National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas coke black

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  3. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  4. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  5. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  6. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  7. X-ray evaluation of coke-oven gas line deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Y.T.

    1983-08-01

    Control of coke-oven gas pipeline deposits has been facilitated through the use of an X-ray technique that provides quantitative data without disrupting plant operations.

  8. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  9. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  10. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  12. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  14. Richard Coke Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ir.on and steel sector. GroBs Energy Consumption Fuel Type (10 12 Btu/yr) Coal 1,824.9 Tar and Pitch 5.4 Coke 177 .9 Coke Oven Gas 3.6 Natural Gas 659.2 Middle Disti.llate Fuels 13.5 Residual Fuel Oil 206.5 Liquid Petroleum Cas 1... sector fol owed by aluminum and copper. 4.1.1 Iron and Steel Table 3 shows energy use in the steel sector to be about 3.4 quad with over 50% accounted for by coal. Major energy consuming proc ss steps include coke ovens, bl st furnaces...

  15. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  17. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  18. Utilization of Process Off-Gas as a Fuel for Improved Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with waste heat utilization. The calcining process is composed of the petroleum coke charger (black), fluidized bed calciner with electrodes and nitrogen supply (red), and gas...

  19. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  20. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process.

  1. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  3. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    patent fuel, coke oven coke, coke oven gas, blastproduction of steel. Coke oven gas is produced as byproductgas and briquettes (BKB) -- were derived as the ratio of fuel inputs at coke ovens,

  4. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) Year Jan FebPrice82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190

  5. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  7. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  8. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  10. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  11. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  12. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    in BF N.A. Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressureVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recovery

  13. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  14. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  15. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  16. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  17. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  18. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  19. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  20. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  1. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  2. Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dymond, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    VIABLE FUEL FOR COGENERATION RAYMOND E. DYMOND, DIRECTOR-PETROLEUM COKE, THE PACE CONSULTANTS, INC., HOUSTON, TEXAS OVERVIEW Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher...-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Within the petroleum refining industry there are three different types of coking processes-

  3. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  4. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

  5. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  6. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  7. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  8. New technology suppresses coke dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A brief account is given of the technique of electrostatic fogging which has been tested successfully at a Canadian steel mill to control coke dust in the respirable size range. A spray of very fine droplets (<10 MUm) has an electrostatic charge imparted to each droplet. The spray of electrostatically-charged fog suppresses the dust by a combination of scrubbing and electrostatic attraction.

  9. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  10. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  11. Foliar ozone injury and gas exchange among black cherry genotypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouterick, K.B.; Skelly, J.M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kolb, T.E.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The effect of differing ozone exposures on seedlings of black cherry genotypes was investigated in northcentral Pennsylvania. Ozone exclusion treatments were administrated to half-sib families R12 and MO-7, and wild-type (WT) grown in open-top chambers. Over the 1993 growing season, left gas exchange and stem volume were related to percentage of foliar ozone injury observed as adaxial stipple. Ozone symptoms decreased significantly with increasing ozone filtration. R12 exhibited the most severe foliar injury, while WT seedlings showed slightly less symptoms. MO-7 had the least amount of foliar injury. No clear trends in stomatal conductance or net photosynthesis were observed until August. During August, foliar injury was positively related to stomatal conductance. Stomatal conductance values were greatest in R12, followed by WT and MO-7. Photosynthesis followed the same pattern at stomatal conductance. Dark respiration rates were variable across treatments for the entire growing season. Differing ozone exposures did not affect stem volume, but stem volume of seedlings of all families in the open plot were significantly lower than seedlings within chambers. Overall, R12 had higher stem volume than MO-7 and WT seedlings.

  12. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  13. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  14. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  15. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  16. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  17. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  18. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  19. BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /steamturbinetechnologies. Gasification technologies under development will allow biomass-derived fuels to be usedto fuel gasturbine gasification. The use of biomass fuels with gas turbines could transform a typical pulp mill from a netBIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON

  20. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  1. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  2. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  3. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  4. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  5. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  6. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  8. File:EIA-BlackWarrior-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdf Jump to:ColoradoBOE.pdf Jump to:BOE.pdfGAS.pdf Jump

  9. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshowSeptemberpetroleum isDepartment

  10. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshowSeptemberpetroleum

  11. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshowSeptemberpetroleumDepartment of

  12. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy||slideshowSeptemberpetroleumDepartment

  13. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential New Construction Rebate Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p

  14. Accretion of Chaplygin gas upon black holes: Formation of faster outflowing winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritabrata Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty; Tarun Deep Saini; Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-24

    We study the accretion of modified Chaplygin gas upon different types of black hole. Modified Chaplygin gas is one of the best candidates for a combined model of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, from a field theoretical point of view the modified Chaplygin gas model is equivalent to that of a scalar field having a self-interacting potential. We formulate the equations related to both spherical accretion and disc accretion, and respective winds. The corresponding numerical solutions of the flow, particularly of velocity, are presented and are analyzed. We show that the accretion-wind system of modified Chaplygin gas dramatically alters the wind solutions, producing faster winds, upon changes in physical parameters, while accretion solutions qualitatively remain unaffected. This implies that modified Chaplygin gas is more prone to produce outflow which is the natural consequence of the dark energy into the system.

  15. Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE AND ADVERTISING STRATEGIES (formerly Estimating Firms'Mixed Price and Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, Larry S. Karp. #12;Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M

  16. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  17. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  18. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  19. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  20. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  1. Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generally lead to increased coking potential of coals characterised in the resulting cokes by large sizes equivalent to natural coking coals, since the cokes from these residues are always made of smaller MOD than those obtained for coking coals. For comparison, a similar characterisation, carried out

  2. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  3. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  4. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  5. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  6. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  10. Performance analysis of compositional and modified black-oil models for rich gas condensate reservoirs with vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izgec, Bulent

    2004-09-30

    various production and injection scenarios for a rich gas condensate reservoir. The software used to perform the compositional and MBO runs were Eclipse 300 and Eclipse 100 versions 2002A. The effects of black-oil PVT table generation methods, uniform...

  11. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  12. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    under the name GKT. Recently, the GKT gasifier was selected over the Texaco gasifier for the TVA Murphy Hill coal gasification project and -the Solvent Refined Coal-I coal liquefaction project A schematic :of the GKT gasifier is shown in Figure 1...;! at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory in California. ThEil pilot plant has been tested with various coals, petroleum coke and residues from coal liquefaction processes. Currently there are two 20 ton per day pilot plants operating at Montebello...

  13. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01

    experiment data on product flow rate, reactor temperature, and product distribution were collected. And at the end of each run, the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst was measured. Hydrogen concentration in the product distribution decreased as a...

  14. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  19. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M strategies in prices and advertising for Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. Separate strategies for each firm variables are prices and advertising. We divide each firm's continuous price-advertising action space

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas carbonization, from the resi- due of gasifying oils in oil gas pro- cesses, and from the cracking of en- riching

  6. Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013 34,4670.2.3.5.6.

  7. Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,0138. U.S. Coal9.0.1.

  8. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  9. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  10. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  11. Gas infall into atomic cooling haloes: on the formation of protogalactic disks and supermassive black holes at z > 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prieto, Joaquin; Haiman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We have performed cosmo-hydro simulations using the RAMSES code to study atomic cooling (ACHs) haloes at z=10 with masses 5E7Msun10 to date. We examine the morphology, angular momentum (AM), thermodynamic, and turbulence of these haloes, in order to assess the prevalence of disks and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find no correlation between either the magnitude or the direction of the AM of the gas and its parent DM halo. Only 3 haloes form rotationally supported cores. Two of the most massive haloes form massive, compact overdense blobs. These blobs have an accretion rate ~0.5 Msun/yr (at a distance of 100 pc), and are possible sites of SMBH formation. Our results suggest that the degree of rotational support and the fate of the gas in a halo is determined by its large-scale environment and merger history. In particular, the two haloes forming blobs are located at knots of the cosmic web, cooled early on, and experienced many mergers. The gas in these haloes is lumpy and highly turbulent, with Mach N....

  12. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,4)Black

  14. Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)EnergyWith GasesBlack

  15. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    Coal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other CokingTJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products

  16. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  17. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  18. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  19. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  20. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  1. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  2. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objectives: Discover a blind, low-moderate temperature resource: Apply a combination of detailed sub-soil gas, hydrocarbon, and isotope data to define possible upflow areas; Calibrate the sub-soil chemistry with down-hole fluid inclusion stratigraphy and fluid analyses to define a follow-up exploration drilling target; Create short term jobs and long term employment through resource exploration, development and power plant operation; Extend and adapt the DOE sub-soil 2 meter probe technology to gas sampling.

  3. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  4. Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) JumpIowa: EnergyEnergyCoherent Inc Jump to:Coke County,

  5. Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:Information 3rd congressionalNearshoreNilam has notCoke and

  6. Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth,Drilling Geothermal

  7. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  8. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  9. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  10. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  11. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,and otherregions with low wood production costs and relatively low per-capita levels of paper use. The majority,and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companie.~arepursuingcon-urercializationof black liquor

  14. EVIDENCE FOR A PARSEC-SCALE JET FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER BLACK HOLE: INTERACTION WITH LOCAL GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhiyuan

    Despite strong physical reasons that they should exist and decades of searching, jets from the Galactic center black hole, Sgr A*, have not yet been convincingly detected. Based on high-resolution Very Large Array images ...

  15. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  16. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  17. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  18. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mentzer, W.P. (USX Corp., Clairton, PA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  19. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

  20. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    I grew up there and in Los Gatos, in the Santa Clara Valley.that wasn’t really in Los Gatos. It was outside the town,high school there in Los Gatos, and on to San Jose State. I

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Harms; Y. Leblanc

    1992-05-11

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed.

  2. Accreting Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these interactions. Larger global magnetohydrodynamic simulations as well as simulations incorporating plasma microphysics and full radiation hydrodynamics will be needed to unravel some of the current mysteries of black hole accretion.

  3. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and derived fuels (coke, coke oven gas, and other cokingMt Briquettes Mt Coke Mt Coke Oven Gas Billion m 3 Other GasCoal Gas not Coke Other Total Oven Gas Coke Source Products

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and derived fuels (coke, coke oven gas, and other cokingMt Briquettes Mt Coke Mt Coke Oven Gas Billion m 3 Other GasCoal Gas not Coke Other Total Oven Gas Coke Source Products

  5. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  6. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  7. An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

  8. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  9. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    microscopy," scanning tunneling electron microscopy," and synchrotron based tomography,t3 it is possibleSimulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first

  10. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  12. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  13. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    for some fuels, such as coke oven gas and other gas, NBSCoal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Cokingt CO 2 /TJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking

  14. Evidence for a parsec-scale jet from the galactic center black hole: Interaction with local gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Morris, Mark R.; Baganoff, Frederick K. E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-12-20

    Despite strong physical reasons that they should exist and decades of searching, jets from the Galactic center black hole, Sgr A*, have not yet been convincingly detected. Based on high-resolution Very Large Array images and ultra-deep imaging-spectroscopic data produced by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we report new evidence for the existence of a parsec-scale jet from Sgr A*, by associating a linear feature G359.944–0.052, previously identified in X-ray images of the Galactic center, with a radio shock front on the Eastern Arm of the Sgr A West H II region. We show that the shock front can be explained in terms of the impact of a jet having a sharp momentum peak along the Galaxy's rotation axis, whereas G359.944–0.052, a quasi-steady feature with a power-law spectrum, can be understood as synchrotron radiation from shock-induced ultra-relativistic electrons cooling in a finite post-shock region downstream along the jet path. Several interesting implications of the jet properties are discussed.

  15. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  16. Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996Deutsche Bank AGTotal96 Created on:U.S.

  17. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013

  18. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,0138. U.S.

  19. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Coal Briquettes Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Cokingsignificant volumes of coke oven gas and other coal gasesannual variations in “Coke Oven Gas” and “Other Gases” (

  20. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf... MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE CORING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Approved as to style and content by: ayne A. Le...

  1. Incorporation of deuterium in coke formed on an acetylene hydrogenation catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, M.; Jansson, J.; Asplund, S.

    1996-09-01

    In selective hydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene, considerable amounts of coke or {open_quotes}green oils{close_quotes} are formed and accumulate on the catalyst. A fraction of the acetylene undergoes oligomerization reactions producing C{sub 4}`s and larger hydrocarbons. Compounds larger than C{sub 8} are retained on the catalysts surface or as a condensed phase in the pore system. The reaction mechanism is largely unknown but several authors have postulated that oligomerization occurs through dissociatively adsorbed acetylene (2), i.e., C{sub 2}H(ads) and C{sub 2}(ads). In this paper a novel method of studying the coke formation on a catalyst is introduced. Deuterium is incorporated in the coke during hydrogenation of acetylene, and during temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments the deuterium content is analyzed. The objective is to shed some light on the mechanism for oligomer formation in this system. The catalyst, Pd/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was prepared by the impregnation of {alpha}-alumina (Sued-Chemie) with a solution of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in 30% HNO{sub 3}. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    July, 1998. Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine Cogeneration.Economics of Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine CogenerationEconomics of Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas Turbine Cogeneration

  3. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  4. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    feedstock to coke and coke oven gas, for subsequent use inblast furnace and coke oven gas) generation and recovery

  5. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  6. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  7. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  8. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  9. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 03 NATURAL GAS; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; BLACK SHALES; GEOLOGY; PALEONTOLOGY; KENTUCKY; DEVONIAN PERIOD; FOSSILS; GEOLOGIC HISTORY; BITUMINOUS...

  10. Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

    2012-03-06

    The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

  11. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    z Black Liquor z Blast Furnace Gas z Coalbed Methane z Coke Oven Gas z Crop Residues z Food Processing Waste z Industrial VOC's z Landfill Gas z Municipal Solid Waste z...

  12. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    plants Adjustable speed drives, coke oven gas compressors,heat recovery coke oven gases, and dry coke quenching

  13. Diffusion and Reactivity of Gas Oil in FCC Catalysts SULAIMAN Al-KHATTAF, HUGO I. de LASA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    developed in a novel CREC Simulator, is employed to estimate the unconverted gas oil, the gasoline and secondary cracking reactions and the yields of gasoline, coke and light gas yields. Key words: FCC, cracking in FCC units has become more prevalent due to the declining availability and as a result higher prices

  14. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    bem) tndustiy Total S' Coke Oven Gas (bem) Light Industry!Manufacturing Balance^ Coke Oven Gas (bcm) Other Coal Gas (Consumption * (continued) Coke Oven Gas (bcm) Subsector

  16. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Variable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke drythe waste heat from the coke oven gas to dry the coal used

  17. Del Black

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB Packet HanfordDOEDanielDe novo Design ofDefects LeadDel Black Del

  18. Evidence for the Black Hole Event Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan

    2003-10-23

    Astronomers have discovered many candidate black holes in X-ray binaries and in the nuclei of galaxies. The candidate objects are too massive to be neutron stars, and for this reason they are considered to be black holes. While the evidence based on mass is certainly strong, there is no proof yet that any of the objects possesses the defining characteristic of a black hole, namely an event horizon. Type I X-ray bursts, which are the result of thermonuclear explosions when gas accretes onto the surface of a compact star, may provide important evidence in this regard. Type I bursts are commonly observed in accreting neutron stars, which have surfaces, but have never been seen in accreting black hole candidates. It is argued that the lack of bursts in black hole candidates is compelling evidence that these objects do not have surfaces. The objects must therefore possess event horizons.

  19. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  20. Nuclear Disks of Gas and Dust in Early Type Galaxies and the Hunt for Massive Black Holes: Hubble Space Telescope Observations of NGC 6251

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Ferrarese; Holland Ford

    1998-11-19

    We discuss Hubble Space Telescope optical images and spectra of NGC 6251, a giant E2 galaxy and powerful radio source at a distance of 106 Mpc (for H_0 = 70 km/s/Mpc). The galaxy is known to host a very well defined dust disk (O'Neil et al. 1994); the exceptional resolution of our V and I images allows a detailed study of the disk structure. Furthermore, narrow band images centered on the Halpha+[NII] emission lines, reveal the presence of ionized gas in the inner 0.3 arcsec of the disk. We used the HST/Faint Object Spectrograph with the 0.09 arcsec aperture to study the velocity structure of the disk. Dynamical models were constructed for two extreme (in terms of central concentration) analytical representations of the stellar surface brightness profile, from which the mass density and corresponding rotational velocity are derived assuming a constant mass-to-light ratio (M/L)_V ~ 8.5 M_solar/L_solar. For both representations of the stellar component, the models show that the gas is in Keplerian motion around a central mass ~ 4 - 8 X 10^8 solar masses, and that the contribution of radial flows to the velocity field is negligible.

  1. Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emil J. Martinec

    2015-05-20

    Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.

  2. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    Unit: (Mtce) Liquid Petroleum Gas Natural Gas ElectricityCoke Source Coke Oven Gas Natural Gas Liquid Petroleum GasLiquid Coke Petroleum Refinery Natural Coke Total Petroleum Other Other Gas

  3. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is currently no direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, I review the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  4. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction Coking, Coal Gas and Coal Products Oil and NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas and Coal Products Oil and Naturalextraction processing Coke, Coal Gas & Products Oil & Natural

  5. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Extraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Oil & NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Oil & NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products [3] Oil & Natural

  6. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    generation, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, and

  7. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    CDQ) Programmed heating Coke oven gas (COG) Variablespeed drive coke oven gas compressors Next generation cokerecovery Injection of coke oven gas and basic oxygen furnace

  8. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, residual and distillateexcess fuel gas is used on site in furnaces and coke ovens (

  9. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the ex-vessel source term predictions of CORCON/VANESA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a LWR, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products are quantified using CORCON/Mod2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, Cs/sub 2/O and Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO/sub 2/ are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and Ce/sub 2/O increase, while the releases of Te and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radionuclide release and aerosol production was found to be insignificant.

  10. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    2006) 99 Figure 3-28 Coke Oven Gas End-use and Inputsnatural gas use declined. Coke oven gas consumption remainedCoal Total Petroleum Coke Oven Gas Coke Natural Gas

  11. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    economics of black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogenerationblack liquor and biomass gasifier/gas turbine technology".entrained flow booster gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina;

  12. Circumnuclear Media and Accretion Rates of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generozov, Aleksey; Metzger, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting ("quiescent") galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses, parameterized gas heating rates, and observationally-motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the black hole accretion rate, as a function of the black hole mass and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star-formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities from nearby quiesce...

  13. Evidence for the Black Hole Event Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan; Jeremy S. Heyl

    2002-04-26

    Roughly a dozen X-ray binaries are presently known in which the compact accreting primary stars are too massive to be neutron stars. These primaries are identified as black holes, though there is as yet no definite proof that any of the candidate black holes actually possesses an event horizon. We discuss how Type I X-ray bursts may be used to verify the presence of the event horizon in these objects. Type I bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions when gas accretes onto a compact star. The bursts are commonly seen in many neutron star X-ray binaries, but they have never been seen in any black hole X-ray binary. Our model calculations indicate that black hole candidates ought to burst frequently if they have surfaces. Based on this, we argue that the lack of bursts constitutes strong evidence for the presence of event horizons in these objects.

  14. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasPower Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Total ConsumptionHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries Gas

  15. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasRefueling in China Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries

  16. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    gas petroleum waxes coking coal t C/TJ other bituminous coalprocesses of coal washing, coking, petroleum refineries, gaslosses include coal washing, coking, petroleum refining, gas

  17. Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Ferrarese; David Merritt

    2002-06-13

    After a brief historical introduction, we summarize current efforts and accomplishments in the study of supermassive black holes.

  18. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    coal; 6.2% for coke, coke oven gas, natural gas, and cokeexcept for injection of coke oven gas in blast furnace which6   Injection of coke oven gas in BF   7   Top?pressure 

  19. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Variable speed drive on coke oven gas compressors DirectVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke drylevels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

  20. Black Pine Engineering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  1. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    back to cleaned coal (coking coal) and added to the rest ofother bituminous coal and coking coal. Small differences incoal (used as fuel) Coking coal Coke oven coke Natural gas

  2. Magnetized static black Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoytcho S. Yazadjiev

    2008-02-06

    We construct a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a non-rotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.

  3. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    blast furnace, and coke oven gas. Energy savings resultswashed coal, coal gas from blast furnace, and coke oven This

  4. The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2004-08-10

    The supermassive black holes observed at the centers of almost all present-day galaxies, had a profound impact on their environment. I highlight the principle of self-regulation, by which supermassive black holes grow until they release sufficient energy to unbind the gas that feeds them from their host galaxy. This principle explains several observed facts, including the correlation between the mass of a central black hole and the depth of the gravitational potential well of its host galaxy, and the abundance and clustering properties of bright quasars in the redshift interval of z~2-6. At lower redshifts, quasars might have limited the maximum mass of galaxies through the suppression of cooling flows in X-ray clusters. The seeds of supermassive black holes were likely planted in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z>10, through the collapse of massive or supermassive stars. The minimum seed mass can be identified observationally through the detection of gravitational waves from black hole binaries by Advanced LIGO or LISA. Aside from shaping their host galaxies, quasar outflows filled the intergalactic medium with magnetic fields and heavy elements. Beyond the reach of these outflows, the brightest quasars at z>6 have ionized exceedingly large volumes of gas (tens of comoving Mpc) prior to global reionization, and must have suppressed the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in these volumes before the same occurred through the rest of the universe.

  5. Thermal Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-05-19

    Thermal gravitational waves can be generated in various sources such as, in the cores of stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars due to the fermion collisions in the dense degenerate Fermi gas. Such high frequency thermal gravitational waves can also be produced during the collisions in a gamma ray burst or during the final stages of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Here we estimate the thermal gravitational waves from primordial black holes and estimate the integrated energy of the gravitational wave emission over the entire volume of the universe and over Hubble time. We also estimate the gravitational wave flux from gamma ray bursts and jets.

  6. Corrosion in gas conditioning plants - An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, B.; Dupart, M.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1800's, fuel gases of various sorts (acetylene, blast furnace gas, flue water gas, carbureted water gas, coal gas, coke oven gas and producer gas) were transmitted at low pressures in pipelines and were conditioned for contaminate removal. The removal of such contaminates as H/sub 2/S was usually accomplished by solid absorbents such as iron oxide, a process that is still in use today. The discovery in the late 20's of a regenerative process employing alkanolamines was instrumental in rapid increase in the use of natural gas in large volumes. Also at this time, the development of wide diameter pipelines that could handle 500-700 psi gas pressure provided the means of handling these large volumes of gas. The protection of the pipeline from corrosion depended upon contaminate removal of water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. In the process of contaminant removal, the process equipment suffered severe corrosion damage. Corrosion test methods and inhibitors were applied to those early processes and have advanced from weep holes and coupons to the present way of electronic and physical test methods. The trend is away from the primary amine at either low strength or inhibited at high concentration to less corrosive, ''tailor-made'' solvents that can be designed or formulated to perform a given task at acceptable corrosion rates and at much lower energy levels.

  7. Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelo A. Alvarez; John H. Wise; Tom Abel

    2008-11-07

    The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculations show that even without the radiative feedback included most seed black holes do not gain mass as efficiently as has been hoped for in previous theories, implying that black hole remnants of Pop III stars that formed in minihalos are not likely to be the origin of miniquasars. Most importantly, however, these calculations demonstrate that if early stellar mass black holes are indeed accreting close to the Bondi-Hoyle rate with ten percent efficiency they have a dramatic local effect in regulating star formation in the first galaxies.

  8. Bicycling Black Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henriette Elvang; Maria J. Rodriguez

    2008-01-25

    We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

  9. Bicycling Black Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elvang, Henriette

    2008-01-01

    We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. Such limits exist for both types of solutions; for the bi-rings it is obtained when the two rings drag each other to extremality through the effect of gravitational frame-dragging. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

  10. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  12. Mechanistic insights of ethanol steam reforming over Ni-CeOx(111): The importance of hydroxyl groups for suppressing coke formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Duchon, Tomas; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolin, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; et al

    2015-07-10

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³? concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themore »active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  13. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Ducho?, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; et al

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³? concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themore »active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  14. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  15. Rotating Hairy Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

    2000-12-20

    We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  16. "Hybrid" Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei V. Frolov

    2014-12-30

    We discuss a solution of the Einstein equations, obtained by gluing the external Kerr metric and the internal Weyl metric, describing an axisymmetric static vacuum distorted black hole. These metrics are glued at the null surfaces representing their horizons. For this purpose we use the formalism of massive thin null shells. The corresponding solution is called a "hybrid" black hole. The massive null shell has an angular momentum which is the origin of the rotation of the external Kerr spacetime. At the same time, the shell distorts the geometry inside the horizon. The inner geometry of the "hybrid" black hole coincides with the geometry of the interior of a non-rotating Weyl-distorted black hole. Properties of the "hybrid" black holes are briefly discussed.

  17. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  18. PURDUE UNIVERSITY BLACK CULTURAL CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    traveled to Detroit, Michigan to study our fall research theme, " Black Detroit: The History, Movement

  19. Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    1999-10-29

    Supermassive binary black holes and their influence on the structure and evolution of galaxies is reviewed.

  20. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of coking coal mainly for steelmaking will dropelectricity and town gas. Coking coal consumption mainly for

  1. A comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with Gasoline and Ramses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabor, J M; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We here compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code Ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of sub-grid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they "fly-by" within 10 kpc at first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star fo...

  2. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  3. The mass function of high redshift seed black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Lodato; Priyamvada Natarajan

    2007-02-13

    In this paper we derive the mass function of seed black holes that result from the central mass concentrated via disc accretion in collapsed haloes at redshift $z\\approx 15$. Using standard arguments including stability, we show that these pre-galactic discs can assemble a significant mass concentration in the inner regions, providing fuel for the formation and initial growth of super-massive black holes. Assuming that these mass concentrations do result in central seed black holes, we determine the mass distribution of these seeds as a function of key halo properties. The seed mass distribution determined here turns out to be asymmetric and skewed to higher masses. Starting with these initial seeds, building up to $10^9$ solar masses by $z = 6$ to power the bright quasars is not a problem in the standard LCDM cosmogony. These seed black holes in gas rich environments are likely to grow into the supermassive black holes at later times via mergers and accretion. Gas accretion onto these seeds at high redshift will produce miniquasars that likely play an important role in the reionization of the Universe. Some of these seed black holes on the other hand could be wandering in galaxy haloes as a consequence of frequent mergers, powering the off-nuclear ultra-luminous X-ray sources detected in nearby galaxies.

  4. Sorption of Methane and Ethane on Belgian Black Shale Using a Manometric Setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Sorption of Methane and Ethane on Belgian Black Shale Using a Manometric Setup Naeeme Danesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Fundamentals 3 2.1 Shales.1.2 Shale characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.3 Shale gas

  5. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas Electricity Coke oven gas (COG) Unit Convertin Table 17. Convert Coke Oven Gas (COG) and Other Coal Gassteel industry, such as coke oven gas and other coal gas,

  6. Black Holes In Astronomy Black Holes In Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    Black Hole horizon static limit ergosphere radiation magnetic fields jet jet #12;Black-hole accretion with a central bulge. #12;Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Jets and lobes of Cygnus A Carilli et al. Supermassive black holes are the most powerful engines in the Universe

  7. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nardini, E; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10^46 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy co-evolution.

  8. The renaissance of black phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Xi

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from ...

  9. Black Holes And Their Entropy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Jianwei

    2010-10-12

    . . . . . . . . . 21 1. Solutions in Four Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. Solutions in Higher Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 C. Black Hole Solutions in Supergravity Theories . . . . . . . 30 D. Plebanski-Demianski Type Solutions in d = 5... is to discuss the construction of new black hole solutions and the calculation of the black hole entropy. In Chapter II, we shall re- port some new black hole solutions that we have found during the past few years [21, 22, 23] and we will discuss some...

  10. Development of neural network models for the prediction of dewpoint pressure of retrograde gases and saturated oil viscosity of black oil systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Zambrano, Alfredo Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of gas condensate and crude oil fluid properties are critical elements in reservoir-engineering calculations. Dewpoint pressure of gas condensate reservoirs and oil viscosity of black oil systems are some of the important...

  11. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  12. Black Holes at Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Webber

    2006-04-06

    In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes are copiously produced in particle collisions at energies well above the Planck scale. I briefly review some recent work on the phenomenology of this process, with emphasis on theoretical uncertainties and possible strategies for measuring the number of extra dimensions.

  13. Quantum black hole inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Altaie

    2001-05-07

    In this paper we follow a new approach for particle creation by a localized strong gravitational field. The approach is based on a definition of the physical vacuum drawn from Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Using the fact that the gravitational field red-shifts the frequency modes of the vacuum, a condition on the minimum stregth of the gravitational field required to achieve real particle creation is derived. Application of this requirement on a Schwartzchid black hole resulted in deducing an upper limit on the region, outside the event horizon, where real particles can be created. Using this regional upper limit, and considering particle creation by black holes as a consequence of the Casimir effect, with the assumption that the created quanta are to be added to the initial energy, we deduce a natural power law for the development of the event horizon, and consequently a logarithmic law for the area spectrum of an inflating black hole. Application of the results on a cosmological model shows that if we start with a Planck-dimensional black hole, then through the process of particle creation we end up with a universe having the presently estimated critical density. Such a universe will be in a state of eternal inflation.

  14. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for Relative Standard Errors for Table

  15. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for Relative Standard Errors for Table2

  16. Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: Evolution of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist; Thomas J. Cox; Tiziana Di Matteo; Paul Martini; Brant Robertson; Volker Springel

    2005-06-13

    Based on numerical simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers, we discuss a model in which quasar activity is tied to the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies. Nuclear inflow of gas attending a galaxy collision triggers a starburst and feeds black hole growth, but for most of the duration of the starburst, the black hole is heavily obscured by surrounding gas and dust which limits the visibility of the quasar, especially at optical and UV wavelengths. Eventually, feedback energy from accretion heats the gas and expels it in a powerful wind, leaving a 'dead quasar'. Between buried and dead phases there is a window during which the galaxy would be seen as a luminous quasar. Because the black hole mass, radiative output, and distribution of obscuring gas and dust all evolve strongly with time, the duration of this phase of observable quasar activity depends on both the waveband and imposed luminosity threshold. We determine the observed and intrinsic lifetimes as a function of luminosity and frequency, and calculate observable lifetimes ~10 Myr for bright quasars in the optical B-band, in good agreement with empirical estimates and much smaller than the black hole growth timescales ~100 Myr, naturally producing a substantial population of 'buried' quasars. However, observed and intrinsic energy outputs converge in the IR and hard X-ray bands as attenuation becomes weaker and chances of observation greatly increase. We obtain the distribution of column densities along sightlines in which the quasar is seen above a given luminosity, and find that our result agrees remarkably well with observed estimates of the column density distribution from the SDSS for appropriate luminosity thresholds. (Abridged)

  17. Black Hills Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth, Wisconsin:Black Hills

  18. Identification of Astrophysical Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    1998-03-19

    Black holes are by definition black, and therefore cannot be directly observed by using electromagnetic radiations. Convincing identification of black holes must necessarily depend on the identification of a very specially behaving matter and radiation which surround them. A major problem in this subject of black hole astrophysics is to quantify the behaviour of matter and radiation close to the horizon. In this review, the subject of black hole accretion and outflow is systematically developed. It is shown that both the stationary as well as the non-stationary properties of the observed spectra could be generally understood by these solutions. It is suggested that the solutions of radiative hydrodynamic equations may produce clear spectral signatures of black holes. Other circumstantial evidences of black holes, both in the galactic centers as well as in binary systems, are also presented.

  19. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    BF) and injection of coke oven gas in BF, which were treatedin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recoverythe use of untapped coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

  20. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    third of the cleaned coke oven gas (COG) is used to fuel theor higher Utilization of coke oven gas as energy carrier,include a coal gasifier, coke oven gas, or BOF gas. The big

  1. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    in BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recoverythe use of untapped coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, andthe sensible heat of the coke oven gas (COG) is collected by

  2. The mass function of high redshift seed black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodato, G; Lodato, Giuseppe; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we derive the mass function of seed black holes that result from the central mass concentrated via disc accretion in collapsed haloes at redshift $z\\approx 15$. Using standard arguments including stability, we show that these pre-galactic discs can assemble a significant mass concentration in the inner regions, providing fuel for the formation and initial growth of super-massive black holes. Assuming that these mass concentrations do result in central seed black holes, we determine the mass distribution of these seeds as a function of key halo properties. The seed mass distribution determined here turns out to be asymmetric and skewed to higher masses. Starting with these initial seeds, building up to $10^9$ solar masses by $z = 6$ to power the bright quasars is not a problem in the standard LCDM cosmogony. These seed black holes in gas rich environments are likely to grow into the supermassive black holes at later times via mergers and accretion. Gas accretion onto these seeds at high redshift ...

  3. Spin alignment and differential accretion in merging black hole binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Gerosa; Benedetta Veronesi; Giuseppe Lodato; Giovanni Rosotti

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between a supermassive black hole binary and the surrounding accretion disc can both assist the binary inspiral and align the black hole spins to the disc angular momentum. While binary migration is due to angular-momentum transfer within the circumbinary disc, the spin-alignment process is driven by the mass accreting on to each black hole. Mass transfer between different disc components thus couples the inspiral and the alignment process together. Mass is expected to leak through the cavity cleared by the binary, and preferentially accretes on to the lighter (secondary) black hole which orbits closer to the disc edge. Low accretion rate on to the heavier (primary) black hole slows the alignment process down. We revisit the problem and develop a semi-analytical model to describe the coupling between gas-driven inspiral and spin alignment, finding that binaries with mass ratio qprimaries from aligning. Binary black holes with misaligned primaries are ideal candidates for precession effects in the strong-gravity regime and may suffer from moderately large (~1500 km/s) recoil velocities.

  4. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    levels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, andhave ready access to coke oven gas (55% of integrated plants

  5. Black Hole Scan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Crisostomo; Ricardo Troncoso; Jorge Zanelli

    2000-09-22

    Gravitation theories selected by requiring that they have a unique anti-de Sitter vacuum with a fixed cosmological constant are studied. For a given dimension d, the Lagrangians under consideration are labeled by an integer k=1,2,...,[(d-1)/2]. Black holes for each d and k are found and are used to rank these theories. A minimum possible size for a localized electrically charged source is predicted in the whole set of theories, except General Relativity. It is found that the thermodynamic behavior falls into two classes: If d-2k=1, these solutions resemble the three dimensional black hole, otherwise, their behavior is similar to the Schwarzschild-AdS_4 geometry.

  6. Black holes at accelerators.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Bryan R

    be presented and the effects of some of the uncertainties can be investigated. 3.1. Hawking Spectrum With the above assumptions, the spectrum of particles emitted during black hole decay takes the form dN dE ? ?E2 (eE/TH ? 1) T n+6H (8) where as usual... the trapped surface area [6, 7]. T030 02 4 6 8 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 n=0 n=1 n=2 n=6 E rS ?ˆ (0 ) ab s/ pi r2 S Figure 4: Grey-body factors for scalar emission on the brane from a (4 + n)D black hole. 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 n=0 n=1 n=2 n=6 E...

  7. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  8. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  9. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  10. Black Hole Demographics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Ferrarese

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this contribution is to review the current status of black hole demographics in light of recent advances in the study of high redshift QSOs (section 2), local AGNs (section 3) and local quiescent galaxies (section 4). I will then outline the prospects for future progress (section 5), and discuss what I believe will be the challenges for the years to come [ABRIDGED].

  11. By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelder, Terry

    By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.­The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a number of Devonian-Mississippian black shales such as the Barnett by the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored investigation of gas potential

  12. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  13. Black holes in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What is going on (as of August 2008) at the interface between theoretical general relativity, string-inspired models, and observational astrophysics? Quite a lot. In this mini-survey I will make a personal choice and focus on four specific questions: Do black holes "exist"? (For selected values of the word "exist".) Is black hole formation and evaporation unitary? Can one mimic a black hole to arbitrary accuracy? Can one detect the presence of a horizon using local physics?

  14. Quantum Mechanics and Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

    2005-11-27

    This paper discusses the existence of black holes from the foundations of quantum mechanics. It is found that quantum mechanics rule out a possible gravitational collapse.

  15. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Exclude Black Men from Blue-Collar Jobs. Berkeley, CA:How Black and Latino Blue Collar Workers Make Decisionsof Sample Respondents Blue-Collar Latinos Blue-Collar Black

  16. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    CT, Bean AS. Black-spot poison ivy: A rare phenomenon. J AmJG, Lucky AW. Black spot poison ivy: A report of 5 cases andis unique for black-spot poison ivy. The UFLC-MS/MS urushiol

  17. Green, Black, Lean Six Sigma and Master Black Belt Certifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Green, Black, Lean Six Sigma and Master Black Belt Certifications Green BeLt CertifiCation Candidates may choose from three Green Belts offered: 1) Lean (one week of coursework) 2) Lean Six Sigma (two weeks of coursework) 3) Six Sigma (two weeks of coursework) Green Belt certification is a two

  18. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    and Stamp Charging). Maximum Recovery of Coke Oven GasUsing Coke Oven Gas for achieving higher blast temperatureA. Automatic Ignition of Coke Oven Gas Flare Units Equipped

  19. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fl ames of Liqui d Fuel/Coke-Oven Gas Mixtures, ..2. I Fuelof liquid fuel with coke-oven gas was the I subject ofabout twice as large. Coke-oven gas, which has less methane

  20. Thermal BEC black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Casadio; Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi

    2015-11-04

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  1. Holographic Black Hole Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Karch; Brandon Robinson

    2015-11-02

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.

  2. You Cannot Press Out the Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Ida; Takahiro Okamoto

    2012-01-03

    It is shown that a ball-shaped black hole region homeomorphic with D**n cannot be pressed out, along whichever axis penetrating the black hole region, into a black ring with a doughnut-shaped black hole region homeomorphic with S**1 x D**(n-1). A more general prohibition law for the change of the topology of black holes, including a version of no-bifurcation theorems for black holes, is given.

  3. Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanmay Vachaspati

    2007-06-08

    Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

  4. Black Holes of Negative Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-05-06

    I demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, regions of negative energy density can undergo gravitational collapse into a black hole. The resultant exterior black hole spacetimes necessarily have negative mass and non-trivial topology. A full theory of quantum gravity, in which topology-changing processes take place, could give rise to such spacetimes.

  5. Spin alignment and differential accretion in merging black-hole binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerosa, Davide; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between a supermassive black-hole binary and the surrounding accretion disc can both assist the binary inspiral and align the black-hole spins to the disc angular momentum. While binary migration is due to angular-momentum transfer within the circumbinary disc, the spin-alignment process is driven by the mass accreting onto each black hole. Mass transfer between different disc components thus couples the inspiral and the alignment process together. Mass is expected to leak through the cavity cleared by the binary, and preferentially accretes onto the lighter (secondary) black-hole which orbits closer to the disc edge. Low accretion rate onto the heavier (primary) black hole slows the alignment process down. We revisit the problem and develop a semi-analytical model to describe the coupling between gas-driven inspiral and spin alignment, finding that binaries with mass ratio qprimaries ...

  6. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    forecast future prices of all the raw materials, coking coal andprices of coking coal and coke using China’s production as input in the forecastforecasts for the period 2010-2035 are used to project future prices of the energy sources other than coking coal and

  8. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    coal Gas coal Fat coal Coking coal Lean coal Meagre coalCoal used for coking Natural Gas Coal used as fuel Source:

  9. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    High Levels Of PCI Coke Oven Gas Cogeneration "Pickliq" HCLt gy ypes N at algas,coke oven gas ur Fuel M ar segm ent ket

  10. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    was removed from a coke-oven gas stream by absorption into afrom the The gas stream leaving the coke ovens is usually

  11. Ideal gas matching for thermal Galilean holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose L. F. Barbon; Carlos A. Fuertes

    2009-03-26

    We exhibit a nonrelativistic ideal gas with a Kaluza-Klein tower of species, featuring a singular behavior of thermodynamic functions at zero chemical potential. In this way, we provide a qualitative match to the thermodynamics of recently found black holes in backgrounds with asymptotic nonrelativistic conformal symmetry.

  12. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  13. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  14. Strings, higher curvature corrections, and black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Mohaupt

    2005-12-05

    We review old and recent results on subleading contributions to black hole entropy in string theory.

  15. Physics: the big black box Mirror conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalieri, Renzo

    Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture A look into the mirror (I) an overview of Mirror Symmetry #12;Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture Outline 1 Physics: the big black box 2 Math Symmetry #12;Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture A slogan Mirror Symmetry is a correspondence

  16. Phase transitions of hairy black holes in massive gravity and thermodynamic behavior of charged AdS black holes in an extended phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirza, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of static and spherically symmetric hairy black holes in massive gravity. In this case, the black hole is surrounded in a spherical cavity with a fixed temperature on the surface. It is observed that these black holes have a phase transition similar to the liquid-gas phase transition of a Van der Waals fluid. Also, by treating the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ as a thermodynamic pressure $P$, we study the thermodynamic behavior of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in an ensemble with a pressure of $P$ and an electric potential $\\Phi$ as the natural variables. A second order phase transition is observed to take place for all the values of the electric potential $\\Phi$.

  17. Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    on a black hole: up to 42% of the mass-energy mc2 of accreted matter ! NB: thermonuclear reactions release: a very deep gravitational potential well Release of potential gravitational energy by accretion

  18. Thermodynamics of regular black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2008-09-21

    We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

  19. Black Holes and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    2006-02-17

    Supermassive black holes inhabit galactic nuclei, and their presence influences in crucial ways the evolution of the stellar distribution. The low-density cores observed in bright galaxies are probably a result of black hole infall, while steep density cusps like those at the Galactic center are a result of energy exchange between stars moving in the gravitational field of the single black hole. Loss-cone dynamics are substantially more complex in galactic nuclei than in collisionally-relaxed systems like globular clusters due to the wider variety of possible geometries and orbital populations. The rate of star-black hole interactions has begun to be constrained through observations of energetic events associated with stellar tidal disruptions.

  20. Gas Mask 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  1. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  2. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  3. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    for utilization of coke oven gas in integrated iron andexcluded (e.g. steam, coke oven gases, BF gases). The lineof properly). The resulting coke oven gas is used as a fuel,

  5. Black Boundary Lines: Race, Class and Gender among Black Undergraduate Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Erica

    2012-01-01

    C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African AmericanHarlemworld: Doing Race and Class in Contemporary BlackBlue-Chip Black: Race, Class and Status in the New Black

  6. Fishing in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas

    2006-09-01

    The coordinate system $(\\bar{x},\\bar{t})$ defined by $r = 2m + K\\bar{x}- c K \\bar{t}$ and $t=\\bar{x}/cK - 1 /cK \\int_{r_a}^r (1- 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2} (1 - 2m/r)^{-1}dr$ allow us to write the Schwarzschild metric in the form: \\[ds^2=c^2 d\\bar{t}^2 + (W^2/K^2 - 2W/K) d\\bar{x}^2 + 2c (1 + W/K) d\\bar{x}d\\bar{t} - r^2 (d\\theta^2 + cos^2\\theta d\\phi^2)\\] with $W=(1 - 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2}$, in which the coefficients' pathologies are moved to $r_K = 2m/(1+K^2)$. This new coordinate system is used to study the entrance into a black hole of a rigid line (a line in which the shock waves propagate with velocity c).

  7. Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hattori, Kéiko H.

    Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL a reservoir for shale-gas and oil. We examined organic-rich black shale, known as Macasty shale, of Upper SHALE-GAS AND OIL in THE SUBSURFACE OF ANTICOSTI ISLAND, CANADA Key Words: Provenance, Anticosti Island

  8. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  9. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  10. International black tea market integration and price discovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmasena, Kalu Arachchillage Senarath Dhananjaya Bandara

    2004-09-30

    In this thesis we study three basic issues related to international black tea markets: Are black tea markets integrated? Where is the price of black tea discovered? Are there leaders and followers in black tea markets? We ...

  11. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  12. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  13. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  14. Energy on black hole spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi

    2012-07-18

    We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.

  15. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; Kh. Jafarzade

    2015-06-23

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  16. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  17. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  18. Alignments Of Black Holes With Their Warped Accretion Disks And Episodic Lifetimes Of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yan-Rong; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intensive attention because of their critical role on shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of AGNs that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a quite simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to...

  19. Black Holes and Galaxy Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    1999-06-02

    The consequences of nuclear black holes for the structure and dynamics of stellar spheroids are reviewed. Slow growth of a black hole in a pre-existing core produces a steep power-law density profile similar to the cusps seen in faint elliptical galaxies. The weaker cusps in bright ellipticals may result from ejection of stars by a coalescing black-hole binary; there is marginal kinematical evidence for such a process having occurred in M87. Stellar orbits in a triaxial nucleus are mostly regular at radii where the gravitational force is dominated by the black hole; however the orbital shapes are not conducive to reinforcing the triaxial figure, hence nuclei are likely to be approximately axisymmetric. In triaxial potentials, a ``zone of chaos'' extends outward to a radius where the enclosed stellar mass is roughly 100 times the mass of the black hole; in this chaotic zone, no regular, box-like orbits exist. At larger radii, the phase space in triaxial potentials is complex, consisting of stochastic orbits as well as regular orbits associated with stable resonances. Figure rotation tends to increase the degree of stochasticity. Both test-particle integrations and N-body simulations suggest that a triaxial galaxy responds globally to the presence of a central mass concentration by evolving toward more axisymmetric shapes; the evolution occurs rapidly when the mass of the central object exceeds roughly 2% of the mass in stars. The lack of significant triaxiality in most early-type galaxies may be a consequence of orbital evolution induced by nuclear black holes.

  20. Radiation transport around Kerr black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnittman, Jeremy David

    2005-01-01

    This Thesis describes the basic framework of a relativistic ray-tracing code for analyzing accretion processes around Kerr black holes. We begin in Chapter 1 with a brief historical summary of the major advances in black ...

  1. Does phantom energy produce black hole?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rahaman; A. Ghosh; M. Kalam

    2006-12-23

    We have found an exact solution of spherically symmetrical Einstein equations describing a black hole with a special type phantom energy source. It is surprising to note that our solution is analogous to Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.

  2. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  3. 4d neutral dilatonic black holes and (4+p) dimensional nondilatonic black p-branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2000-01-11

    It is shown that, in contrast to the case of extreme 4d dilatonic black holes, 4d neutral dilatonic black holes with horizon singularities can not be interpreted as nonsingular nondilatonic black p-branes in (4+p) dimensions, regardless of the number of extra dimensions p. That is, extra dimensions do not remove naked singularities of 4d neutral dilatonic black holes.

  4. Zero Energy Rotating Accretion Flows near a Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongsu Ryu; Sandip K. Chakrabarti; Diego Molteni

    1996-07-11

    We characterize the nature of thin, axisymmetric, inviscid, accretion flows of cold adiabatic gas with zero specific energy in the vicinity of a black hole by the specific angular momentum. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in cylindrical geometry, we present various regimes in which the accretion flows behave distinctly differently. When the flow has a small angular momentum $(\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_b)$, most of the material is accreted into the black hole forming a quasi-spherical flow or a simple disk-like structure around it. When the flow has a large angular momentum (typically, larger than the marginally bound value, $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}$), almost no accretion into the black hole occurs. Instead, the flow produces a stable standing shock with one or more vortices behind it and is deflected away at the shock as a conical outgoing wind of higher entropy. If the flow has an angular momentum somewhat smaller than $\\lambda_{mb}$ $(\\lambda_{u}\\lsim\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_{mb})$, a fraction (typically, $5-10$\\%) of the incoming material is accreted into the black hole, but the the flow structure formed is similar to that as for $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}$. Some of the deflected material is accreted back into the black hole, while the rest is blown away as an outgoing wind. These two cases with $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_u$ correspond those studied in the previous works by Molteni, Lanzafame, \\& Chakrabarti (1994) and Ryu \\etal (1995). However, the flow with an angular momentum close to the marginally stable value $(\\lambda_{ms})$ is found to be unstable. More specifically, if $\\lambda_b\\lsim\\lambda\\sim\\lambda_{ms}\\lsim\\lambda_u$, the flow displays a distinct periodicity in the sense that the inner part of the disk is built and

  5. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  6. Classical and thermodynamic stability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Monteiro

    2010-06-28

    We consider the stability of black holes within both classical general relativity and the semiclassical thermodynamic description. In particular, we study linearised perturbations and their contribution to the gravitational partition function, addressing technical issues for charged (Reissner-Nordstrom) and rotating (Kerr-AdS) black holes. Exploring the connection between classical and thermodynamic stability, we find classical instabilities of Myers-Perry black holes and bifurcations to new black hole families.

  7. Will black holes eventually engulf the universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prado Martin-Moruno; Jose A. Jimenez Madrid; Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    2006-03-28

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models.

  8. Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Don N. Page

    2006-12-18

    A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    using pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils Pyrolysis GC/MS Á Soil organic carbon Introduction Boreal soils have been accumulating carbon (C) sinceSYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest

  10. Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macedo, Caio F B; Crispino, Luís C B

    2015-01-01

    Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.

  11. Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caio F. B. Macedo; Ednilton S. de Oliveira; Luís C. B. Crispino

    2015-06-26

    Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.

  12. New approaches to black holes Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    References Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 2 / 36 Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 3 / 36 #12;Local (2006)] Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 4

  13. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.

    2013-08-31

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

  14. $P-V$ criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Zhang; Zhan-Ying Yang; De-Cheng Zou; Wei Xu; Rui-Hong Yue

    2014-12-03

    We study the $P-V$ critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills (YM) fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  15. Formation and early evolution of massive black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madau, P

    2007-01-01

    The astrophysical processes that led to the formation of the first seed black holes and to their growth into the supermassive variety that powers bright quasars at redshift 6 are poorly understood. In standard LCDM hierarchical cosmologies, the earliest massive holes (MBHs) likely formed at redshift z~15 at the centers of low-mass (M>5e5 solar masses) dark matter ``minihalos'', and produced hard radiation by accretion. FUV/X-ray photons from such ``miniquasars'' may have permeated the universe more uniformly than EUV radiation, reduced gas clumping, and changed the chemistry of primordial gas. The role of accreting seed black holes in determining the thermal and ionization state of the intergalactic medium depends on the amount of cold and dense gas that forms and gets retained in protogalaxies after the formation of the first stars. The highest resolution N-body simulation to date of Galactic substructure shows that subhalos below the atomic cooling mass were very inefficient at forming stars.

  16. Formation and early evolution of massive black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piero Madau

    2007-01-12

    The astrophysical processes that led to the formation of the first seed black holes and to their growth into the supermassive variety that powers bright quasars at redshift 6 are poorly understood. In standard LCDM hierarchical cosmologies, the earliest massive holes (MBHs) likely formed at redshift z~15 at the centers of low-mass (M>5e5 solar masses) dark matter ``minihalos'', and produced hard radiation by accretion. FUV/X-ray photons from such ``miniquasars'' may have permeated the universe more uniformly than EUV radiation, reduced gas clumping, and changed the chemistry of primordial gas. The role of accreting seed black holes in determining the thermal and ionization state of the intergalactic medium depends on the amount of cold and dense gas that forms and gets retained in protogalaxies after the formation of the first stars. The highest resolution N-body simulation to date of Galactic substructure shows that subhalos below the atomic cooling mass were very inefficient at forming stars.

  17. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  18. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in oil refining technology and economics are driving refiners to utilize thermal processes to maximize the conversion of heavy crude oil components to clean products. Since the primary unit operation to accomplish this objective...

  19. Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Máximo Bañados; Alejandra Castro; Alberto Faraggi; Juan I. Jottar

    2015-11-30

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require nor implies the existence of supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory. Remarkably, while as usual not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries, we find that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions as well. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W_{(3|2)} symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N=2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W_{(3|2)} BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N=2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  20. Black hole microstates in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of AdS black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the BTZ black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include $U(1)$ charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to arbitrary hyperscaling violation exponent (this captures the case of black D$p$-branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.

  1. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    laden gas with self-cleaning boiler. ” March, No. 1. -----.Coal Coke & other Total Boilers Total Process Use Processwere previously not allocated to boiler inputs and coke for

  2. Black Hills Power, Inc. Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth, Wisconsin:Black

  3. Black Rock III Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth, Wisconsin:BlackIII

  4. Black Warrior Elec Member Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth, Wisconsin:BlackIIIBlack

  5. BlackLight Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLCMichigan:Earth,DrillingBlackLight Power

  6. Zero energy rotating accretion flows near a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, D; Molteni, D; Ryu, Dongsu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Molteni, Diego

    1996-01-01

    We characterize the nature of thin, axisymmetric, inviscid, accretion flows of cold adiabatic gas with zero specific energy in the vicinity of a black hole by the specific angular momentum. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in cylindrical geometry, we present various regimes in which the accretion flows behave distinctly differently. When the flow has a small angular momentum (\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_b), most of the material is accreted into the black hole forming a quasi-spherical flow or a simple disk-like structure around it. When the flow has a large angular momentum (typically, larger than the marginally bound value, \\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}), almost no accretion into the black hole occurs. Instead, the flow produces a stable standing shock with one or more vortices behind it and is deflected away at the shock as a conical outgoing wind of higher entropy. If the flow has an angular momentum somewhat smaller than \\lambda_{mb} (\\lambda_{u}\\lsim\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_{mb}), a fraction (typically, 5-10...

  7. Pathways to massive black holes and compact star clusters in pre-galactic dark matter haloes with virial temperatures > 10000K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Regan; Martin G. Haehnelt

    2008-10-15

    Large dynamic range numerical simulations of atomic cooling driven collapse of gas in pre-galactic DM haloes with T_vir ~ 10000 K show that the gas loses 90% and more of its angular momentum before rotational support sets in. In a fraction of these haloes where the metallicity is low and UV radiation suppresses H_2 cooling, conditions are thus very favourable for the rapid build-up of massive black holes. Depending on the progression of metal enrichment, the continued suppression of H_2 cooling by external and internal UV radiation and the ability to trap the entropy produced by the release of gravitational energy, the gas at the centre of the halo is expected to form a supermassive star, a stellar-mass black hole accreting at super-Eddington accretion rates or a compact star-cluster undergoing collisional run-away of massive stars at its centre. In all three cases a massive black hole of initially modest mass finds itself at the center of a rapid inflow of gas with inflow rates of ~ 1 M_solar\\yr. The massive black hole will thus grow quickly to a mass of 10^5 to 10^6 M_solar until further inflow is halted either by consumption of gas by star formation or by the increasing energy and momentum feedback from the growing massive black hole. Conditions for the formation of massive seed black holes in this way are most favourable in haloes with T_vir ~ 15000 K and V_vir ~ 20 km\\s with less massive haloes not allowing collapse of gas by atomic cooling and more massive haloes being more prone to fragmentation. This should imprint a characteristic mass on the mass spectrum of an early population of massive black hole seeds in pre-galactic haloes which will later grow into the observed population of supermassive black holes in galactic bulges.

  8. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Energy Conservation: Policy Issues and End-Use Scenarios of Savings Potential -- Part 3, Policy Barriers and Investment Decisions in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Petro. Gas Natural Gas Coke Oven Gas Blast Furnace Gas *cu.ft l, OOOBTU=cu. ft • Coke Oven Gas MM cu.ft 500BTU=cu.

  10. Detection of Gravitational Wave Emission by Supermassive Black Hole Binaries Through Tidal Disruption Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayasaki, Kimitake

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers produce binaries of supermassive black holes, which emit gravitational waves prior to their coalescence. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the tidal disruption of stars by such a binary in the final centuries of its life. We find that the gas stream of the stellar debris moves chaotically in the binary potential and forms accretion disks around both black holes. The accretion light curve is modulated over the binary orbital period owing to relativistic beaming. This periodic signal allows to detect the decay of the binary orbit due to gravitational wave emission by observing two tidal disruption events that are separated by more than a decade.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2005-07-15

    We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

  12. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  13. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Addazi

    2015-08-30

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  14. Classical Black Holes Are Hot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Curiel

    2014-11-09

    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "temperature" and "entropy" enter classical thermodynamics then will suggest arguments that, I claim, show the analogy between classical black-hole mechanics and classical thermodynamics should be taken more seriously, without the need to rely on or invoke quantum mechanics. In particular, I construct an analogue of a Carnot cycle in which a black hole "couples" with an ordinary thermodynamical system in such a way that its surface gravity plays the role of temperature and its area that of entropy. Thus, the connection between classical general relativity and classical thermodynamics on their own is already deep and physically significant, independent of quantum mechanics.

  15. Galaxies nurtured by mature black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morikawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBH) of size $10^{6-10}M_{\\odot}$ are common in the Universe and they define the center of the galaxies. A galaxy and the SMBH are generally thought to have co-evolved. However, the SMBH cannot evolve so fast as commonly observed even at redshift $z>6$. Therefore, we explore a natural hypothesis that the SMBH has been already formed mature at $z\\gtrapprox10$ before stars and galaxies. The SMBH forms energetic jets and outflows which trigger massive star formation in the ambient gas. They eventually construct globular clusters and classical bulge as well as the body of elliptical galaxies. We propose simple models which implement these processes. We point out that the globular clusters and classical bulges have a common origin but are in different phases. The same is true for the elliptical and spiral galaxies. Physics behind these phase division is the runaway star formation process with strong feedback to SMBH. This is similar to the forest-fire model that displays self-organized c...

  16. Gas Drill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    .C. Wang, B.T. Lovell, Program, Summary Report TE4258-5-84, J. McCrank, "Topping of a Combined Gas DOE/ET/11292, Oct. 1984. and Steam Turbine Powerplant using a TAM Combustor," Thermo Electron [4J Final Report: "Thermionic Energy Report No. 4258... for each Btu fired in the burners has been cal culated with the process gas temperature as a variable. It was shown [2 ] that the maximum thermionic power produced is 18 kW per million Btu fired per hour. All com bustors are similar but progressively...

  17. Relationship of Black Holes to Bulges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Laura Ferrarese

    2001-07-08

    Supermassive black holes appear to be uniquely associated with galactic bulges. The mean ratio of black hole mass to bulge mass was until recently very uncertain, with ground based, stellar kinematical data giving a value roughly an order of magnitude larger than other techniques. The discrepancy was resolved with the discovery of the M-sigma relation, which simultaneously established a tight corrrelation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion, and confirmed that the stellar kinematical mass estimates were systematically too large due to failure to resolve the black hole's sphere of influence. There is now excellent agreement between the various techniques for estimating the mean black hole mass, including dynamical mass estimation in quiescent galaxies; reverberation mapping in active galaxies and quasars; and computation of the mean density of compact objects based on integrated quasar light. Implications of the M-sigma relation for the formation of black holes are discussed.

  18. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  19. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  20. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  1. Thermodynamic fluctuation in black string flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng Sun; Yong-Chang Huna

    2015-06-14

    It has long been noticed that Laudau-Lifshitz theory can be used to study the fluctuation of a system that contains a black hole. Since the black string can be constructed by extending n-dimensional black hole into one extra dimension. We study the fluctuation of black string flow with a Schwarzschlid-like metric in D=n+1 dimensional spacetime and a charged solution in D=5 dimensional spacetime and get the second moments of the fluctuation of the mass flux and charge flux.

  2. Thermodynamic fluctuation in black string flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng Sun; Yong-Chang Huang

    2015-05-11

    It has long been noticed that Laudau-Lifshitz theory can be used to study the fluctuation of a system that contains a black hole. Since the black string can be constructed by extending n-dimensional black hole into one extra dimension. We study the fluctuation of black string flow with a Schwarzschlid-like metric in D=n+1 dimensional spacetime and a charged solution in D=5 dimensional spacetime and get the second moments of the fluctuation of the mass flux and charge flux.

  3. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  4. Lower Dimensional Black Holes: Inside and Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1995-01-27

    I survey the physics of black holes in two and three spacetime dimensions, with special attention given to an understanding of their exterior and interior properties.

  5. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiaoning; Yuan, Pei-Hung; Cho, Chia-Jui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  7. Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaoning Wu; Yi Yang; Pei-Hung Yuan; Chia-Jui Cho

    2015-11-27

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  8. Critical behaviors of black hole in an asymptotically safe gravity with cosmological constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Meng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    We study the $P-V/r_{+}$ criticality and phase transition of quantum-corrected black hole in asymptotic safety (AS) gravity in the extended phase space. For the black hole, the cosmological constant is dependent on the momentum cutoff or energy scale, therefore one can naturally treat it as a variable and connect it with the thermodynamic pressure. We find that for the quantum-corrected black hole there is a similar first-order phase transition to that of the van der Waals liquid/gas system. We also analyze the types of the phase transition at the critical points according to Ehrenfest's classification. It is shown that they are second-order phase transition.

  9. L.A. Rebellion: Creating a New Black Cinema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheppard, Samantha Noelle

    2011-01-01

    Creating a New Black Cinema Symposium Review by SamanthaCreating a New Black Cinema By the turn of the next century,in the development of Black cinema took place at UCLA in the

  10. Queering Black Gay Historiography: Performance, (Mis) Identifications, and Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Thomas Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 1976 the black comedy Car Wash featured a black gay manthe a openly black sissy in the Car Wash as a character thatsaw the distribution of Car Wash with Antoino Fargas playing

  11. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  12. Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactificatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effective theories and black hole production in warped...

  13. An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Cheng; Tie Jun Cui; Wei Xiang Jiang; Ben Geng Cai

    2010-04-30

    Traditionally, a black hole is a region of space with huge gravitational field, which absorbs everything hitting it. In history, the black hole was first discussed by Laplace under the Newton mechanics, whose event horizon radius is the same as the Schwarzschild's solution of the Einstein's vacuum field equations. If all those objects having such an event horizon radius but different gravitational fields are called as black holes, then one can simulate certain properties of the black holes using electromagnetic fields and metamaterials due to the similar propagation behaviours of electromagnetic waves in curved space and in inhomogeneous metamaterials. In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev, an optical black hole has been proposed based on metamaterials, in which the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all electromagnetic waves hitting it are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of such an electromagnetic black hole in the microwave frequencies. The proposed black hole is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields and the event horizon corresponding to the device boundary. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99% in the microwave frequencies. We expect that the electromagnetic black hole could be used as the thermal emitting source and to harvest the solar light.

  14. Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Zannias

    1994-09-14

    It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

  15. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  16. Topological Black Holes in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kowalski-Glikman; D. Nowak-Szczepaniak

    2000-07-31

    We derive the black hole solutions with horizons of non-trivial topology and investigate their properties in the framework of an approach to quantum gravity being an extension of Bohm's formulation of quantum mechanics. The solutions we found tend asymptotically (for large $r$) to topological black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamics of these space-times.

  17. Primordial black holes and asteroid danger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Shatskiy

    2008-02-21

    Probability for a primordial black hole to invade the Kuiper belt was calculated. We showed that primordial black holes of certain masses can significantly change asteroids' orbits. These events may result in disasters, local for our solar system and global for the Earth (like the Tunguska meteorite). We also estimated how often such events occur.

  18. Stability of AdS black strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Delsate

    2008-08-14

    We review the recent developements in the stability problem and phase diagram for asymptotically locally $AdS$ black strings. First, we quickly review the case of locally flat black string before turning to the case of locally $AdS$ spacetimes.

  19. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  20. Fractal Statistics and Quantum Black Hole Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-11-18

    Simple considerations about the fractal characteristic of the quantum-mechanical path give us the opportunity to derive the quantum black hole entropy in connection with the concept of fractal statistics. We show the geometrical origin of the numerical factor of four of the quantum black hole entropy expression and the statistics weight appears as a counting of the quanta of geometry.

  1. Can Superconducting Cosmic Strings Piercing Seed Black Holes Generate Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes at redshifts $z> 6$, when the Universe was only nine hundred million years old, has raised the fundamental question of how such massive compact objects could form in a (cosmologically) short time interval. Each of the proposed standard scenarios for black hole formation, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes, or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short time formation of supermassive objects. In the present Letter, we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of supermassive black holes in the early Universe in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings, piercing small seed black holes, is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. The increase in mass of a primordial seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings is estimated and it is shown that this increases linearly in time. Due to the high energy transfer rate from the cosmic strings, we find that supermassi...

  2. Alignments Of Black Holes With Their Warped Accretion Disks And Episodic Lifetimes Of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan-Rong Li; Jian-Min Wang; Cheng Cheng; Jie Qiu

    2015-03-02

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intensive attention because of their critical role on shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of AGNs that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a quite simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. Applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both the measurements at present are yet ambiguous to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  3. Class Transitions in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2005-01-14

    A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index $\\alpha$ ($F_E \\propto E^{-\\alpha}$) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to $\\sim 1.5$. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transitions. In this context, we use mostly the results of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) which observed GRS 1915+105 more regularly.

  4. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  5. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  6. Nonthermal correction to black hole spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Yu Wen

    2014-11-14

    Area spectrum of black holes have been obtained via various methods such as quasinormal modes, adiabatic invariance and angular momentum. Among those methods, calculations were done by assuming black holes in thermal equilibrium. Nevertheless, black holes in the asymptotically flat space usually have negative specific heat and therefore tend to stay away from thermal equilibrium. Even for those black holes with positive specific heat, temperature may still not be well defined in the process of radiation, due to the back reaction of decreasing mass. Respect to these facts, it is very likely that Hawking radiation is nonthermal and the area spectrum is no longer equidistant. In this note, we would like to illustrate how the area spectrum of black holes is corrected by this nonthermal effect.

  7. Fourier Analysis of the BTZ Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian M. Tolfree

    2009-11-11

    In this paper we extend our previous work regarding the role of the Fourier transformation in bulk to boundary mappings to include the BTZ black hole. We follow standard procedures for modifying Fourier Transformations to accommodate quotient spaces and arrive at a bulk to boundary mapping in a black hole background. We show that this mapping is consistent with known results and lends a new insight into the AdS/CFT duality. We find that the micro-states corresponding to the entropy of a bulk scalar field are the Fourier coefficients on the boundary, which transform under the principal series representation of $SL(2,R)$. Building upon this we present a toy model to analyze the implications of this for the origin of black hole entropy. We find that the black hole micro-states live on the boundary and correspond to the possible emission modes of the black hole

  8. How fast can a black hole rotate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R

    2015-01-01

    Kerr black holes have their angular momentum, $J$, bounded by their mass, $M$: $Jc\\leqslant GM^2$. There are, however, known black hole solutions violating this Kerr bound. We propose a very simple universal bound on the rotation, rather than on the angular momentum, of four-dimensional, stationary and axisymmetric, asymptotically flat black holes, given in terms of an appropriately defined horizon linear velocity, $v_H$. The $v_H$ bound is simply that $v_H$ cannot exceed the velocity of light. We verify the $v_H$ bound for known black hole solutions, including some that violate the Kerr bound, and conjecture that only extremal Kerr black holes saturate the $v_H$ bound.

  9. Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean and fast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diesel Futures Forget the black soot and smoke. Modern diesel-powered cars are quiet, clean at their tachometers to be sure that they were running. You would not expect that of a diesel, however. Yet these are diesel engines. The world has been looking to gas/electric hybrids and fuel cells for future fuel

  10. Thermal radiation and blackbody radiation drag of a large-sized perfectly black particle moving with relativistic velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyasov, A A

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a self-consistent description of the radiation heat transfer and dynamics of large perfectly black spherical bodies with sizes much greater than the characteristic wavelength of radiation moving in a photon gas with relativistic velocity. The results can be important in astrophysics.

  11. Thermodynamics of phase transition in higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-de Sitter black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhao, Ren

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that there are black hole and the cosmological horizons for the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-de Sitter spacetime. Although the thermodynamic quantities on the horizons are not irrelevant, they satisfy the laws of black hole thermodynamics respectively. In this paper by considering the relations between the two horizons we give the effective thermodynamic quantities in $(n+2)$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-de Sitter spacetime. The thermodynamic properties of these effective quantities are analyzed, moreover, the critical temperature, critical pressure and critical volume are obtained. We carry out an analytical check of Ehrenfest equations and prove that both Ehrenfest equations are satisfied. So the spacetime undergoes a second order phase transition at the critical point. This result is consistent with the nature of liquid--gas phase transition at the critical point, hence deepening the understanding of the analogy of charged dS spacetime and liquid--gas systems.

  12. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  13. Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan Feb MarNGPL Production,Energy Office

  14. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  15. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  17. Lemonade $3.00 Traditional or Strawberry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampton, Randy

    Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black Izze Sparkling Juices $4.00 Clementine, Blackberry, Pink Soft Drinks $3.00 Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite or Coke Zero Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black $6.00 Vegetarian Thai Noodle Salad $8.00 Noodles Marinated in Sesame Dressing, Mixed Greens, Crisp

  18. Morphology of PolyethyleneCarbon Black Composites G. BEAUCAGE,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    -ray scattering (SAXS) study of a conductive grade of carbon black and carbon black­polymer composites and a power-law scaling of polydispersity. One use of conductive black­polyethylene composites is in circuit(methyl methacrylate); carbon black; filler; composite; conductivity; percolation INTRODUCTION The morphology

  19. Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .3. Gasifier Supplier Perspectives 11 Black Liquor Gasifier Suppliers 12 Biomass Gasifier Suppliers 13 5

  20. Quasinormal Modes of Dirty Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. T. Leung; Y. T. Liu; W. -M. Suen; C. Y. Tam; K. Young

    1999-03-08

    Quasinormal mode (QNM) gravitational radiation from black holes is expected to be observed in a few years. A perturbative formula is derived for the shifts in both the real and the imaginary part of the QNM frequencies away from those of an idealized isolated black hole. The formulation provides a tool for understanding how the astrophysical environment surrounding a black hole, e.g., a massive accretion disk, affects the QNM spectrum of gravitational waves. We show, in a simple model, that the perturbed QNM spectrum can have interesting features.

  1. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Carlip

    2008-07-28

    We have known for more than thirty years that black holes behave as thermodynamic systems, radiating as black bodies with characteristic temperatures and entropies. This behavior is not only interesting in its own right; it could also, through a statistical mechanical description, cast light on some of the deep problems of quantizing gravity. In these lectures, I review what we currently know about black hole thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, suggest a rather speculative "universal" characterization of the underlying states, and describe some key open questions.

  2. Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2011-02-04

    Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

  3. Thermodynamics of Dyonic Lifshitz Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Zingg

    2011-07-15

    Black holes with asymptotic anisotropic scaling are conjectured to be gravity duals of condensed matter system close to quantum critical points with non-trivial dynamical exponent z at finite temperature. A holographic renormalization procedure is presented that allows thermodynamic potentials to be defined for objects with both electric and magnetic charge in such a way that standard thermodynamic relations hold. Black holes in asymptotic Lifshitz spacetimes can exhibit paramagnetic behavior at low temperature limit for certain values of the critical exponent z, whereas the behavior of AdS black holes is always diamagnetic.

  4. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosimo Bambi

    2011-10-13

    It is thought that the final product of the gravitational collapse is a Kerr black hole and astronomers have discovered several good astrophysical candidates. While there is some indirect evidence suggesting that the latter have an event horizon, and therefore that they are black holes, a proof that the space-time around these objects is described by the Kerr geometry is still lacking. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis with present and future experiments. In this paper, I briefly review the state of the art of the field, focussing on some recent results and work in progress.

  5. Scalar Perturbations of Charged Dilaton Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharmanthie Fernando; Keith Arnold

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the scalar perturbation of static charged dilaton black holes in 3+1 dimensions. The black hole considered here is a solution to the low-energy string theory in 3+1 dimensions. The quasinormal modes for the scalar perturbations are calculated using the third order WKB method. The dilaton coupling constant has a considerable effect on the values of quasi normal modes. It is also observed that there is a linear relation between the quasi normal modes and the temperature for large black holes.

  6. Energy density bounds for black strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinya Tomizawa

    2005-06-07

    The conserved charge called Y-ADM mass density associated with asymptotically translational Killing-Yano tensor gives us an appropriate physical meaning about the energy density of $p$ brane spacetimes or black strings. We investigated the positivity of energy density in black string spacetimes, using the spinorial technique introduced by Witten. Recently, the positivity of Y-ADM mass density in p brane spacetimes was discussed. In this paper, we will extend this discussion to the transversely asymptotically flat black string spacetimes containing an apparent horizon. We will give the sufficient conditions for the Y-ADM mass density to become positive in such spacetimes.

  7. Simulations of momentum feedback by black hole winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    The observed super-massive black hole (SMBH) mass -- galaxy velocity dispersion ($M_{\\rm bh} - \\sigma$) correlation may be established when winds/outflows from the SMBH drive gas out of the potential wells of classical bulges. Here we present numerical simulations of this process in a static isothermal potential. Simple spherically symmetric models of SMBH feedback at the Eddington luminosity can successfully explain the $M_{\\rm bh} - \\sigma$ and nuclear cluster mass $M_{\\rm NC}-\\sigma$ correlations, as well as why larger bulges host SMBHs while smaller ones host nuclear star clusters. However these models do not specify how SMBHs feed on infalling gas whilst simultaneously producing feedback that drives gas out of the galaxy. More complex models with rotation and/or anisotropic feedback allow SMBHs to feed via a disc or regions not exposed to SMBH winds, but in these more realistic cases it is not clear why a robust $M_{\\rm bh} - \\sigma$ relation should be established. In fact, some of the model predictions ...

  8. "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED DATA52.31.33

  9. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED3.49

  10. Constraining Alternate Models of Black Holes: Type I X-ray Bursts on Accreting Fermion-Fermion and Boson-Fermion Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye-Fei Yuan; Ramesh Narayan; Martin J. Rees

    2004-01-26

    The existence of black holes remains open to doubt until other conceivable options are excluded. With this motivation, we consider a model of a compact star in which most of the mass consists of dark particles of some kind, and a small fraction of the mass is in the form of ordinary nucleonic gas. The gas does not interact with the dark matter other than via gravity, but collects at the center as a separate fermionic fluid component. Depending on whether the dark mass is made of fermions or bosons, the objects may be called fermion-fermion stars or boson-fermion stars, respectively. For appropriate choices of the mass of the dark matter particles, these objects are viable models of black hole candidates in X-ray binaries. We consider models with a dark mass of 10 solar masses and a range of gas mass from 10^{-6} to nearly one solar mass, and analyse the bursting properties of the models when they accrete gas. We show that all the models would experience thermonuclear Type I X-ray bursts at appropriate mass accretion rates. Since no Type I bursts have been reported from black hole candidates, the models are ruled out. The case for identifying black hole candidates in X-ray binaries as true black holes is thus strengthened.

  11. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and Fuels, 17(RECOVERY AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Curtis M. Oldenburg Eartheffective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at

  12. The M(BH)-Sigma Relation for Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Laura Ferrarese

    2000-08-20

    We investigate the differences in the M(BH)-sigma relation derived recently by Ferrarese & Merritt (2000) and Gebhardt et al. (2000). The shallower slope found by the latter authors (3.75 vs. 4.8) is due partly to the use of a regression algorithm that ignores measurement errors, and partly to the value of the velocity dispersion adopted for a single galaxy, the Milky Way. A steeper relation is shown to provide a better fit to black hole masses derived from reverberation mapping studies. Combining the stellar dynamical, gas dynamical, and reverberation mapping mass estimates, we derive a best-fit relation M(BH) = 1.30 (+/- 0.36) X 10^8 (sigma_c/200)^{4.72(+/- 0.36)}, where M(BH) is in solar masses, and sigma in km/s.

  13. Kerr black hole parameters in terms of red/blue shifts of photons emitted by geodesic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Herrera-Aguilar; Ulises Nucamendi

    2015-06-17

    We are motivated by the recently reported dynamical evidence of stars with short orbital periods moving around the center of the Milky Way and the corresponding hypothesis about the existence of a supermassive black hole hosted at its center. In this paper we show how the mass and rotation parameters of a Kerr black hole (assuming that the putative supermassive black hole is of this type), as well as the distance that separates the black hole from the Earth, can be estimated in a relativistic way in terms of i) the red and blue shifts of photons that are emitted by geodesic massive particles (stars and galactic gas) and travel along null geodesics towards a distant observer, and ii) the radius of these star/gas orbits. As a concrete example and as a first step towards a full relativistic analysis of the above mentioned star orbits around the center of our galaxy, we consider stable equatorial circular orbits of stars and express their corresponding red/blue shifts in terms of the metric parameters (mass and angular momentum per unit mass) and the orbital radii of both the emitter star (and/or galactic gas) and the distant observer. In principle, these expressions allow one to statistically estimate the mass and rotation parameters of the Kerr black hole, and the radius of our orbit, through a Bayesian fitting, i.e., with the aid of observational data: the red/blue shifts measured at certain points of stars' orbits and their radii, with their respective errors, a task that we hope to perform in the near future. We also point to several astrophysical phenomena, like accretion discs of rotating black holes, binary systems and active galactic nuclei, among others, to which this formalism can be applied.

  14. Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-01-21

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

  15. Energy of 4-Dimensional Black Hole, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriy Palatnik

    2011-07-18

    In this letter I suggest possible redefinition of mass density, not depending on speed of the mass element, which leads to a more simple stress-energy for an object. I calculate energy of black hole.

  16. Horizon Operator Approach to Black Hole Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    1994-02-21

    The $S$-matrix Ansatz for the construction of a quantum theory of black holes is further exploited. We first note that treating the metric tensor $g_{\\m\

  17. Topological Black Holes -- Outside Looking In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-09-15

    I describe the general mathematical construction and physical picture of topological black holes, which are black holes whose event horizons are surfaces of non-trivial topology. The construction is carried out in an arbitrary number of dimensions, and includes all known special cases which have appeared before in the literature. I describe the basic features of massive charged topological black holes in $(3+1)$ dimensions, from both an exterior and interior point of view. To investigate their interiors, it is necessary to understand the radiative falloff behaviour of a given massless field at late times in the background of a topological black hole. I describe the results of a numerical investigation of such behaviour for a conformally coupled scalar field. Significant differences emerge between spherical and higher genus topologies.

  18. CHARYBDIS: A Black hole event generator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Chris M.; Richardson, P.; Webber, Bryan R.

    CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte...

  19. Spacetime constraints on accreting black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garofalo, David [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91109 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    We study the spin dependence of accretion onto rotating Kerr black holes using analytic techniques. In its linear regime, angular momentum transport in MHD turbulent accretion flow involves the generation of radial magnetic field connecting plasma in a differentially rotating flow. We take a first principles approach, highlighting the constraint that limits the generation and amplification of radial magnetic fields, stemming from the transfer of energy from mechanical to magnetic form. Because the energy transferred in magnetic form is ultimately constrained by gravitational potential energy or Killing energy, the spin dependence of the latter allows us to derive spin-dependent constraints on the success of the accreting plasma to expel its angular momentum. We find an inverse relationship between this ability and black hole spin. If this radial magnetic field generation forms the basis for angular momentum transfer in accretion flows, accretion rates involving Kerr black holes are expected to be lower as the black hole spin increases in the prograde sense.

  20. Black Hills Energy- Solar Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All incentive payments are subject to the availability of funds and a pre-installation site inspection. Black Hills Energy has established participation caps for each tier. The status of funding ...

  1. Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coal, Petroleum coke, Biomass, Waste, etc. Gasifier Particulate Removal Air Separator Oxygen Air Steam - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy - CO2 capture and sequestration #12;Coal Gasification Technology Options&D Plan · Project falls within the Technical Objective to develop technology to produce pure H2 from coal

  2. Radio Jets in Galaxies with Actively Accreting Black Holes: new insights from the SDSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guinevere Kauffmann; Timothy M. Heckman; Philip N. Best

    2007-09-19

    The majority of nearby radio-loud AGN are found in massive, old elliptical galaxies with weak emission lines. At high redshifts,however, most known radio AGN have strong emission lines. In this paper, we examine a subset of radio AGN with emission lines selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The probability for a nearby radio AGN to have emission lines is a strongly decreasing function of galaxy mass and an increasing function of radio luminosity above 10^25 W/Hz. Emission line and radio luminosities are correlated, but with large dispersion. At a given radio power, AGN with small black holes have higher [OIII] luminosities (which we interpret as higher accretion rates) than AGN with big black holes. However, if we scale both radio and emission line luminosities by the black hole mass, we find a correlation between normalized radio power and accretion rate in Eddington units that is independent of black hole mass. There is also a clear correlation between normalized radio power and the age of the stellar population in the galaxy. Present-day AGN with the highest normalized radio powers are confined to galaxies with small black holes. High-redshift, high radio-luminosity AGN could be explained if big black holes were similarly active at earlier cosmic epochs. To investigate why only a small fraction of emission line AGN become radio loud, we create matched samples of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and compare their host galaxy properties and environments. The main difference lies in their environments; our local density estimates are a factor 2 larger around the radio-loud AGN. We propose a scenario in which radio-loud AGN with emission lines are located in galaxies where accretion of both cold and hot gas can occur simultaneously. (Abridged)

  3. Classical and thermodynamic stability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Ricardo

    2010-07-06

    Perturbations of the asymptotic charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 IV Conclusion 171 9 Conclusion and outlook 173 A Spectral numerical method 177 2 CONTENTS Part I Introduction 3 Chapter 1 Black holes Black holes are arguably the most interesting... to Newto- nian dynamics in the Solar system, and the indirect detection of gravitational waves from binary pulsars [1]. A crucial distinction from Newtonian gravity is that the “action-at-a-distance” is substituted by a built-in causality structure...

  4. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  5. Black Holes and Biophysical (Mem)-branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay Armas; Troels Harmark

    2014-11-26

    We argue that the effective theory describing the long-wavelength dynamics of black branes is the same effective theory that describes the dynamics of biophysical membranes. We improve the phase structure of higher-dimensional black rings by considering finite thickness corrections in this effective theory, showing a striking agreement between our analytical results and recent numerical constructions while simultaneously drawing a parallel between gravity and the effective theory of biophysical membranes.

  6. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Consumption by Fuel COAL NATURAL GAS PETROLEUM Figure 1. China’Consumption Coal Coke and Other Derivatives Petroleum Natural Gas Figure 10. China’Consumption Coal Coke and Other Derivatives Petroleum Natural Gas Figure 11. China’

  8. Nanoscopy Reveals Metallic Black Phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abate, Yohannes; Zhen, Li; Cronin, Stephen B; Wang, Han; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Javani, Mohammad H; Stockman, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    Layered and two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides(TMDCs), and black phosphorus (BP) have intriguing fundamental physical properties and bear promise of numerous important applications in electronics and optics. Of them, BP is a novel 2D material that has been theoretically predicted to acquire plasmonic behavior for frequencies below ~0.4 eV when highly doped. The electronic properties of BP are unique due to an anisotropic structure, which could strongly influence collective electronic excitations. Advantages of BP as a material for nanoelectronics and nanooptics are due to the fact that, in contrast to metals, the free carrier density in it can be dynamically controlled by electrostatic gating, which has been demonstrated by its use in field-effect transistors. Despite all the interest that BP attracts, near-field and plasmonic properties of BP have not yet been investigated experimentally. Here we report the first observation of nanoscopic near-fie...

  9. Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

  10. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  11. Lumpy AdS$\\bf{_5\\times}$ S$\\bf{^5}$ Black Holes and Black Belts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar J. C. Dias; Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

    2015-01-26

    Sufficiently small Schwarzschild black holes in global AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$ are Gregory-Laflamme unstable. We construct new families of black hole solutions that bifurcate from the onset of this instability and break the full SO$(6)$ symmetry group of the S$^5$ down to SO$(5)$. These new "lumpy" solutions are labelled by the harmonics $\\ell$. We find evidence that the $\\ell = 1$ branch never dominates the microcanonical/canonical ensembles and connects through a topology-changing merger to a localised black hole solution with S$^8$ topology. We argue that these S$^8$ black holes should become the dominant phase in the microcanonical ensemble for small enough energies, and that the transition to Schwarzschild black holes is first order. Furthermore, we find two branches of solutions with $\\ell = 2$. We expect one of these branches to connect to a solution containing two localised black holes, while the other branch connects to a black hole solution with horizon topology $\\mathrm S^4\\times\\mathrm S^4$ which we call a "black belt".

  12. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  13. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  14. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  15. Future of Natural Gas

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  16. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18

    Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial ...

  17. Holographic superconductor in the exact hairy black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Chanyong Park

    2011-09-13

    We study the charged black hole of hyperbolic horizon with scalar hair (charged Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli: CMTZ black hole) as a model of analytic hairy black hole for holographic superconductor. For this purpose, we investigate the second order phase transition between CMTZ and hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS (HRNAdS) black holes. However, this transition unlikely occur. As an analytic treatment for holographic superconductor, we develop superconductor in the bulk and superfluidity on the boundary using the CMTZ black hole below the critical temperature. The presence of charge destroys the condensates around the zero temperature, which is in accord with the thermodynamic analysis of the CMTZ black hole.

  18. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  19. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  20. Electrically charged black hole with scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian Martinez; Ricardo Troncoso

    2006-06-16

    An electrically charged black hole solution with scalar hair in four dimensions is presented. The self-interacting scalar field is real and it is minimally coupled to gravity and electromagnetism. The event horizon is a surface of negative constant curvature and the asymptotic region is locally an AdS spacetime. The asymptotic fall-off of the fields is slower than the standard one. The scalar field is regular everywhere except at the origin, and is supported by the presence of electric charge which is bounded from above by the AdS radius. In turn, the presence of the real scalar field smooths the electromagnetic potential everywhere. Regardless the value of the electric charge, the black hole is massless and has a fixed temperature. The entropy follows the usual area law. It is shown that there is a nonvanishing probability for the decay of the hairy black hole into a charged black hole without scalar field. Furthermore, it is found that an extremal black hole without scalar field is likely to undergo a spontaneous dressing up with a nontrivial scalar field, provided the electric charge is below a critical value.

  1. Perturbative String Thermodynamics near Black Hole Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Mertens; Henri Verschelde; Valentin I. Zakharov

    2015-07-01

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work JHEP 1403 (2014) 086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of $\\alpha'$-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large $k$ limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in $g_s$) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  2. Thermodynamics and Luminosities of Rainbow Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benrong Mu; Peng Wang; Haitang Yang

    2015-07-14

    Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As a result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is \\textquotedblleft Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the \\textquotedblleft Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation" which is $E^{2}=m^{2}+p^{2}\\left[ 1-\\eta\\left( E/m_{p}\\right) ^{n}\\right] $ with $n>0$, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of $\\eta$ and $n$ in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with $\\eta<0$ and $n\\geq2$. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of $\\eta$ and $n$.

  3. Black Hole Spin in AGN and GBHCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher S. Reynolds; Laura W. Brenneman; David Garofalo

    2004-10-05

    We discuss constraints on black hole spin and spin-related astrophysics as derived from X-ray spectroscopy. After a brief discussion about the robustness with which X-ray spectroscopy can be used to probe strong gravity, we summarize how these techniques can constrain black hole spin. In particular, we highlight XMM-Newton studies of the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15 and the stellar-mass black hole GX339-4. The broad X-ray iron line profile, together with reasonable and general astrophysical assumptions, allow a non-rotating black hole to be rejected in both of these sources. If we make the stronger assertion of no emission from within the innermost stable circular orbit, the MCG-6-30-15 data constrain the dimensionless spin parameter to be a>0.93. Furthermore, these XMM-Newton data are already providing evidence for exotic spin-related astrophysics in the central regions of this object. We conclude with a discussion of the impact that Constellation-X will have on the study of strong gravity and black hole spin.

  4. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Mersini-Houghton; Adam Kelleher

    2009-06-08

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accretion of dark energy induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is too long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state $w[z]$ of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. In this talk I describe how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy, based on the work done with A.Kelleher.

  5. On the number density of "direct collapse" black hole seeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habouzit, Melanie; Latif, Muhammad; Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) of millions solar masses and above reside in the center of most local galaxies, but they also power active galactic nuclei and quasars, detected up to z=7. This observational evidence puts strong constraints on the BH growth and the mass of the first BH seeds. The scenario of "direct collapse" is very appealing as it leads to the formation of large mass BH seeds in the range 10^4-10^6 Msun, which eases explaining how quasars at z=6-7 are powered by BHs with masses >10^9 Msun. Direct collapse, however, appears to be rare, as the conditions required by the scenario are that gas is metal-free, the presence of a strong photo-dissociating Lyman-Werner flux, and large inflows of gas at the center of the halo, sustained for 10-100 Myr. We performed several cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that cover a large range of box sizes and resolutions, thus allowing us to understand the impact of several physical processes on the distribution of direct collapse BHs. We identify halos wher...

  6. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  7. Neutrino Majorana Mass from Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosuke Uehara

    2002-05-25

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the neutrino Majorana mass in TeV-scale gravity models. The black hole violates all non-gauged symmetries and can become the origin of lepton number violating processes. The fluctuation of higher-dimensional spacetime can result in the production of a black hole, which emits 2 neutrinos. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, this process is equivalent to the free propagation of a neutrino with the insertion of the black hole. From this fact, we derive the neutrino Majorana mass. The result is completely consistent with the recently observed evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay. And the obtained neutrino Majorana mass satisfies the constraint from the density of the neutrino dark matter, which affects the cosmic structure formation. Furthermore, we can explain the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays by the Z-burst scenario with it.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran; Andrew Strominger

    1993-04-28

    Black hole formation/evaporation in two-dimensional dilaton gravity can be described, in the limit where the number $N$ of matter fields becomes large, by a set of second-order partial differential equations. In this paper we solve these equations numerically. It is shown that, contrary to some previous suggestions, black holes evaporate completely a finite time after formation. A boundary condition is required to evolve the system beyond the naked singularity at the evaporation endpoint. It is argued that this may be naturally chosen so as to restore the system to the vacuum. The analysis also applies to the low-energy scattering of $S$-wave fermions by four-dimensional extremal, magnetic, dilatonic black holes.

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas R. Mureika; John W. Moffat; Mir Faizal

    2015-03-03

    We analyze the thermodynamics of a non-rotating and rotating black hole in a modified theory of gravity that includes scalar and vector modifications to general relativity, which results in a modified gravitational constant $G = G_N(1+\\alpha)$ and a new gravitational charge $Q = \\sqrt{\\alpha G_N}M$. The influence of the parameter $\\alpha$ alters the non-rotating black hole's lifetime, temperature and entropy profiles from the standard Schwarzschild case. The thermodynamics of a rotating black hole is analyzed and it is shown to possess stable, cold remnants. The thermodynamic properties of a vacuum solution regular at $r=0$ are investigated and the solution without a horizon called a "gray hole" is not expected to possess an information loss problem.

  10. No Supermassive Black Hole in M33?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Laura Ferrarese; Charles L. Joseph

    2001-07-20

    We analyze optical long-slit spectroscopy of the nucleus of M33 obtained from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Rather than the steep rise expected within the radius of influence of a supermassive black hole, the velocity dispersion drops significantly within the inner parsec. Dynamical modelling yields an estimated upper limit of 3000 solar masses for the mass of a central compact object. This upper limit is however consistent within the uncertainties with the mass predicted by the M-sigma relation, which is between 2000 and 20,000 solar masses. We therefore can not conclude that the presence of a massive black hole in the nucleus of M33 would require a different formation mechanism from that of the black holes detected in galaxies with more luminous bulges.

  11. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration ofunderground storage of natural gas, Jour. Petrol. Tech. 943,dioxide as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and

  12. Dynamics of galaxy cores and supermassive black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    2006-05-02

    Recent work on the dynamical evolution of galactic nuclei containing supermassive black holes is reviewed. Topics include galaxy structural properties; collisionless and collisional equilibria; loss-cone dynamics; and dynamics of binary and multiple supermassive black holes.

  13. Black hole Meissner effect and Blandford-Znajek jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penna, Robert

    Spinning black holes tend to expel magnetic fields. In this way they are similar to superconductors. It has been a persistent concern that this black hole “Meissner effect” could quench jet power at high spins. This would ...

  14. Kerr black hole parameters in terms of red/blue shifts of photons emitted by geodesic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We are motivated by the recently reported dynamical evidence of stars with short orbital periods moving around the center of the Milky Way and the corresponding hypothesis about the existence of a supermassive black hole hosted at its center. In this paper we show how the mass and rotation parameters of a Kerr black hole (assuming that the putative supermassive black hole is of this type), as well as the distance that separates the black hole from the Earth, can be estimated in a relativistic way in terms of i) the red and blue shifts of photons that are emitted by geodesic massive particles (stars and galactic gas) and travel along null geodesics towards a distant observer, and ii) the radius of these star/gas orbits. As a concrete example and as a first step towards a full relativistic analysis of the above mentioned star orbits around the center of our galaxy, we consider stable equatorial circular orbits of stars and express their corresponding red/blue shifts in terms of the metric parameters (mass and a...

  15. CHARYBDIS: A Black Hole Event Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Harris; P. Richardson; B. R. Webber

    2003-07-29

    CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte Carlo programs like HERWIG and PYTHIA which then perform the parton evolution and hadronization. The event generator includes the extra-dimensional `grey-body' effects as well as the change in the temperature of the black hole as the decay progresses. Various options for modelling the Planck-scale terminal decay are provided.

  16. Virtual Black Holes in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2011-01-24

    Optical space in electromagnetic metamaterials may be engineered to emulate various exotic space-time geometries. However, these metamaterial models are limited in many respects. It is believed that real physical space-time strongly fluctuates on the Planck scale. These fluctuations are usually described as virtual black holes. Static metamaterial models introduced so far do not exhibit similar behavior. Here we demonstrate that thermal fluctuations of optical space in hyperbolic metamaterials lead to creation of virtual electromagnetic black holes. This effect is very large if the dielectric component of the metamaterial exhibits critical opalescence.

  17. Vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Winstanley; Phil M. Young

    2007-12-20

    We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole in which the temperatures of the event and cosmological horizons are equal (`lukewarm' black hole). Our numerical calculations for a thermal state at the same temperature as the two horizons indicate that this renormalized expectation value is regular on both the event and cosmological horizons. We are able to show analytically, using an approximation for the field modes near the horizons, that this is indeed the case.

  18. Thermal stability of radiant black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2006-04-06

    Beginning with a brief sketch of the derivation of Hawking's theorem of horizon area increase, based on the Raychaudhuri equation, we go on to discuss the issue as to whether generic black holes, undergoing Hawking radiation, can ever remain in stable thermal equilibrium with that radiation. We derive a universal criterion for such a stability, which relates the black hole mass and microcanonical entropy, both of which are well-defined within the context of the Isolated Horizon, and in principle calculable within Loop Quantum Gravity. The criterion is argued to hold even when thermal fluctuations of electric charge are considered, within a {\\it grand} canonical ensemble.

  19. Magnetized black hole as a gravitational lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya

    2006-11-19

    We use the Ernst-Schwarzschild solution for a black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field to estimate corrections to the bending angle and time delay due-to presence of weak magnetic fields in galaxies and between galaxies, and also due-to influence of strong magnetic field near supermassive black holes. The magnetic field creates a kind of confinement in space, that leads to increasing of the bending angle and time delay for a ray of light propagating in the equatorial plane.

  20. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  1. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  2. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  3. Entropy and Area of Black Holes in Loop Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. B. Khriplovich

    2002-03-31

    Simple arguments related to the entropy of black holes strongly constrain the spectrum of the area operator for a Schwarzschild black hole in loop quantum gravity. In particular, this spectrum is fixed completely by the assumption that the black hole entropy is maximum. Within the approach discussed, one arrives in loop quantum gravity at a quantization rule with integer quantum numbers $n$ for the entropy and area of a black hole.

  4. UofT Wireless Network BlackBerry 6 Setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UofT Wireless Network BlackBerry 6 Setup Note:theseinstructionsweretestedonaBlackBerryBold9700,OS6-4357,help.desk@utoronto.ca). UofT Wireless Network BlackBerry 10 Setup Note: these instructions were tested on a BlackBerry Q10. 1. Before you can use the UofT wireless network, you must verify your UTORid (you

  5. SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ASTROPHYSICS; BLACK HOLES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CORRELATIONS; COSMOLOGY; GALAXIES; GALAXY NUCLEI; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; OSCILLATIONS; QUASARS; VELOCITY Word Cloud More Like This...

  6. Location and Geology Fig 1. The Macasty black shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR; black line) and the depleted mantle (purple line). The parameters of CHUR by calcite. Fig. 5. Pyritized fracture Fig. 6. Massive black shale Fig. 7. Graptolite in black shale Fig. 8 shale, - Measure the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements including organic carbon

  7. Emission of scalar particles from cylindrical black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Gohar; K. Saifullah

    2011-09-27

    We study quantum tunneling of scalar particles from black strings. For this purpose we apply WKB approximation and Hamilton-Jacobi method to solve the Klein-Gordon equation for outgoing trajectories. We find the tunneling probability of outgoing charged and uncharged scalars from the event horizon of black strings, and hence the Hawking temperature for these black configurations.

  8. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Tom Abel; Steinn Sigurdsson

    2006-09-06

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive $\\geq30\\Msun$, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos in the mass range $10^{6}-10^{10}\\Ms$. Such early black holes, at redshifts z$\\gtsim10$, could be the seed black holes for the many supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If they exist, their mergers with nearby supermassive black holes may be a prime signal for long wavelength gravitational wave detectors. We simulate formation of black holes in the center of high redshift dark matter halos and explore implications of initial natal kick velocities conjectured by some formation models. The central concentration of early black holes in present day galaxies is reduced if they are born even with moderate kicks of tens of km/s. The modest kicks allow the black holes to leave their parent halo, which consequently leads to dynamical friction being less effective on the lower mass black holes as compared to those still embedded in their parent halos. Therefore, merger rates may be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Using analytical and illustrative cosmological N--body simulations we quantify the role of natal kicks of black holes formed from massive metal free stars on their merger rates with supermassive black holes in present day galaxies. Our results also apply to black holes ejected by the gravitational slingshot mechanism.

  9. Charged fermions tunneling from accelerating and rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K., E-mail: mudassir051@yahoo.com, E-mail: saifullah@qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-03-01

    We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions from accelerating and rotating black holes with electric and magnetic charges. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing fermionic particles and find the Hawking temperature of these black holes. We also provide an explicit expression of the classical action for the massive and massless particles in the background of these black holes.

  10. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  11. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Akerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  12. Mesoscopic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate Fluctuations of an Ideal Gas in a Box 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorfman, Konstantin Evgenievich

    2009-05-15

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Negative binomial distribution of the number of noncondensed atoms for an ideal Bose gas in a box with total number of particles N = 10000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2... Temperature scaling of the normalization factor, i.e. ?(N ?n) for an ideal Bose gas (N = 100 - grey line, N = 1000 - black line). Temperature is normalized by the standard thermodynamic limit critical value Tc(N = ?) that differs from the finite-size Tc(N...

  13. Detroit to Durban: Black Workers' Common Struggle; Southern Africa/Black America: Same Struggles, Same Fight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philips, John

    1978-01-01

    DETROIT TO DURBAN: BlACK \\\\OOKERS CCM1>N STRUGGLE by Blackearliest parrphlet is Detroit to Durban . Although publishedstrikes of early 1973 and the Detroit riots of 1967 is a bit

  14. A Hybrid Two Component Accretion Flow Surrounding Supermassive Black Holes in AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, B F; Qiao, E; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the optical/UV and X-ray emissions in luminous AGN are produced in an accretion disk and an embedded hot corona respectively. The inverse Compton scattering of disk photons by hot electrons in the corona can effectively cool the coronal gas if the mass supply is predominantly via a cool disk like flow as in BHXRBs. Thus, the application of such a model to AGNs fails to produce their observed X-ray emission. As a consequence, a fraction of disk accretion energy is usually assumed to be transferred to the corona. To avoid this assumption, we propose that gas in a vertically extended distribution is supplied to a supermassive black hole by the gravitational capture of interstellar medium or stellar wind material. In this picture, the gas partially condenses to an underlying cool disk as it flows toward the black hole, releasing accretion energy as X-ray emission and supplying mass for the disk accretion. Detailed numerical calculations reveal that the X-ray luminosity can reach a few...

  15. Brief review on higher spin black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Perez; David Tempo; Ricardo Troncoso

    2014-05-12

    We review some relevant results in the context of higher spin black holes in three-dimensional spacetimes, focusing on their asymptotic behaviour and thermodynamic properties. For simplicity, we mainly discuss the case of gravity nonminimally coupled to spin-3 fields, being nonperturbatively described by a Chern-Simons theory of two independent sl(3,R) gauge fields. Since the analysis is particularly transparent in the Hamiltonian formalism, we provide a concise discussion of their basic aspects in this context; and as a warming up exercise, we briefly analyze the asymptotic behaviour of pure gravity, as well as the BTZ black hole and its thermodynamics, exclusively in terms of gauge fields. The discussion is then extended to the case of black holes endowed with higher spin fields, briefly signaling the agreements and discrepancies found through different approaches. We conclude explaining how the puzzles become resolved once the fall off of the fields is precisely specified and extended to include chemical potentials, in a way that it is compatible with the asymptotic symmetries. Hence, the global charges become completely identified in an unambiguous way, so that different sets of asymptotic conditions turn out to contain inequivalent classes of black hole solutions being characterized by a different set of global charges.

  16. Quantum Chaos and the Black Body Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Casati

    2000-11-16

    We discuss a mechanical model which mimics the main features of the radiation matter interaction in the black body problem. The pure classical dynamical evolution, with a simple discretization of the action variables, leads to the Stefan- Boltzmann law and to the Planck distribution without any additional statistical assumption.

  17. Scalar Hairy Black Holes in General Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing-Hui Feng; H. Lu; Qiang Wen

    2014-01-13

    We obtain a class of asymptotic flat or (A)dS hairy black holes in D-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar with certain scalar potential. For a given mass, the theory admits both the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini and the hairy black holes with different temperature and entropy, but satisfying the same first law of thermodynamics. For some appropriate choice of parameters, the scalar potential can be expressed in terms of a super-potential and it can arise in gauged supergravities. In this case, the solutions develop a naked curvature singularity and become the spherical domain walls. Uplifting the solutions to D=11 or 10, we obtain solutions that can be viewed as spherical M-branes or D3-branes. We also add electric charges to these hairy black holes. All these solutions contain no scalar charges in that the first law of thermodynamics are unmodified. We also try to construct new AdS black holes carrying scalar charges, with some moderate success in that the charges are pre-fixed in the theory instead of being some continuous integration constants.

  18. Scalar Hairy Black Holes in General Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Wen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We obtain a class of asymptotic flat or (A)dS hairy black holes in D-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar with certain scalar potential. For a given mass, the theory admits both the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini and the hairy black holes with different temperature and entropy, but satisfying the same first law of thermodynamics. For some appropriate choice of parameters, the scalar potential can be expressed in terms of a super-potential and it can arise in gauged supergravities. In this case, the solutions develop a naked curvature singularity and become the spherical domain walls. Uplifting the solutions to D=11 or 10, we obtain solutions that can be viewed as spherical M-branes or D3-branes. We also add electric charges to these hairy black holes. All these solutions contain no scalar charges in that the first law of thermodynamics are unmodified. We also try to construct new AdS black holes carrying scalar charges, with some moderate success in that the charges are pre-fixed in the theory instead ...

  19. Bubbling supertubes and foaming black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bena, Iosif; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2006-09-15

    We construct smooth BPS three-charge geometries that resolve the zero-entropy singularity of the U(1)xU(1) invariant black ring. This singularity is resolved by a geometric transition that results in geometries without any branes sources or singularities but with nontrivial topology. These geometries are both ground states of the black ring, and nontrivial microstates of the D1-D5-P system. We also find the form of the geometries that result from the geometric transition of N zero-entropy black rings, and argue that, in general, such geometries give a very large number of smooth bound-state three-charge solutions, parametrized by 6N functions. The generic microstate solution is specified by a four-dimensional hyper-Kaehler geometry of a certain signature, and contains a 'foam' of nontrivial two-spheres. We conjecture that these geometries will account for a significant part of the entropy of the D1-D5-P black hole, and that Mathur's conjecture might reduce to counting certain hyper-Kaehler manifolds.

  20. Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

    2014-09-27

    In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

  1. Six Sigma Black Belts Fight For Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    Six Sigma Black Belts Fight For Quality Ron Scott Ross Finnestad Rodney Kalsow IE 361 mini-paper 9/22/00 #12;Six Sigma is a breakthrough management strategy that is revolutionizing the world's top corporations. So what is Six Sigma? "It is a business process that allows companies to drastically improve

  2. Lower-Dimensional Black Hole Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonia M. Frassino; Robert B. Mann; Jonas R. Mureika

    2015-09-18

    The connection between black hole thermodynamics and chemistry is extended to the lower-dimensional regime by considering the rotating and charged BTZ metric in the $(2+1)$-D and a $(1+1)$-D limits of Einstein gravity. The Smarr relation is naturally upheld in both BTZ cases, where those with $Q \

  3. Strains and Jets in Black Hole Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bini; F. de Felice; A. Geralico

    2007-12-14

    We study the behaviour of an initially spherical bunch of particles emitted along trajectories parallel to the symmetry axis of a Kerr black hole. We show that, under suitable conditions, curvature and inertial strains compete to generate jet-like structures.

  4. Area products for black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Area products for multi-horizon black holes often have intriguing properties, and are often independent of the mass of the black hole (depending only on various charges, angular momenta, and moduli). Such products are often formulated in terms of the areas of inner (Cauchy) horizons and event horizons, and often include the effects of unphysical "virtual'" horizons. For the Schwarzschild-de Sitter [Kottler] black hole in (3+1) dimensions it is shown by explicit exact calculation that the product of event horizon area and cosmological horizon area is not mass independent. (Including the effect of the third "virtual" horizon does not improve the situation.) Similarly, in the Reissner-Nordstrom-anti-de Sitter black hole in (3+1) dimensions the product of inner (Cauchy) horizon area and event horizon area is calculated (perturbatively), and is shown to be not mass independent. That is, the mass-independence of the product of physical horizon areas is not generic. In the generic situation, whenever the quasi-local...

  5. Report Review Checklist a. Ink is Black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report Review Checklist 1. General a. Ink is Black b. Margins Left & Top 1.5"; Right & Bottom 1" c. Page Numbers 1. Arabic numerals upper right corner within body of paper 2. Page Numbers: Lower case roman numerals for front matter. d. Spacing: Double spaced throughout report. e. Typeface: Arial, Times

  6. Black Cowboys and Black Masculinity African American Ranchers, Rodeo Cowboys and Trailriders 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babers, Myeshia Chanel

    2014-12-17

    in the works of W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, and Cater G. Woodson. Although disciplinary approaches, individual motivations, and prescriptions for the perceived “Negro Problem” in America vary, one common issue that scholars reproach is the idea... information about Black cowboys creates a peculiar position regarding notions, representations, and understandings about the racially signified cowboys. One common issue regarding Black identity that scholars reproach is the idea that it is pathological...

  7. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    values for fuels, such as crude oil and raw coal, and theseGas Other Coking Products Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene DieselGas Other Coking Products Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene Diesel

  8. Trumpet-puncture initial data for black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Immerman, Jason D.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2009-09-15

    We propose a new approach, based on the puncture method, to construct black hole initial data in the so-called trumpet geometry, i.e. on slices that asymptote to a limiting surface of nonzero areal radius. Our approach is easy to implement numerically and, at least for nonspinning black holes, does not require any internal boundary conditions. We present numerical results, obtained with a uniform-grid finite-difference code, for boosted black holes and binary black holes. We also comment on generalizations of this method for spinning black holes.

  9. $P-V$ criticality of AdS black hole in $f(R)$ gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Songbai Chen; Xiaofang Liu; Changqing Liu

    2013-05-31

    We study thermodynamics of a charged AdS black hole in the special $f(R)$ correction with the constant Ricci scalar curvature. Our results show that the the $f(R)$ correction influences the Gibbs free energy and the phase transition of system. The ratio $\\rho_c$ occurred at the critical point increases monotonically with the derivative term $f'(R_0)$. We also disclose that the critical exponents are the same as those of the liquid-gas phase transition in the Van der Waals model, which does not depend on the $f(R)$ correction considered here.

  10. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects at historically black colleges and universities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program at Historically Black Colleges and Universities were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference on June 25--27, 1991 at the Vista International Hotel, Pittsburgh PA. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. The following topics are discussed: properties of coal, rheology, gasification, pyrolysis, combustion, synthesis of alcohols, cleanup of flue gas, and plasma seeding.

  11. Acoustic clouds: standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina L. Benone; Luis C. B. Crispino; Carlos Herdeiro; Eugen Radu

    2015-01-28

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  12. Thermodynamic Relations for Kiselev and Dilaton Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushra Majeed; Mubasher Jamil; Parthapratim Pradhan

    2015-08-24

    We investigate the thermodynamics and phase transition for Kiselev black hole and dilaton black hole. Speci?cally we consider Reissner Nordstrom black hole surrounded by radiation and dust, and Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence, as special cases of Kiselev solution. We have calculated the products relating the surface gravities, surface temperatures, Komar energies, areas, entropies, horizon radii and the irreducible masses at the Cauchy and the event horizons. It is observed that the product of surface gravities, surface temperature product and product of Komar energies at the horizons are not universal quantities for the Kiselev solutions while products of areas and entropies at both the horizons are independent of mass of the above mentioned black holes (except for Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence). For charged dilaton black hole, all the products vanish. First law of thermodynamics is also veri?ed for Kiselev solutions. Heat capacities are calculated and phase transitions are observed, under certain conditions.

  13. Quantization of black holes by analogy with hydrogen atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Liu; Yan-Gang Miao; Yu-Mei Wu; Yu-Hao Zhang

    2015-11-16

    We suggest a proposal of quantization for black holes that is based on an analogy between a black hole and a hydrogen atom. A self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is investigated, where the mass density of the extreme black hole is given by the probability density of the ground state of hydrogen atoms and the mass densities of non-extreme black holes are chosen to be the probability densities of excited states with no angular momenta. Consequently, it is logical to accept quantization of mean radii of hydrogen atoms as that of black hole horizons. In this way, quantization of total black hole masses is deduced. Furthermore, the quantum hoop conjecture and the Correspondence Principle are discussed.

  14. Quantization of black holes by analogy with hydrogen atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Hao

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a proposal of quantization for black holes that is based on an analogy between a black hole and a hydrogen atom. A self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is investigated, where the mass density of the extreme black hole is given by the probability density of the ground state of hydrogen atoms and the mass densities of non-extreme black holes are chosen to be the probability densities of excited states with no angular momenta. Consequently, it is logical to accept quantization of mean radii of hydrogen atoms as that of black hole horizons. In this way, quantization of total black hole masses is deduced. Furthermore, the quantum hoop conjecture and the Correspondence Principle are discussed.

  15. Quantization of black holes by analogy with hydrogen atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Liu; Yan-Gang Miao; Yu-Mei Wu; Yu-Hao Zhang

    2015-11-23

    We suggest a proposal of quantization for black holes that is based on an analogy between a black hole and a hydrogen atom. A self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is investigated, where the mass density of the extreme black hole is given by the probability density of the ground state of hydrogen atoms and the mass densities of non-extreme black holes are chosen to be the probability densities of excited states with no angular momenta. Consequently, it is logical to accept quantization of mean radii of hydrogen atoms as that of black hole horizons. In this way, quantization of total black hole masses is deduced. Furthermore, the quantum hoop conjecture and the Correspondence Principle are discussed.

  16. Energy Extraction from Spinning Black Holes via Relativistic Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan; Jeffrey E. McClintock; Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2013-03-12

    It has for long been an article of faith among astrophysicists that black hole spin energy is responsible for powering the relativistic jets seen in accreting black holes. Two recent advances have strengthened the case. First, numerical general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of accreting spinning black holes show that relativistic jets form spontaneously. In at least some cases, there is unambiguous evidence that much of the jet energy comes from the black hole, not the disk. Second, spin parameters of a number of accreting stellar-mass black holes have been measured. For ballistic jets from these systems, it is found that the radio luminosity of the jet correlates with the spin of the black hole. This suggests a causal relationship between black hole spin and jet power, presumably due to a generalized Penrose process.

  17. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Tom Abel; Steinn Sigurdsson

    2006-09-15

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive >30 Msun, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos. We expect primordial stars to form in halos in the mass range 10^6-10^10 Msun. Some of these early black holes, formed at redshifts z>10, could be the seed black hole for a significant fraction of the supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If the black hole descendants of the primordial stars exist, their mergers with nearby supermassive black holes may be a prime candidate for long wavelength gravitational wave detectors. We simulate formation and evolution of dark matter halos in LambdaCDM universe. We seed high-redshift dark matter halos with early black holes, and explore the merger history of the host halos and the implications of black hole's kick velocities arising from their coalescence. The central concentration of low mass early black holes in present day galaxies is reduced if they experience even moderate kicks of tens of km/s. Even such modest kicks allow the black holes to leave their parent halo, which consequently leads to dynamical friction being less effective on the low mass black holes that were ejected, compared to those still embedded in their parent halos. Therefore, merger rates with central supermassive black holes in the largest halos may be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Using analytical and illustrative cosmological N-body simulations, we quantify the role of kicks on the merger rates of black holes formed from massive metal free stars with supermassive black holes in present day galaxies.

  18. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State, 1980-1998 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1998 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1998 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  20. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State, 1980-1997 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1997 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1997 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  1. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State, 1980-1996 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1996 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1996 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  2. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  4. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  6. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  9. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  10. Unbound Debris Streams and Remnants Resulting From the Tidal Disruptions of Stars by Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillochon, James; Chen, Xian; Johnson, Michael D; Berger, Edo

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic energy of a star in orbit about a supermassive black hole is a significant fraction of its rest mass energy when its periapse is comparable to its tidal radius. Upon its destruction, a fraction of this energy is extracted and injected into the stellar debris, half of which becomes unbound from the black hole, with the fastest material moving at $\\sim 0.03 c$. In this paper, we present a formalism for determining the fate of these unbound debris streams (UDSs) as they depart from the black hole and interact with the surrounding gas. As the density and velocity varies along the length of a UDS, we find that hydrodynamical drag quickly shapes UDSs into loop-like structures, with the densest portions of the streams leading portions of lower density. As UDSs travel outwards, their drag against the ISM increases quadratically with distance, which causes UDSs to deposit their momentum and energy into the ambient medium before the surrounding shocked ISM has a chance to cool. This sudden injection of $\\si...

  11. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  12. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

  13. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  14. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  15. Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    to Landfill Owner $6.18 Total Cost Per MMBtu #12;Index Price of Natural Gas NYMEX Natural Gas Futures PricesRenewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) #12;Critical Barriers Impeding RNG as a Transportation Fuel-developer of largest RNG production project in U.S. at McCommas Bluff Landfill in Dallas, Texas · Chairman and co

  16. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Mtce) Table 4A.19.1. Coke Oven Gas End Use and Inputs toConversion Table 4A.19.2. Coke Oven Gas End Use and InputsMtce) Table 4A.19.1. Coke Oven Gas End Use and Inputs to

  17. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Summary of transportation greenhouse gas mitigation optionsof alternative fuels. Low greenhouse gas fuels Mixing ofMAC) refrigerant replacement. Greenhouse gas budgets for

  18. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  19. Hovering Black Holes from Charged Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Nabil Iqbal; Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

    2015-05-05

    We construct the holographic dual of an electrically charged, localised defect in a conformal field theory at strong coupling, by applying a spatially dependent chemical potential. We find that the IR behaviour of the spacetime depends on the spatial falloff of the potential. Moreover, for sufficiently localized defects with large amplitude, we find that a new gravitational phenomenon occurs: a spherical extremal charged black hole nucleates in the bulk: a hovering black hole. This is a second order quantum phase transition. We construct this new phase with several profiles for the chemical potential and study its properties. We find an apparently universal behaviour for the entropy of the defect as a function of its amplitude. We comment on the possible field theory implications of our results.

  20. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.