass duct, the main outlet duct and the chimney flue drain sump. These samples were analyzed for pH, chloride and other constituents to determine the corrosivity of the fluids. These results were then related to performance of various alloy components in the system and to test samples exposed at representative locations in the Seminole Generating Station.

  11. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  12. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  13. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B. [Duke Energy (United States)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FGD survey report is prepared annually by International Technology (IT) Corporation (formerly PEI Associates, Inc.) for the US Department of Energy. The current issue (and preceding issues from 1974 to 1981 and October 1984 to the present) of the utility FGD survey are available only through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Preceding issues covering January 1982 through September 1984 may be purchased from the Research Reports Center of the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI). The information in this report is generated by a computerized data base system known as the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS). The design information contained in the FGDIS encompasses the entire emission control system and the power generating unit to which it is applied. Performance data for operational FGD systems include monthly dependability parameters, service time, and descriptions of operational problems and solutions.

  15. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  16. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  17. Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

  18. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  19. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  20. Applications and experiences with super duplex stainless steel in wet FGD scrubber systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R.; Byrne, G.; Warburton, G.; Hebdon, S. [Weir Materials Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the properties of the author`s company`s proprietary super duplex stainless steel. Work is presented showing the development of a more realistic laboratory solution representing typical limestone slurries found in real flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The importance of additions of metal ions such as Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} as well as partially oxidized sulfur species is demonstrated. Results are presented comparing the crevice corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel in these slurries with other commonly used wrought and cast stainless steels, for both simulated anthracite and lignite type slurries. Data from loop tests on the erosion resistance of a range of alloys in simulated FGD slurries is presented. The results clearly show the superior resistance of super duplex stainless steel to both crevice corrosion and erosion in FGD slurries. Finally the experiences in UK FGD systems with both cast and wrought super duplex stainless steel are presented.

  1. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  4. Environ. Scl. Technol. 1994, 28, 277-283 Effects of Salts on Preparation and Use of Calcium Silicates for Flue Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Silicates for Flue Gas Desulfurization Kurt K. Klnd, Phlllp D. Wasserman, and Gary 1.Rochelle' Department is a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology developed for existingcoal to remove sulfur dioxide. High surface area calcium silicate hydrates are made by slurrying Ca(0H

  5. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  6. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  7. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  8. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  9. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  12. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  13. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  14. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  15. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Haefner, R. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  16. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  17. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  18. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Hoeft, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Blevins, F.Z. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Achron, F. [Southeast Marketing Chemical Process, Inc. (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility for producing commercial-grade ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum produced as part of limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, the UIUC, AlliedSignal, SE-ME, Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co. (IP), and Central Illinois Public Services (CIPS). Bench-scale experiments will be conducted to obtain process engineering data for manufacture of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economical feasibility of the process. Controlled greenhouse experiments will be conducted at UIUC to evaluate the chemical impact of the produced ammonium sulfate on soil properties. A process flow sheet will be proposed and market demand for the products will be established. An engineering team at IP will provide an independent review of the economics of the process. AlliedSignal will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of ammonium sulfate samples and is interested in an agreement to market the finished product. CIPS will provide technical assistance and samples of FGD-gypsum for the project. In this quarter, a literature study that should give detailed insight into the chemistry, process schemes, and costs of producing ammonium sulfate from gypsum is in progress at the ISGS. Acquisition of a high quality FGD-gypsum sample was completed. Collecting of the other lower grade sample was scheduled to be conducted in December. Characterization of these feed materials is in progress.

  19. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, Ml; Lytle, J.M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Li, Y.C. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Hoeft, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dewey, S. [AlliedSignal-Chemicals (United States); Achorn, F. [Southeast Marketing Chem. Process INc. (SE-ME) (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal is to assess technical and economic feasibility for producing fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced in limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This is the 1st year of a 2-year program among Illinois State Geological Survey, University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), Allied-Signal, Marketing Chem. Process Inc., Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co., and Central Illinois Public Services. In previous quarter, chemistry and process conditions were reviewed and a reactor system set up and used to conduct laboratory tests. FGD-gypsum from Abbott power plant was used. The scrubber, a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD, produced a filter cake (98.36% gypsum and < 0.01% CaSO{sub 3}). Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70{degree}C for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production. During this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted; a yield up to 83% and up to 99% purity were achieved. A literature survey was completed and a preliminary process flow sheet was developed. Economics of the process is being estimated.

  20. Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, E.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

  1. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  2. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

  3. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  4. EPA reports advances in scrubber technology at Flue Gas Desulfurization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall message of the recent Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization was that the technology for sulfur dioxide scrubbing has matured enough for discussions to focus on future improvements rather than whether scrubbers work at all. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations will not change in the near future, however, unless there are changes in the Clean air Act to deal with acid rain, despite the improvements in performance data. The symposium covered reports on dual-alkali scrubbing, organic buffer additives, the probability that scrubber wastes will not be classified as hazardous, simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and continuous monitoring programs. 3 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

  6. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C. (Arvada, CO); Blandon, Antonio E. (Thornton, CO); Hepworth, Malcolm T. (Edina, MN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Doctor, Richard D. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Wingender, Ronald J. (Deerfield, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  9. Avoid stainless steel failures in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, J.P.; Schillmoller, C.M.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preventing pitting and localized corrosion is the key to success where low maintenance and high reliability are rime considerations in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) designs. Knowing when to use a stainless steel, and when not to, is crucial. Operating parameters and environmental factors greatly affect alloy performance, especially pH, temperature, and chloride and oxygen levels. Failures of stainless steels can be avoided by understanding their limits in light of these variables. This article will focus on the capabilities of Types 316L, 317L, 317LM, 317LMN, 904L, and 6% Mo stainless steels and their applications, as well as provide details on unique combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the 22% Cr duplex and 25% Cr super-duplex stainless steels in acid chloride systems. Guidelines will be presented on methods to prevent intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and pitting and crevice corrosion, and what process steps can be taken to assure reasonable performance of marginal alloy selections. Emphasis will be on the lime/limestone wet scrubbing process and the quencher/absorber.

  10. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  11. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  12. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization With Manganese-Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berns, J.J.; Hepworth, M.T. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a pellet formulation which is capable of achieving low sulfur partial pressures and a high capacity for sulfur, loaded from a hot fuel gas and which is readily regenerable. Furthermore the pellet must be strong for potential use in a fluidized and regenerable over many cycles of loading and regeneration. Regeneration should be in air or oxygen-depleted air to produce a high-concentration sulfur dioxide. Fixed-bed tests were conducted with several formulations of manganese sesquioxide and titania, and alumina. They were subject to a simplified fuel gas of the oxygen-blown Shell type spiked with a 30,000 ppmv concentration of H{sub 2}S. Pellet crush strengths for 4 and 2 mm diameter pellets was typically 12 lbs per pellet and 4 lbs per pellet, respectively. For the most favorable of the formulations tested and under the criteria of break-through at less than 100 ppmv H{sub 2}S and loading temperatures of 5000 {degrees}C and an empty-bed space velocity of 4, 000 per hour, breakthrough occurred an effective loading of sulfur of 27 to 29% over 5 loading and regeneration cycles. At 90% of this saturation condition, the observed level of H{sub 2}S was below 10 ppmv. For regeneration, a temperature of 9000 {degrees}C is required to dissociate the sulfide into sulfur dioxide using air at atmospheric pressure. The mean sulfur dioxide concentration which is achieved during regeneration is 8% with empty-bed space velocities of 700/hr. TGA tests on individual pellets indicate that bentonite is not desirable as a bonding material and that Mn/Ti ratios higher than 7:1 produce relatively non-porous pellets. Whereas the reactivity is rapid below 12% conversion, the kinetics of conversion decreased significantly above this level. This observation may be the result of plugging of the pellet pores with sulfided product creating inaccessible pore volumes or alternately an increase in diffusional resistance by formation of MnS.

  13. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  14. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  15. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  16. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the first full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to project initiation and planning. There is no significant technical progress to report for the current period.

  17. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  18. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  20. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

  1. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  2. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data for 120 flue gas desulfurization systems of fossil-fuel power plants of US electrical utilities with information on the design and performance. No text--all data.

  4. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the second full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to pilot unit design and conducting laboratory runs to help select candidate catalysts. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts. A Test Plan for the upcoming pilot-scale evaluations was also prepared and submitted to NETL for review and comment. Since this document was already submitted under separate cover, this information is not repeated here.

  5. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  6. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  7. Performance history over 10 years of super duplex stainless steel in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendall, K.C. [Langley Alloys Ltd., Maidenhead (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25 Cr duplex (austenitic/ferritic) stainless steel containing copper and nitrogen offers a cost effective solution to material selection for pollution control equipment. The properties of duplex stainless steel which make it suitable for this type of application are discussed and long term performance histories presented. It is concluded that high alloy duplex steel has an important role to play in the production of low maintenance reliable equipment for FGD and other pollution control systems.

  8. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX D. TEST PROCEDURES APPENDIX E. CONVERSION TABLES VITA 85 90 93 96 99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Model for FGD Waste By-Product Research Unconfined Compressive Strength for Fly Ash Mixed with Various Inductions of Portland Cement 15... properties such as weight, durability, strength, density, etc. Varying mixes of bottom ash, fly ash, portland cement, and sand will be tested for possible enhancement of the hemihydrate. Also, a mix design that best utilizes all the waste by...

  9. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

  10. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMay, B. [St. John`s River Power Park, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Willyard, B. [Grand River Dam Authority, Chouteau, OK (United States); Polasek, S. [Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX (United States); Clarkson, C.W. [Clarkson Co., Sparks, NV (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  11. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

  12. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  14. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  15. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled: Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3?0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  16. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  19. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data for 120 flue gas desulfurization systems of fossil-fuel power plants of US electrical utilities with information on the design and performance. No text--all data.

  20. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Grant No. FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfurization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements.

  1. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  2. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  3. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  4. Integrated operation of a pressurized gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system and turbine simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, S.; Najewicz, D.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.; Feitelberg, A.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. This technology will ultimately be incorporated into advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at F conditions (2,350 F rotor inlet temperature) and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions of such a combustor. Testing of the GE HGCU system has been underway since December 1990. The two most recent tests, Test 5 and Test 6, represent the latest advancements in regenerator configuration, type of sorbent, and chloride control systems. Test 5 was based on the use of zinc titanate sorbent and included a revised regenerator configuration and a sodium bicarbonate injection system for chloride control. Test 6 incorporated the use of Z-Sorb, a chloride guard in the regenerator recycle loop, and further modifications to the regenerator internal configuration. This report describes the test conditions in detail and discusses the test results.

  5. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  6. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  7. Desulfurization of flue gas by the confined zone dispersion process - Proof-of-concept tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, J.Z.; Blake, J.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a program to develop more cost-effective approaches to the control of acid rain precursors, the Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting proof-of-concept tests of the Confined Zone Dispersion (CZD) process proposed by Bechtel. This process removes SO/sub 2/ from flue gas by injecting a finely atomized slurry of highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime into the duct of a utility boiler. A slipstream of flue gas at 300/sup 0/F will be withdrawn from the plant ductwork and will pass through a 130-ft run of 3-ft diameter test duct. A two-fluid atomizer will inject the lime slurry into the upstream end of the test duct. A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) will remove reaction products and fly ash before the gas is discharged back into the utility's ESP. An 11-month test program will optimize controllable variables, acquire design data, and demonstrate reliability by a long duration run. Measurements taken will include SO/sub 2/ removal, lime utilization, ESP performance, and characterization of waste solids.

  8. Flue Gas Desulfurization Market Research Report 2018 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergy InformationFlue Gas

  9. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  10. anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization GT Gas Turbine HHV Higher Heating Values HCN Hydrogen Cyanide HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generation... ? Nuclear Power Plants ? Solar Power Plants ? Wind...

  11. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  12. Rubber lining for FGD scrubbers for waste incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rullmann, H.E. [Smith Corrosion Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas desulfurization scrubbers for waste incineration plants can be lined with soft rubber or hard rubber for corrosion protection. Hard rubber is cured under high temperature and pressure in an autoclave. The advantage of hard rubber is the excellent temperature and chemical resistance. The authors have experience with hard rubber lined scrubbers that are in service without failures for over 20 years.

  13. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  14. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective is to determine the feasibility of an alternate concept for the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents in which elemental sulfur, instead of SO{sub 2} is produced. Iron and cerium-based sorbents were chosen on the basis of thermodynamic analysis to determine the feasibility of elemental sulfur production. Experimental effort on the regeneration of FeS using the partial oxidation concept was completed during the quarter, and attention returned to the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} and regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}2S. Progress was made in the process simulation effort involving two-step desulfurization using CeO{sub 2} to remove the bulk of the H{sub 2}S followed by a zinc-titanate polishing step. The simulation effort includes regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S using two concepts - reaction with SO{sub 2} reaction with H{sub 2}O. Elemental sulfur is formed directly in the reaction with SO{sub 2} while H{sub 2}S is the product of the regeneration reaction with steam. Steam regeneration is followed by a Claus process to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. The last test involving partial oxidation regeneration of FeS was completed in early July. Experimental problems were encountered throughout this phase of the program, primarily associated with erratic readings from the total sulfur analyzer. The problems are attributed to variable flow rates through the capillary restrictor, and, in some cases, to steam concentrations which exceeded the capacity of the membrane dryer. Nevertheless, sufficient data was collected to confirm that large fractions of the sulfur in FeS could be liberated in elemental form. Low regeneration temperature ({approximately}600{degrees}C), large steam-to-oxygen ratios, and low space velocities were found to favor elemental sulfur production.

  16. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  17. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  19. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  20. Mechanistic understanding of microbial desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abín-Fuentes, Andrés

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing global levels of sulfur content in crude oil have motivated the development of alternate desulfurization technologies. Microbial desulfurization or biodesulfurization (BDS) has gained interest due to the ...

  1. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  2. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, C. [US Department of Agriculture (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  3. Successful corrosion protection in FGD plants utilizing rubber lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany); Peavy, M. [Smith Corrosion Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1970`s--and predominantly in the mid-1980`s--when the construction of flue gas desulfurization plants in Germany was still in its early stages, both the US and Japan had already accumulated several years of experience in the operation of such plants. Whereas Japan adopted the almost exclusive use of synthetic resin coatings--usually as flake coatings--applied on carbon steel as structural material, all three corrosion protection materials mentioned here (rubber linings, synthetic resin coatings, and stainless steel coatings) were applied in the US--in addition, stainless steel was also utilized as structural material. On the other hand, in Germany the use of soft rubber linings was much more widespread. The paper discusses rubber linings as corrosion protection and the experience gained with rubber linings in flue gas desulfurization plants.

  4. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

  5. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning. Topical report No. 1, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and FGD sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  6. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  7. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  8. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, Januray 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Grant No. FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfurization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSI`s anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements.

  9. Dept. of Sol Science, UW-Madison/UW-Extension, 1525 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706/608-262-0485 November 2010 Issue #2 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    /608-262-0485 ____________________________________________________________________________________ November 2010 Issue #2 2010 Using Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum in Wisconsin Dick Wolkowski, Birl plants burn low S coal and some have installed flue gas scrubbers to reduce sulfur emissions. Use of a wet scrubber results in the byproduct flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. FGD gypsum is created

  10. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our moisture sensitivity test suggested that our materials were non-water wettable and did not disintegrate on submerging the product in water for at least two months. Countertop polishing techniques were also established.

  11. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarterly period, an experimental investigation was performed to study the precipitation kinetics and hydrolysis characteristics of calcium imido disulfonate crystals (CaADS). The CaADS crystals were precipitated by a metathetical reaction of lime, supplied by Dravo Lime Co., with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber waste liquor. Before approaching for the continuous Double Draw-Off (DDO) crystallization studies, the influence of a Dravo lime slurry on the precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds will be established. A series of N-S compound batch crystallization studies were completed in a wide range of pH (7.0--9.0), and the influence of pH on the amount of lime required, as well as the amount of precipitate obtained, was investigated. Although the amount of precipitate increased with increase in solution pH, the safe or optimum pH for the precipitation of CaADS lies in the vicinity of 8.2 to 8.3. For studying the crystallization characteristics of CaADS crystals, a bench scale 7.0 liter DDO crystallizer was built. DDO crystallizer is found to be superior compared to Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The precipitated crystals were analyzed for elemental composition by chemical analysis. The crystals were also examined under optical microscope for their morphological features. The present studies confirmed our prediction that N-S compounds in the waste liquor can be precipitated by a reaction with lime slurry. The precipitated crystals were mostly calcium imido disulfonate.

  12. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept. It is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange, resin-based concept is believed to satisfy this requirement. Investigators will perform the following investigations: screening of commercially available resins; process variables study and improving resin performance; optimization of resin-regeneration; evaluation of performance enhancers; development of Best-Process Schematic and related economics; and planing for proof-of-concept (POC) scale testing. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  14. Construction and startup experience for Milliken FGD Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvilla, J.; Mahlmeister, M. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Buchanan, T.; Jackson, C. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Watts, J. [USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under Round 4 of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program, New York State Electric & Gas Corp. (NYSEG), in partnership with Saarbereg-Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Company, has retrofitted a formic acid enhanced forced oxidation wet limestone scrubber on Units 1 & 2 at the Milliken Steam Electric Station. Units 1 & 2 are 1950`s vintage Combustion Engineering tangentially fired pulverized coal units which are rated at nominal 150 MW each and operate in balanced draft mode. The FGD system for Unit 2 was placed into operation in January 1995 and the Unit 1 system in June, 1995. The project incorporates several unique aspects including low pH operation, a ceramic tile-lined cocurrent/countercurrent, split module absorber, a wet stack supported on the roof of the FGD building, and closed loop, zero liquid discharge operation producing commercial grade gypsum, and calcium chloride brine. The project objectives include 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high sulfur coal, the production of marketable byproducts to minimize solid waste disposal, zero wastewater discharge and space-saving design. The paper provides a brief overview of the project design, discusses construction and startup issues and presents early operating results. Process capital cost and economics of this design, procure and construct approach are reviewed relative to competing technologies.

  15. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  16. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  17. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  19. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  20. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  1. Seminole Electric FGD study reveals corrosion mechanisms, duct material performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wess, T.J.; Crum, J.R.; Shoemaker, L.E.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how once the corrosion rates of the materials used in the construction of scrubbers are known, specifying for longevity becomes an easier task. To properly evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials used to fabricate the ducts, dampers, structural supports and other elements of a particular system, a testing scheme that systematically exposes material samples to the many environments representing areas of varying corrosivity is ideal. Because the exact composition, pH, and temperature of liquids and vapors in these areas are usually not known, gathering and analyzing samples of these elements is a prudent part of a systems' evaluation. Field testing of this type was conducted at the Seminole Generating Station which consists of two 650-MW coal-fired electric generating units that typically burn western Kentucky and eastern Illinois sub-bituminous coal with a sulfur content up to 3% and a 0.2%--0.3% chloride content. The plant has a typical wet limestone FGD system that sprays a solution of crushed limestone downward in a vertical rubber-lined scrubber module against a rising flue gas flow stream. There are five parallel scrubber modules available and a direct chimney bypass line that is used only during start up or during emergency conditions. Specially-welded test panels containing four different alloys and two weld filler metals were used in the field tests.

  2. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  3. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  4. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

  5. Hydrocarbon desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

  6. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  7. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The DTFF is extended to larger sample collecting capability and higher temperatures, resulting in the establishment of the Ash Characterization Facility and the High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace. The Ash Characterization Facility enables continuous coal injection and sampling under controlled conditions. Several hundred milligrams of char or ash can be collected in one-half hour. The High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace uses a plasma torch to preheat the gas to over 2000 K and inject it into a ceramic tube which enters a furnace designed for 1700{degrees}C (1973 K) operation, so that temperatures and heating rates encountered by pulverized coal particles in the flames of large boilers or in the advanced slagging cyclone combustors can be simulated. An aerodynamic coal feeder works well in supplying coal continuously to the drop tube. A watercooled, Helium-quench sampling probe collects the solid samples. A scanning electron microscope is used to study the morphology of ash and char particles. A sulfur determinator, a gas chromatograph provide analytical means in the laboratory, and the Illinois State Geological Survey performs other necessary analyses of the samples. Tests on cofiring coal with I to 4% methane show that sulfur retention in ash was related to temperature and residence time. The addition of methane caused changes in gas temperature profile in the tube and also changes in chemical composition of the gases. The overall effect on sulfur retention is seen to be a result of several complex interacting factors. Further detailed studies are necessary to clarify the contribution of each factor and to provide clues to the mechanism of the process.

  8. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  9. Supercritical Water desulfurization of crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kida, Yuko

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical Water (SCW) desulfurization was investigated for both model sulfur compounds and Arab Heavy crude. In part 1, the reactions of alkyl sulfides in SCW were studied. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in SCW, ...

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  11. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project�¢����s target of 50 ���µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all �¢����new�¢��� selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  13. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the ...

  14. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  15. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  16. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rambosek, John (Seattle, WA); Piddington, Chris S. (Seattle, WA); Kovacevich, Brian R. (Seattle, WA); Young, Kevin D. (Grand Forks, ND); Denome, Sylvia A. (Thompson, ND)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  17. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  18. The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chessman, Dennis John

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted...

  19. Wisconsin Research with Dick Wolkowski, Birl Lowery, Ana Tapsieva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    , UW-Madison Meghan Buckley UW-Stevens Point #12;What is FGD Gypsum Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum application to crops · Avoid landfilling #12;Land Application Considerations Source: Ohio State Univ. Pub. ANR

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  1. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

  2. Oxidation kinetics of by-product calcium sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Hasliza

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) May 1992 ABSTRACT Oxidation Kinetics of By-product Calcium Sulfite. (May 1992) Hasliza Othman, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ahmed M. Gadalla The by-products obtained from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD..., suggestions and encouragement. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION I I LITERATURE REVIEW A. Limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization Process . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Scaling Problem in the FGD Process...

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  4. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  5. Desulfurization Fuel Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L DBypassDesulfurization Fuel Filter

  6. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  7. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  8. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  9. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  10. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  11. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  12. KVB coal desulfurization process development. Quarterly technical progress report for May-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the initial technical progress report for the KVB Coal Desulfurization Process Development. The project is a joint effort between Research-Cottrell, Inc. and the College of Engineering of Rutgers University. The process involves oxidation of the sulfur in coal (both organic and pyritic) to soluble forms using nitrogen oxide gas mixtures and subsequent extractive removal. Key features of the process are mild reaction conditions and the use of regenerable reagents. A description of the process chemistry is given, as well as a brief summary of previous experimental studies. The experimental and analytical procedures being used in the current investigation, which is just getting underway, are described in detail. A brief outline of process modelling and commercial evaluation studies which will be a part of the project is also given.

  13. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  14. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USI, IG STEA 1 ANO AIR A Thesis by ROSERT REGINALD STONE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of , 'RASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by ROBERT REGINALD STONE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. . A . Bulli n ( Chai rman of Committee) R. G. Anthony (Member) J. W. J ni ngs ( ber...

  15. THE EFFECT OF MERCURY CONTROLS ON WALLBOARD MANUFACTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra Meischen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending EPA regulations may mandate 70 to 90% mercury removal efficiency from utility flue gas. A mercury control option is the trapping of oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization systems (FGD). The potential doubling of mercury in the FGD material and its effect on mercury volatility at temperatures common to wallboard manufacture is a concern that could limit the growing byproduct use of FGD material. Prediction of mercury fate is limited by lack of information on the mercury form in the FGD material. The parts per billion mercury concentrations prevent the identification of mercury compounds by common analytical methods. A sensitive analytical method, cold vapor atomic fluorescence, coupled with leaching and thermodecomposition methods were evaluated for their potential to identify mercury compounds in FGD material. The results of the study suggest that the mercury form is dominated by the calcium sulfate matrix and is probably associated with the sulfate form in the FGD material. Additionally, to determine the effect of high mercury concentration FGD material on wallboard manufacture, a laboratory FGD unit was built to trap the oxidized mercury generated in a simulated flue gas. Although the laboratory prepared FGD material did not contain the mercury concentrations anticipated, further thermal tests determined that mercury begins to evolve from FGD material at 380 to 390 F, consequently dropping the drying temperature should mitigate mercury evolution if necessary. Mercury evolution is also diminished as the weight of the wallboard sample increased. Consequently, mercury evolution may not be a significant problem in wallboard manufacture.

  16. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen SULPHUR 6.1.2004 3-25 3.10 Costs related to FGD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen SULPHUR 6.1.2004 3-26 3.11 High temperature SO2 capture during fluidised bed combustion One of the great benefits of fluidised bed combustion (FBC, 7 Chapter 2) is the option of in-situ SO2 of any of the above-mentioned FGD processes can be broken down into fixed and variable operation

  17. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen SULPHUR 13.6.2001 3-24 3.10 Costs related to FGD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    combustion One of the great benefits of fluidised bed combustion (FBC, 7 Chapter 2) is the option of in of any of the above-mentioned FGD processes can be broken down into fixed and variable operation & maintenance (O & M) costs and fixed capital charge costs (see e.g. Coulson and Richardson, 1993). For a few

  18. Uncertainty in Experience CurvesUncertainty in Experience Curves for Climate Policy Analysis:for Climate Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Presentation to the NAS Workshop on Modeling the Economics of Greenhouse Gas converters installed on automobiles · No "natural" markets for these technologies; rather, major markets in Service CumulativeGWe Japan Germany Others U.S. FGD = Flue Gas Desulfurization system (typical SO2 removal

  19. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  20. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the current grant (FG22-90PC90309), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the necessary bench scale experiments to further develop it anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. In particular, it is planned to screen commercially available resins and then carry out process optimization work with three selected resins. Further optimization of the resin regeneration step as well as evaluation of the effect of various performance enhancers will then be carried out with one selected resin. A process schematic, to be developed based on the bench scale results, will be used to estimate the related economics. Some limited scope testing will also be carried out using the spent-seed and sorbent materials obtained from both the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the in-duct sorbent injection pilot scale facilities. During this reporting period, 90% of the planned batch mode screening experiments for the eleven samples of candidate resins were completed. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting data is continuing in order to select a smaller number (3--4) of samples for screening in the fixed-bed setup. The installation of the semi-automated fixed-bed setup is about 70% complete and shakedown experiments will be started in 3--4 weeks. Progress made in relation to these activities is presented below. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

  2. KVB coal desulfurization process development. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second technical progress report for the KVB Coal Desulfurization Process Development. The project is a joint venture between Research-Cottrell, Inc. and the College of Engineering of Rutgers University. The process involves oxidation of the sulfur in coal (both organic and pyritic) to soluble forms using nitrogen oxide gas mixtures and subsequent extractive removal. Key features of the process are mild reaction conditions and the use of a regenerable oxidant. Construction of a bench scale oxidation reactor system was completed and a short experimental program was carried out using Illinois No. 6 coal. An investigation of extraction reagents was also conducted. The emphasis to date has been on development and demonstration of procedures rather than on data generation. However preliminary data do indicate reaction of both organic and pyritic sulfur. Preliminary coal characterization work using x-ray fluorescence is also reported. A brief discussion of project plans in the areas of process modelling and commercial evaluation is also given.

  3. Method for processing coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from advanced clean coal technology clean coal technology combustors. Over 60% of the CCBs are generated as fly ash. An estimate

  5. Speciation, characterization, and mobility of As, Se, and Hg in flue gas desulphurization residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souhail R. Al-Abed; Gautham Jegadeesan; Kirk G. Scheckel; Thabet Tolaymat [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue. With increasing reuse of the FGD residues in beneficial applications, it is important to determine metal speciation and mobility to understand the environmental impact of its reuse. In this paper, we report the solid phase speciation of As, Se, and Hg in FGD residues using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and sequential chemical extraction (SCE) techniques. The SCE results combined with XRF data indicated a strong possibility of As association with iron oxides, whereas Se was distributed among all geochemical phases. Hg appeared to be mainly distributed in the strong-complexed phase. XRF images also suggested a strong association of Hg with Fe oxide materials within FGD residues. XAS analysis indicated that As existed in its oxidized state (As(V)), whereas Se and Hg was observed in primarily reduced states as selenite (Se(IV)) and Hg(I), respectively. The results from the SCE and variable pH leaching tests indicated that the labile fractions of As, Se, and Hg were fairly low and thus suggestive of their stability in the FGD residues. However, the presence of a fine fraction enriched in metal content in the FGD residue suggested that size fractionation is important in assessing the environmental risks associated with their reuse. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process. Quarterly report No. 6, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The project`s objective is to demonstrate innovative applications of technology for cost reduction for the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. The CT-121 process is a wet FGD process that removes SO{sub 2}, can achieve simultaneous particulate control, and can produce a salable by-product gypsum thereby reducing or even eliminating solid waste disposal problems. Figure 1 shows a flow schematic of the process. CT-121 removes SO{sub 2} and particulate matter in a unique limestone-based scrubber called the Jet Bubbling Reactor (JBR). IN the JBR, flue gas bubbles beneath the slurry, SO{sub 2} is absorbed, and particulate matter is removed from the gas. The agitator circulates limestone slurry to ensure that fresh reactant is always available in the bubbling or froth zone sot that SO{sub 2} removal can proceed at a rapid rate. Air is introduced into the bottom of the JBR to oxidize the absorbed SO{sub 2} to sulfate, and limestone is added continuously to neutralize the acid slurry and form gypsum. The JBR is designed to allow ample time for complete oxidation of the SO{sub 2}, for complete reaction of the limestone, and for growth of large gypsum crystals. The gypsum slurry is continuously withdrawn from the JBR and is to be dewatered in a gypsum stack. The stacking technique involves filing a diked area with gypsum slurry, allowing the gypsum solids to settle, and removing clear liquid from the top of the stack for recycle back to the process.

  7. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  8. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  9. Final Flue Gas Cleaning (FFGC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Romero, M. H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .F., Blythe, OG.M., Carey, T.R., Radian International & Rhudy, R.G., EPRI & Brown, T.D., Federal Energy Technology Center-DOE, ”Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet FGD Systems, 1999 f Gramite. Evan J. and Pennline, Henry W., “Photochemical Removal of Mercury... from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The pilot plant (FFGC-PP) will be used to test and evaluate removal of air pollution constituents from the flue gas of a power plant to determine the optimum emission reduction system...

  10. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  11. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technology is assumed. Wet scrubber or combination flue-gasFlue Gas Scrubbing Costs Scrubber Lime- Limestone Reduction-Same as lime-limestone scrubber cost. Cap. Cost*4 Since 6236

  12. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  13. Development and evaluation of two reactor designs for desulfurization of Texas lignites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merritt, Stanley Duane

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibited can be given at this time, but this behavior may be indicative of transformations of inorganic matter, changes in the forms of sulfur present in the lignite, and the overall composition. The results of this test series show a need for further...DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TWO REACTOR DESIGNS FOR DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITES A Thesis by STANLEY DUANE MERRITT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  14. Integrating desulfurization with CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solunke, Rahul; Veser, Goetz

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC which maintain high reactivity and high-temperature stability even when sulfur contaminated fuels are used in CLC. Here, we propose a novel process scheme for in situ desulfurization of syngas with simultaneous CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical looping combustion by using these robust nanocomposite oxygen carriers simultaneously as sulfur-capture materials. We found that a nanocomposite Cu-BHA carrier can indeed strongly reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration in the fuel reactor effluent. However, during the process the support matrix is also sulfidized and takes part in the redox process of CLC. This results in SO{sub 2} production during the reduction of the oxygen carrier and thus limits the degree of desulfurization attainable with this kind of carrier. Nevertheless, the results suggest that simultaneous desulfurization and CO{sub 2} capture in CLC is feasible with Cu as oxygen carrier as long as appropriate carrier support materials are chosen, and could result in a novel, strongly intensified process for low-emission, high efficiency combustion of sulfur contaminated fuel streams.

  15. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  16. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    research attention. With the projected U. S. energy needs in the year ZOOO at more than 2. 6 times the 197Z level, an abundant energy source must be developed (Kaiser, 1974). Coal is the most often mentioned, immediate source of energy. The present... the problems associated with solids handling, maintenance, and disposal of the spent adsorbent. Other methods of chemical desulfuriz ation include solution leaching, bacterial catalyzed removal, gasification followed hy scrubbi ng, thermal treating, and gas...

  17. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons of Gypsum Hemihydrate with Various Inductions of Fly Ash 16 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons Using Various Types of Bottom Ashes 18 Optimum Temperature to Calcine Dihydrate... Gypsum to Hemihydrate Gypsum 21 Optimum Time to Calcine Dihydrate to Hemihydrate 22 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Density Comparisons for Hemihydrate Subjected to Various Size Sieves 25 Temperature of Hemihydrate during Hydration versus Time...

  18. Desulfurization of a coal model compound by in situ hydrogen generation through water-gas shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Meyyappan

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistiacl Analysis Results for Temperature Profile T3 110 10 Statistical Analysis Results for Temperature Profile T4 CHAPTER I INTRODIJCTION The ever developing problem of an energy crisis has led to the search for alternative energy sources. Some... in industry to produce clean burning low sulfur fuel. As there is a growing need for alternative energy sources, coal liquefaction is likely to be commercialized within the next decade. Since coal contains a high percentage of sulfur compounds, there is a...

  19. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  20. Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldin, I.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

  1. Regeneration of FGD dry-sorbent materials. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapsalopoulou, A.J.; Sargent, D.H.; Rissman, E.F.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium-based sorbent injection directly into the flue gas duct of a coal-burning power plant has been investigated since 1975 by GFETC (using laboratory and pilot plant apparatus) as an SO/sub 2/ control technology. Regeneration of sorbent from spent sorbent material is highly desirable to reduce the sorbent cost, and to alleviate the leaching and potential pollution problems of soluble sodium compounds when disposing of spent sorbent materials in landfills. The work reported herein was initiated to develop a continuous, aqueous-based process for regeneration of sodium carbonate-type sorbents from spent sodium-base sorbent/flyash materials. Specific project objectives are to: (1) retain process simplicity and to avoid difficult process conditions; (2) maximize recovery of sodium from spent sorbents; (3) minimize process costs and energy requirements; (4) maximize reactivity of the regenerated sodium bicarbonate sorbent; and (5) produce process waste materials that may be disposed of in an environmental acceptable manner. The sorbent regeneration process which has been developed during the laboratory investigation (Phase I) of this project may be divided into three parts: (1) leaching of the spent sodium-based sorbent; (2) conversion of the leachate to a NaCl brine; and (3) production of NaHCO/sub 3/ (regenerated sorbent) using commercially-proven Solvay (ammonia-soda) process technology. Significant results from the laboratory study are as given.

  2. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NO x ) in a flue gas desulphurization system. The ventedscrubbing in a flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plant usingx , e.g. , flue gas desulphurization (FGD) through injection

  3. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  4. Revamping AK-Ashland gas cleaning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, H.; Koerbel, R. [Mannesmann Demag Corp., Coraopolis, PA (United States); Haberkamp, K. [Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Keeton, S. [AK Steel Corp., Ashland, KY (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AK Steel`s (formerly Armco) BOF shop was using a static precipitator for the primary collection. The system was designed for full combustion in the gas collecting hoods. No secondary dust collection was in place. A detailed study on alternative solutions led to a completely different system in 1990, and an order was awarded to Mannesmann Demag Corp. (MDC) in Dec. 1990. The new gas collection system is using suppressed combustion with the capability to collect Co at a later stage. The gas cleaning uses the Mannesmann Demag Baumco scrubber with a venturi throat for gas flow control. All auxiliary components, water treatment plant, electric substations and sludge handling were designed and supplied by MDC. The secondary dust collection covers the hot metal and scrap charging into the BOF`s, reladling, desulfurization and deslagging by a pulse jet baghouse. All emission limits set by the EPA and guaranteed by MDC have been met by the systems installed.

  5. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst was expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation were also studied. If successful this project would have lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would have significantly improved the marketability of Illinois coal. However, the phase transfer catalysts, the cerium and the scrubber sledge did not catalize the sulfur removal significantly.

  6. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  7. A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining industry slowed progress of the demonstration unit, negotiations with potential partners are proceeding for commercialization of this process.

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1996-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated primarily involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The base project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hooiser Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites.

  9. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  10. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    materials. These solids are flushed using high pressure jet stream which will fluidise the carbon bed dislodging the particles fixed in the carbon bed. The backwash water should be treated prior to discharge as the concentrations of the pollutants...). This slurry containing gypsum is recycled using recycle pumps and pumped to different levels and sprayed down. This slurry is continuously re-circulated until the percentage of solids and chlorides concentration raises up to certain level. Then a blowdown...

  11. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 5, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO{sub 2} reduction has been achieved, but the NO{sub x} reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO{sub 2} Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel`s original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO{sub 2} removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  13. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    -MS Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy Mg2+ Magnesium Ion ml millilitre mM millimole Na Sodium Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate NaHCO3 Sodium Bicarbonate NH4 + Ammonium Ion NO3 - Nitrate Ion NaOH Sodium Hydroxide NPDES National Pollutant Discharge....3.1 Performance of hZVI System and Pollutants .............. 54 5.3.2 Corrosion and Removal Mechanism ........................... 74 5.4 Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) ..................................... 77...

  14. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  15. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Loper, L. [Alabama Electric Coopreative, Leroy, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  16. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  17. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  18. Air-substrate mercury exchange associated with landfill disposal of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Xin; Mae S. Gustin; Kenneth Ladwig; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash land-fill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (- 0.1 to 1.2 ng/m{sup 2}hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates ({approximately} 10 ng/m{sup 2}hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (- 0.3 to 13 ng/m{sup 2}hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  20. Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Bruce David

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Lands and Mrnkova, 1966). Singhal et al. (1981a, b) studied DBT desulfurization at 558-623K, 3. 1 MPa, in the gas phase over a standard CoO-MoO, /7-AlsO, catalyst. Both of these mechanisms are consistent with the generalized mechanism for HDS...HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis BRUCE DAVID HOOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. Energy Efficiency Country Study: Republic Of South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to have a Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) to remove oxidesplant with fuel gas desulphurization, the average fuel and

  2. HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

  3. Preliminary results from In-Duct Scrubbing Pilot Study testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, moderate-removal-efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the Department of Energy for demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applied rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. In-Duct Scrubbing technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are (i) adequate mixing of sorbent with the flue gas for efficient reactant contact, (ii) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (iii) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is complete. This paper presents the IDS technology and the status of a jointly sponsored In-Duct Scrubbing Pilot Study that is being tested at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System.

  4. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1994-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. On the base program, testing was completed at the Tampa Electric Big Bend Station in November 1992. The upgrade option tested was DBA additive. For Option 1, at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station, three upgrade options have been tested: DBA additive, sodium formate additive, and high pH set point operation. Option 2 has involved testing at the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station. Both sodium formate and DBA additives were tested as potential upgrade options at Pirkey. On Option 3, for testing at the PSI Energy Gibson Station, a DBA additive performance and consumption test was conducted in late February through mid-March 1994. Preliminary results from these tests are discussed in Section 3 of this progress report. Option 4 is for testing at the Duquesne Light Elrama Station. The FGD system employs magnesium-enhanced lime reagent and venturi absorber modules. An EPRI-funded model evaluation of potential upgrade options for this FGD system, along with a preliminary economic evaluation, determined that the most attractive upgrade options for this site were to increase thiosulfate ion concentrations in the FGD system liquor to lower oxidation percentages and increase liquid-phase sulfite alkalinity, and to increase the venturi absorber pressure drop to improve gas/liquid contacting. Parametric testing of these upgrade options was conducted in late March 1994. Preliminary results from these tests are also discussed in Section 3 of this progress report.

  5. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  6. Vacuum carbonate desulfurization and claus sulfur recovery system at No. 11 battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum carbonate process functions above 90% efficiency and satisfactorily removes the HCN and sulfur compounds from the coke oven gas generated at No. 11 Battery. It has been noted that a large quantity of energy is required for the operation of the vacuum carbonate system. Normally 544,617 kg (1.2 million lbs of steam) and 5.4 thousand kWh of electricity are used per day to maintain the system's temperatures and pressures. The processed coke oven gases from the system satisfy industrial and environmental standards as a combustible fuel. The HCN destruction unit reduces the corrosive HCN to concentrations below .07% of the acid gas stream and offers the necessary protection to the downstream modified Claus unit. The Claus unit at No. 11 Battery operates at 98% efficiency and produces 5896 kg (6.5 tons) of sulfur per day. The liquid sulfur generated in the Claus unit is a high quality product of 99% purity. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Coolside waste management research. Annual technical progress report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The composition (major, minor and trace elements) of approximately 400 Coolside waste samples form the Edgewater Coolside demonstration and CONSOL pilot plant tests are summarized and tabulated in this report. The composition changes in the waste samples collected during the Edgewater Coolside demonstration can be correlated with the processing variables and operation conditions. A study was conducted that focused on the formation mechanism of ettringite crystals in FGD waste materials since they were observed to form in Coolside, FBC, and AFBC derived wastes. The degree of swelling in FGD-derived waste can be correlated to the amounts of ettringite crystals present. Reactions controlling the formation, composition and disintegration of ettringite are critical in determining the overall stability and strength of cements and concretes derived from dry-flue gas desulfurization wastes. Since these wastes consist of fly ash, along with, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} and unreacted Ca(OH){sub 2}, the sulfites and sulfates react with the Ca(OH){sub 2} along with the glassy aluminosilicates in the fly ash to form calcium sulfo-aluminate minerals. Ettringite, the most important of these, is the main contributor to the compressive strength development of the FGD waste mixtures. However, excessive ettringite formation causes swelling which often leads to destructive crack formation. It has been shown that the quantity of ettringite formed and compressive strength of the FGD waste mixtures reach a maximum until ettringite begins to disintegrate. Because the formation mechanisms of ettringite are not entirely understood, swelling in FGD derived products is difficult to predict.

  8. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  9. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  10. anaerobic digester gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  11. bectso-adflug | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desulfurization Project PDF-7.2MB (Jan 1991) Environmental Assessment: Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Demonstration Project...

  12. Combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control using ferrous{center_dot}EDTA and a secondary additive in a lime-based aqueous scrubber system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of NO{sub x} control into existing flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems addresses site-specific control requirements while minimizing retrofit difficulties. Argonne has studied the use of the metal-chelate additives, such as ferrous{center_dot}EDTA in various wet FGD chemistries, to promote combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing. A major process problem is oxidation of the iron to the ferric species, leading to a significant decrease in NO{sub x}-removal capability. Argonne discovered a class of organic compounds that, when used with ferrous{center_dot}EDTA in a sodium carbonate chemistry, could maintain high levels of NO{sub x} removal. However, those antioxidant/reducing agents are not effective in a lime-based chemistry, and a broader investigation of antioxidants was initiated. This paper discusses results of that investigation, which found a practical antioxidant/reducing agent capable of maintaining NO{sub x} removals of about 50% (compared with about 15% without the agent) in a lime-based FGD chemistry with FE(II){center_dot}EDTA. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Combined SO sub 2 /NO sub x control using ferrouster dot EDTA and a secondary additive in a lime-based aqueous scrubber system. [Sodium ascorbate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of NO{sub x} control into existing flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems addresses site-specific control requirements while minimizing retrofit difficulties. Argonne has studied the use of the metal-chelate additives, such as ferrous{center dot}EDTA in various wet FGD chemistries, to promote combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing. A major process problem is oxidation of the iron to the ferric species, leading to a significant decrease in NO{sub x}-removal capability. Argonne discovered a class of organic compounds that, when used with ferrous{center dot}EDTA in a sodium carbonate chemistry, could maintain high levels of NO{sub x} removal. However, those antioxidant/reducing agents are not effective in a lime-based chemistry, and a broader investigation of antioxidants was initiated. This paper discusses results of that investigation, which found a practical antioxidant/reducing agent capable of maintaining NO{sub x} removals of about 50% (compared with about 15% without the agent) in a lime-based FGD chemistry with FE(II){center dot}EDTA. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  15. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  17. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  18. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  19. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  20. Ck??dcoJ Engineering Scierrce, Vol. 41, No. 8. pp. 2183-2191. 1986. c%9-2509/86 33.00+0.00 Printed inGreat Britain. Pergamon Journals ttd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    , 1971) and the oxidation of calcium sulphite waste products in flue gas desulphurization (Rochelle, 1977 oxidation under flue gas desulphurization (FGD) conditions. These conditions differ from those usually

  1. DOE-backed independent scrubber system is criticized by AEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the five early contract signers from the second round of 16 clean-coal technologies selected by the Dept of Energy (DOE) for partial funding was Pure Air's flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) technology-and-service project for Northern Indiana Public Service Co (Nipsco). Pure Air is not only financing, designing, and building the $141-million Nipsco advanced wet-scrubber system at Units 7 (183 MW) and 8 (345 MW) of the utility's Bailly powerplant, it is also operating and maintaining the scrubber. It is the own-and-operate approach that caught DOE's eye, because it allows utilities who are inexperienced in running a complex chemical plant to remain focused on electricity production while avoiding a major capital expense. American Electric Power Service Co questions the service contract, but not the technology. AEP's assistant general counsel foresees a full array of possibilities associated with contract complexity when dealing with removal. The paper briefly describes these complexities.

  2. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  3. Healy clean coal project. Technical quarterly progress report no. 6, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  4. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  5. High efficiency SO{sub 2} removal testing. Quarterly report, 1 January--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option 1), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option 11), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). Testing has been completed for all six sites. Following the introduction, this document divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1995. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  6. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on the project ``High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing``, for the time period 1 July through 30 September 1994. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. AR five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Company Kintigh Station (Option V). By the end of September 1994, testing was completed for the base project and for all options. The document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1994. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  7. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, ``High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing,`` for the time period 1 July through 30 September 1996. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. The remainder of this document provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project, including those efforts anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996, summarizes results from prior quarters, and contains a brief acknowledgment. 13 refs.

  9. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, April-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the third quarter of calendar year 1995. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  10. High SO(2) removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, March - May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Blythe, G. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, project summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, plans for the next reporting period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  11. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1995-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. Following the introduction, this report is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarter that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  12. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  13. A kinetic approach to the catalytic oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert A. Presto; Evan J. Granite; Andrew Karash; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Henry W. Pennline [U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor. The four catalysts tested were Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The Thief/HCl and Darco converted the highest percentage of the inlet mercury; however, the high conversion in these experiments was aided by larger catalyst loadings than in the Ir and Ir/HCl experiments. We propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Results reported for fractional mercury oxidation are strongly influenced by the specific experimental conditions and are therefore difficult to translate from experiment to experiment. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and are the first step in creating a predictive model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  15. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  16. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J. [Solvay Advanced Polyers (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  17. TVA`s Cumberland Units 1&2 SO{sub 2} removal system - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, J.H. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Brodsky, I.S. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Muraskin, D.J. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tennessee Valley Authority`s Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is a Phase I facility listed under the 1990 CAA Amendments. Units 1 & 2 are two 1300 MWe coal fired units which presently bum an eastern bituminous coal containing approximately 2.8% sulfur. The Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system reduces sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from Units 1 and 2 by means of wet limestone - forced oxidation scrubbing. The absorber modules were provided by ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) with balance of plant engineering, construction management, and startup provided by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE&C) under a partnership arrangement with TVA. The FGD systems for Unit 1 & 2 were brought on-line October 12, 1994 and December 14, 1994, respectively. This paper will present a brief description of the overall project, the design basis, challenging problems and solutions during construction and initial startup. Specific topics will include: (1) Optimization studies underway; (2) Unique design aspects of the facility; (3) A description of the absorber and supporting systems including the limestone barge unloader, ball mill system for reagent preparation, and draft system upgrades; and (4) Experience gained in management of a large project under the unique partnership agreement.

  18. SOXAL{trademark} pilot plant demonstration at Niagara Mohawk`s Dunkirk Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangway, P.K. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 made it necessary to accelerate the development of scrubber systems for use by some utilities burning sulfur-containing fuels, primarily coal. While many types of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems operate based on lime and limestone scrubbing, these systems have drawbacks when considered for incorporation into long-term emissions control plans. Although the costs associated with disposal of large amounts of scrubber sludge may be manageable today, the trend is toward increased disposal costs. Many new SO{sub 2} control technologies are being pursued in the hope of developing an economical regenerable FGD system did recovers the SO{sub 2} as a saleable commercial product, thus minimizing the formation of disposal waste. Some new technologies include the use of exotic chemical absorbents which are alien to the utility industry and utilities` waste treatment facilities. These systems present utilities with new environmental issues. The SOXAL{trademark} process has been developed so as to eliminate such issues.

  19. Development of the integrated environmental control model. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalagnanam, J.R.; Rubin, E.S.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase H deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period April 1, 1995 through June 30, 1995. This report presents additional revisions to the new cost models of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology initially reported in our fourth quarterly report. For convenience, the complete description of the revised FGD models are presented here.

  20. High SO[sub 2] removal efficiency testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE-PETC Project Number AC22-92PC91338, High Efficiency SO[sub 2] Removal Testing,'' for the time period from January 1 through March 31, 1993. The project involves testing at full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO[sub 2] removal efficiency. The options to be evaluated primarily involve the addition of organic acid buffers to the FGD systems. The base'' project involves testing at one site, Tampa Electric Company's Big Bend Station. Up to five optional sites may be added to the program at the discretion of DOE-PETC. By March 31, 1993, four of those five options had been exercised. The options include testing at Hoosier Energy's Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company's (SWEPCo) Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy's Gibson Station (Option III), and Duquesne Light's Elrama Station (Option IV). The remainder of this document is divided into three sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the technical efforts on this project during the quarter. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome of those technical efforts. Results for the Base Program and for Options I and II are discussed in separate subsections. There are no technical results yet for Options III and IV, which were just exercised by DOE-PETC this quarter.

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, [January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE-PETC Project Number AC22-92PC91338, ``High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing,`` for the time period from January 1 through March 31, 1993. The project involves testing at full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The options to be evaluated primarily involve the addition of organic acid buffers to the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involves testing at one site, Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station. Up to five optional sites may be added to the program at the discretion of DOE-PETC. By March 31, 1993, four of those five options had been exercised. The options include testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), and Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV). The remainder of this document is divided into three sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the technical efforts on this project during the quarter. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome of those technical efforts. Results for the Base Program and for Options I and II are discussed in separate subsections. There are no technical results yet for Options III and IV, which were just exercised by DOE-PETC this quarter.

  2. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

  3. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  4. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  5. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  6. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  7. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

  8. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  9. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  10. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  11. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  12. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  13. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  14. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  15. Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...

  16. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  17. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  18. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  19. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  20. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  1. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  2. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  3. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  4. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  5. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  6. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  7. Confined zone dispersion project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the performance of the confined zone dispersion (CZD) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system in removing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from flue gas in the coal-fired boiler. The CZD-FGD system, installed at Pennsylvania Electric Company`s (Penelec`s) Seward Power Station, was designed to remove 50% of the SO{sub 2} from one-half of Unit No. 5`s flue gas when the boiler is fired with 1.5% sulfur coal. Section 1 discusses the significance of CZD, the purpose of this report, the history of the project, and the role of DOE in the project, describes the project organization, and lists the six design areas involving proprietary information. Section 2 presents project location, objectives, and phases, and discusses the test program. Section 3 explains the process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagrams and operating controls, site plan, equipment layouts, and process equipment. Section 4 provides an integrated discussion of all the test results obtained during the test program, backed by tabulations and graphics. Section 5 describes the testing failures and corrective actions taken. Section 6, reliability/availability/maintainability analysis data of major equipment, covers the following systems: atomizing, sootblowing, lime, flue gas, and controls and instrumentation. Section 7 summarizes the capital cost requirements for the Seward CZD demonstration unit and discusses the capital and operating costs of installing the process at plants with various unit capacities. Section 8 discusses plans to continue the CZD demonstration to achieve longer term continuous operation at SO{sub 2} removals of 50%. Section 9 presents the principal findings of the CZD demonstration and recommends additional testing.

  8. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Marshall Sanderson

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

  9. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

  10. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  11. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  12. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  13. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  14. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ÂşF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  16. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  17. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 65716603, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/6571/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    for coal-charging process 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 FGD for coke oven gas 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 Combination[1] BAU[2]/PC[2] 2005 2010 2020 2030 2020 2030 2030 Sintering FGD 0 10 20 40 95 100 100 Coke oven FGD 100 Hot rolling ESP 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Cold rolling HED 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Coke oven WET 100 100 100 100

  18. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  19. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  20. COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

  1. Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

  2. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  3. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  4. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  6. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  7. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  8. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  9. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  10. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  11. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  13. Gas Cylinders: Proper Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

  14. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  15. Natural Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    . Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration

  16. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, [1 July--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, {open_quotes}High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing{close_quotes}, for the time period 1 July through 30 September, 1993. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated primarily involve the addition of organic acid buffers to the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. As of September 1993, all five potential options to the base program had been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Company Kintigh Station (Option V). As of September 1993, testing has been completed for the base project and for Options 1 and 2, has begun but not been completed for Options III and IV, and has not yet begun for Option V. This document is divided into five sections. After a brief introduction (Section 1), Section 2 (Project Summary) provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3 (Results) summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. Results for each site for which there were significant technical efforts or for which there are updated technical results are discussed in separate subsections. In Section 4 (Plans for the Next Reporting Period) an overview is provided of the technical progress that is anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1993. Section 5 includes a brief acknowledgement.

  18. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1995-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, {open_quotes}High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing{close_quotes}, for the time period 1 July through 30 September 1995. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy`s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1995. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  19. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO Removal Testing," for 2 the time period 1 October through 31 December 1996. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO removal efficiency. The upgrades being 2 evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing has been planned at the Big Bend Station, and that testing commenced during the current quarter. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  20. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 January through 31 March 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is planned at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  1. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 April through 30 June 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is being conducted at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the third quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  2. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, {open_quotes}High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing{close_quotes}, for the time period 1 October through 31 December 1994. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low-capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated primAllily involve using additives in the FGD systems. The {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. AR five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). By the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1994, testing had been completed for the base project and for all options. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1995. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  3. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  4. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  5. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  6. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  7. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to absorption from ambient surroundings. Mercury loss of 18-26% was detected after 3 and 6 months at 100 F and 140 F from samples of the fixated FGD sludge. Water samples were collected from existing ground water monitoring wells around an active FGD disposal site (8 wells) and an active fly ash slurry impoundment (14 wells). These were wells that the plants have installed to comply with ground water monitoring requirements of their permits. Mercury was not detected in any of the water samples collected from monitoring wells at either site. A literature review concluded that coal combustion byproducts can be disposed of in properly designed landfills that minimize the potentially negative impacts of water intrusion that carries dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dissolved organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria can promote the transformation of elemental or oxidized mercury into methyl mercury. The landfill should be properly designed and capped with clays or similar materials to minimize the wet-dry cycles that promote the release of methylmercury.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  10. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  11. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  12. Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

  13. Home Safety: Radon Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  14. String Gas Baryogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Alberghi

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  16. Home Safety: Radon Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  18. Oil and Gas Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Outlook For Independent Petroleum Association of America November 13, 2014 | Palm Beach, FL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Recent...

  19. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  20. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL)...

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  2. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  3. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  4. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  5. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus Group HSS/UnionGlossary Shale GasShale gas

  6. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion recycle systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogali, R.; Wysocki, J.; Kursman, S.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a technical and economic evaluation of AFBC power plants with recycle systems, and a comparison of these plants with AFBC power plants with carbon burnup beds (CBB) and with pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The analysis considers 1000 MWe plants burning both eastern and western coals. The capital and operating cost estimates are based on boiler designs developed by Babcock and Wilcox, Inc., and on sorbent requirements estimated by Burns and Roe, Inc. The economic analyses are based on a plant located in the East Central region of the United States with a 30-year life and a 70 percent capacity factor. The eastern coal-fired plants are designed to burn Illinois bituminous coal with a higher heating value of 10,100 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 4%. The required calcium to sulfur mole ratios for the eastern plants are 3.8:1 and 2.5:1 for the AFBC/CBB and AFBC/recycle plants, respectively. The western coal-fired plants are designed to burn Wyoming subbituminous coal with a higher heating value of 8,020 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 0.48%. The required calcium to sulfur mole ratios for the western plants are 0.7:1 and 0.4:1 for the AFBC/CBB and AFBC/recycle plants, respectively. These Ca/S mole ratios allow for 30 percent utilization of the alkaline coal ash to reduce sorbent requirements to the fluidized bed combustor. The analyses indicate that the AFBC/recycle plants have an economic advantage over the AFBC/CBB plants and over the PCF/FGD plants for both eastern and western coal.

  9. Control of toxic metallic emissions formed during the combustion of Ohio coals. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, P.; Owens, T.M.; Wu, Chang-Yu [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to characterize metallic emissions from representative coals and develop strategies for their control. Though metallic emissions from coal combustors have been extensively studied, more studies need to be performed to better characterize the interaction of various species which is required for the selection and design of sorbents for effective control of these emissions. Some coals are rich in sulfur, and utilities using these coals will have to use some form of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). A technique for FGD is the use of calcium based sorbents, and the degree of metals capture of these sorbents under different conditions will be researched. The objective of the first year of the study was to understand the evolution of metallic aerosol size distributions and the capture characteristics of various sorbents. Also, the metallic emissions resulting from the combustion of two seams of Ohio coals were to be characterized. Studies on the evolution of the metallic aerosol size distributions have been completed and the use of silicon and calcium based sorbents for capture of lead species has been examined. Co-injection of metallic compounds along with organometallic silicon indicated a high degree of capture of lead in a certain temperature regime. Preliminary results with calcium based sorbents also indicate capture of metallic species. To gain a further understanding of the capture processes, in situ optical diagnostic studies were performed in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Spectroscopic studies (laser induced fluorescence coupled with particle scattering) were performed to help understand the mechanisms of metallic species capture.

  10. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  11. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian

  12. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  14. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  15. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

  16. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  17. Western Europe's future gas supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardaun, G.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.

  18. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  19. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  20. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  1. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  2. Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...

  3. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  5. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  6. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  7. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  8. Characterization of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] removals in a spray dryer/baghouse system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, W.J.; Markussen, J.M.; Pennline, H.W. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Resnik, K.P. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of NO to NO[sub 2] has been proposed as a method for enhancing NO[sub x] removals in conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This experimental investigation characterizes the removals of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] in a 1.1 m[sup 3](standard)/min spray dryer/baghouse system. Flue gas was generated by burning a No. 2 fuel oil, which was subsequently spiked upstream of the spray dryer with NO[sub 2] or SO[sub 2] or both. Lime slurry was injected via a rotary atomizer into the spray dryer. Variables studied include the approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature, stoichiometric ratio, SO[sub 2] concentration, and NO[sub 2] concentration. Significant quantities of NO[sub 2] are scrubbed in this system, and over half of the total removal (at inlet NO[sub 2] > 400 ppm) occurs in the baghouse. Increasing NO[sub 2] concentrations enhance the amount of NO[sub x] removed in the system. Also, the presence of significant quantities of NO[sub 2] enhances the baghouse SO[sub 2] removal. Although up to 72% NO[sub 2] removals were obtained, concentrations of NO[sub 2] that exited the system were greater than 50 ppm for all conditions investigated.

  9. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  10. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All...

  11. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...

  12. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....

  13. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction. ...

  14. ,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

  15. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  17. Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

  18. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  19. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  20. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R S [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Brown, T D [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  1. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

  2. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  7. Gas only nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (15 Olde Coach Rd., Scotia, NY 12302); Fitts, David Orus (286 Sweetman Rd., Ballston Spa, NY 12020); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (60 St. Stephens La., Glenville, NY 12302)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  8. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  9. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  10. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fossil Natural Gas Natural Gas September 15, 2014 NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the...

  11. Regulations For Gas Companies (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations for Gas Companies, implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority) outline the standards for metering, distribution and electricity generation for utilities using gas....

  12. Citizens Gas- Residential Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to its residential customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances. Rebates are generally available for residential homes...

  13. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 163, January 1, 2005. Battelle, Assessment of Technologymodel, TANK, was developed by Battelle for the Gas Research93/0186. Prepared by Battelle for Gas Research Institute

  14. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  15. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas- Small Business Energy Savings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas, and North Shore Gas fund the Small Business Energy Savings program in which an energy advisor conducts a free on-site energy assessment and provides free installati...

  16. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is a bundled promotion in partnership with ComEd...

  17. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  19. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies...

  20. Gas-Saving Tips

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Properly Tuned Fixing a car that is noticeably out of tune or has failed an emis- sions test can improve its gas mileage by an average of 4 percent. However, results vary based on...

  1. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  2. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  3. Gas Pipelines (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter applies to any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as any...

  4. Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes that entities engaged in the transmission of gas by pipelines are not required to obtain the consent of the Utility Regulatory Commission for issuance of stocks,...

  5. Natural Gas Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation title 805 promulgates the rules and regulations pertaining to natural gas production in Kentucky. In addition to KAR title 405, chapter 30, which pertains to any...

  6. (bulb) , (1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas----saturation methodsaturation methodsaturation methodsaturation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    (bulb) , . . , . . 1. . (1) Gas(1Static MethodStatic Method Isoteniscope bulb U-tube . bulb U-tube bulb . bulb . U bulb . manometer . . Isoteniscope Boling Point Method . #12;2. (1) Boiling

  7. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Gerber, F.B. [BENTEK Energy Research, DeSoto, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  8. (GAS HYDRATES) 2 ()

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : ... ... .... .... «» , 28 2007 : « » #12; · ·· #12; 2 #12; (GAS HYDRATES) #12;Y · µ 2 µ () µ · µ µ · µ µ µ ·µ: - - µ CO2 - - #12; - 3S·2M·1L·34H3S

  9. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  10. Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale The University of Oxford http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/people/profiles/academic/joec Key Words Shale gas, hydraulic fracture, groundwater contamination, transport in porous media Overview Recovery of natural gas from mudstone (shale

  11. bectso-conzo | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Oct 1989) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Confined Zone Dispersion Flue Gas Desulfurization Demonstration...

  12. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daum, Edward D. (Alliance, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Jankura, Bryan J. (Mogadore, OH); McCoury, Jr., John M. (Mineral City, OH)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  13. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daum, Edward D. (Alliance, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Jankura, Bryan J. (Mogadore, OH); McCoury, Jr., John M. (Mineral City, OH)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  14. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouille, G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  15. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouille; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  16. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with less toxic ash pond water, and replanted due to low survival rates from the first planting the previous summer. The goals of the TVA-EPRI-DOE collaboration include building a better understanding of the chemical transformations that trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in a passive treatment system, and to evaluate the performance of a large-scale replicated passive treatment system to provide additional design criteria and economic factors.

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  18. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

  20. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  1. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  2. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  3. NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    NATURAL GAS STORAGE ENGINEERING Kashy Aminian Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Shahab D. Mohaghegh Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Keywords: Gas Storage, Natural Gas, Storage, Deliverability, Inventory

  4. Optimization of condensing gas drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofton, Larry Keith

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - cal, undersaturated reservoir with gas being injected into the crest and oil being produced from the base of the structure. Fractional oil re- covery at gas breakthrough proved to be less sensitive to changes in oil withdrawal rates as the gas... injection pressure was increased. The validity of the model was established by accurately simulating several low pressure gas drives conducted in the laboratory. Oil recoveries at gas breakthrough using the model compared closely with those recoveries...

  5. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  6. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing negotiations of the four sub-awards working toward signed contracts with the various organizations involved. Second, an Executive Council meeting was held at Penn State September 9, 2004. And third, the GSTC participated in the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting in Charleston, West Virginia, on September 16th and 17th. We hosted a display booth with the Stripper Well Consortium.

  7. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  8. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  9. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  10. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  11. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  12. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  13. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  14. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  15. Automated gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Stephen D. (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  16. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  17. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

  18. Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  20. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  1. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  2. Diesel Desulfurization Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * SEnergy studies onDie Casting

  3. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

    Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

  6. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  12. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  13. Natural Gas Purchasing Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  14. Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contained in cylinders display chemical hazards that include toxic, flammable, corrosive, pyrophoric on their side but stored in a way to prevent damage to the product label. In a free standing gas cylinder the height of the cylinder. So that the cylinder label is easily viewed. On a dry surface allowing no contact

  15. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  16. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  17. Natural Gas Purchasing Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  18. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  19. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  20. Chemically reacting plumes, gas hydrate dissociation and dendrite solidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conroy, Devin Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II Gas hydrates Introductionto gas hydrates . . . . . . . . . . 1.127 Gas hydrate dissociation in porous media . 1.

  1. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    NATURAL GAS HYDRATES – ISSUES FOR GAS PRODUCTION AND GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY A Dissertation by TARUN GROVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering NATURAL GAS HYDRATES – ISSUES FOR GAS PRODUCTION AND GEOMECHANICAL STABILITY A Dissertation by TARUN GROVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  2. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  3. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  5. Molecular Gas in Early-type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alatalo, Katherine Anne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    toward the center (first seen in the molecular gas in A+3.4 Molecular Gas Mass . . . . . . .of the molecular gas . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 Mass of

  6. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  7. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  8. Marine electromagnetic methods for gas hydrate characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitemeyer, Karen Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . .1.2.1 Distribution of Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 Importance of Gas Hydrates . . . . .

  9. Marine Electromagnetic Methods for Gas Hydrate Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitemeyer, Karen A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . .1.2.1 Distribution of Gas Hydrates . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 Importance of Gas Hydrates . . . . .

  10. Citizens Gas- Commercial Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to commercial customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances, as well as certain equipment upgrades and tune-up services....

  11. Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

  12. Gas Utility Pipeline Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All gas utilities, including any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as...

  13. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  14. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  15. Regulation of Natural Gas (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation provides for the protection of public and private interests with regards to natural gas production, prohibits waste, and compels ratable production to enable owners of gas in a...

  16. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  17. The Gas/Electric Partnership 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as this occurs. Through an Electric Power Research Institute initiative, an inter-industry organization, the Gas/Electric Partnership, has formed between the electric utilities and gas pipelines. The initial focus of this partnership is to explore issues...

  18. Natural Gas Rules (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules apply to any gas utility operating within the State of North Carolina under the jurisdiction of the North Carolina Utilities Commission and also to interstate natural gas companies...

  19. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  20. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  2. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  3. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy coupled with carbon capture and storage, could yieldcoal to natural gas shift, carbon capture and sequestration,

  4. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  13. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

  19. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  20. Gas Slow Control System Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Universitŕ di

    AMS-02 TRD Gas Slow Control System Specifications v 4.2 26-06-2006 A. Bartoloni, B. Borgia, F. Bucci, F. R. Spada INFN Sezione di Roma 1- Roma, Italy #12;2/45 #12;3/45 1. ABSTRACT 5 2. GAS SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 5 3. GAS CONTROL SYSTEM 8 4. CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS 12 a. Universal Control System