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1

Method for processing coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

Goldin, I.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant  

SciTech Connect

ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

Trevino, O. (Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

SciTech Connect

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process  

SciTech Connect

The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

Knight, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Organic Sulphur Transfers in Coke Oven Gas via Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic sulfur transformation was studied during coke oven gas to produce syngas via noncatalytic partial oxidation. The concentration of CS2 and thiophene was examined in syngas by sulfide detector. For comparison, the sulfur transfer was also studied ... Keywords: Organic sulfur transfer, Coke oven gas, CS2, thiophene

Guojie Zhang; Yongfa Zhang; Xianglan Li; Hongcheng Cao

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dale Coke Photo by Benjamin J. Myers.2009. Coke FarmDale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

Not Available

1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

22

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

23

Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology  

SciTech Connect

Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

Lynch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

Rezunenko, Y.I.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

Zemblevskii, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2004-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

34

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

36

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential New Construction Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential New Construction Rebate Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential New Construction Rebate Program Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential New Construction Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Construction Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Builder Incentive: $800 - $2300 Provider Black Hills Energy Black Hills Energy offers new construction rebates for home builders in the eligible service area. Rebates between $800 and $5,000 are available for a range of efficiency measures incorporated into home construction. Qualifying homes must use natural gas and meet the minimum efficiency

38

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

39

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

40

Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Black Hills Energy offers multiple programs for Colorado commercial and industrial customers to save natural gas in eligible facilities. The commercial prescriptive rebate program provides...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate All Incentives: $750/customer Ceiling/Wall/Foundation Insulation: $500 Infiltration Control/Caulking/Weather Stripping: $200 Duct Insulation: $150 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Qualified New Homes (Builders): Contact Black Hills Energy Evaluations: Free or reduced cost Storage Water Heater: $75 or $300 Tankless Water Heater: $300 Furnace/Boiler Maintenance: $30 or $100

43

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Construction Design & Remodeling Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate General: Contact Black Hills Energy; Rebates over $10,000 must be pre-approved Ceiling/Wall Insulation: $10,000 Infiltration Control: $1,500 Energy Evaluations: $1500 Custom: 50% of incremental cost Program Info Start Date 7/1/2010 State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program

44

Trends in the automation of coke production  

SciTech Connect

Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Appliances & Electronics Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Water Heating Maximum Rebate Insulation: $750 Weather-Stripping and Caulking: $200 Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Evaluation: Free Clothes Washers: $100 Dishwashers: $20 Replacement Furnaces: $250 - $400 Replacement Boilers: $150 or $400 Duct Repair/Sealing: $200 Duct Insulation (R-8): $150 Insulation/Weather-Stripping/Caulking: 70% of project cost

46

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

SciTech Connect

Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coke | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

18 18 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278418 Varnish cache server Coke Dataset Summary Description UK National coal (and solid fuels and gases derived from processing coal) are published in Chapter 2 (Solid Fuels and Derived Gases) of the Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES). Included here are the datasets for commodity balances (1998 - 2009); supply and consumption (2005 - 2009) of coal and other fuels (e.g. coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, benzole and tars, etc). Chapter 2 of the report is available: http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/Statistics/publications/dukes/308-dukes-2010-ch2.pdf Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

49

File:EIA-BlackWarrior-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Black Warrior Basin By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Black Warrior Basin By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 14.53 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Black Warrior Basin By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Alabama, Mississippi File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 17:52, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 17:52, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (14.53 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

50

Petroleum Coke VBD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production: Petroleum Coke VBD ... of Calcined Petroleum Coke: Jignesh Panchal1; Mark Wyborney1; ...

51

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors for production of coal products -- patent fuel, cokeoven coke,coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and briquettes (BKB) --

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

United States crude slate is becoming heavier and generally higher in sulfur. At the same time demand of distillate products is increasing. Refiners are reworking their plans to include resid conversion via coking and approximately 230,000 BPD of new coking capacity is either under construction or announced. Even if 50 percent of the coke produced is exported, there will be an excess capacity of coke selling at less than $30/ton depending upon the sulfur content. This coke can be gasified effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per million Btu in 1990. The paper will discuss three gasifiers - Gesellschaft fur Kohle-Technologie Gmbh (GKT), Texaco and Westinghouse which may be used for the production of medium-Btu gas from coke. The design parameters, which for coke gasification may be different from coal gasification because of the difference in physical and chemical characteristics of coke and coal, will be evaluated. Conceptual design will be performed based upon normal fuel requirements of about 20 billion Btu per day for a typical 50,000 BPD refinery. Adaptability of coke derived gas to refinery fuel systems will be discussed in terms of flame temperatures, flue gas volumes, derating and required furnace modifications. Estimates of capital and operating costs will be obtained to calculate the gas cost using the new tax laws. Finally, the GKT gasifier will be compared to the developing Texaco and Westinghouse gasifiers to assess the effect of second generation gasifiers on the economics of coke gasification.

Patel, S. S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Coke briquettes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a briquette suitable for use as an auxiliary fuel in a shaft furnace for melting of mineral in the manufacture of mineral wool which comprises: 30-75% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquettes, of particles of coke fines or coal fines or both, the fines consisting essentially of particles having a particle size of from 2 to 25 mm; at least 7% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquette, of a hydraulic binder; and at least 15% by weight, based on the dry weight of the briquette, of a fine grain oxidic mineral component selected from the group consisting of sand, slag, stone powder, fly ash, limestone powder, dolomite powder, silicon dioxide, and waste material from mineral wool manufacturer, the fine grain oxidic mineral component having a particle size of less than 2 mm.

Anderson, D.B.; Juhlin, N.J.W.; Gillenium, C.I.; Kjell-Berger, O.; Brinck, O.R.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

54

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

57

Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

58

Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Black...

59

Water-Gas Samples At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Samples At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

60

Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke ... " Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke Beyond 1600'C" by Christopher A. Paul of Great Lakes ...

62

"Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " "," ","Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","for ","Residual","and","Natural","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION",2,3,6,2,4,9

63

Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Black Hills Energy offers commercial and industrial customers incentives to encourage energy efficiency in eligible businesses. Prescriptive rebates are available for furnace and boiler...

64

Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black Warrior Area Exploration Technique Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Gas_Sampling_At_Black_Warrior_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=689412" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities ARRA Funded Activities

65

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

Rhodes, A.K.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

67

Investigating factors that influence carbon dissolution from Coke into Molten iron.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for more efficient blast furnaces is even greater now that there are stricter environmental regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coke within the… (more)

Cham, S. Tsuey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Definition: Coke | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coke A solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal; used as a fuel and a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from...

69

Met coke world summit 2005  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

71

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: I: Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: Session I: Petroleum Coke. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Jean-Claude Thomas , Aluminium ...

72

Coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants  

SciTech Connect

Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

76

Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Influence of Coke Calcining Parameters on Petroleum Coke ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 1, 1985 ... TMS Student Member price: 0.00. Product In Stock. Description All physical and chemical properties of petroleum coke are determined by three ...

78

Factors influencing coke gasification with carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Of all coke properties the influence of the catalytic mineral matter on reactivity of metallurgical cokes is least understood. There is limited information about the… (more)

Grigore, Mihaela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Residential demand for natural gas by black and nonblack households in the Midwest  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comparative analysis of natural gas demand by black and nonblack households in the Midwest census region. Historically, such comparative analyses have been grounded in comparisons of the share of income spent for energy (see Newman and Day, 1975; Grier, 1979; and Brazzel and Hunter, 1979). Because of theoretical flaws associated with this approach, our analysis is couched within a complete demand system (see Morrissey, 1984) in which certain restrictions required by consumer demand theory are imposed on our energy demand system. This approach should provide more precise measurement of the relative nature of natural gas demand. Philips (1983), Deaton and Muellbauer (1980), and Theil (1980), along with Morrissev, provide fine discussions of the complete demand system. Our working hypothesis is that the structural demand relationship for natural gas is different for black and nonblack households and that this difference reflects the greater vulnerability of blacks to rising prices of natural gas. Because of deficient economic resources and a long legacy of institutional constraints such as financial red-lining and housing discrimination, as well as lingering behavioral characteristics, it remains difficult for blacks to move out of energy-inefficient housing. This, in turn, corresponds directly to a larger energy demand burden for blacks in the Midwest. This paper is organized into four sections. The first section provides the historical background upon which our analysis is based. The second section is a discussion of our demand model. Our empirical results are described in the third section. In the fourth and final section, our conclusions and suggestions for future research are presented. 18 refs., 7 tabs.

Poyer, D.A.; Johnson, G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Coke from coal and petroleum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Definition: Petroleum coke | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coke coke Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Petroleum coke A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking (breaking of carbon-carbon bonds). This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke.Coke from petroleum has a heating value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Petroleum coke (often abbreviated Pet coke or petcoke) is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. Other coke has traditionally been derived from coal. This coke can either be fuel grade (high in sulphur and metals) or anode grade (low in sulphur and metals). The raw coke directly out of the coker is often

82

Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in oil refining technology and economics are driving refiners to utilize thermal processes to maximize the conversion of heavy crude oil components to clean products. Since the primary unit operation to accomplish this objective is the coking unit, more cokers are being built, and existing cokers are being operated to maximum capacity utilization. SRI recently completed an assignment for a refiner interested in converting the by-product fluid coke from his unit to electricity. This paper presents the operating history of US based plants converting petroleum coke to electricity, and presents generic economics for the conversion process utilizing three primary technologies available: conventional pulverized coke combustion, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, and coke gasification combined cycle power production.

Pavone, A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Georgia Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Georgia Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

84

Minnesota Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Minnesota Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

85

Nuclear spirals: gas in asymmetric galactic potential with a massive black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear spirals can provide a wealth of information about the nuclear potential in disc galaxies. They form naturally as a gas response to non-axisymmetry in the gravitational potential, even if the degree of this asymmetry is very small. Linear wave theory well describes weak nuclear spirals, but stronger asymmetries in the potential induce waves beyond the linear regime, which appear as spiral shocks. If a central massive black hole (MBH) is present, spiral shocks can extend all the way to its immediate vicinity, and generate gas inflow up to 0.03 Msun/yr. This coincides with the accretion rates needed to power local Active Galactic Nuclei.

Maciejewski, W

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Nuclear spirals: gas in asymmetric galactic potential with a massive black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear spirals can provide a wealth of information about the nuclear potential in disc galaxies. They form naturally as a gas response to non-axisymmetry in the gravitational potential, even if the degree of this asymmetry is very small. Linear wave theory well describes weak nuclear spirals, but stronger asymmetries in the potential induce waves beyond the linear regime, which appear as spiral shocks. If a central massive black hole (MBH) is present, spiral shocks can extend all the way to its immediate vicinity, and generate gas inflow up to 0.03 Msun/yr. This coincides with the accretion rates needed to power local Active Galactic Nuclei.

Witold Maciejewski

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Coping with the Decline in Coke Quality – Using Onsite Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... coke (CPC), the blending of non-traditional cokes (NTAC's) has increased. ... Prebaked Anode from Coal - Utilization of Coal Extract as a Coke Feedstock-.

89

New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Experimental study of elastoplastic mechanical properties of coke drum materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes the… (more)

Chen, Jie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategy Distributions for Coke (First Quarter 1977) a)Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE ADVERTISINGEconomics July, 1998 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and

Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Prediction of Calcined Coke Bulk Density - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to changing green coke quality, a reliable forecast of the calcined coke VBD from small green coke samples is required. The VBD can be predicted from ...

93

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants.

Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F. [Texaco, Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies Project Description The project area encompasses 6,273 acres of both private and federal lands including water and surface rights. It is reasonable to expect a capacity of about 20 MW. GeothermEx estimated a potential capacity of 40 MW. Black Warrior is a large blind geothermal prospect near the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation that was identified by reconnaissance temperature gradient drilling in the 1980s by Philips Petroleum but was never tested through deep exploration drilling. Although the 10 square miles of high heat flow in the area reveals significant energy potential it also makes selection of an optimal exploration drilling target difficult.

97

U.S. Imports of Petroleum Coke Marketable (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Marketable Petroleum Coke Supply and Disposition; Petroleum Coke Imports from All Countries; U.S. Imports from All Countries ...

98

Gas fueling and nuclear disk formation in merging between a central black hole and a gas clump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We numerically investigate dynamical evolution of a merger between a central massive black hole (MBH) and a gas clump with the mass of $10^6$ $-$ $10^7$ $M_{\\odot}$ in the central tens pc of a galactic bulge. We found that strong tidal gravitational field of the MBH transforms the initial spherical clump into a moderately thick gaseous disk (or torus) around the MBH. The developed disk is also found to show rotation, essentially because the tidal field changes efficiently the orbital angular momentum of the clump into intrinsic angular momentum of the disk. Furthermore about a few percent of gas mass (corresponding to a few $10^5$ $M_{\\odot}$) in the clump is found to be transferred to the central sub-parsec region around the MBH within an order of $10^6$ yr. We thus suggest that successive merging of gas clumps onto a MBH can not only be associated closely with the formation of nuclear disk around the MBH but also can provide gas fuel for the MBH.

Kenji Bekki

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Advanced Green Petroleum Coke Calcination In Electrothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Fluidization Technologies for the Mineral, Materials, and Energy Industries. Presentation Title, Advanced Green Petroleum Coke Calcination In ...

100

Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

Craig N. Eatough

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Study of Modified Semi-Coke on the Advanced Treatment of Coking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass of absorbent and absorption time had put much on the removal rate of oil in coke wastewater. The removal rate of oil in coke wastewater could be above ...

106

Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence  

SciTech Connect

The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov [ZAO Trest Koksokhimmontazh (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Influence of the batch's coke-ore ratio and distribution on the porosity of the melting zone  

SciTech Connect

The variation in gas permeability in the melting zone is considered as a function of the height and configuration of the coke packing and the ore component of the batch.

V.P. Tarasov; L.V. Bykov; P.V. Tarasov [Priazovsk State Technical University, Mariupol (Ukraine)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Entrained Flow Gasification of Oil Sand Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of blending woody biomass material with fluid coke and coal on the co-pyrolysis process was investigated in an entrained flow gasifier. The SEM… (more)

Vejahati, Farshid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Characterization of Packing Ability of Coke Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VBD is conventionally used in anode industry to determine the required amount of pitch and fine coke. VBD may be achieved by dense particles while they do ...

110

Estimating Coke and Pepsi's price and advertising strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI’ PRICE S ANDand Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan,Revised, March 1999 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and

Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Natural gas distributed throughout the Marcellus black shale in northern Appalachia could boost proven U.S. gas reserves by trillions of cubic feet (see http://live.psu.edu/story/28116).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas distributed throughout the Marcellus black shale in northern Appalachia could boost proven U.S. gas reserves by trillions of cubic feet (see http://live.psu.edu/story/28116). A recent gas exploration and extraction. In return for lease rights, parties recovering gas customarily pay

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

113

Evolution of Anode Grade Calcined Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term "anode grade coke" has been used as a broad definition to describe delayed coke with a sponge structure containing relatively low levels of trace ...

114

Strength of the coke fillers of carbon materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between the ultimate compression strengths of coke fillers for carbon materials determined by various techniques and structures, final coke treatment temperatures, etc., are considered.

V.S. Ostrovskii [Research Institute of Structural Graphite Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

117

Improving the Precision and Productivity of Green Coke VCM Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green cokes with high VCM (>12%) are more difficult to calcine and result in a higher porosity and lower bulk density in calcined coke. The paper will review ...

118

Observations on the Coke Air Reactivity Test - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke air reactivities are strongly dependent on coke calcination levels and it is possible to drive air reactivities lower by increasing calcining temperatures.

119

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

120

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Colorado Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

124

Performance analysis of compositional and modified black-oil models for rich gas condensate reservoirs with vertical and horizontal wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been known that volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs cannot be modeled accurately with conventional black-oil models. One variation to the black-oil approach is the modified black-oil (MBO) model that allows the use of a simple, and less expensive computational algorithm than a fully compositional model that can result in significant timesaving in full field studies. The MBO model was tested against the fully compositional model and performances of both models were compared using various production and injection scenarios for a rich gas condensate reservoir. The software used to perform the compositional and MBO runs were Eclipse 300 and Eclipse 100 versions 2002A. The effects of black-oil PVT table generation methods, uniform composition and compositional gradient with depth, initialization methods, location of the completions, production and injection rates, kv/kh ratios on the performance of the MBO model were investigated. Vertical wells and horizontal wells with different drain hole lengths were used. Contrary to the common belief that oil-gas ratio versus depth initialization gives better representation of original fluids in place, initializations with saturation pressure versus depth gave closer original fluids in place considering the true initial fluids in place are given by the fully compositional model initialized with compositional gradient. Compared to the compositional model, results showed that initially there was a discrepancy in saturation pressures with depth in the MBO model whether it was initialized with solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) and oil-gas ratio (OGR) or dew point pressure versus depth tables. In the MBO model this discrepancy resulted in earlier condensation and lower oil production rates than compositional model at the beginning of the simulation. Unrealistic vaporization in the MBO model was encountered in both natural depletion and cycling cases. Oil saturation profiles illustrated the differences in condensate saturation distribution for the near wellbore area and the entire reservoir even though the production performance of the models was in good agreement. The MBO model representation of compositional phenomena for a gas condensate reservoir proved to be successful in the following cases: full pressure maintenance, reduced vertical communication, vertical well with upper completions, and producer set as a horizontal well.

Izgec, Bulent

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Pace forecasts that by the year 2000 petroleum coke production will increase from 36 million to 47 million short tons/year. Because the crude pool will continue to become more sour and refiners treat the coker as the "garbage can" the quality of the petroleum cokes will generally degrade- contain higher sulfur and trace metal levels. The U.S. produces nearly 70% of the total and is expected to maintain this share. Domestic markets consumed less than half of the U.S. production; 80% of the high sulfur fuel grade production from the Gulf coast is exported to Japan or Europe. Increasing environmental concerns could disrupt historic markets and threaten coker operations. This would create opportunities for alternate end-uses such as cogeneration projects. The Pace Consultants Inc. continuously monitors and reports on the petroleum coke industry-production and markets-in its multi-client publication The Pace Petroleum Coke Ouarterly. The information presented in this paper is based on this involvement and Pace's experience in single and multi client consulting activities related to the petroleum refining and petroleum coke industries. The purpose is to provide a review of the existing world petroleum coke industry with particular emphasis on the U.S. production and markets. Forecasted production levels and critical factors which could alter the historic market disposition of petroleum coke are addressed.

Dymond, R. E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method for the wet quenching of coke  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for the wet quenching of coke is disclosed wherein hot coke is sprayed from above with quenching water, the steam generated by the heat of the coke is condensed by a spray of condensation water from the top of the quenching tower, and the hot condensate-water mixture is collected at the bottom of the quenching tower and recirculated to the top of the tower where it is sprayed between quenching operations to be cooled by a counterflowing stream of air. The cooled condensate water mixture is suitable for reuse as the condensation spray water.

Blase, M.; Flockenhaus, C.; Wagener, D.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

129

Spatial variation of coke quality in the non-recovery beehive coke ovens.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??More than 50% of hot metal production worldwide takes place in blast furnaces. Coke is the most expensive raw material in the blast furnace. It… (more)

Segers, Magrieta

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?  

SciTech Connect

In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

Ruffini, A.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

New and revised standards for coke production  

SciTech Connect

The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Understanding the Nuclear Gas Dispersion in Early-Type Galaxies in the Context of Black Hole Demographics 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The majority of nearby early-type galaxies contains detectable amounts of emissionline gas at their centers. The nuclear gas kinematics form a valuable diagnostic of the central black hole (BH) mass. Here we analyze and model HST/STIS observations of a sample of 27 galaxies; 16 Fanaroff & Riley Type I radio galaxies and 11 (more) normal early-type galaxies. We focus here on what can be learned from the nuclear velocity dispersion (line width) of the gas as a complement to the many studies dealing with gas rotation velocities. We find that the dispersion in a STIS aperture of ? 0.1 ? ? – 0.2 ? ? generally exceeds the large-scale stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxy. This is qualitatively consistent with the presence of central BHs, but raises the questions whether the excess gas dispersion is of gravitational or non-gravitational origin and whether the implied BH masses are consistent with our current understanding of BH demography (as predicted by the M ? ? relation between BH mass and stellar velocity dispersion). To address this we construct purely gravitational axisymmetric dynamical models for the gas, both thin disk models and models with more general axis ratios and

Gijs A. Verdoes Kleijn; P. Van Der Marel; Jacob Noel-storr

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Analysis of Devonian Black Shales in Kentucky for Potential Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Enhanced Natural Gas Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonaceous (black) Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In these shales, natural gas occurs in the intergranular and fracture porosity and is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO2 is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO2. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine both CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO2 displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO2 adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton in the more organic-rich zones. There is a direct linear correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO2 adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial volumetric estimates based on these data indicate a CO2 sequestration capacity of as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. In the Big Sandy Gas Field area of eastern Kentucky, calculations using the net thickness of shale with 4 percent or greater total organic carbon, indicate that 6.8 billion tonnes of CO2 could be sequestered in the five county area. Discounting the uncertainties in reservoir volume and injection efficiency, these results indicate that the black shales of Kentucky are a potentially large geologic sink for CO2. Moreover, the extensive occurrence of gas shales in Paleozoic and Mesozoic basins across North America make them an attractive regional target for economic CO2 storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall; Cortland F. Eble; James A. Drahovzal; R. Marc Bustin

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Design, construction and start-up of a modern coke plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The planning and design of a 60-oven, 6m replacement coke battery and associated by-products plant for Republic Steel Corp, Chicago, are described together with the constructional methods used and problems experienced through start-up of the facility. Pushing emission control is achieved with a Mitsubishi-type land-based system and changing emission control with a Nippon Steel combination car and land-based system. A Takahax-Hirohax coke-oven gas desulphurization unit is included in the by-product plant. Construction began in March 1979 with the first push in December 1981.

Williams, A.E.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

An Efficient Strategy to Select Targets for Gas-Dynamical Measurements of Black Hole Masses Using the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-dynamical studies using the Hubble Space Telescope are an integral component for future progress in the search for massive black holes in galactic nuclei. Here we present an extensive set of gas rotation curves obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph for the central regions of 23 disk galaxies. We find that the bulges of randomly selected, nearby spiral and S0 galaxies generally do not contain well-defined gaseous disks. Only 15%-20% of disk galaxies have regular, symmetric velocity fields useful for dynamical analysis. Through comparison of the kinematics with Hubble Space Telescope images of the nuclear regions, we show that the probability of success can be significantly boosted by preselecting objects whose central dust lanes follow a well-ordered, circularly symmetric pattern. The dust morphology can be ascertained efficiently by visual inspection of unsharp-masked images.

Luis C. Ho; Marc Sarzi; Hans-Walter Rix; Joseph C. Shields; Greg Rudnick; Alexei V. Filippenko; Aaron J. Barth

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

An Efficient Strategy to Select Targets for Gas-Dynamical Measurements of Black Hole Masses Using the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-dynamical studies using the Hubble Space Telescope are an integral component for future progress in the search for massive black holes in galactic nuclei. Here we present an extensive set of gas rotation curves obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph for the central regions of 23 disk galaxies. We find that the bulges of randomly selected, nearby spiral and S0 galaxies generally do not contain well-defined gaseous disks. Only 15%-20% of disk galaxies have regular, symmetric velocity fields useful for dynamical analysis. Through comparison of the kinematics with Hubble Space Telescope images of the nuclear regions, we show that the probability of success can be significantly boosted by preselecting objects whose central dust lanes follow a well-ordered, circularly symmetric pattern. The dust morphology can be ascertained efficiently by visual inspection of unsharp-masked images.

Ho, L C; Rix, H W; Shields, J C; Rudnick, G; Filippenko, A V; Barth, A J; Ho, Luis C.; Sarzi, Marc; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shields, Joseph C.; Rudnick, Greg; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Barth, Aaron J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

142

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

143

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

Brandon C. Nuttall

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Characterization of Petroleum Coke and Butts Used in Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Particulate Composites. Presentation Title, Characterization of Petroleum Coke ...

147

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

148

U.S. Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Marketable Petroleum Coke Production Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

149

Effect of Coke particle size on sinter quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, EMPMD Technical Division Student Poster Contest. Presentation Title, Effect of Coke particle size ...

150

Effect of Trace Elements on Anaerobic Digestion of Coking Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pretreatment of coking wastewater using ASBR was conducted at 35? in this paper. The addition of trace elements to the anaerobic reactor has positive effect on the anaerobic treatment of coking wastewater, but too much or too little of it will ... Keywords: trace elements, anaerobic digestion, coking wastewater

Yu-ying Li; Bing Li

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Financial Analysis for Developing CDM Project in the Coke Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the coke plant, the traditional coke wet quenching method is to be used to cool down the red hot coke and waste heat is released to the atmosphere in China. There are a lot of smog, particles, cyanide, sulphide and etc. mixtures within the waste heat. ... Keywords: CDQ technology, CO2 emission reductions, financial analysis, potential calculation, recycle sustainable development

Ma Xiuqin; Huang Chao; Wu Guoning

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fundamental factors influencing coke strength.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) In an ironmaking blast furnace solid-gas reactions are important and the rate of iron production is strongly dependent… (more)

Curran, Joel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Water protection in coke-plant design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash collection efficiency.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Price of dwindling supply of better-quality coke will trend upward during this decade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the markets for petroleum coke with particular emphasis on the USA. The factors affecting the price of Green Coke are examined. It is considered that the price of any coke is set by the mix of markets available to the market based on demand. However, refiners producing similar quality cokes, will not necessarily receive the same netback price even if their cokes are sold to the same mix of markets. Calcined coke is used almost exclusively by the Aluminium industry thus green coke prices are indirectly tied to those of Aluminium as green coke is the primary carbon source for the calcined coke market.

Fasullo, P.; Tarrillion, T.; Matson, J.

1982-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

160

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

SciTech Connect

A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Method for reducing coke oven carbonization pressure  

SciTech Connect

A method of reducing the carbonization pressure in the coking of coal is provided which comprises randomly dispersing flakes through the coal, said flakes formed of a material that does not pass through a plastic phase such as pressed sawdust wherein the flakes have a thickness of between about 1/8 '' and about 3/4 '' and a length and width of between about 1'' and about 5''.

Perch, M.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Exports U.S. Coke Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 162,796 79,217 201,795 242,013 340,944 -29.0 Canada* 73,859 17,837 112,348 91,696 161,596 -43.3 Mexico 88,535 60,517 86,721 149,052 176,163 -15.4 Other** 402 863 2,726 1,265 3,185 -60.3 South America Total 223 217 591 440 1,158 -62.0 Other** 223 217 591 440 1,158 -62.0 Europe Total 48,972 59,197 - 108,169 6 NM Other** 347 11,743 - 12,090 - - United Kingdom 48,625 47,454 - 96,079 6 NM Asia Total 317 553 633 870 4,778

163

Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Imports U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 10,284 2,293 159,462 12,577 183,712 -93.2 Canada 3,009 2,293 159,462 5,302 183,712 -97.1 Panama 7,275 - - 7,275 - - South America Total 25,267 13,030 88,424 38,297 106,612 -64.1 Brazil - - 78,595 - 78,595 - Colombia 25,267 13,030 9,829 38,297 28,017 36.7 Europe Total 6,044 40,281 165,027 46,325 485,791 -90.5 Czech Republic - 170 - 170 - - Spain 363 - - 363 - - Ukraine 5,681 40,111 5,047 45,792 53,543 -14.5 United Kingdom

164

The Interplay Between Galaxies and Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Interplay Between Galaxies and Black Holes A Theoretical Overview Massimo Ricotti (U · Formation of "Seed Black Holes" 1. Primordial Black Holes 2. Pop III Stars Remnants 3. Direct Collapse 4. Stellar Dynamics · Black Hole Growth 1. Gas Accretion vs BH-BH Mergers 2. Feeding Black Holes » M

Maryland at College Park, University of

165

Reducing Power Production Costs by Utilizing Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke. It is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance, and is generally less reactive than coal. Therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the comb...

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Design and economics for low pressure delayed coking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current refining trend is to run heavier crudes with a growing emphasis on bottom of the barrel resid upgrading. In general, a reduction in light crude availability and a corresponding increase in the price differential between light and heavy crudes makes the processing of heavier crudes highly attractive. US Department of Energy data indicate that between 1985 and 1989 the average API gravity of crude being processed in the US dropped from 32.46 to 32.14 degrees while the average sulfur content increased 0.15 wt%. As crudes get heavier and the demand for light, clean fuels increases, expanded resid upgrading capacity is rapidly becoming a necessity for most refiners. The coking process has existed since the early 1900's, and delayed coking is still favored as a relatively low cost resid upgrading option. Consistent with the objective of maximizing resid conversion, recent trends in delayed coking include maximizing liquid yields and reducing the production of petroleum coke by operating coke drums at lower pressures. Typically, the incremental liquid gained at lower pressures is worth significantly more than coke and can be further upgraded to lighter products. In addition, the driving force to minimize coke make has been accelerated by the worsening quality of crude oils. As vacuum resid feedstocks become heavier, contaminants in coke such as sulfur and metals are increased, making the coke less marketable. In the case of an existing coker which is capacity limited by coke make, a reduction in coke yield can be quite valuable. This paper discusses the design features and presents the economics associated with building a low pressure delayed coker with a 15 psig coke drum operating pressure versus a more conventional 25 psig design.

Bansal, B.B.; Moretta, J.C.; Gentry, A.R. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Vibrated bulk density (VBD) is a quantitative measurement used in the aluminum industry to evaluate the density of calcined petroleum coke.

168

Impurity Removal from Petroleum Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Impurity Removal from Petroleum Coke. Author(s), Alexandre Gagnon, Hans Darmstadt, Nigel Backhouse, Esme Ryan, Laurence Dyer, David ...

169

Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vibrated Bulk Density (VBD) of Calcined Petroleum Coke and Implications of Changes in the ASTM Method D4292. Author(s), Bill Spencer, ...

170

Coking is a refinery process that produces 19% of finished ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Financial market analysis and financial data ... hydraulically cutting the coke using water. ... to a heater as a fluidized solid where some of it is ...

171

Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1993 ... Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium Sensitivity of Carbon Anodes by S.M. Hume ... TMS Student Member price: 0.00.

172

Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level – Application and Reproducibility of Lc Based Methods. Author(s), Stein ...

173

Use of Coal Tar Pitch Coke for Producing Prebaked Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study was conducted in order to (1) find an alternative material to petroleum coke due to its high cost and deteriorating properties, and (2) determine the ...

174

Modélisation thermomécanique d'un piédroit de four à coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Inscrite dans le cadre du projet européen Coke Oven Operating Limits, cette thèse porte sur la modélisation thermomécanique d'un piédroit de cokerie. Le piédroit est… (more)

Landreau, Matthieu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Discrete Element Method Applied to the Vibration Process of Coke ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, effects of particle shape and size distribution on vibrated bulk density (VBD) of dry coke samples have been investigated. Discrete Element ...

176

Increasing Coke Impurities – Is this Really a Problem for Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Increases in the Vanadium and Nickel content of anode grade coke in recent years have predictably affected smelter metal quality. This has now ...

177

Adsorptive removal of nitrogen from coal-based needle coke feedstocks using activated carbon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A low percentage of nitrogen in needle coke feedstocks is desired for the reduction of puffing during the process of graphitization of needle coke. The… (more)

Madala, Sreeja.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Prediction of Coke Quality in Ironmaking Process: A Data Mining Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke is an indispensable material in Ironmaking process by blast furnace. To provide good and constant quality coke for stable and efficient blast furance operation… (more)

Hsieh, Hsu-huang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

THE RESPONSE OF METAL-RICH GAS TO X-RAY IRRADIATION FROM A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PROOF OF CONCEPT  

SciTech Connect

Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.

Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

U.S. Exports to Saudi Arabia of Petroleum Coke (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination; Saudi Arabia Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination ...

182

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination; South Africa Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination ...

183

Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the coke profile with respect to time on stream and the change of product distribution due to catalyst deactivation. A fixed bed reactor was used to conduct this investigation. A series of runs were conducted using the Engelhard catalyst with fixed operating conditions. The only variable was the time on stream of each run. Six experiments were conducted starting with one hour time on stream up to six hours with an increment of one hour. In each experiment data on product flow rate, reactor temperature, and product distribution were collected. And at the end of each run, the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst was measured. Hydrogen concentration in the product distribution decreased as a function of time on stream. On the other hand, low and high end hydrocarbons increased with time on stream. The coke deposition kinetics for the catalyst at the process operating conditions can be estimated using Voorhies' empirical formula. The coke profile inside the reactor showed that the coke reaction follows a parallel mechanism to the main reaction. Ethylene was found to be the main coke precursor; however, the participation of methane in the coke reaction could not be neglected.

Al-Solami, Bandar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

BLACK ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLACK ISSUES :: Your Portal To Diversity :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: http transactions in recent years include Viacom's acquisition of Black Entertainment Television, NBC's purchase Bookshelf Events Tech Briefs - more - #12;BLACK ISSUES :: Your Portal To Diversity

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

187

Del Black  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Del Black Del Black dblack.jpg Del C. Black HPC Technician, Operations Technology Group, DCBlack@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-6821 , Fax: (510) 486-4316 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop...

188

Black Funnels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hartle-Hawking state of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM at strong coupling and large $N$ on a fixed black hole background has two proposed gravitational duals: a black funnel or a black droplet. We construct the black funnel solutions that are dual to the Hartle-Hawking state on a Schwarzschild black hole and on a class of three-dimensional asymptotically flat black hole backgrounds. We compute their holographic stress tensor and argue for the stability of these solutions.

Santos, Jorge E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Black Funnels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hartle-Hawking state of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM at strong coupling and large $N$ on a fixed black hole background has two proposed gravitational duals: a black funnel or a black droplet. We construct the black funnel solutions that are dual to the Hartle-Hawking state on a Schwarzschild black hole and on a class of three-dimensional asymptotically flat black hole backgrounds. We compute their holographic stress tensor and argue for the stability of these solutions.

Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Catalyst Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

191

Comprehensive Effect of Coke Breeze and Limestone Particle Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

192

Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Census Division June 30, 2013 March 31, 2013 June 30, 2012 Percent Change (June 30) 2013 versus 2012 Middle Atlantic w w w w East North Central 1,313 1,177 1,326 -1.0 South Atlantic w w w w East South Central w w w w U.S. Total 2,500 2,207 2,295 8.9 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants.'

193

U.S. Ending Stocks of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Ending Stocks of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 4,502: ...

194

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 50,292: ...

195

U.S. Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Petroleum Coke Consumed at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: ...

196

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 2,754: 4,394: 3,722: 3,995: 5,211: ...

197

U.S. Petroleum Coke Stocks at Refineries (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Petroleum Coke Stocks at Refineries (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 10,747: 11,072: 11,444: ...

198

Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV Jump to: navigation, search Name Nippon Coke and Engineering & Sumitomo Corp JV Place Tokyo, Japan Zip 135-6007 Product Japan-based natural...

199

Douglas Black  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R. Black Doug Black Indoor Environment Group Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90-3058 Berkeley CA 94720 Office...

200

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hydrodesulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Decant Oils for the Production of Low-sulfur Needle Coke Feedstocks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Needle coke, produced by the delayed coking of fluid catalytic cracking decant oils, is the primary filler used in the production of graphite electrodes. The… (more)

Wincek, Ronald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in nonsmokers: a biomarker for coke smoke exposure and general urban PAH exposure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation research examined the validity of urinary 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAH for coke production workers and non-coke oven workers in Anshan City,… (more)

Han, In-Kyu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Understanding the Nuclear Gas Dispersion in Early-Type Galaxies in the Context of Black Hole Demographics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) We analyze and model HST /STIS observations of a sample of 27 galaxies; 16 Fanaroff & Riley Type I radio galaxies and 11 (more) normal early-type galaxies. We focus here on what can be learned from the nuclear velocity dispersion (line width) of the gas as a complement to the many studies dealing with gas rotation velocities. We find that the dispersion in a STIS aperture of ~0.1''-0.2'' generally exceeds the large-scale stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxy. This is qualitatively consistent with the presence of central BHs, but raises the question whether the excess gas dispersion is of gravitational or non-gravitational origin and whether the implied BH masses are consistent with our current understanding of BH demography(as predicted by the M-sigma relation between BH mass and stellar velocity dispersion). To address this we construct dynamical models for the gas, both thin disk models and models with more general axis ratios and velocity anisotropies. For the normal galaxies the nuclear gas dispersions are adequately reproduced assuming disks around BHs with masses that follow the M-sigma relation. In contrast, the gas dispersions observed for the radio galaxies generally exceed those predicted by any of the models. We attribute this to the presence of non-gravitational motions in the gas that are similar to or larger than the gravitational motions. The non- gravitational motions are presumably driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we do not find a relation between the radiative output of the AGN and the non-gravitational dispersion. It is not possible to uniquely determine the BH mass for each galaxy from its nuclear gas dispersion. However, for the sample as a whole the observed dispersions do not provide evidence for significant deviations from the M-sigma relation.

Gijs Verdoes Kleijn; Roeland van der Marel; Jacob Noel-Storr

2006-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

A New Approach to Investigating Coke Reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decomposition of methane during oxide reduction using Natural gas · DELIVERING ... Reaction mechanism and reaction rate of Sn evaporation from liquid steel.

208

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence by Vaclav Smil September share of their primary energies from renewable sources. Steel & Coal-Derived Coke Here is another important: steel's fundamental dependence on coal-derived coke with no practical substitutes on any rational

Smil, Vaclav

209

Co-combustion Character of Oil Shale and Its Semi-coke on CFB Bench  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-coke is by-product from oil shale retorts and it is important to burn it in CFB furnace. But limited to the inflammable combustion traits, co-combustion of semi-coke with raw oil shale would be meaningful. Experimental research on co-combustion ... Keywords: combustion, distribution, semi-coke, temperature

Sun Baizhong; Huang Zhirong

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Supermassive Black Holes and the Warm Ionized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supermassive Black Holes and the Warm Ionized Gas in Early-type Galaxies Renbin Yan University stars actively. (late-type galaxies) #12;Prevalence of Supermassive Black Holes in Massive Galaxies MBH merging Right after coalescing Post-merger Star Formation Rate Black Hole Accretion Rate #12;Maintenance

Wang, Ming-Jye

211

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Table 33. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 33. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Census Division April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Middle Atlantic w w w w w w East North Central 3,051 2,997 3,092 6,048 6,156 -1.8 South Atlantic w w w w w w East South Central w w w w w w U.S. Total 5,471 5,280 5,296 10,751 10,579 1.6 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants

213

Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Census Division April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Middle Atlantic w w w w w w East North Central 3,189 2,679 3,225 5,867 5,993 -2.1 South Atlantic w w w w w w East South Central w w w w w w U.S. Total 5,770 4,962 5,370 10,732 10,440 2.8 w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure. Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-5, 'Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report - Coke Plants

214

The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron...

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's: 4.3: 4.3: 4.3: ...

216

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 4.4: 4.6: 4.5: 4.3: 4.1: 4.2: 4.4: 4.3: ...

217

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Supermassive black holes from supermassive stars Supermassive stars in the early universe gave supermassive black holes a head start March 25, 2013 simulations suggest that star formation conditions back then allowed the first stars to become supermassive themselves In this simulation, a black hole that was just formed by the collapse of a supermassive star is surrounded by a distribution of gas (color indicates density). Because the black hole (located at the center but too small to see) grows by consuming the available gas, simulations like this one help determine how quickly the black hole can grow. The progenitor of this black

218

Massive Black Holes: formation and evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Observations have revealed us vast information on the population of local and distant black holes, but the detailed physical properties of these dark massive objects are still to be proven. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. We briefly review here the basic properties of the population of supermassive black holes, focusing on the still mysterious formation of the first massive black holes, and their evolution from early times to now.

Martin J. Rees; Marta Volonteri

2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

219

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

220

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Furnace Black Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Furnace Black Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher 005F 2 Definitions Particle Aggregate = 20nm to 100nm "Diameter" = 200nm to 1,000nm "Length" = Set of Percolated Aggregates Particle (?) Aggregate Agglomerate Constituents Size = Tech/Scientific Challenge 005F 3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock Oil Air Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench 005F 4 Specific Surface Area 005F 5 Structure 3-D Morphology Key Characteristic Summary of Crystallographic Studies 005F 7 Methodologies 005F 8 Summary * For all furnace carbon black 12Å < L C < 17Å * Crystallite L a ≈ 25Å * Amorphous Carbon * No micropores * Very few surface groups (hetero atoms) { 005F 9 Effect of Heat Treatment on Amorphous Carbon

222

The Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center Fulvio Melia 1 Physics Department and Steward, Auf dem Hugel 69, Bonn D-53121, Germany KEYWORDS: accretion, black hole physics, gas dynamics, jets the physics of black hole accretion, magnetized gas dynamics and unusual star formation. The Galactic Center

Falcke, Heino

223

Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 31.8277663°, -100.5296115° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.8277663,"lon":-100.5296115,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

224

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel from a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products, removing at least some coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. The process provides a useful method of mass producing these products from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands. 1 fig.

Shang, Jer Yu.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

225

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Development of Load Tap Changer Monitoring Technique: Mechanism of Coking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load tap changers (LTCs) play a major role in the reliable delivery of electric power. They are the single biggest contributors to transformer outages. To improve reliability and extend their service interval, utilities are adopting proactive maintenance practices using monitoring devices and seeking new diagnostic techniques. As part of an ongoing EPRI project, EPRI and cosponsor Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. engaged in a study of contact coking, one of the biggest problems in LTCs. This EPR...

2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

227

New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

229

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 240.59 241.38 218.40 240.85 225.80 6.7 Canada* 147.49 330.47 243.04 183.08 286.56 -36.1 Mexico 316.57 211.63 189.12 273.97 171.71 59.6 Other** 612.42 485.63 134.48 525.92 135.04 289.5 South America Total 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Other** 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Europe Total 259.26 255.24 - 257.06 427.83 -39.9 Other**

230

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 263.21 252.66 353.05 261.29 356.01 -26.6 Canada 263.51 252.66 353.05 258.82 356.01 -27.3 Panama 263.09 - - 263.09 - - South America Total 196.86 194.14 175.88 195.94 181.01 8.2 Brazil - - 157.60 - 157.60 - Colombia 196.86 194.14 322.06 195.94 246.68 -20.6 Europe Total 181.55 232.13 385.65 225.53 384.96 -41.4 Czech Republic - 475.91 - 475.91 - - Spain 360.51

231

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Black Hole Radiation and Volume Statistical Entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simplest possible equation for Hawking radiation, and other black hole radiated power is derived in terms of black hole density. Black hole density also leads to the simplest possible model of a gas of elementary constituents confined inside a gravitational bottle of Schwarzchild radius at tremendous pressure, which yields identically the same functional dependence as the traditional black hole entropy. Variations of Sbh can be obtained which depend on the occupancy of phase space cells. A relation is derived between the constituent momenta and the black hole radius which is similar to the Compton wavelength relation.

Mario Rabinowitz

2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Vertical Ball Mill for the Grinding of Calcined Petroleum Coke to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new vertical ball ring mill concept has been developed based on the results of research on the grinding of calcined petroleum coke. Industrial vertical mills are ...

234

Development Of Reclamation Substrates For Alberta Oil Sands Using Mature Fine Tailings And Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mature fine tailings and coke are waste products of the oil sands industry with potential for reclamation. A greenhouse study assessed whether substrates of various… (more)

Luna-Wolter, Gabriela L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Preparation of Activated Carbon from Oil Sands Coke by Chemical and Physical Activation Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil sands coke is a by-product resulting from the upgrading of heavy crude bitumen to light synthetic oil. This research investigates the preparation of activated… (more)

Morshed, Golam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal-flow Inside a Petroleum Coke Rotary Calcining Kiln.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Calcined coke is the best material for making carbon anodes for smelting of alumina to aluminum. Calcining is an energy intensive industry and a significant… (more)

Zhang, Zexuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Coke yield and transport processes in agglomerates of bitumen and solids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agglomerate formation is a common phenomenon that can cause operating problems in the fluid coking reactor. When agglomerates form they provide longer diffusion paths of… (more)

Ali, Mohamed Ali Hassan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The Effect of Coke Particle Size on Thermal Profile of Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baking process and sinter production was performed for different ranges of coke particle size while other parameter like, iron ore, lime and sintering mixture ...

239

MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF NEEDLE COKE FEEDSTOCKS AND MESOPHASE DEVELOPMENT DURING CARBONIZATION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates the molecular composition of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) decant oil and its derivatives that are used as feedstocks for delayed coking to… (more)

Wang, Guohua

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

U.S. Exports to Belarus of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to Belarus of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2004: 17

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effect of Blending HDPE with Coke on the Reduction Behavior of a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This has led to the exploration of the possibility of using polymer/coke blends in the production of ferro-alloys, particularly High Carbon Ferromanganese (HC ...

242

Co-gasification of biomass with coal and oil sands coke in a drop tube furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chars were obtained from individual fuels and blends with different blend ratios of coal, coke and biomass in Drop Tube Furnace at different temperatures. Based… (more)

Gao, Chen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The effect of diabietic acid on the coking of oxidised solvent-extracted coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Refcoal is a refined carbon source obtained by extraction of coal with dimethylformamide (DMF). During the coking process, Refcoal goes through a mesophase (fluid) stage… (more)

Ludere, Margaret Tshimangadzo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Black Genetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Genetics Name: Andrea Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why does the child of a blonde haired woman and a dark haired man usually have dark hair. Also, why does...

246

Steve Black  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s) shown at the links below. This speaker is not otherwise...

247

Black mothers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study is about how a group of professional, middle-aged Black1 women, between the ages of 50 and 55, define motherhood. It explores their self-definitions… (more)

Jenkins, Nina Lyon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Developing indicators for the assessment and proper management of the different levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s generally associated with coke-oven workers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke ovens may occur in the aluminium, steel, graphite, electrical, and construction industries. In the work area coke-oven workers may be exposed to various chemical… (more)

Wang, Tianyuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ARM - Black Forest News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GermanyBlack Forest News Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update,...

251

The effects of petroleum coke amendments on macrophytes and aquatic invertebrates in northern Alberta, Canada constructed wetlands.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil-sands operators of Fort McMurray, Alberta produce six million t/y of petroleum coke. The use of coke to stabilize clay-dominated mine tailings in constructed wetlands… (more)

Baker, Leanne F.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm ...

van Meter, James R; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; Centrella, Joan M; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hydrogen Sulfide, Oil and Gas, and People's Lana Skrtic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at sewage treatment plants, manure-handling plants, tanneries, and coke oven plants.5 2 EPA, "Report standard cubic feet)."9 Sour gas is routinely `sweetened' at processing facilities called desulfurization Process for Desulfurizing Ultra-deep Natural Gas Near the Wellhead," presented at Natural Gas Technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

254

Short Survey: Intelligent switching expert system for delayed coking unit based on iterative learning strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Delayed coking is the most effective process to decarbonize and demetallize heavy petroleum residues. However, it relies much on the field engineers' experiences and expertise in practice for operating the controllers effectively and compatibly in delayed ... Keywords: Delayed coking, Expert system, Intelligent control, Iterative learning

Xiaodong Yu; Yujie Wei; Dexian Huang; Yongheng Jiang; Bo Liu; Yihui Jin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Study on Further Treatment of Coal Coking Wastewater by Ultrasound Wave, Fenton's Reagent and Coagulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study on further treatment of coal coking wastewater by ultrasound wave, Fenton's reagent and coagulation was carried out in this paper at the first time, Furthermore, this paper discussed the optimum cooperative reaction condition of their combined ... Keywords: ultrasound wave, coke plant wastewater, Fenton reagent, coagulation

Jun Shi; Liangbo Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors; Analytical I/O and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal… (more)

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Numerical modeling of the aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion of a polydisperse ensemble of coke-ash particles in ascending axisymmetric two-phase flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional stationary model of motion, heat and mass exchange, and chemical reaction of polydisperse coke and ash particles in ascending gas-suspension flow has been constructed with allowance for the turbulent and pseudo turbulent mechanisms of transfer in the dispersed phase. The system of equations that describes motion and heat transfer in the solid phase has been closed at the level of the equations for the second moments of velocity and temperature pulsations, whereas the momentum equations of the carrying medium have been closed using the equation for turbulent gas energy, which allows for the influence of the particles and heterogeneous reactions.

B.B. Rokhman [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Institute of Coal Power Technologies

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Black ring deconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rotating black holes from 5d black rings,” hep-th/0504125. [fuzzball proposal for black holes: An elementary review,”The quantum structure of black holes,” hep-th/0510180. [5

Gimon, Eric G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Location and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Quebec, is organic-rich black shale and hosting oil and gas. It is equivalent to the Ithaca shaleLocation and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale in the Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. d13C for calcite disseminated in the black shale range from 2.6o to 2.8 / The values are lower

262

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

NONE

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Northern Illinois Gas Co IL  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Northern Northern Illinois Gas Co ............................ IL 254,574,988 4.60 Southern California Gas Co ...................... CA 233,632,354 6.89 Columbia Gas Dist Co............................... OH,KY,PA,MD 196,322,935 6.64 Pacific Gas and Elec Co............................ CA 190,864,262 5.83 Consumers Pwr Co ................................... MI 188,587,672 4.81 Michigan Consol Gas Co........................... MI 160,809,168 5.16 East Ohio Gas Co ..................................... OH 146,802,045 5.44 Pub Svc Elec and Gas Co......................... NJ 140,712,209 6.62 Peoples Gas Lt and Coke Co.................... IL 126,356,925 6.40 Brooklyn Union Gas Co............................. NY 106,349,594 9.43 Atlanta Gas Lt Co ...................................... GA 106,075,815 6.66 Lone Star Gas Co......................................

265

Research Report Black 1 White 5 Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Black 1 White 5 Black Hypodescent in Reflexive Categorization of Racially Ambiguous--Historically, the principle of hypodescent specified that individuals with one Black and one White parent should be considered Black. Two experiments ex- amined whether categorizations of racially ambiguous targets reflect

Reber, Paul J.

266

BlackLining Demo BlackLining Demo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BlackLining Demo BlackLining Demo BlackLining Demo YOUR PAYCHECKPAYROLL TAXES AND EMPLOYMENT LAW BY SPONSORED BY #12;BlackLining Demo e BlackLining Demo e BlackLining Demo e AMERICAN PAYROLL ASSOCIATION i Design by PRIWORKS.com. Images from Thinkstock.com. #12;BlackLining Demo BlackLining Demo Black

Harms, Kyle E.

267

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main focus of this session was the presentation of new higher-dimensional black hole solutions, including black rings, black strings, and multi black holes, and the study of their properties. Besides new asymptotically flat and locally asymptotically flat black objects also new black holes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics were reported. The studies of their properties included the investigation of their stability, their thermodynamics, their analyticity and their existence. Furthermore, the geodesics in such higher-dimensional space-times were investigated.

Kunz, Jutta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies  

SciTech Connect

Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSE Inc. recently completed the design, construction and start-up of a cogeneration plant in which waste heat in the high temperature flue gases of three existing coke calcining kilns is recovered to produce process steam and electrical energy. The heat previously exhausted to the atmosphere is now converted to steam by waste heat recovery boilers. Eighty percent of the steam produced is metered for sale to a major oil refinery, while the remainder passes through a steam turbine generator and is used for deaeration and feedwater heating. The electricity produced is used for the plant auxiliaries and sold to the local utility. Many design concepts were incorporated into the plant which provided for high plant availability, reliability and energy efficiency. This paper will show how these concepts were implemented and incorporated into the detailed design of the plant while making cogeneration a cost effective way to save conventional fuels. Operating data since plant start-up will also be presented.

Coles, R. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE FLOYD (NEAL) SHALE IN THE BLACK WARRIOR BASIN OF ALABAMA AND MISSISSIPPI: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL EXPLORATION POTENTIAL.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Floyd (Neal) Shale is an organic-rich black shale in the Black Warrior Basin that is being explored for its unconventional gas potential. To… (more)

Caton, Matthew MacGregor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Black holes 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black holes 1. Introduction What is a black hole? Roughly it can be described as a region that nothing can escape from it. Light falling into a black hole cannot escape from it. It is called `black' because it does not reflect anything. Since nothing can escape from it, it means that a black hole

Glass, Ian S.

272

Executive summary: Technical and economic feasibility study. Trigeneration project, Shanghai Coking and Chemical Plant. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Bechtel, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The purpose of the study is to assess the feasibility of establishing a new coal-based Trigeneration Complex as an addition to the existing Shanghai Coking and Chemical Plant. The complex would produce gas for the city of Shanghai, chemicals for domestic consumption and foreign export, and utilities for use within the complex and for export to other facilities. The report presents an in-depth study of the economic and technical aspects of the project, as well as an outline of project implementation phases. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Summary; (3) Study Bases; (4) Process Selection and Rationale; (5) Chemical Selection and Marketing; (6) Definition of Facilities; (7) Site and Plot Plan.

NONE

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The co-gasification behavior of highly and lowly reactive coke for blast furnace is investigated. ... Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

274

Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

R.A. Kishore Nadkarni (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to South Africa of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

277

Study of ways of reducing coke use at non-integrated metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the costs of blast-furnace smelting, the Svobodnyi Sokol plant has devised a comprehensive program of organizational-technical measures that include study of ways of reducing coke consumption. To do this, the plant began operating its blast furnaces with schungite when making foundry and conversion pig irons. Using schungite in the charge employed to make foundry iron makes it possible to save a significant (10-15%) amount of coke. The value of the coefficient that characterizes the replacement of coke by schungite varies broadly and can reach 1.0 or more, depending on the grade of iron being made and the furnace operating regime. The same coefficient has a value of 0.57 kg coke/kg schungite when 12-15 kg schungite/ton pig is used to make conversion pig iron.

S.A. Feshchenko; V.I. Pleshkov; I.N. Shishchuk; A.V. Buev [Svobodnyi Sokol (Russian Federation). Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

U.S. Exports to Cameroon of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Exports to Cameroon of Petroleum Coke (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1995: 0: 0: 0: 35: 0: 0: 0: 36: ...

279

Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft  

SciTech Connect

The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu [University of Science & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Coking is a refinery process that produces 19% of finished ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

282

petroleum coke - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

283

Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Black hole masking and black hole thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Masking of black holes means that, for given total mass and Hawking temperatures, these data may correspond to either "pure" black hole or a black hole of a lesser mass surrounded by a massive shell. It is shown that there is one-to one correspondence between this phenomenon and thermodynamics of a black hole in a finite size cavity: masking of black holes is possible if and only if there exists at least one locally unstable black hole solution in the corresponding canonical ensemble.

Zaslavskii, Oleg B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

(Black)Largemouth Bass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

negra, black bass, huro y otros Netherlands: Florellenbaars Poland: weilkogebowy, bas weilkohebowy Portugal: Black bass, perca americana, perca trucha, boca grande, robal...

287

Evaluation of fly ash from co-combustion of coal and petroleum coke for use in concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation of fly ash (FA) produced from various blends of coal and petroleum coke (pet coke) fired at Belledune Generating Station, New Brunswick, Canada, was conducted to establish its performance relative to FA derived from coal-only combustion and its compliance with CSA A3000. The FA samples were beneficiated by an electrostatic separation process to produce samples for testing with a range of loss-on-ignition (LOI) values. The results of these studies indicate that the combustion of pet coke results in very little inorganic residue (for example, typically less than 0.5% ash) and the main impact on FA resulting from the co-combustion of coal and up to 25% pet coke is an increase in the unburned carbon content and LOI values. The testing of FA after beneficiation indicates that FA produced from fuels with up to 25% pet coke performs as good as FA produced from the same coal without pet coke.

Scott, A.N.; Thomas, M.D.A.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ({sup h}yperaccretion{sup )}. This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few percent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees kelvin, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion {sigma} of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and {sigma} that resembles the empirical M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation.

Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu [Also at Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA. (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Development of an impedance-based sensor for the detection of catalyst coking in fuel-reforming systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel sensor for detecting the early stages of catalyst coking in fuel reforming systems has been developed. The sensor was manufactured by inkjet printing… (more)

Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

color: DIVPOP; black: low;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

color: DIVPOP; black: low; red: middle; green: high. Vesicle dynamcis · Maturation rate comparison black: low DIVPOP red: middle DIVPOP green: high DIVPOP · Quality of vesicles black: low death rate red: master; red: mutants; black: vesicle boundary. Neutral model Step division model Conclusions (1

Utrecht, Universiteit

292

Concentric Black Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional minimal supergravity that describe concentric black rings with an optional black hole at the common centre. Configurations of two black rings are found which have the same conserved charges as a single rotating black hole; these black rings can have a total horizon area less than, equal to, or greater than the black hole with the same charges. A numerical investigation of these particular black ring solutions suggests that they do not have closed timelike curves.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

293

Comparison of the Potential Impacts of Petroleum Coke and Anthracite Culm Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary feedstock for the proposed Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project would be low-cost anthracite culm, which is a locally abundant, previously discarded resource that could accommodate fuel requirements during the demonstration period. Culm reserves controlled by WMPI are estimated to be sufficient to supply the proposed facilities for about 15 years, or to supply both the proposed facilities and the existing Gilberton Power Plant for about 11 years. Based on the applicant’s proposal, the facilities would also be capable of using a blend of feedstock containing up to 25% petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a high-sulfur, high-energy product having the appearance of coal. Oil refineries produce petroleum coke by heating and removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the residue remaining after the refining process. This appendix compares some of the potential impacts of 100 % anthracite culm use with the potential impacts from using a blended feedstock of 75 % anthracite culm and 25 % petroleum coke. Topics considered include carbon dioxide emissions, air emissions of sulfur compounds and toxic substances, solid wastes and byproduct production, and increased truck traffic. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Published values for potential CO2 emissions from anthracite and petroleum coke are very similar.

Gilberton Coal-to-clean Fuels

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Alice Waters’ Chez Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, andlater other high-end restaurants across the country. Cokemostly geared toward the restaurant trade, because that’s

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Dale Coke: Coke Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

Farmer, Ellen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

TheTheTheThe MysteryMysteryMysteryMystery ofofofof the Black Lakethe Black Lakethe Black Lakethe Black Lake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TheTheTheThe MysteryMysteryMysteryMystery ofofofof the Black Lakethe Black Lakethe Black Lakethe Black Lake Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca #12;Manuel Alfonseca 2 #12;The Mystery of the Black Lake 3 The Mystery of the Black LakeThe Mystery of the Black LakeThe Mystery

Alfonseca, Manuel

297

GAS TURBINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the age of volatile and ever increasing natural gas fuel prices, strict new emission regulations and technological advancements, modern IGCC plants are the answer to growing market demands for efficient and environmentally friendly power generation. IGCC technology allows the use of low cost opportunity fuels, such as coal, of which there is a more than a 200-year supply in the U.S., and refinery residues, such as petroleum coke and residual oil. Future IGCC plants are expected to be more efficient and have a potential to be a lower cost solution to future CO2 and mercury regulations compared to the direct coal fired steam plants. Siemens has more than 300,000 hours of successful IGCC plant operational experience on a variety of heavy duty gas turbine models in Europe and the U.S. The gas turbines involved range from SGT5-2000E to SGT6-3000E (former designations are shown on Table 1). Future IGCC applications will extend this experience to the SGT5-4000F and SGT6-4000F/5000F/6000G gas turbines. In the currently operating Siemens ’ 60 Hz fleet, the SGT6-5000F gas turbine has the most operating engines and the most cumulative operating hours. Over the years, advancements have increased its performance and decreased its emissions and life cycle costs without impacting reliability. Development has been initiated to verify its readiness for future IGCC application including syngas combustion system testing. Similar efforts are planned for the SGT6-6000G and SGT5-4000F/SGT6-4000F models. This paper discusses the extensive development programs that have been carried out to demonstrate that target emissions and engine operability can be achieved on syngas operation in advanced F-class 50 Hz and 60 Hz gas turbine based IGCC applications.

Power For L; Satish Gadde; Jianfan Wu; Anil Gulati; Gerry Mcquiggan; Berthold Koestlin; Bernd Prade

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constant heating of the coke ovens ensures optimization ofheating - coke plant Variable speed drive coke oven gasheating - coke plant Variable speed drive coke oven gas

Xu, T.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coking represents a modern coke plant using standardto produce a ton of coke). The inclusion of parameterconversion of coal feedstock to coke and coke oven gas, for

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Brane World Black Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification.

Anurag Sahay; Gautam Sengupta

2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

What's Happening to Our Body after Drinking Coke? The Characteristic of the Blood Pressure Wave in Radial Artery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous literature has suggested that psychological state may be changed via drinking coke, however, studies empirically documenting the link between coke and blood pressure wave (BPW) are scant. Therefore, the current article attempts to explore how ... Keywords: Blood pressure wave (BPW), spectrum analysis, Sphygmogram, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)

Sheng-Chieh Huang; Yung-Pin Lee; Min-Hua Hsieh; Hui-Min Wang; Mark C. Hou; Shih-Chun Chao; Cheng-Lung Tseng; Wei-Ta Hsiao; Chung-Hung Hong; Kai-Yu Shao; Shi-Han Luo; Wei-Chun Chiu; Wei-Yu Chen

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Black Hole Horizons and Black Hole Thermodynamics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work investigates how black holes can be described in terms of different definitions of horizons. Global definitions in terms of event horizons and Killing… (more)

Nielsen, Alex

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Black String Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an exact description of the steady flow of a black string into a planar horizon. The event horizon is out of equilibrium and provides a simple, exact instance of a `flowing black funnel' in any dimension D>=5. It is also an approximation to a smooth intersection between a black string and a black hole, in the limit in which the black hole is much larger than the black string thickness. The construction extends easily to more general flows, in particular charged flows.

Emparan, Roberto

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue  

SciTech Connect

Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

File:Black.Warrior.Basin usgs.map.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Black.Warrior.Basin usgs.map.pdf Black.Warrior.Basin usgs.map.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province of Alabama and Mississippi Size of this preview: 742 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,860 × 1,504 pixels, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province of Alabama and Mississippi Sources USGS Related Technologies Oil, Gas Creation Date 2007 Extent Black Warrior Basin Province Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Alabama, Mississippi Location of the Black Warrior Basin Province in northwestern Alabama and northeastern Mississippi, published in the USGS report entitled, Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin

306

Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm these differences, it may allow assessment of the properties of the binaries as well as yielding an identifiable electromagnetic counterpart to the attendant gravitational wave signal.

James R. van Meter; John H. Wise; M. Coleman Miller; Christopher S. Reynolds; Joan M. Centrella; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Bernard J. Kelly; Sean T. McWilliams

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Key China Energy Statistics 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Works Gas Works - Coke input Briquettes Losses incoal, washed coal, briquettes) and derived fuels (coke,coke oven gas, and other coking products). Crude oil

Levine, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Black and White Sight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black and White Sight Name: Andy Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why do some animals see in black and White? Replies: In the animal kingdom, sight is accomplished by...

309

Residential energy consumption and expenditure patterns of black and nonblack households in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential energy consumption and expenditures by black and nonblack households are presented by Census region and for the nation based on the Energy Information Administration's 1982-83 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Black households were found to have significantly lower levels of electricity consumption at both the national and regional level. Natural gas is the dominant space heating fuel used by black households. Natural gas consumption was typically higher for black households. However, when considering natural gas consumption conditional on natural gas space heating no significant differences were found. 10 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Vyas, A.D.; Poyer, D.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

ACCRETORBLACK DONOR BLACK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIELD NO FIELD FIELD NO FIELD FIELD NO FIELD FIELD NO FIELD FIELD DONOR BLACK STREAM HOLE WIND NEUTRON

311

Quantum Harmonic Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspired by the recent conjecture that black holes are condensates (of gravitons), we investigate a simple model for the black hole degrees of freedom that is consistent both from the point of view of Quantum mechanics and of General Relativity. Since the two perspectives should converge for small, Planck size, black holes, we expect our construction is useful for understanding the physics of microscopic, quantum black holes.

Casadio, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Black holes without firewalls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and re-emits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of order the black hole scrambling time.

Larjo, Klaus; Thorlacius, Larus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Publications Salmonid Broodstock, Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Publications Salmonid Broodstock, Black Cod, and Successful Fishing Piers "Salmon Broodstock Avenue. N.E.. Seattle, WA 98105. "Black Cod, Boom or Bust?", also published by Washington Sea Grant- page paper- bound booklet addresses the location and status of black cod stocks. harvest methods

314

Furnace Black Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Furnace Black Characterization Sid Richardson Carbon Co Fort Worth, TX Dr. Michel Gerspacher #12 of Crystallographic Studies #12;005F7 Methodologies #12;005F8 Summary · For all furnace carbon black 12� Surface Unorganized Carbon Identified #12;005F11 SRCC's Model #12;005F12 Carbon Black Surface Activity

315

Nonstationary artificial black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the existence of artificial non-stationary spherically symmetric black holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of artificial black holes.

Eskin, Gregory

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States))

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Does EIA publish coking coal prices? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ. Frequently Asked Questions. Does EIA publish coking coal ...

319

Phantom Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. The cosmological aspects of the phantom black hole and phantom field are also briefly discussed.

C. J. Gao; S. N. Zhang

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

320

RHIC | Black Holes?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Holes at RHIC? Black Holes at RHIC? Further discussion by Physicist Dmitri Kharzeev on why RHIC cannot produce a real gravitational black hole Black holes are among the most mysterious objects in the universe. The gravitational field of a black hole is so strong that Einstein's general relativity tells us that nothing, not even light, can escape from the black hole's interior. However, in 1974 physicist Stephen Hawking demonstrated that black holes must emit radiation once the quantum effects are included. According to quantum mechanics, the physical vacuum is bubbling with short-lived virtual particle-antiparticle pairs. Creation of a particle-antiparticle pair from the vacuum conflicts with energy conservation, but energy need not be conserved at short times in quantum mechanics, according to Heisenberg's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Morphological and Microstructural Characterization of Bio-coke as ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina-titanium Composites with Improved Fracture Toughness and Electrical Conductivity · Aluminized .... Mechanical and Gas Transport Properties of Hollow Fibers Containing Ionic Liquids for CO2/H2 Separation · Mechanical ... Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions.

322

The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supermassive black holes observed at the centers of almost all present-day galaxies, had a profound impact on their environment. I highlight the principle of self-regulation, by which supermassive black holes grow until they release sufficient energy to unbind the gas that feeds them from their host galaxy. This principle explains several observed facts, including the correlation between the mass of a central black hole and the depth of the gravitational potential well of its host galaxy, and the abundance and clustering properties of bright quasars in the redshift interval of z~2-6. At lower redshifts, quasars might have limited the maximum mass of galaxies through the suppression of cooling flows in X-ray clusters. The seeds of supermassive black holes were likely planted in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z>10, through the collapse of massive or supermassive stars. The minimum seed mass can be identified observationally through the detection of gravitational waves from black hole binaries by Advanced LIGO or LISA. Aside from shaping their host galaxies, quasar outflows filled the intergalactic medium with magnetic fields and heavy elements. Beyond the reach of these outflows, the brightest quasars at z>6 have ionized exceedingly large volumes of gas (tens of comoving Mpc) prior to global reionization, and must have suppressed the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in these volumes before the same occurred through the rest of the universe.

Abraham Loeb

2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

"Black Star" or Astrophysical Black Hole? K. Petrovay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Black Star" or Astrophysical Black Hole? K. Petrovay Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy. Recently wide publicity has been given to a claim by T. Vachaspati that "black holes do not exist", that the objects known as black holes in astrophysics should rather be called "black stars" and they not only do

Petrovay, Kristóf

324

Electrochemical degradation characteristics of refractory organic pollutants in coking wastewater on multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multiwall carbon nanotube-mollified electrode (MWCNT-ME) was fabricated and its electrocatalytic activity of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater was investigated. The surface morphology, absorption properties, and the electrochemical ...

Yan Wang; Shujing Sun; Guifu Ding; Hong Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Spectroscopic studies on the formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking particles: the effect of poisoning metal compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The formation of coke on individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles was studied using UV/Vis microspectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, with n-hexane cracking as… (more)

Goetze, J.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is coke produced in industrial coke ovens. This category isinefficient than industrial coke ovens. This category is noFrom Gas Fields (industrial use) Coke Oven Gas (industrial

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Thousand Cankers of Black Walnut  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut How to Identify and Prevent the Spread of Thousand Cankers counties. Remember: Only YOU can help prevent the spread of thousand cankers disease! Black Walnuts Facts Native range of black walnut in the United States. Uses of Black Walnut Mature black walnuts grown

328

Thermal Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal gravitational waves can be generated in various sources such as, in the cores of stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars due to the fermion collisions in the dense degenerate Fermi gas. Such high frequency thermal gravitational waves can also be produced during the collisions in a gamma ray burst or during the final stages of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Here we estimate the thermal gravitational waves from primordial black holes and estimate the integrated energy of the gravitational wave emission over the entire volume of the universe and over Hubble time. We also estimate the gravitational wave flux from gamma ray bursts and jets.

C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

329

A Black Hole Levitron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of spatially stabilising four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes kept in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al's multi-center solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped in a given volume. This is realised by levitating a black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction resembles a mechanical Levitron.

Xerxes D. Arsiwalla; Erik P. Verlinde

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

331

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Black Dwarf Black Dwarf Black Dwarf Dark core of a low mass star left when  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Dwarf Black Dwarf Black Dwarf Dark core of a low mass star left when a white dwarf cools. Black dwarfs disappear from view. Mass: 0.5 - 1.4 SM StarPower Points: 1 Dark core of a low mass star left when a white dwarf cools. Black dwarfs, like the charcoal briquette pictured in the sky, are made

Bechtold, Jill

334

Black Hole Mergers Manuela Campanelli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Hole Mergers Manuela Campanelli Center for Computa6 Department of Physics Duke University Feb 15-17, 2012 #12;Black Holes Antennae galaxies, op6cal, HST · In General Rela6vity (GR), Black Holes (BHs

Wolpert, Robert L

335

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event horizons, Schwarzschild metric, Kerr metric, no-hair theorems 1

ChruÂ?ciel, Piotr T.

336

Rotating Hairy Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

Black Hole Shadows of Charged Spinning Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a method for measuring the black hole charge by imaging a black hole shadow in a galactic center by future interferometers. Even when the black hole is uncharged, it is possible to confirm the charge neutrality by this method. We first derive the analytic formulae of the black hole shadow in an optically thin medium around a charged spinning black hole, and then investigate how contours of the black hole shadow depend on the spin and the charge of the black hole for several inclination angles between the rotation axis of the black hole and the observer. This method only assumes stationary black hole and general relativity. By fitting the formula of the contours of the shadow to the observed image of the shadow, in addition to the black hole charge, one can also determine the black hole spin and the inclination angle without any degeneracy among the charge, the spin, and the inclination angle unless the inclination angle is null.

Rohta Takahashi

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

THE RELATIONSHIP OF BLACK POWER AND BLACK ARTS/CONSCIUSNESS MOVEMENTS TO THE BLACK STUDIES MOVEMENT .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is an examination of three social movements that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s: the Black Power Movement, Black Arts/Consciousness Movement, and Black… (more)

Woods, Benjamin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Black holes and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Lumens Placard (Black) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

lumensplacard-black.eps More Documents & Publications Lumens Placard (Black) Lumens Placard (Green) Energy Savers Guide...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Vehicle Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Rebate Citizens Gas & Coke Utility (Citizens) offers rebates for qualified

343

Black holes at accelerators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

collision of high-energy particles,” Phys. Rev. D 67, 024009 (2003) [arXiv:gr-qc/0209003]. [6] D. M. Eardley and S. B. Giddings, “Classical black hole production in high-energy collisions,” Phys. Rev. D 66, 044011 (2002) [arXiv:gr-qc/0201034]. [7] H. Yoshino... about black hole formation in high-energy collisions,” Class. Quant. Grav. 22, L61 (2005) [arXiv:hep-ph/0505125]. [16] G. T. Horowitz, “Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole,” arXiv:gr-qc/0507080. [17] C. M. Harris and P. Kanti...

Webber, Bryan R

344

American Black Bear: Ursus americanus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3/21/2011 1 USFWS American Black Bear: Ursus americanus www.bear.org LDWF Historic Distribution, forested regions (Pelton et al. 1994) Glacier Kenai Queen Charlotte Island. Kermode Dall American Black regions (Pelton et al. 1994) #12;3/21/2011 2 Historic Range Louisiana black bear Louisiana Black Bear

Gray, Matthew

345

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig # Piotr T. Chru�sciel + February 8, 2005 Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event. this space­time a natural model for a non­rotating black hole. We can now come back to the problem

ChruÂ?ciel, Piotr T.

346

Physics of AGN Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics of AGN Black Holes Heino Falcke MPIfR Bonn Contents: ffl Why Black Holes? ffl What are black holes? ffl Luminosity ffl Observational Evidence Literature: ``An Introduction to Active Galactic. #12; Black Hole Paradigm Not really hollow For typical quasar luminosity of L = 10 46 L 46 erg sec

Falcke, Heino

347

Black Box Checking Doron Peled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Box Checking Doron Peled The University of Texas at Austin Department of Electrical and formalize this problem of black box checking and suggest several algorithms. Since the input to black box the given property. We call this problem black box checking. To simplify the discussion, we will not deal

Peled, Doron A.

348

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig Piotr T. Chru´sciel February 8, 2005 Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event-Szekeres extension of the Schwarzschild solution. this space-time a natural model for a non-rotating black hole. We

ChruÂ?ciel, Piotr T.

349

BLACK HISTORY @ Your Education Library  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLACK HISTORY @ Your Education Library Focus on Canadian Resources: Songs Granfield, Linda. Illus, Rella. Solme Black Women: Profiles of Black Women in Canada. Sister Vision, 1993. FC106.B6B73 1993 Bramble, Linda. Black Fugitive Slaves in Early Canada. Vanwell, 1987. Juv E450.B73 1987 Carter, Velma

Ellis, Randy

350

Spin orientation of supermassive black holes in active galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accretion of gas onto a central supermassive black hole is generally accepted to be the source of the emitted energy in active galactic nuclei.The broad emission lines we observe in their optical spectra are probably formed in the wind of an accretion disk at distances of light days to light years from the central black hole. The variable fraction of the emission lines originates at typical distances of only 1 to 50 light days from the central supermassive black hole. We derived a central black hole mass of M_orbital = 1.8 +/-0.4 x 10^7 M_sun in the Seyfert galaxy Mrk110 assuming the broad emission lines are generated in gas clouds orbiting within an accretion disk. This figure depends on the inclination angle of the accretion disk. Here we report on the detection of gravitational redshifted emission in the variable fraction of the broad emission lines. We derive a central black hole mass of M_grav = 14.0 +/-3.0 x 10^7 M_sun. These measurements are independent on the orientation of the accretion disk. The comparison of both black hole mass estimates allows to determine the projection of the central accretion disk angle i to 21 +/-5 deg. in Mrk110 and therefore the orientation of the spin axis of the central black hole.

W. Kollatschny

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

351

RHIC | Black Holes?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Holes at RHIC? Black Holes at RHIC? Before RHIC began operations in 2000, some were concerned that it would produce black holes that would threaten the earth. Here's why those concerns were unfounded. Committee Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC In July 1999, Brookhaven Lab Director John Marburger convened a committee of distinguished physicists to write a comprehensive report on the arguments that address the safety of speculative disaster scenarios at RHIC. The scenarios are: Creation of a black hole that would "eat" ordinary matter. Initiation of a transition to a new, more stable universe. Formation of a "strangelet" that would convert ordinary matter to a new form. jaffee "We conclude that there are no credible mechanisms for catastrophic

352

Northern Black Widows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Northern Black Widows Name: Matt Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: I live in Fairbanks, Alaska and came across a spider that I've never seen before. It is about 1.5 cm...

353

The Black Bear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Bear Black Bear Nature Bulletin No. 286-A December 9, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BLACK BEAR The most amusing and human-like of all our American wild animals is the Black Bear. Slow, clumsy and loose-jointed in appearance, with a shambling gait, he can be very swift and nimble. Like any good clown he is also a good acrobat with a fine sense of balance and timing. He is a great climber in spite of his bulk. Shrewd and droll, he is very popular in menageries and as a performer in circuses and side shows because he learns tricks easily. He can stand on his hind legs to wrestle, box, dance, or beg for food and, occasionally, one becomes a graceful artist on roller skates. They love applause.

354

Black suit with a white, button down, collared dress shirt and conservative tie Black socks and black shoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dress Code Men · Black suit with a white, button down, collared dress shirt and conservative tie · Black socks and black shoes Women · Black dress, black suit pant or skirt (dress or skirt must be at or below the knee) · Black hose (without pattern) and black dress shoes MSC OPAS provides: · A volunteer

Boas, Harold P.

355

Black Saturn with dipole ring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new stationary, asymptotically flat solution of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity describing a Saturn-like black object: a rotating black hole surrounded by a rotating dipole black ring. The solution is generated by combining the vacuum black Saturn solution and the vacuum black ring solution with appropriately chosen parameters. Some basic properties of the solution are analyzed and the basic quantities are calculated.

Stoytcho Yazadjiev

2007-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

356

Form EIA-5 Users Manual Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality - Coke Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Users Manual Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality - Coke Plants Document Number: 001 Version: 2.0 June 2011 i June 2011 Document History Number Date Section Description 1 2 June 2011 June 2011 Document initiation Revised screen shots and remove external user references. Primary POC: Tejasvi Raghuveer Phone: (202) 586-8926 Email: Tejasvi.Raghuveer@eia.gov Document Changes/Maintenance POC: Primary POC: Tejasvi Raghuveer Phone: (202) 586-8926 Email: Tejasvi.Raghuveer@eia.gov Project References: Coal Internet Data Collection (CIDC) User's Manual, September 2007 ii June 2011 Content 1. General System Overview ................................................................................. 1

357

Development of a Filter Using Absorbent Technologies for the Removal of Coking Precursors: Laboratory Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-load tap changers (LTC) are the single biggest contributor to transformer problems. Their failure modes may be mechanical, electrical, or related to the quality of the oil and contacts. Utilities are seeking new strategies for LTC maintenance to minimize these problems and, at the same time, reduce maintenance costs. EPRI has initiated several projects with a goal of producing a maintenance-free LTC. One major LTC problem is contact fouling, which can lead to the buildup of coke deposits on contacts a...

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Thermodynamic black di-rings  

SciTech Connect

Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Thermodynamic black di-rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

Iguchi, Hideo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Black Hole Shadows of Charged Spinning Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a method for measuring the black hole charge by imaging a black hole shadow in a galactic center by future interferometers. Even when the black hole is uncharged, it is possible to confirm the charge neutrality by this method. We first derive the analytic formulae of the black hole shadow in an optically thin medium around a charged spinning black hole, and then investigate how contours of the black hole shadow depend on the spin and the charge of the black hole for several inclination angles between the rotation axis of the black hole and the observer. This method only assumes stationary black hole and general relativity. By fitting the formula of the contours of the shadow to the observed image of the shadow, in addition to the black hole charge, one can also determine the black hole spin and the inclination angle without any degeneracy among the charge, the spin, and the inclination angle unless the inclination angle is null. If the maximum width of the shadow smaller than 4(1 + 2 1/2)M or the minimum width of the shadow smaller than 9M are measured observationally, we can safely conclude that the black hole is charged. Here, M is the gravitational radius, i.e. the half of the Schwarzschild radius. Key words: black hole physics—Galaxy: nucleus—galaxies: nuclei — techniques: high angular resolution—techniques: interferometric 1.

Rohta Takahashi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal, Petroleum coke, Biomass, Waste, etc. Gasifier Particulate Removal Air Separator Oxygen Air Steam

363

Charged black holes from near extremal black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recover the properties of a wide class of far from extremal charged black branes from the properties of near extremal black branes, generalizing the results of Danielsson, Guijosa and Kruczenski.

Gilad Lifschytz

2004-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Black Hawk Lake Fresno River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Hawk Lake Fresno River R D 4 0 0 RD 415 HWY41 RD 207 REVISRD YO SEM ITE SP RINGS P KY LILLEY County Rosedale Ranch Revis Mountain Daulton Spring Red Top Lookout Buford Mountain Black Hawk Lake

Wang, Zhi

365

String-Corrected Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for black holes and strings, Phys. Rev. D 55, 6189 (1997) [black holes and elementary string states, Mod. Phys. Lett. A= 2 supergravity and Calabi-Yau string back- grounds, Phys.

Hubeny, Veronika

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Poisonous Effects of Asteroid Impacts or Nuclear Explosions in the Western Regions of the Black Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of an asteroid or a very large nuclear explosion in the Black Sea may cause a poisonous hydrogen sulfide gas release into the atmosphere. Some effects of this phenomenon on the western Black Sea coasts are evaluated in this paper. Two ...

Viorel Badescu

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Gas Turbine Manufacturers Perspective  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are still comparatively high, the low level and stability of petroleum coke, coal, and oiltar residue feedstock prices can be shown to easily overcome this disadvantage when a...

368

Delayed Coking  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

369

Petroleum Coke  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Includes volumes uses as ...

370

Petroleum Coke  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

88,015 81,811 82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190 1986-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 11,973 12,198 10,887 9,316 9,766 9,003 1986-2012 Midwest (PADD 2) 15,701 15,005 15,507 16,480 16,834 17,611...

371

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking  

SciTech Connect

1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Einstein, Black Holes Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 #12;Einstein, Black Holes and Gravitational Waves Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University 2 #12 Relativity? · What are some of the consequences of GR? · What are Black Holes like and do they exist? · What? · What are Black Holes like and do they exist? · What can we learn from Gravity Waves? · To do all

Cook, Greg

373

black ears to blonde cats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

black ears to blonde cats: paths for designing change Ben Bederson & Allison Druin Computer Science of cats lived in a remote village. A river divided the village in two. Black cats lived on one bank and blonde cats lived on the other... In summer and autumn, a black cat ruled the village and in spring

Golbeck, Jennifer

374

5, 40834113, 2005 Black Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area J. C and Physics Discussions Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area License. 4083 #12;ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Black Cat 2 Aufgenommene Mewerte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Cat 2 Aufgenommene MeÃ?werte Version: 0 Stand: 13.05.2005 Autor: Henry Westphal Tigris: X:\\2003_2004_Roehrenverstaerker\\Black_Cat_2\\REV0\\Documents\\2006-07-15_Black_Cat_2_Messwerte.doc #12

Wichmann, Felix

376

Acoustic black holes Matt Visser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acoustic black holes Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Ole Miss you develop a number of use- ful connections between supersonic uid ow and black holes in general is the basis underlying a deep and fruitful analogy between the black holes of Einstein gravity and supersonic

Visser, Matt

377

Numerical Simulations of Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Simulations of Black Holes 26 Aug 2009 Frank Herrmann (fherrman@umd.edu) Department · merger of compact objects Much more than just black hole evolutions · Formulations · Hyperboloidal)/2.0; . . . high arithmetic intensity Operator Number of times used 12,961 + 5,398 - 3,438 / 69 14 #12;Black Hole

Maryland at College Park, University of

378

Dave Kaminsky Charles L. Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1935 $50.00 Dave Kaminsky 1938 $200.00 Charles L. Black 1940 $50.00 Harold S. Miropol 1941 $67,770.00 Phillip B. Bandel Robert C. Batson Charles L. Black Russell Blaylock Barry Boston Lawrence J. Danna James $5,650.00 Robert A. Alexander Bradley C. Black James C. Boothe Joseph C. Bremer Theodore W. Burns

379

BLACK BOX CHECKING DORON PELED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLACK BOX CHECKING DORON PELED Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Ave. Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA MOSHE properties. We propose and formalize this problem of black box checking and suggest several algorithms. Since the input to black box checking is not given initially, as is the case in the classical model of computation

Vardi, Moshe Y.

380

"Exotic" black holes with torsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of three-dimensional gravity with torsion, the concepts of standard and "exotic" Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes are generalized by going over to black holes with torsion. This approach provides a unified insight into thermodynamics of black holes, with or without torsion.

Blagojevi?, M; Vasili?, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Extremal black disks in QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that in the high energy QCD a true black disk wave function necessarily contains many quarks. This corresponds to necessity of non-vacuum reggeon loops in formation of a black disk. The result comes from decomposition of the black disk S-matrix in characters on group manifold.

Alexey V. Popov

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Black holes and black strings in plane waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the construction of black holes and black strings in vacuum plane wave spacetimes using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. We find solutions of the linearised equations of motion in the asymptotic region for a general source on a plane wave background. We observe that these solutions do not satisfy our previously defined conditions for being asymptotically plane wave. We consider the solution in the near region, treating the plane wave as a perturbation of a black object, and find that there is a regular black string solution but no regular black hole solution.

Witt, Julian Le

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Black Diamond Internal network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

�� � ��Ð � � � �� �����Ð ´� µ Ð � Ð �� � � �� #12;Black Diamond Internet 123456 789101112 A B 12x 6x

Imperial College, London

384

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red-black

Chen, Yangjun

385

Mineral-wool industry: opportunities for natural gas technologies. Topical report, January-July 1987  

SciTech Connect

To quantify the opportunities for natural gas and identify technological advances needed to capture such opportunities, the mineral-wool industry was analyzed with respect to the principal companies, their capabilities, and markets. The mineral-wool industry is stable with a slightly declining market. Of its market segments, only commercial acoustic insulation (which is currently dominant) is likely to be affected by growth in the next ten years. The principal process is based on treatment of blast-furnace slags in a cupola furnace using coke as the fuel and reducing agent. Expanded use of gas, as a substitute for coke, would eliminate environmental problems and expand the latitude of suitable raw materials. The study provides insights into the mineral-wool industry and identifies factors that may constitute bases for future usage of natural gas.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Key China Energy Statistics 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, washed coal, briquettes) and derived fuels (coke,coke oven gas, and other coking products). Crude oilWashed Coal Mt Briquettes Mt Coke Mt Coke Oven Gas Billion m

Levine, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Black-hole astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: Evolution of Quasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers, we discuss a model in which quasar activity is tied to the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies. Nuclear inflow of gas attending a galaxy collision triggers a starburst and feeds black hole growth, but for most of the duration of the starburst, the black hole is heavily obscured by surrounding gas and dust which limits the visibility of the quasar, especially at optical and UV wavelengths. Eventually, feedback energy from accretion heats the gas and expels it in a powerful wind, leaving a 'dead quasar'. Between buried and dead phases there is a window during which the galaxy would be seen as a luminous quasar. Because the black hole mass, radiative output, and distribution of obscuring gas and dust all evolve strongly with time, the duration of this phase of observable quasar activity depends on both the waveband and imposed luminosity threshold. We determine the observed and intrinsic lifetimes as a function of luminosity and frequency, and calculate observable lifetimes ~10 Myr for bright quasars in the optical B-band, in good agreement with empirical estimates and much smaller than the black hole growth timescales ~100 Myr, naturally producing a substantial population of 'buried' quasars. However, observed and intrinsic energy outputs converge in the IR and hard X-ray bands as attenuation becomes weaker and chances of observation greatly increase. We obtain the distribution of column densities along sightlines in which the quasar is seen above a given luminosity, and find that our result agrees remarkably well with observed estimates of the column density distribution from the SDSS for appropriate luminosity thresholds. (Abridged)

Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist; Thomas J. Cox; Tiziana Di Matteo; Paul Martini; Brant Robertson; Volker Springel

2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

390

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

391

Black Holes with Skyrme Hair  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong forces between the monopoles are all in balance. The solutions turn out to be stable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations.

Noriko Shiiki; Nobuyuki Sawado

2005-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

5D Black Rings and 4D Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has recently been shown that the M theory lift of a IIA 4D BPS Calabi-Yau black hole is a 5D BPS black hole spinning at the center of a Taub-NUT-flux geometries, and a certain linear relation between 4D and 5D BPS partition functions was accordingly proposed. In the present work we fortify and enrich this proposal by showing that the M-theory lift of the general 4D multi-black hole geometry are 5D black rings in a Taub-NUT-flux geometry.

Davide Gaiotto; Andrew Strominger; Xi Yin

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

393

Information Storage in Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The information loss paradox for Schwarzschild black holes is examined, using the ADS/CFT correspondence extended to the $M_6 (4,2)$ bulk. It is found that the only option compatible with the preservation of the quantum unitarity is when a regular remnant region of the black hole survives to the black hole evaporation process, where information can be stored and eventually retrieved.

M. D. Maia

2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Black-Scholes 2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black-Scholes #12;1 2 2 5 2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2-Ocone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4 Black-Scholes 25 4.1 Black-Scholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4}(d) . , (t) , (t)S t dWt . = 1 [8] , Black-Scholes . [8] , Black-Scholes . , . , 1 t log(St S0 ) . , [8] [6

Hattori, Tetsuya

395

Black entrepreneurship| Literature and reality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This dissertation provides two major contributions to the entrepreneurship literature. First, it provides the first comprehensive survey of the papers published on black entrepreneurship… (more)

Crump, Micah E. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Quantum Mechanics and Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the existence of black holes from the foundations of quantum mechanics. It is found that quantum mechanics rule out a possible gravitational collapse.

Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

397

P-V criticality in the extended phase space of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in AdS space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the $P-V$ criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of charged Gauss-Bonnet black holes in anti-de Sitter space, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure of the system and its conjugate quantity is the thermodynamic volume of the black hole. The black holes can have a Ricci flat ($k=0$), spherical ($k=1$), or hyperbolic ($k=-1$) horizon. We find that for the Ricci flat and hyperbolic Gauss-Bonnet black holes, no $P-V$ criticality and phase transition appear, while for the black holes with a spherical horizon, even when the charge of the black hole is absent, the $P-V$ criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition will appear, but it happens only in $d=5$ dimensions; when the charge does not vanish, the $P-V$ criticality and the small black hole/large phase transition always appear in $d=5$ dimensions; in the case of $d\\ge 6$, to have the $P-V$ criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition, there exists an upper bound for the parameter $b=\\widetilde{\\alpha}|Q|^{-2/(d-3)}$, where $\\tilde {\\alpha}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and $Q$ is the charge of the black hole. We calculate the critical exponents at the critical point and find that for all cases, they are the same as those in the van der Waals liquid-gas system.

Rong-Gen Cai; Li-Ming Cao; Li Li; Run-Qiu Yang

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

398

Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space configurations. Furthermore, the state-space geometry of single bubbled rings admits a well-defined, positive definite, everywhere regular and curved intrinsic Riemannian manifold; except for the two finite values of conserved electric charge. We also discuss the implication and potential significance of this work for the physics of black holes in string theory.

Stefano Bellucci; Bhupendra Nath Tiwari

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

Black holes, AdS, and CFTs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

count all states inside the black hole, but only those thatis the bag of gold? . . . . . Black hole entropy · AdS/CFT 12000) [arXiv:hep-th/9911230] Black holes, AdS, and CFTs 11.

Marolf, Donald

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and the host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

Tiziana Di Matteo; Volker Springel; Lars Hernquist

2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for some fuels, such as coke oven gas and other gas, NBSby Fuel Fuel Type Raw Coal Cleaned Coal Washed Coal CokeCoke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products Crude Oil

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

Nora Breton; Ricardo Garcia-Salcedo

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith February 16, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis Acting Assistant Secretary Smith Acting Assistant Secretary Smith Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Throughout the month of February, we've been introducing remarkable African Americans who are working to advance the President's clean energy agenda. This week we're highlighting Christopher Smith, the Department's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas in the Office of Fossil Energy. Below is a post he wrote that was featured on White House blog earlier this month. I'm lucky to have been raised by my parents, Raymond and Sue Ann Smith, who

406

Radiative Shocks in Rotating Accretion Flows around Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that the rotating inviscid accretion flows with adequate injection parameters around black holes could form shock waves close to the black holes, after the flow passes through the outer sonic point and can be virtually stopped by the centrifugal force. We examine numerically such shock waves in 1D and 2D accretion flows, taking account of cooling and heating of the gas and radiation transport. The numerical results show that the shock location shifts outward compared with that in the adiabatic solutions and that the more rarefied ambient density leads to the more outward shock location. In the 2D-flow, we find an intermediate frequency QPO behavior of the shock location as is observed in the black hole candidate GRS 1915+105.

T. Okuda; V. Teresi; E. Toscano; D. Molteni

2004-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

407

AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany Germany Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update, April 2009 Experiment Planning COPS Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Science Plan (PDF, 12.4M) Outreach COPS Backgrounder (PDF, 306K) Posters AMF Poster, German Vesion Researching Raindrops in the Black Forest News Campaign Images AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany Main Site: 48° 32' 24.18" N, 08° 23' 48.72" E Altitude: 511.43 meters In March 2007, the third deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will take place in the Black Forest region of Germany, where scientists will study rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. ARM

408

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper… (more)

Young, Christopher Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

BlackGold Biofuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BlackGold Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name BlackGold Biofuels Place Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip 19107 Product Philadelphia-based developer of a waste...

410

Black Hills Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Black Hills Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name Black Hills Corporation Place Rapid City, South Dakota Zip 57709 Product Diversified energy and communications company....

411

Removal of sulfur from recycle gas streams in catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a process for catalytically reforming a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock boiling in the gasoline range, wherein the reforming is conducted in the presence of hydrogen in a reforming process unit under reforming conditions, the process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, each of the reactors containing a reforming catalyst, and which process unit also includes a regeneration circuit for regenerating the catalyst after it becomes coked, the regeneration comprising treatment with a sulfur containing gas, and which process unit also includes a gas/liquid separator wherein a portion of the gas is recycled and the remaining portion is collected as make-gas. The improvement comprises using a sulfur trap, containing a catalyst comprised of about 10 to about 70 wt. % nickel dispersed on a support, between the gas/liquid separator and the first reactor.

Boyle, J.P.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

412

Rapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as compared to conventional steam-methane reforming and furnace black processing. Introduction by the furnace black process. For steam reforming, steam is reacted with methane over a reforming catalyst. Currently, hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas and carbon black is produced

413

Black optic display  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Black hole remnant of black hole-neutron star coalescing binaries with arbitrary black hole spin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model for determining the dimensionless spin parameter and mass of the black hole remnant of black hole-neutron star mergers with arbitrary initial black hole spin angular momentum, binary mass ratio, and neutron star mass and cold equation of state is formulated. Tests against numerical-relativity results are carried out, showing that both the dimensionless spin parameter and the final mass are accurately reproduced. For the first time, the behaviour of both quantities and of the l = 2, m = 2, n = 0 quasinormal mode frequency is inspected throughout the parameter space. Predictions of this frequency may be exploited to guide gravitational wave modelling and detection efforts, and to extract physical information from detected gravitational wave signals that would help us break degeneracies between binary black hole and black hole-neutron star systems, improve our understanding of compact binary formation, and constrain the neutron star equation of state.

Francesco Pannarale

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

415

Red-Black Trees Red-black trees are binary search trees that sat-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Red-Black Trees Red-black trees are binary search trees that sat- isfy: 1. Every node is either red or black. 2. If a node is red, then its parent is black. 3. For a given node, every path to a nil has the same number of black nodes, called black- height. A red-black tree with n nodes has h 2 lg

Bylander, Tom

416

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

417

Development of an advanced gas-fired mineral wool melter. Final report, October 1987-December 1990  

SciTech Connect

A gas-fired mineral wool melter was successfully designed and tested. The test results clearly show that the gas-fired melter offers significant advantages over the current state-of-the-art system, the coke-fired cupola. The primary benefits offered are: lower energy costs, fewer airborne pollutant emissions, virtual elimination of solid waste generation and superior control and quality of the resultant melt stream. Specifically, the unit eliminates the emission of carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. Emissions of SOx and particulate are substantially reduced as well. The generation of solid wastes is eliminated through the gas-fired melters ability to utilize untreated process wastes as a feedstock.

Vereecke, F.J.; Gardner, K.M.; Thekdi, A.C.; Swift, M.D.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Black Holes in Brane Worlds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a Randall-Sundrum theory (RS1) 3+1 dimensional black holes and higher dimensional black holes are not the natural continuations of each other. 3+1 dimensional black holes decay into a large number of 4+1 dimensional black holes at a critical mass, Mcrit ? 10 32 TeV. Those black holes themselves may become unstable above another, albeit much smaller critical mass, M0 ? 10 3 TeV. Models of the universe with extra dimensions larger than the Planck length have been under intense investigation during the last few years [1, 2, 3, 4]. The general feature of these models is that standard model particles are compelled to live on 3-branes, to satisfy momentum conservation in 3+1 dimensions and to conform to other phenomenological bounds, while gravity pervades all dimensions. Many of these models predict the observation of black holes at future accelerators [1, 5, 6, 7]. The models either use flat but compact extra dimensions(ADD scenario) [1] or a number of branes embedded in AdS space, with warped extra dimension(s) [2, 3]. Black holes in theories with extra dimensions have been studied widely. The classic paper of Myers and Perry [8] found solutions in D-dimensional flat space. Black hole solutions were also found in AdS space [9, 10]. No non-trivial black hole solutions have been found in closed form in brane theories of the Randall Sundrum type. Yet, it is important to learn as much as possible about black holes in such models. The black string solution [11] that extends in a uniform manner from the brane into the extra dimension has the Gregory-Laflamme instability in the ADD scenario [11, 12]. It is easy to invoke an entropy argument [13], to show that an instability will occur at a critical mass. An alternative interpretation is given in [14]. To understand the arguments by Gregory and Laflamme, compare the entropies of standard 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional Schwarzschild black holes of the same mass. Then one obtains a critical mass

P. Suranyi; L. C. R. Wijewardhana; Mcrit M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Critical behavior of Born-Infeld AdS black holes in the extended phase space thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamics of $D$-dimensional Born-Infeld AdS black holes in the extended phase space. We find that the usual small-large black hole phase transition, which exhibits analogy with the Van de Waals liquid-gas system holds in all dimensions greater than three. However, different from the four-dimensional case, in the system of higher dimensional Born-Infeld AdS black holes there is no reentrant phase transition. For the three-dimensional Born-Infeld AS black hole, there does not exist critical phenomena.

De-Cheng Zou; Shao-Jun Zhang; Bin Wang

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

420

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DEGRADATION OF HYDRODESULFURIZING CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clogged by the formation of coke through hydrogenation andcontained 0.5 percent coke residue. Light Vacuum Resid forcovered with a black layer of coke. This coke layer was seen

Whittle, D.P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Temperature Sensitivity of Black Carbon Decomposition and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Sensitivity of Black Carbon Decomposition and Oxidation B I N H T H A N H N G U Y E N to physical protection, chemical recalcitrance influences SOC decomposition rates. Black carbon (BC isotope geochemistry and nanomorphology of soil black carbon: Black chernozemic soils in central Europe

Lehmann, Johannes

422

PERSPECTIVE Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERSPECTIVE Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes Edward Witten The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived

423

Black in the Non-Black Imagination: How Anti-Black Ideology Shapes Non-Black Racial Discourse.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the (re)production of anti-Black ideology in critical discourses on race. Though contemporary critical discourses on race have been concerned with theorizing about… (more)

Howard, Natasha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Black Peak and Enchantments - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Peak, North Cascades. A nice two day outing. We hiked on the Maple Pass trail, from Hwy. 20, to Heather Pass, and then on a path to Lewis lake, where ...

425

Of the Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About thirty years ago, Bekenstein and Hawking introduced three basic concepts relating to black hole, namely, the "area entropy", "gravitation temperature" and "thermal radiation". The author analyzes these concepts systematically and concludes that they are mostly inadequate or wrong. He points out that a black hole's taking in thermal radiation from the space is an energy-gathering process. It is special, even extraordinary. It reduces entropy, violating Clausius' second law.

Xinyong Fu

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

426

Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth’s atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology. 1 1

Yuan K. Ha

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Regular black hole in three dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

Yun Soo Myung; Myungseok Yoon

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

429

Fishing in Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coordinate system $(\\bar{x},\\bar{t})$ defined by $r = 2m + K\\bar{x}- c K \\bar{t}$ and $t=\\bar{x}/cK - 1 /cK \\int_{r_a}^r (1- 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2} (1 - 2m/r)^{-1}dr$ allow us to write the Schwarzschild metric in the form: \\[ds^2=c^2 d\\bar{t}^2 + (W^2/K^2 - 2W/K) d\\bar{x}^2 + 2c (1 + W/K) d\\bar{x}d\\bar{t} - r^2 (d\\theta^2 + cos^2\\theta d\\phi^2)\\] with $W=(1 - 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2}$, in which the coefficients' pathologies are moved to $r_K = 2m/(1+K^2)$. This new coordinate system is used to study the entrance into a black hole of a rigid line (a line in which the shock waves propagate with velocity c).

A. Brotas

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Table A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke, 1949 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This Week in Petroleum › Weekly Petroleum Status Report › Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report ... coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry dam, anthracite culm,

432

Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha

433

Area spectra of near extremal black holes and Kerr black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, starting from the first law of thermodynamics of black holes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild de sitter black hole and a higher dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom de sitter black hole. Then we apply the method to the Kerr black hole. We show that the logarithmic term does not appear and the area spectra of all these black holes are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of black holes.

Chen, Deyou; Zu, Xiaotao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Kraft black liquor delivery systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.­The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a number of Devonian-Mississippian black shales such as the Barnett by the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored investigation of gas potential

Engelder, Terry

436

National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc. National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc. The cooperative agreement enhances the National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc., members'...

437

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Schroedinger Equation of the Schwarzschild Black Hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the gravitational degrees of freedom of the Schwarzschild black hole by one free variable. We introduce an equation which we suggest to be the Schroedinger equation of the Schwarzschild black hole corresponding to this model. We solve the Schroedinger equation explicitly and obtain the mass spectrum of the black hole as such as it can be observed by an observer very far away and at rest relative to the black hole. Our equation implies that there is no singularity inside the Schwarzschild black hole, and that the black hole has a certain ground state in which its mass is non-zero.

Jarmo Makela

1996-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

439

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Quantum Criticality and Black Holes  

SciTech Connect

I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

Sachdev, Subir (Harvard)

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other...

443

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cost (Physical Units) (Dollars / Physical Unit) Number of Plants Fuel ... Petroleum Coke includeds petroleum coke and synthesis gas derived from petroleum coke.

444

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cost (Billion Btu) (Dollars / Million Btu) Number of Plants Fuel July 2013 ... Petroleum Coke includeds petroleum coke and synthesis gas derived from petroleum coke.

445

Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Misc. Products - Fuel Use Misc. Products - Nonfuel...

446

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CDQ) Programmed heating Coke oven gas (COG) Variable speedheating, and cooling) in pelletization, and coke ovenheating, and cooling) in pelletization, and coke oven

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Retail Price (cents/kWh) Sector Residential Transportation ... Petroleum Coke includes petroleum coke and synthesis gas derived from petroleum coke.

448

Nuclear Spirals as Signatures of Supermassive Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent high resolution images of spiral galaxies show wide varieties of features including nuclear spirals in the central parts. Some of the galaxies show grand-design nuclear spirals. The morphology of grand-design spirals can be further divided by the openness of the arms: tightly wound ones with winding angle of around 3$\\pi$ radian and open spirals with winding angle of around $\\pi$ radian. Based on hydrodynamical simulations, we have investigated the mechanism responsible for the openness of nuclear spirals. Since the gas flow in the nuclear region is mainly governed by the central mass concentration near the nuclei and the sound speed of the gas, we have examined various models with different mass concentration represented by the mass of the central black hole and different sound speeds. We found that the tightly wound spirals can be formed when the mass of the black hole is large enough to remove the inner-inner Lindblad resonances and sound speeds lie between 15 - 20 km/sec. Thus, the presence of the tightly wound nuclear spiral could imply the presence of relatively massive black hole in the center.

Hong Bae Ann; Hyung Mok Lee

2004-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of a mathematical description of catalytic reforming taking into account changes of the individual components of the feedstock and catalyst coking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an approach for modeling petroleum and petrochemical processing. Based on this approach a mathematical model has been developed for catalytic reforming taking into account changes of individual feedstock components and catalyst coking. Examples are given of calculations and optimization of industrial equipment.

Rabinovich, G.B.; Dynkina, N.E.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Enhanced Black Hole Horizon Fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the possible role of quantum horizon fluctuations on black hole radiance, especially whether they can invalidate Hawking's analysis based upon transplanckian modes. We are particularly concerned with ``enhanced'' fluctuations produced by gravitons or matter fields in squeezed vacuum states sent into the black hole after the collapse process. This allows for the possibility of increasing the fluctuations well above the vacuum level. We find that these enhanced fluctuations could significantly alter stimulated emission but have little effect upon the spontaneous emission. Thus the thermal character of the Hawking radiation is remarkably robust.

R. T. Thompson; L. H. Ford

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

451

Information Loss in Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with non-trivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.

S. W. Hawking

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

452

Thermodynamic curvature and black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I give a relatively broad survey of thermodynamic curvature $R$, one spanning results in fluids and solids, spin systems, and black hole thermodynamics. $R$ results from the thermodynamic information metric giving thermodynamic fluctuations. $R$ has a unique status in thermodynamics as being a geometric invariant, the same for any given thermodynamic state. In fluid and solid systems, the sign of $R$ indicates the character of microscopic interactions, repulsive or attractive. $|R|$ gives the average size of organized mesoscopic fluctuating structures. The broad generality of thermodynamic principles might lead one to believe the same for black hole thermodynamics. This paper explores this issue with a systematic tabulation of results in a number of cases.

Ruppeiner, George

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Thermodynamic curvature and black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I give a relatively broad survey of thermodynamic curvature $R$, one spanning results in fluids and solids, spin systems, and black hole thermodynamics. $R$ results from the thermodynamic information metric giving thermodynamic fluctuations. $R$ has a unique status in thermodynamics as being a geometric invariant, the same for any given thermodynamic state. In fluid and solid systems, the sign of $R$ indicates the character of microscopic interactions, repulsive or attractive. $|R|$ gives the average size of organized mesoscopic fluctuating structures. The broad generality of thermodynamic principles might lead one to believe the same for black hole thermodynamics. This paper explores this issue with a systematic tabulation of results in a number of cases.

George Ruppeiner

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

454

The Alumni and Development Team Helen Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Alumni and Development Team Helen Black Development Coordinator (Fundraising) Ph 8302 0974 Fax 8302 0970 helen.black@unisa.edu.au Chris Crabbe Development Officer (Corporate & Named Scholarships) Ph

South Australia, University of

455

A Use for Inheritance Andrew P. Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Use for Inheritance Andrew P. Black Department of Computer Science & Engineering, OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University black@cse.ogi.edu Abstract. There are, of course

Black, Andrew P.

456

BlackCyanMagentaYellow 203023451040506070808590100  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BlackCyanMagentaYellow 203023451040506070808590100 My colleagues in the United Campus Ministry on linen (collection of the artist) of Willy Black Hanover resident and former Town Moderator (Left

Lotko, William

457

Blacks in Government | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Blacks in Government Blacks in Government August 13, 2012 10:00AM EDT to August 17, 2012 6:00PM EDT Detroit, Michigan Contact Gloria Smith, diversity@hq.doe.gov...

458

Does phantom energy produce black hole?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have found an exact solution of spherically symmetrical Einstein equations describing a black hole with a special type phantom energy source. It is surprising to note that our solution is analogous to Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.

F. Rahaman; A. Ghosh; M. Kalam

2006-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine ...

Vigeland, Sarah Jane

460

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ACCRETION-JET CONNECTION IN BLACK HOLES THE ORIGIN OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACCRETION-JET CONNECTION IN BLACK HOLES THE ORIGIN OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES & THEIR ROLE a very large kinetic energy...Moon @ >.9c" #12;POWERFUL DARK JETS FROM BLACK HOLES Radio (Dubner et al IN BLACK HOLES Fender, Belloni, Gallo (2006) Low-hard X-rays Persistent, flat spectrum radio source: G

Maryland at College Park, University of

462

Paradigms of Black BoxParadigms of Black Box Software TestingSoftware Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paradigms of Black BoxParadigms of Black Box Software TestingSoftware Testing Cem Kaner -- kaner · Black box testing groups vary widely in their approach to testing. · Tests that seem essential to one rather to define schools than to produce agreement. #12;5Kaner & Bach, Paradigms Black Box Testing

463

Harry Black Mr. Harry Black currently serves as the Director of Finance for the City of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harry Black Mr. Harry Black currently serves as the Director of Finance for the City of Baltimore of Risk Management. Mr. Black has served as: Executive Vice President & COO of Global Commerce Solutions. Mr. Black is the author of "Achieving Economic Development Success: Tools that work," a nuts

Noakes, David R.

464

Black Swans, Dragons-Kings and Prediction Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Swans, Dragons-Kings and Prediction Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) www.er.ethz.ch Didier;12 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS #12;Crises are not but "Dragon-kings" Dragon-king hypothesis #12;Black Swan story;17 Traditional emphasis on Daily returns do not reveal any anomalous events Financial crashes as "Black swans

465

37Black Hole Power...X Black holes are sometimes surrounded  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

37Black Hole Power...X Black holes are sometimes surrounded by a disk of orbiting matter. This disk is very hot. As matter finally falls into the black hole from the inner edge of that disk, it releases the infalling matter is about 7% of its rest-mass in all forms (heat+ light). The power produced by a black hole

466

4d neutral dilatonic black holes and (4+p) dimensional nondilatonic black p-branes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that, in contrast to the case of extreme 4d dilatonic black holes, 4d neutral dilatonic black holes with horizon singularities can not be interpreted as nonsingular nondilatonic black p-branes in (4+p) dimensions, regardless of the number of extra dimensions p. That is, extra dimensions do not remove naked singularities of 4d neutral dilatonic black holes.

J. R. Morris

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

467

Growing Supermassive Black Holes by Chaotic Accretion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is recent observational evidence (Barth et al., 2003, Willott et al, 2003) for supermassive black holes (SMBH)

A. R. King; J. E. Pringle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

Don N. Page

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

469

a BLACK HOLES AND FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a review of classical, thermodynamic and quantum properties of black holes relevant to fundamental physics. 1.

José P. S. Lemos; Centro Multidisciplinar; Astrofísica Centra

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Call for Papers and Panels Unleashing the Black Erotic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the Hypersexuality of Black Women Alternative Modes of Black Love and Family The Politics and Economics of Porn

Kunkle, Tom

471

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raw Coal Cleaned Coal Other Washed Coal Briquettes CokeCoke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products Petroleumbase oil n/a n/a Petroleum Coke Naphtha Paraffin Solvent oil

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Christopher Smith Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith February 16, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis Acting Assistant Secretary Smith Acting Assistant Secretary Smith Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Throughout the month of February, we've been introducing remarkable African Americans who are working to advance the President's clean energy agenda. This week we're highlighting Christopher Smith, the Department's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas in the Office of Fossil Energy. Below is a post he wrote that was featured on White House blog earlier this month. I'm lucky to have been raised by my parents, Raymond and Sue Ann Smith, who value education. As we celebrate Black History Month, I reflect on the

473

NonBlackBox Techniques in Cryptography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non­Black­Box Techniques in Cryptography Thesis for the Ph.D. Degree by Boaz Barak Under ``Black­Box'' as ``A device or theoretical construct with known or specified performance characteristics a program as a black­box means to use only its input/output relation by executing the program on chosen

Goldreich, Oded

474

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Black Carbon A Review and Policy Recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Carbon A Review and Policy Recommendations Authors Karen Bice, Andrew Eil, Bilal Habib to integrate air quality and climate mitigation efforts, with a focus on black carbon. The group set out the latest science behind black carbon and researched possible mitigation policies. The latter included

Mauzerall, Denise

476

Paradigms of Black Box Software Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paradigms of Black Box Software Testing Tutorial at Quality Week, 2002 Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph of the American Law Institute. #12;Copyright (c) 1994-2001 Cem Kaner. All Rights Reserved. 3 Paradigms of Black stakeholder interests #12;Copyright (c) 1994-2001 Cem Kaner. All Rights Reserved. 7 The Puzzle Black box

477

Slavery, Insurance, and Sacrifice in the Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

__ ls __ le __ ll 167 CHAPTER 9 Slavery, Insurance, and Sacrifice in the Black Atlantic TIM;Slavery, Insurance, and Sacrifice in the Black Atlantic · 169 __ ls __ le __ ll residence, age and quality as 1781, it is by analogy with ransom provisions that the French began to insure the lives of "black

Sheldon, Nathan D.

478

Non-Black-Box Techniques in Cryptography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-Black-Box Techniques in Cryptography Thesis for the Ph.D. Degree by Boaz Barak Under dictionary defines the term "Black-Box" as "A device or theoretical construct with known or specified of Computer Science, to use a program as a black-box means to use only its input/output relation by executing

Barak, Boaz

479

COMMENTARIES Opening the Black Boxes: Ecosystem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMMENTARIES Opening the Black Boxes: Ecosystem Science and Economic Valuation Stephen R. Carpenter and nature, then diverse disciplines must learn to view each other as more than just another black box. ``The'' must become more than just another state variable to the economist. As the black boxes have opened up

Turner, Monica G.

480

6, 1187711912, 2006 Scavenging of black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 11877­11912, 2006 Scavenging of black carbon in mixed phase clouds J. Cozic et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Scavenging of black carbon in mixed phase clouds at the high alpine site, 11877­11912, 2006 Scavenging of black carbon in mixed phase clouds J. Cozic et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas coke black" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

8, 98839929, 2008 Black carbon at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 8, 9883­9929, 2008 Black carbon at Syowa station, Antarctica K. Hara et al. Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Measurement of black carbon at Syowa station on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 9883 #12;ACPD 8, 9883­9929, 2008 Black carbon at Syowa station

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

BlackCyanMagentaYellow 203023451040506070808590100  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BlackCyanMagentaYellow 203023451040506070808590100 Page 4 D artmouth hosts more than 20 different #12;BlackCyanMagentaYellow bringcrosshairtobottomofshadedbox 20 30 2 3 4 5 10 40 50 60 70 80 85 90 100, Russian (b. 1866), Circling, 1924 Pen, black ink, graphite, and watercolor Gift of Wallace K. Harrison

Lotko, William

483

Implementation Update Black and Gold Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Implementation Update Black and Gold Commission June, 2003 1 Action Item/ Major Initiative Outcomes Policies and Practices of UWM with principles and goals of Black & Gold Commission UWM culture supports Senate; Student Association; Classified Employee Groups; Deans & Division Heads Spirit of the Black

Saldin, Dilano

484

4, 871891, 2007 Mobility of black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 871­891, 2007 Mobility of black carbon J. Leifeld et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Mobility of black carbon in drained­891, 2007 Mobility of black carbon J. Leifeld et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

485

Accretion Processes in BlackHole Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accretion Processes in Black­Hole Binaries Roberto Soria A thesis submitted for the degree presented in ``Measuring the Mass of the Black Hole in GRO J1655\\Gamma40'', Soria, R., Wickramasinghe, D. T processes in black­hole bina­ ries, theoretically and observationally, focussing on the role of outflows

Soria, Roberto

486

3, 211271, 2006 Black carbon in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 3, 211­271, 2006 Black carbon in the boreal C. M. Preston and M. W. I. Schmidt Title Page Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Black Correspondence to: C. M. Preston (cpreston@pfc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca) 211 #12;BGD 3, 211­271, 2006 Black carbon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Black Hole Spectrum: Continuous or Discrete?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a qualitative argument, based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, to support the claim that when the effects of matter fields are assumed to overshadow the effects of quantum mechanics of spacetime, the discrete spectrum of black hole radiation, as such as predicted by Bekenstein's proposal for a discrete black hole area spectrum, reduces to Hawking's black-body spectrum.

Jarmo Makela

1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

488

Charged Black Holes in New Massive Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct charged black hole solutions to three-dimensional New Massive Gravity (NMG), by adding electromagnetic Maxwell and Chern-Simons actions. We find charged black holes in the form of warped AdS_3 and "log" solutions in specific critical point. The entropy, mass and angular momentum of these black holes are computed.

Ghodsi, Ahmad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Gravitational lensing of STU black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study gravitational lensing by STU black holes. We considered extremal limit of two special cases of zero-charged and one-charged black holes, and obtain the deflection angle. We find that the black hole charge increases the deflection angle.

Hassan Saadat

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

490

Gravitational lensing of STU black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study gravitational lensing by STU black holes. We considered extremal limit of two special cases of zero-charged and one-charged black holes, and obtain the deflection angle. We find that the black hole charge increases the deflection angle.

Saadat, Hassan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

tyvek8 inch black sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

����� ��� �� � Ð � Ð � ½¼ � � � �� � � �� Ý � � � ��ÐÝ ¿��º ½¿ #12;tyvek8 inch PMT black sheet 20

Tokyo, University of

492

Black Hole's Life at colliders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the series of papers by Ida, Oda and Park, the complete description of Hawking radiation to the brane localized Standard Model fields from mini black holes in the low energy gravity scenarios are obtained. Here we briefly review what we have learned in those papers.

Seong Chan Park

2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

493

Black Hole fragmentation and holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the entropy change due to fragmentation for black hole solutions in various dimensions. We find three different types of behavior. The entropy may decrease, increase or have a mixed behavior, characterized by the presence of a threshold mass. For two-dimensional (2D) black holes we give a complete characterization of the entropy behavior under fragmentation, in the form of sufficient conditions imposed on the function J, which defines the 2D gravitational model. We compare the behavior of the gravitational solutions with that of free field theories in d dimensions. This excludes the possibility of finding a gravity/field theory realization of the holographic principle for a broad class of solutions, including asymptotically flat black holes. We find that the most natural candidates for holographic duals of the black hole solutions with mixed behavior are field theories with a mass gap. We also discuss the possibility of formulating entropy bounds that make reference only to the energy of a system.

Mariano Cadoni

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

494

Gold and Black Group Paws Training Plans Gold Group Black Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gold and Black Group Paws Training Plans Gold Group Black Group Week Day Distance Description Day://www.badgerlandstriders.org/home/Races/TheDeerRun.htm. Black Group The goal of the Black Group is to go from moderate running to 13 miles over a ten week include periodic walking breaks as needed. The Black Group should run four days a week on a Monday

Saldin, Dilano

495

ARE RADIO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI POWERED BY ACCRETION OR BLACK HOLE SPIN?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Based on our adopted spin model, we find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameters and accretion rates. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGNs by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass over the range of jet power considered here. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency, defined as the fraction of the available cold molecular gas that is required to power the AGN, both vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGNs, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGNs that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that their AGNs are powered by another mechanism. If these systems are powered primarily by black hole spin rather than by accretion, spin must also be tapped efficiently in some systems, i.e., P{sub jet}> M-dot c{sup 2}, or their black hole masses must be substantially larger than the values implied by their bulge luminosities. We constrain the (model-dependent) accretion rate at the transition from radiatively inefficient to radiatively efficient accretion flows to be a few percent of the Eddington rate, a value that is consistent with other estimates.

McNamara, B. R.; Rohanizadegan, Mina [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

496

Rotating Black Holes with Monopole Hair  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study rotating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. These black holes emerge from static black holes with monopole hair when a finite horizon angular velocity is imposed. At critical values of the horizon angular velocity and the horizon radius, they bifurcate with embedded Kerr-Newman black holes. The non-Abelian black holes possess an electric dipole moment, but no electric charge is induced by the rotation. We deduce that gravitating regular monopoles possess a gyroelectric ratio g_el=2.

B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz; F. Navarro-Lerida

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

497

Black holes: from stars to galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While until recently they were often considered as exotic objects of dubious existence, in the last decades there have been overwhelming observational evidences for the presence of stellar mass black holes in binary systems, supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, and possibly, intermediate-mass black holes observed as ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. Black holes are now widely accepted as real physical entities that play an important role in several areas of modern astrophysics. Here I review the concluding remarks of the IAU Sympposium No 238 on Black Holes, with particular emphasis on the topical questions in this area of research.

I. F. Mirabel

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

498

Modulating the phase structure of black D6 branes in canonical ensemble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exists a dramatic difference in phase structure between charged black Dp-branes with $p liquid-gas type. However, when the two are combined to form D0/D6, the resulting phase diagram finally gets changed dramatically to the wanted one, containing now the above liquid-gas type. This change arises from the interaction between D6 and the delocalized D0.

J. X. Lu; Ran Wei

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

499

Reduction in Mercury Emissions with Lignite Coke W. Esser-Schmittmann, J. Wirling and U. Lenz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Therefore, without cooling the flue gas, significant quantities of mercury will pass through the particulate, page 4824. Licata, A., et al, June 1994, "An Economic Alternative to Controlling Acid Gases, Mercury electrostatic precipitator combination. -Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction System to reduce nitrogen oxide

Columbia University

500

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z