National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas coal renewables

  1. Renewable Natural Gas- Developer Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsRenewable Natural Gas - Developer PerspectiveDavid Ross, Managing Director, MultiGen International, LLC

  2. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  3. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  4. Renewable Natural Gas - Producer Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DAVID ROSS MANAGING DIRECTOR MULTIGEN INTERNATIONAL, LLC Your Economic Onsite Energy Solution Bioenergy 2015: Opportunities in a Changing Energy Landscape Renewable Natural Gas - Developer Perspective Overview  MultiGen International  Biogas  Anaerobic Digestion  Biogas Upgrade Technologies  Development Risk  Recommendations MultiGen International, LLC MultiGen International (MGI) - is a project development company focused on solving waste issues using commercial technologies

  5. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  6. AEO 2015 Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Preliminary...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    arrangements for coal plants upon expiration - ... - Retire Intermountain plant in 2025 * California ... power sector natural gas-fired generation is lower in ...

  7. Secretary Moniz on Natural Gas and Renewables | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dr. Ernest Moniz Duration 4:04 Topic Natural Gas Renewables Geothermal Solar Wind

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From

  10. Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted hydrogen production using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted hydrogen production using oxygen transport membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen permeation and coal-gas-assisted ...

  11. DOE - Fossil Energy: The Cleanest Coal Technology - A Real Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-Cleanest Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Cleanest Coal Technology - a Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. ...

  12. BP Gas Power and Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: BP Gas, Power and Renewables Place: Central Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Zip: MK9 1ES Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Subsidiary of...

  13. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  14. Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables May 29, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis In a new video ...

  15. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Below is information ...

  16. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  19. Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & ASSOCIATED VERTICAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT ... South, Las Vegas, NV 89119 The dynamic world of conventional energy (focusing on oil, gas ...

  20. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and ...

  1. Secretary Moniz: What the Natural Gas Boom Means for Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States should take advantage of the natural gas boom and use it as an opportunity to further develop renewable energy sources like wind, solar, geothermal, and hydropower. ...

  2. Renewable Energy Holdings Landfill Gas Wales Ltd REH Wales |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Wales Ltd REH Wales Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Holdings Landfill Gas (Wales) Ltd (REH Wales) Place: United Kingdom Product: A joint venture to own and...

  3. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to view larger. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes November 20, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint The key to extracting usable energy from deep coal seams and depleted oil reservoirs ...

  4. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  5. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  6. Renewables Portfolio Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables...

  7. Renewables Portfolio Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  8. Renewables Portfolio Standard | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  9. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  10. Development of a Low NOx Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Solar Turbines Inc., in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University and the University of Southern California, will develop injector technologies for gas turbine use of high-hydrogen content renewable and opportunity fuels derived from coal, biomass, industrial process waste, or byproducts. This project will develop low-emission technology for alternate fuels with high-hydrogen content, thereby reducing natural gas requirements and lowering carbon intensity.

  11. A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas A Renewable Boost for Natural Gas April 24, 2013 - 3:45pm Addthis The new hybrid solar-natural gas system from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) works through concentrating solar power, which uses a reflecting surface to concentrate the sun's rays like a magnifying glass. In the case of the new system from PNNL, a mirrored parabolic dish directs sunbeams to a central point, where a device absorbs the solar heat to make syngas.| Photo courtesy of PNNL.

  12. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in 2017. In ... have made coal a less competitive generating fuel for many U.S. power plant operators.

  13. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  14. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  15. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  16. China's coal market: is peak demand insight?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a slight recovery by 2020. * Coal-fired generation will continue to be squeezed by non-fossil generation resources. * Renewable, nuclear, and gas plant additions will remain ...

  17. Renewable Energy: Plants in Your Gas Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol Grades: 5-8, 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Chris Ederer, Eric Benson, Loren Lykins Owner: ACTS This educational material is...

  18. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  20. Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy technologies identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but a recent report by Berkeley Lab evaluates one such benefit in detail: by displacing gas-fired electricity generation, RE reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE. The Berkeley Lab report summarizes recent modeling studies that have evaluated the impact of RE deployment on gas prices, reviews the reasonableness of the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model.

  1. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  2. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  3. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  5. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... BECOME TOO GREAT WATER KNOCKOUT FIELD COMPRESSOR ... FROM GOV AT MARKETING ENGINEERING Dia (in) SHELTER FOR LNG ... Mines 2008) o >1,000' deep o >12' seam o Annual coal ...

  6. State of Illinois 1982 annual coal, oil and gas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This data compilation contains statistics from the coal industry and petroleum industry of Illinois. Data are given on the production, accidents, explosives, and mechanization of coal mines. Metal mines are only briefly described. The report from the Division of Oil and Gas contains data on oil well completions, oil wells plugged, water input wells, and salt water and waste disposal wells. The results of hearings in the division are included. The Land Reclamation Division reports data on permits and acreage affected by surface mining of coal, limestone, shale, clay, sand, and gravel. 2 figures, 76 tables.

  7. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  8. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  9. Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Robert C. Motta Kenneth J. Kelly William W. Warnock Executive Summary The National Renewable Energy

  10. Saga of coal bed methane, Ignacio Blanco gas field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, B.C.; Harr, C.L.; Burch, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Prior to the 1977 discovery of the Cedar Hill Basal Fruitland pool (the first officially designated coal-bed methane field in the western US) 28.5 bcf of gas had been produced from Fruitland Formation coal seams in the Ignacio Blanco Fruitland-Pictured Cliffs field, Northern San Juan basin, Colorado. The discovery well for the field, Southern Ute D-1, was drilled and completed in 1951 on the Ignacio anticline, La Plata County, Colorado. Initial completion was attempted in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The well was plugged back after making water from the Pictured Cliffs and was completed in the lower coal-bearing section of the Fruitland Formation. The well produced 487,333 mcf of gas in nine years and was abandoned in 1959 due to water encroachment. Additionally, 52 similarly completed Ignacio anticline Fruitland wells were abandoned by the early 1970s due to the nemesis of If it's starting to kick water, you're through. Under today's coal-bed methane technology and economics, Amoco has twinned 12 of the abandoned wells, drilled five additional wells, and is successfully dewatering and producing adsorbed methane from previously depleted coal sections of the Ignacio structure. Field-wide drilling activity in 1988 exceeded all previous annual levels, with coal-seam degasification projects leading the resurgence. Drilling and completion forecasts for 1989 surpass 1988 levels by 50%.

  11. RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas...

  12. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  13. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  14. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics www.eia.gov Natural Gas Monthly August 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  15. Future States: The Convergence of Smart Grid, Renewables, Shale Gas, and Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick Cirillo; Guenter Conzelmann

    2013-03-20

    Dick Cirillo and Guenter Conzelmann present on research involving renewable energy sources, the use of natural gas, electric vehicles, and the SMART grid.

  16. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects Webinar (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects," originally presented on July 17, 2012.

  17. Future States: The Convergence of Smart Grid, Renewables, Shale Gas, and Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dick Cirillo; Guenter Conzelmann

    2013-06-07

    Dick Cirillo and Guenter Conzelmann present on research involving renewable energy sources, the use of natural gas, electric vehicles, and the SMART grid.

  18. Displacing oil and gas with coal: Constraints and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    It is obvious that a major result of the oil supply interruptions of the 1970s was to dramatically increase the competitiveness of coal as an industrial and utility fuel. In fact, between 1973 and 1981, coal's share of the energy feed to the electric utility industry did increase from 43 to 52 percent. However, given the actual market place incentives, this increase is not a remarkable improvement, and reflects the fact that disappointingly few existing units have been converted from oil to coal. In the wake of the 1973 embargo, the passage of the Energy Supply and Coordination Act of 1974 (''ENSECA'') and the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (''FUA'') provided the Executive Branch with the power to mandate the conversion of oil and gas units to coal. However, ENSECA lacked strong enforcement provisions and there resulted few conversions other than those which were made voluntarily on purely economic grounds. As a result, in 1978, Congress enacted the Fuel Use Act which placed the burden of proof upon owners to demonstrate that a specified coal convertible unit could not be converted.

  19. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  20. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book), NREL (National Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    figures in later sections. 10.1% Nuclear 11.2% Renewables 24.7% Coal 34.6% Natural Gas 19.3% Crude Oil U.S. Energy Production (2013): 81.8 Quadrillion Btu U.S. Renewable...

  1. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  2. Island Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: W1J 7BU Sector: Renewable Energy Product: UK-based coal bed methane company, Island Gas was the subject of a reverse takeover by KP Renewables in...

  3. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  4. Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

    2009-10-16

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

  5. Renewable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Sustainable Energy V v y Jo ur na l Renewable Electronic structural and electroch em ... Duan Citation: J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 3, 013102 (2011); doi: 10.10631.3529427 ...

  6. Renewable energy: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Renewable energy technologies use the energy from non-depletable sources: sunshine, water flow and vegatation. The most common renewable energy devices are solar collectors, windmills, woodburning stoves, and hydroelectric turbines. Variations of some of these devices have been used for decades. Today, efficient versions are being developed to reduce our use of non-renewable resources, such as oil, natural gas and coal. Many of the systems utilizing renewable energy require a large initial investment but can offer long-term savings over the life of the system.

  7. Combustion research related to utilization of coal as a gas turbine fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis-Waltermine, D.M.; Anderson, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    A nominal 293 kw (1 MBtu/hr) atmospheric pressure, refractory-lined combustor has been used to investigate the effects of a number of combustor and fuel dependent variables on combustion efficiency and flue gas characteristics for minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas (MCG) and coal water mixtures. The variables which have been evaluated include: percent excess air, air distribution, combustion air preheat temperature, swirl number, fuel feedrate, coal particle size, coal loading in slurry, and slurry viscosity. Characterization of the flue gas included major/minor gas species, alkali levels, and particulate loading, size, and composition. These atmospheric pressure combustion studies accompanied by data from planned pressurized studies on coal-water slurries and hot, minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas will aid in the determination of the potential of these fuels for use in gas turbines.

  8. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  9. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  10. Renewable Energy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Accelerating the transition to alternative energy sources requires significant improvement in materials, chemicals, processes, and devices. To produce more cost-effective energy sources for the nation, Argonne is focused on renewable energy research. World energy demand is expected to double by 2050, and oil, coal and natural gas will have to supply much of that energy unless we can make renewable and "green" alternatives cheap enough to replace them. Argonne is using

  11. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  12. List of Landfill Gas Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  13. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions ...

  14. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  15. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  16. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    Report comparing the impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal.

  17. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  18. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  19. DOE Announces Webinars on Tribal Renewable Energy Projects, Renewable Natural Gas for Vehicles, and More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  20. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  1. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  2. Smart Sensing Networks for Renewables, Oil & Gas | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reliability and robustness of the data points being collected. sensor-500x333 As oil and gas production moves to unconventional environments, it will require more rugged sensors...

  3. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Brian Weeks, Gas Technology Institute, at the Waste-to-Energy Using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011

  4. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  5. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

  6. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  7. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2005-08-15

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Success story about LNG from landfill gas. Presented by Mike McGowan, Linde NA, Inc., at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. ...

  9. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  11. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  12. Can Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency PutDownward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-06-01

    High and volatile natural gas prices have increasingly led to calls for investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. One line of argument is that deployment of these resources may lead to reductions in the demand for and price of natural gas. Many recent U.S.-based modeling studies have demonstrated that this effect could provide significant consumer savings. In this article we evaluate these studies, and benchmark their findings against economic theory, other modeling results, and a limited empirical literature. We find that many uncertainties remain regarding the absolute magnitude of this effect, and that the reduction in natural gas prices may not represent an increase in aggregate economic wealth. Nonetheless, we conclude that many of the studies of the impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency on natural gas prices appear to have represented this effect within reason, given current knowledge. These studies specifically suggest that a 1% reduction in U.S. natural gas demand could lead to long-term average wellhead price reductions of 0.8% to 2%, and that each megawatt-hour of renewable energy and energy efficiency may benefit natural gas consumers to the tune of at least $7.5 to $20.

  13. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  14. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  15. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  16. Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

  17. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  18. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  19. A new laboratory technique to estimate gas diffusion characteristics of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpalani, S.; Ouyang, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a new experimental technique developed to measure the diffusion coefficient (D) for a coal-methane system using the transient flow mechanism, and examine its dependency on factors that change with continued flow-pressure and gas concentration. Although developed primarily for coalbed methane reservoirs and coal in the gob regions, it also has application in situations where a second gas is injected in coal since it utilizes the principle of counter-diffusion. The results show that there is a continuous decrease in the value of D with decreasing mean concentration of methane in coal. The logarithm of D varies directly with the pressure. Two effects may be responsible for this decrease. The first is a possible change in the flow mechanism with decreasing methane concentration due to the existence of varying pore sizes in coal. The other is the volumetric strain of solid coal matrix induced by desorption of gas, the so called shrinkage effect. This matrix shrinkage may be resulting in reduced pore sizes, and consequently, a decrease in the value of D.

  20. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  1. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  2. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while

  3. Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant amount of our nation’s electricity.

  4. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  5. Pathways to Decarbonization. Natural Gas and Renewable Energy. Lessons Learned from Energy System Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen; Stark, Camila

    2015-04-30

    Ensuring the resilience, reliability, flexibility, and affordability of the U.S. electric grid is increasingly important as the country addresses climate change and an aging infrastructure. State and federal policy and actions by industry, non-profits, and others create a dynamic framework for achieving these goals. Three principle low-carbon generation technologies have formed the basis for multiple scenarios leading toward a low-carbon, resilient, and affordable power system. While there is no “silver bullet,” one avenue identified by key stakeholders is the opportunity to invest in natural gas (NG) and renewable resources, both of which offer abundant domestic resource bases and contribute to energy independence, carbon mitigation, and economic growth. NG and renewable electricity (RE) have traditionally competed for market share in the power sector, but there is a growing experience base and awareness for their synergistic use (Cochran et al. 2014). Building upon these observations and previous work, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA), in collaboration with the Center for the New Energy Economy and the Gas Technology Institute, convened a series of workshops in 2014 to explore NG and RE synergies in the U.S. power sector. This report captures key insights from the workshop series, Synergies of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy: 360 Degrees of Opportunity, as well as supporting economic valuation analyses conducted by JISEA researchers that quantify the value proposition of investing in NG and RE together as complements.

  6. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  9. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  10. Gas turbines for coal-fired turbocharged PFBC boiler power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenglarz, R.; Drenker, S.

    1984-11-01

    A coal-fired turbocharged boiler using fluidized bed combustion at high pressure would be more compact than a pulverized coal fired boiler. The smaller boiler size could permit the utility industry to adopt efficient modular construction methods now widely used in other industries. A commercial turbocharger of the capacity needed to run a 250 MW /SUB e/ power plant does not exist; commercial gas turbines of the correct capacity exist, but they are not matched to this cycle's gas temperature of less than 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). In order to avoid impeding the development of the technology, it will probably be desirable to use existing machines to the maximum extent possible. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of applying either standard gas turbines or modified standard gas turbines to the turbocharged boiler.

  11. Gas-chromatographic determination of the main components of hard-coal tar and its fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabivach, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the composition of bituminous coal tars from several coking plants in the Ukraine using gas-liquid chromatography. It was shown that analytical data can be used for operational quality control of the fractions produced.

  12. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  13. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  14. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  15. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  16. Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2010-12-31

    Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants

  17. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct

  18. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  20. Adsorptive removal of catalyst poisons from coal gas for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.; Golden, T.C.; Hsiung, T.H. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    As an integral part of the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process development program, the present study evaluated adsorptive schemes to remove traces of catalyst poisons such as iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from coal gas on a pilot scale. Tests were conducted with coal gas from the Cool Water gasification plant at Daggett, California. Iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were effectively removed from the coal gas. The adsorption capacities of Linde H-Y zeolite and Calgon BPL carbon for Fe(CO){sub 5} compared well with previous bench-scale results at similar CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Adsorption of COS by Calgon FCA carbon appeared to be chemical and nonregenerable by thermal treatment in nitrogen. A Cu/Zn catalyst removed H{sub 2}S very effectively. With the adsorption system on-line, a methanol catalyst showed stable activity during 120 h operation, demonstrating the feasibility of adsorptive removal of trace catalyst poisons from the synthesis gas. Mass transfer coefficients were estimated for Fe(CO){sub 5} and COS removal which can be directly used for design and scale up.

  1. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  3. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastalerz, Maria; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Rupp, John A

    2012-01-01

    Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

  5. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  7. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  8. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  9. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an

  10. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The

  11. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  12. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the

  13. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 2014 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the

  14. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-05-15

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available--in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as $0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  15. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CO2 SEPARATION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF COAL GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kemeny; Satya Harpalani

    2004-03-01

    An attractive alternative of sequestering CO{sub 2} is to inject it into coalbed methane reservoirs, particularly since it has been shown to enhance the production of methane during near depletion stages. The basis for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep coals is the preferential sorption property of coal, with its affinity for carbon dioxide being significantly higher than that for methane. Yet, the sorption behavior of coal under competitive sorptive environment is not fully understood. Hence, the original objective of this research study was to carry out a laboratory study to investigate the effect of studying the sorption behavior of coal in the presence of multiple gases, primarily methane, CO{sub 2} and nitrogen, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in displacement of methane and its movement in coal. This had to be modified slightly since the PVT property of gas mixtures is still not well understood, and any laboratory work in the area of sorption of gases requires a definite equation of state to calculate the volumes of different gases in free and adsorbed forms. This research study started with establishing gas adsorption isotherms for pure methane and CO{sub 2}. The standard gas expansion technique based on volumetric analysis was used for the experimental work with the additional feature of incorporating a gas chromatograph for analysis of gas composition. The results were analyzed first using the Langmuir theory. As expected, the Langmuir analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} is more than three times as sorptive as methane. This was followed by carrying out a partial desorption isotherm for methane, and then injecting CO{sub 2} to displace methane. The results indicated that CO{sub 2} injection at low pressure displaced all of the sorbed methane, even when the total pressure continued to be high. However, the displacement appeared to be occurring due to a combination of the preferential

  16. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  17. Tersus Asian Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Tersus Asian Renewables is focusing on investments in wind, biomass and clean coal, principally in China and India. References: Tersus Asian Renewables1 This...

  18. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  19. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  1. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  3. Gas cofiring in coal-fired stokers for emissions reduction and performance improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, H.B.; Drennan, S.; Chan, I.; Kinney, W.L.; Borland, D.

    1996-12-31

    Adding gas burners above the grate of a coal-fired stoker can be an economical method of reducing gaseous and particulate emissions and improving efficiency and operational flexibility. With this cofiring configuration, the improved heat distribution and mixing with the stoker combustion products can give reduced opacity, reduced emissions of particulate, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, improved carbon burnout and lower overall ash, reduced excess air, faster load response, cleaner and quicker lightoffs, improved turndown at both lower and upper capacity limits, and improved performance with problematic coals. To develop and validate the cofiring technology, three cofire field experiments have been conducted. A 165,000 lb/hr spreader stoker and mass feed chain grate stokers rated at 40,000 and 75,000 lb/hr have been retrofit with gas burners and tested in the field. The two larger units used dual, opposed burners, while the smaller unit was retrofit with a single burner. With the spreader stoker, the primary benefits of gas cofire was reduction in opacity episodes with coal quality variability and recovery of lost derate. With the larger chain grate unit, the primary benefit was reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to within Title V limits and elimination of opacity episodes during startup and load swings. With the smaller chain grate, the primary benefit was ability to operate at low loads without unacceptable opacity excursions which had previously required a backup boiler. In all cases, the economics justified the capital burner system retrofit cost and incremental fuel costs.

  4. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-10-01

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or in a fuel cell (MCFC). Both of these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HCl, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HCI, both in absorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes. The work activity during the third quarter of this project involved the performance of the second block-set of experiments in the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. These experiments were designed to study the effect of HCl in the desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas. Nine single-cycle experiments were performed, at operating temperature of 538, 650, and 750{degrees}C, with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppMv. The presence of HCl in the coal gas significantly enhanced the desulfurization efficacy of the sorbent. A 10-cycle sulfidation-regeneration sequence is currently being performed at 650{degrees}C with 800 ppMv HCl in the simulated fuel gas to determine any adverse effects on the sorbent structure or its desulfurization capability.

  5. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  6. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  7. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Ronald; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  8. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  9. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Yoon, Kyung J.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation of new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.

  10. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to

  11. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were

  12. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  13. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  14. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  15. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction

  16. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, ...

  17. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  18. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  19. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind

  20. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  1. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-06-15

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H2S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 550 and 600 °C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H2S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 °C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750 °C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the performance of the leading formulation (designated C6-2) was investigated for high temperature removal of H2S from simulated coal-derived fuel gas under varying sorbent induration temperature, reaction temperature, and superficial gas velocity. Sulfidation experiments were performed in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor between 500 °C and 600 °C. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H2S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Sorbent also showed 30 to 53% loss of its strength over four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. The former being sorbent indurated at 1115 °C and the prior being sorbent indurated at 1100 °C.

  2. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  3. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  4. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  5. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  6. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the BI-GAS coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurkewycz, R.; Firestone, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    Corrosion monitoring of test materials was conducted in the BI-GAS coal gasification pilot plant from 1976 through 1981. Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal was processed at pressures of 750 psia (5175 kPa). Metals were exposed at low to moderate temperatures (700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C)) in the coal preparation area, gasifier slag quench, and the product gas scrubbing system. Refractories and metals were evaluated in the gasifier high temperature (1372/sup 0/F (744/sup 0/C)-1915/sup 0/F (1046/sup 0/C)) test sites at the top of stage II. In the moderate temperature aqueous environments, alloys 26-1, Types 329, 304, 316, 405, and IN-825 were superior in performance to Monel 400, carbon steel A515, and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo. Stress corrosion cracking was not observed in welded U-bend samples (A515, 304, 316, 329, 26-1). First-exposure gasifier corrosion test results generally indicated that uncoated alloys with 23.0 to 26.2 wt % Cr and less than 30 wt % Ni exhibited the best performance. Alloy Types 446 and 310 experienced the least corrosion attack with linear corrosion rates less than 20 mpy (0.51 mm/y); marginal performing alloys were Type 314, 22-13-5, and RA-333. During the second exposure, all uncoated alloys incurred acceptable corrosion losses. Alloys with Co, Cr, and Ni (N155, 556) in approximately equal proportions, at concentrations of approx. 20 wt %, ranked higher in performance than alloys such as Type 310, IN-800, Cru-25, and RA-333. Gasifier exposure of pack-aluminized alloys IN-800(A1) and Type 310(A1)showed that the coating provided corrosion protection. Cracks in the bulk coating were filled with Fe-Al rich oxides. The refractories were changed very little by exposure with two exceptions: tar was removed from a tar-impregnated brick, and a lightweight insulating castable deteriorated greatly.

  7. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  8. Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eligible renewable resources include wind, solar, biomass, landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, hydroelectricity, and geothermal energy. Facilities must use renewable energy to produce electricity...

  9. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, C.; Pless, J.; Logan, J.; Zhou, E.; Arent, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  10. Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: capital and operating cost estimate, financial/legal analysis, project implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This volume of the final report is a compilation of the estimated capital and operating costs for the project. Using the definitive design as a basis, capital and operating costs were developed by obtaining quotations for equipment delivered to the site. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a summary of the capital and operating costs estimated for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. In the course of its Phase I Feasibility Study of a medium-Btu coal-gas facility, Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) identified the financing mechanism as having great impact on gas cost. Consequently, PGW formed a Financial/Legal Task Force composed of legal, financial, and project analysis specialists to study various ownership/management options. In seeking an acceptable ownership, management, and financing arrangement, certain ownership forms were initially identified and classified. Several public ownership, private ownership, and third party ownership options for the coal-gas plant are presented. The ownership and financing forms classified as base alternatives involved tax-exempt and taxable financing arrangements and are discussed in Section 3. Project implementation would be initiated by effectively planning the methodology by which commercial operation will be realized. Areas covered in this report are sale of gas to customers, arrangements for feedstock supply and by-product disposal, a schedule of major events leading to commercialization, and a plan for managing the implementation.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  13. CEZ Obnovitelne zdroje sro Renewable Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CEZ Group that is focused on energy generation from renewable resources, except for combustion of biomass with coal. References: CEZ Obnovitelne zdroje sro (Renewable...

  14. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  15. Clean coal technology III 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Final public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides the nonproprietary design information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA)`` Demonstration Project at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emission Research (CER). The 10 MW Demonstration of GSA program is designed to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating the flue gas from a boiler burning high sulfur coal. This project involves design, manufacturing, construction and testing of a retrofitted GSA system. This report presents a nonproprietary description of the technology and overall process performance requirements, plant location and plant facilities. The process, mechanical, structural and electrical design of the GSA system as well as project cost information are included. It also includes a description the modification or alterations made during the course of construction and start-up. Plant start-up provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for the process. This report, initially drafted in 1993, covers design information available prior to startup of the demonstration project. It does not reflect the results obtained in that project, which is now complete.

  16. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  17. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  18. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

  20. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  1. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  2. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  4. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  5. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this

  6. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  7. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  8. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  9. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate more consistent comparisons of energy technologies. Figure 1. Generalized life cycle stages for energy technologies Source: Sathaye et al. (2011) Life cycle GHG emissions from renewable electricity generation technologies are generally less than those from fossil fuel-based technologies, based on evidence assembled by this project. Further, the proportion of GHG emissions from each life cycle stage

  11. Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A report detailling the Clean Coal Power initiative funded under the American Recovery and Renewal Act of 2009. Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative More Documents &...

  12. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes

  13. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  15. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-02-15

    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H2S, NH3, HCN, AsH3, PH3, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS3, NH4NO3, NH4OH, KNO3, HBr, HF, and HNO3) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts.

  16. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  18. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  19. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  20. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Success story about LNG from landfill gas. Presented by Mike McGowan, Linde NA, Inc., at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  1. Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. natural gas vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the project will be located. Some jurisdictions also have unique ordinances or regulations that could apply. Learn about codes and standards basics at

  2. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  3. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 8,284 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 281 3.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 122 1.5 Solar - - Wind - -

  5. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Delaware Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 3,389 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 10 0.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind 2 0.1 Wood/Wood

  6. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jersey Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 18,424 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 230 1.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 4 * Solar 28 0.2 Wind 8 * Wood/Wood

  7. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rhode Island Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Rhode Island profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,782 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 28 1.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 0.2 Solar - - Wind 2 0.1

  8. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 8,284 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 281 3.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 122 1.5 Solar - - Wind - -

  9. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Delaware profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 3,389 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 10 0.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind 2 0.1 Wood/Wood

  10. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 18,424 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 230 1.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 4 * Solar 28 0.2 Wind 8 * Wood/Wood

  11. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Rhode Island profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,782 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 28 1.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 0.2 Solar - - Wind 2 0.1

  12. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  13. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2001-07-31

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H2 separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}1 mm) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H2 separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 4}0 alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

  14. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 6/29/12. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual (60.85 KB) Cost Study Manual (334.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 7 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 6

    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants August 2012 - December 2013 S. Venkataraman, G. Jordan, and M. O'Connor GE Energy Schenectady, New York N. Kumar and S. Lefton Intertek AIM

  16. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  17. Applications for Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants in a Smart...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ASHRAE EASA NECA ASME IEEE NEMA ASSE IESNA NFPA ASTM INCITS NERC AWEA ISA NAESB AHAM ICC ... % reduction of GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels - 20 % of renewable energy sources ...

  18. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  19. New Jersey Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste... Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 230 1.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 4 * Solar 28 ...

  20. Delaware Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste... Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 10 0.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - ...

  1. Alpha Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alpha Renewable Energy Place: Atlanta, Georgia Sector: Biomass Product: Manufacturer of biomass wood gas stoves and standalone...

  2. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  3. Renewable LNG: Update on the World's Largest Landfill Gas to LNG Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNG Update on the world's largest landfill gas to LNG plant Mike McGowan Head of Government Affairs Linde NA, Inc. June 12, 2012 $18.3 billion global sales A leading gases and engineering company Linde North America Profile $2.3 billion in gases sales revenue in North America in 2011 5,000 employees throughout the U.S., Canada and the Caribbean Supplier of compressed and cryogenic gases and technology Atmospheric gases - oxygen, nitrogen, argon Helium LNG and LPG Hydrogen Rare gases Plant

  4. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    With ethanol becoming more prevalent in the media and in gas tanks, it is important for students to know where it comes from. This module uses a series of four activities to show how energy and mass are converted from one form to another. It focuses on the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis, then goes on to show how the chemical energy in plant sugars can be fermented to produce ethanol. Finally, the reasons for using ethanol as a fuel are discussed.

  5. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  6. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    2011-02-27

    The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

  7. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2003-01-01

    For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating

  8. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  10. AEO2014 Renewables Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Chris Namovicz, Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO2014 Renewables Working Group Meeting This Renewables Working Group meeting on July 9, 2013 was the first of two, and focused on the assumptions and modeling efforts that EIA plans on using as the starting point for its AEO 2014 renewable electricity projections. The meeting was

  11. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  12. Learning About Renewable Energy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning About Renewable Energy For more information about renewable energy basics, visit the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Visit the U.S. Energy Information Administration Energy Kids Web site for fun kids' games and activities, teacher resources, and energy basics. Visit NREL's Education Resources for hands-on projects and curriculum suggestions for K-12 grade teachers and students. The United States currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and

  13. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis Laura Martin June 14, 2016 Washington, DC 2 EMM Structure EFD ECP EFP ELD Laura Martin Washington, DC, June 14, 2016 Electricity Load and Demand Submodule Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific inputs - Fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, annual capital additions - Retrofit costs (capital and O&M) - FGD, DSI, SCR, SNCR, CCS, FF -

  14. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alaska Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 2,067 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 422 20.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 414 20.1 Solar - - Wind 7 0.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  15. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    District of Columbia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 District of Columbia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source - Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source - Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 790 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity - - Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - -

  16. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Georgia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Georgia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 36,636 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,689 7.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 2,052 5.6 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 617 1.7 MSW/Landfill Gas

  17. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Kansas Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 12,543 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,082 8.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 * Solar - - Wind 1,072 8.5 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 7 0.1 Other Biomass - -

  18. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Louisiana Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wood/Wood Waste Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 26,744 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 517 1.9 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 192 0.7 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 311 1.2 MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  19. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maryland Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 12,516 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 799 6.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 590 4.7 Solar 1 * Wind 70 0.6 Wood/Wood Waste 3 * MSW/Landfill Gas

  20. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Massachusetts Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 13,697 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 566 4.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 262 1.9 Solar 4 * Wind 10 0.1 Wood/Wood

  1. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mississippi Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wood/Wood Waste Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 15,691 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 235 1.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 235 1.5 MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  2. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Missouri Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Missouri profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 21,739 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,030 4.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 564 2.6 Solar - - Wind 459 2.1 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas

  3. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nebraska Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,857 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 443 5.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 278 3.5 Solar - - Wind 154 2.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 6

  4. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vermont Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Vermont profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,128 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 408 36.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 324 28.7 Solar - - Wind 5 0.5 Wood/Wood Waste 76 6.7 MSW/Landfill Gas 3

  5. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Virginia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 24,109 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,487 6.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 866 3.6 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 331 1.4 MSW/Landfill Gas

  6. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    West Virginia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 West Virginia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 16,495 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 715 4.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 285 1.7 Solar - - Wind 431 2.6 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  7. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wyoming Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,986 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,722 21.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 307 3.8 Solar - - Wind 1,415 17.7 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - -

  8. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Alaska profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 2,067 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 422 20.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 414 20.1 Solar - - Wind 7 0.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  9. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 District of Columbia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source - Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source - Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 790 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity - - Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - -

  10. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Georgia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 36,636 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,689 7.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 2,052 5.6 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 617 1.7 MSW/Landfill Gas

  11. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Kansas profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 12,543 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,082 8.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 * Solar - - Wind 1,072 8.5 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 7 0.1 Other Biomass - -

  12. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wood/Wood Waste Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 26,744 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 517 1.9 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 192 0.7 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 311 1.2 MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  13. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Maryland profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 12,516 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 799 6.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 590 4.7 Solar 1 * Wind 70 0.6 Wood/Wood Waste 3 * MSW/Landfill Gas

  14. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 13,697 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 566 4.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 262 1.9 Solar 4 * Wind 10 0.1 Wood/Wood

  15. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wood/Wood Waste Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 15,691 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 235 1.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 235 1.5 MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  16. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Missouri profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 21,739 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,030 4.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 564 2.6 Solar - - Wind 459 2.1 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas

  17. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,857 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 443 5.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 278 3.5 Solar - - Wind 154 2.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 6

  18. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Vermont profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,128 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 408 36.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 324 28.7 Solar - - Wind 5 0.5 Wood/Wood Waste 76 6.7 MSW/Landfill Gas 3

  19. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Virginia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 24,109 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,487 6.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 866 3.6 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 331 1.4 MSW/Landfill Gas

  20. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 West Virginia profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 16,495 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 715 4.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 285 1.7 Solar - - Wind 431 2.6 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - -

  1. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Wyoming profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,986 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,722 21.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 307 3.8 Solar - - Wind 1,415 17.7 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - -

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  4. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  5. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.

    2011-12-14

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  7. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  8. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  9. Fluid/particle separation and coal cleaning: Progress, potential advances, and their effects on FGD (flue-gas desulfurization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been investigating several approaches to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control that could play significant roles in future emission-control strategies. These techniques include greater application of an existing technology, physical coal cleaning (PCC), as a precombustion complement to FGD, and the combined removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems based on spray drying (a wet/dry process) or in-duct injection of dry sorbents. This paper discusses the results of some of that research with particular attention to the beneficial role of fabric filtration in the dry and wet/dry FGC processes. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  11. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.

  12. Renewable Energy used in State Renewable Portfolio Standards...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from reduced greenhouse gas emissions and 5.2 billion from reductions in other air pollution, in mid-range estimates, for state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies ...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - Quinault Indian Nation Biomass Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or it can be converted into E-Coal, which is a complete coal replacement. * Pellets: Can supply a dedicated and sustainable renewable supply of pellets away from commodity pricing. ...

  14. Kinetics of MN based sorbents for hot coal gas. Quarterly report, September--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on

  16. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  17. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  18. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  19. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  20. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific ... FF - Cost to convert to natural gas-fired steam plant - Cost to implement heat ...

  1. Underground gasification of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  2. Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Natural Gas or Renewable fuel Smart Grid Integration Power, Fuel and ... energy desires * Fuel cells on Natural Gas (LNG) are included * Base market RPS rate plus a technology ...

  3. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  4. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  6. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  7. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," ","

  8. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  9. Renewal Application

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewal Individual Permit Renewal Application The Permit expires March 31, 2014 and existing permit conditions will be in effect until a new permit is issued. The Permittees submitted a renewal application to EPA on March 27, 2014. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Individual Permit Renewal Application February 10, 2015 NPDES Permit No. NM0030759, Supplemental Information for Permit Renewal Application

  10. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  11. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  12. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  13. Methane modeling: predicting the inflow of methane gas into coal mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1982-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, C.M. II; Hoysan, P.M.; Pavone, A.M.; Richmond, O.; Schwerer, F.C.; Smelser, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Work on Phase I of the Contract program is essentially complete and was reported in the Phase I Technical Report which has been reviewed and accepted by the Contract Technical Project Officer. Phase I work included a survey of relevant technical literature and development, demonstration and documentation of a computer model, MINE1D, for flow of methane and water in coal strata for geometries corresponding to an advancing mine face and to a mine pillar. The Phase I models are one-dimensional in the space variable but describe time-dependent (nonsteady) phenomena and include gas sorption phenomena. Some revisions have been made to input/output sections of MINE1D and the documentation has been expanded. These modifications will be reported in the next Quarterly Technical Report. Preliminary test scenarios have been formulated and reviewed with the Contract Technical Project Officer for measurement of emissions during room-and-pillar and longwall mining operations. These preliminary scenarios are described in this report. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the increased stresses on the coal seam near mine openings. The model is based on an approximate elastic/plastic treatment of the coal seam and an elastic treatment of surrounding strata. In this model, elastic compaction of the coal seam decreases porosity and permeability, whereas plastic deformation increases the porosity of the natural fracture network and thereby increases the permeability. The model takes into account the effect of changes in pore fluid pressure (in the natural fracture network of the coal seam) on the deformation of the coal seam. This model is described in this report, and will be programmed for inclusion in revised versions of MINE1D and for use in the two-dimensional computer models now under development. 8 figures.

  14. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  15. China rationalizes its renewable energy policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

    2010-04-15

    China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

  16. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  17. Natural Gas Basics (Brochure), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Gas Basics Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. 1 Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles-that are centrally fueled or operate within a lim- ited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. The advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel include its domestic availability, estab- lished distribution network, relatively low cost, and emis-

  18. Weekly Coal Production by State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights ... Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation ...

  19. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Conservation...

  1. List of Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Personal...

  2. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels Jeffrey Reed, Director of Business Strategy and Development, Southern California Gas Company/San Diego Gas & Electric reed_bioenergy_2015.pdf (1.91 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of American Gas Association 3 Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Renewable Natural Gas

  3. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a

  4. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while ...

  5. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown - Dataset Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while ...

  6. Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Renewables Working Group Preliminary...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Pulverized Coal * CoalBiomass Co- Fire (15%Biomass) Adv GasOil Comb. Cycle Conv GasOil Comb Cycle Conventional Comb. Turbine Advanced Comb. Turbine PV (fixed tilt) PV (tracker) ...

  7. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  8. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Colorado Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 13,777 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,010 14.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 662 4.8 Solar 41 0.3 Wind 1,294 9.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 3 * Other Biomass 10

  9. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Florida Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 59,222 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,182 2.0 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 55 0.1 Solar 123 0.2 Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 344 0.6

  10. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Other Biomass Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 2,536 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 340 13.4 Geothermal 31 1.2 Hydro Conventional 24 0.9 Solar 2 0.1 Wind 62 2.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 60 2.4 Other Biomass

  11. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Illinois Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Illinois profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 44,127 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,112 4.8 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 34 0.1 Solar 9 * Wind 1,946 4.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 123 0.3 Other Biomass - -

  12. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Indiana Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Indiana profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 27,638 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,452 5.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 60 0.2 Solar - - Wind 1,340 4.8 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 53 0.2 Other Biomass s *

  13. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Iowa Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 14,592 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 3,728 25.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 144 1.0 Solar - - Wind 3,569 24.5 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 11 0.1 Other Biomass 3 *

  14. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 4,430 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,692 38.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 738 16.6 Solar - - Wind 263 5.9 Wood/Wood Waste 600 13.6 MSW/Landfill Gas

  15. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Michigan Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 29,831 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 807 2.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 237 0.8 Solar - - Wind 163 0.5 Wood/Wood Waste 232 0.8 MSW/Landfill Gas

  16. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 14,715 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,588 17.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 193 1.3 Solar - - Wind 2,009 13.7 Wood/Wood Waste 177 1.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 134 0.9 Other

  17. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mexico Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 8,130 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 818 10.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 82 1.0 Solar 30 0.4 Wind 700 8.6 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass 6 0.1

  18. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dakota Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 6,188 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,941 31.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 508 8.2 Solar - - Wind 1,423 23.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass 10

  19. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ohio Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 33,071 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 231 0.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 101 0.3 Solar 13 * Wind 7 * Wood/Wood Waste 60 0.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 48 0.1

  20. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oklahoma Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 21,022 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,412 11.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 858 4.1 Solar - - Wind 1,480 7.0 Wood/Wood Waste 58 0.3 MSW/Landfill Gas 16 0.1 Other Biomass

  1. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 108,258 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 10,985 10.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 689 0.6 Solar 14 * Wind 9,952 9.2 Wood/Wood Waste 215 0.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 88 0.1 Other Biomass 28

  2. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Colorado profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 13,777 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,010 14.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 662 4.8 Solar 41 0.3 Wind 1,294 9.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 3 * Other Biomass 10

  3. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Florida profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 59,222 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,182 2.0 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 55 0.1 Solar 123 0.2 Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 344 0.6

  4. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Hawaii profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Other Biomass Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 2,536 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 340 13.4 Geothermal 31 1.2 Hydro Conventional 24 0.9 Solar 2 0.1 Wind 62 2.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 60 2.4 Other Biomass

  5. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Illinois profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 44,127 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,112 4.8 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 34 0.1 Solar 9 * Wind 1,946 4.4 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 123 0.3 Other Biomass - -

  6. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Indiana profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 27,638 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,452 5.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 60 0.2 Solar - - Wind 1,340 4.8 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 53 0.2 Other Biomass s *

  7. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Iowa profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 14,592 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 3,728 25.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 144 1.0 Solar - - Wind 3,569 24.5 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 11 0.1 Other Biomass 3 *

  8. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Maine profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 4,430 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,692 38.2 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 738 16.6 Solar - - Wind 263 5.9 Wood/Wood Waste 600 13.6 MSW/Landfill Gas

  9. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Michigan profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wood/Wood Waste Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 29,831 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 807 2.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 237 0.8 Solar - - Wind 163 0.5 Wood/Wood Waste 232 0.8 MSW/Landfill Gas

  10. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 14,715 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,588 17.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 193 1.3 Solar - - Wind 2,009 13.7 Wood/Wood Waste 177 1.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 134 0.9 Other

  11. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 New Mexico profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 8,130 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 818 10.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 82 1.0 Solar 30 0.4 Wind 700 8.6 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass 6 0.1

  12. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 North Dakota profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 6,188 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,941 31.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 508 8.2 Solar - - Wind 1,423 23.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass 10

  13. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Ohio profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 33,071 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 231 0.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 101 0.3 Solar 13 * Wind 7 * Wood/Wood Waste 60 0.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 48 0.1

  14. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Oklahoma profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 21,022 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,412 11.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 858 4.1 Solar - - Wind 1,480 7.0 Wood/Wood Waste 58 0.3 MSW/Landfill Gas 16 0.1 Other Biomass

  15. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 108,258 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 10,985 10.1 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 689 0.6 Solar 14 * Wind 9,952 9.2 Wood/Wood Waste 215 0.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 88 0.1 Other Biomass 28

  16. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Renewable Electricity Profile 2010 Utah profile Table 1. Summary Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics (2010) Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,497 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 528 7.0 Geothermal 42 0.6 Hydro Conventional 255 3.4 Solar - - Wind 222 3.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 9 0.1

  17. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  18. Vermont Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 108 101 101 100 100 Coal - - - - - Petroleum 108 101 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  19. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  20. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  2. American Indian reservations: A showplace for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sargent, S.L.; Chabot, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Indian Energy Resource Development Program, authorized by Title XXVI of the 1992 Energy Policy Act, provides funding to American Indian tribes to develop Indian renewable energy and other energy resources. In fiscal years 1994 and 1995, 35 grants totaling $6.5 million were awarded to 29 tribes and Alaskan native corporations in 13 states. The projects cover the development range from feasibility studies to purchase and installation of equipment for commercial projects. Technologies include photovoltaics, biomass, wind, building energy efficiency, hydroelectricity, integrated resource planning, coal-fired cogeneration, and multi-sector natural gas. The Title XXVI program provides an important opportunity for assessing the technical and economic feasibility of renewable energy on Indian lands, and also for demonstrating DOE-developed technologies in real-life settings.

  3. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint: Part. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachary, J.

    2008-06-15

    Caps on greenhouse gas emissions are imminent in the US and they will change how we design tomorrow's coal-fired power plants. Efforts are already under way to develop alternative capture and sequestration technologies, mainly for CO{sub 2}. Unfortunately, the proposed processes all consume lots of energy, reducing plants' net output and efficiency. In Part 1 of our look at these technologies, we list and quantify the impacts of post combustion removal of CO{sub 2} from a coal plant's flue gas. Next month, in Part. 2 we will do the same for four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxyfuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for natural gas. Vehicle Safety: Vehicle Fuel Systems: Vehicle Containers: Vehicle Fuel System Components: Dispensing Component Standards: Dispensing Operations:

  6. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis CHBC Summer Summit Josh Eichman, PhD Downey, California 7/30/2015 NREL/PR-5400-64833 2 Outline * Opportunity for HES / P2G * Markets considered * Market valuation results * Future market expectations * Additional projects 3 Complementary Hydrogen Systems Electric Grid Hydrogen Pipeline Injection Water Water Electrolyzer Reformer Fuel Cell or Turbine Chemical and Industrial Processes Hydrogen Storage Natural Gas Grid Source: (from top left by row), Warren Gretz,

  7. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  8. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  9. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  10. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  11. New Study: Renewable Energy for State Renewable Portfolio Standards Yield Sizable Benefits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new report from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) finds that state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies reduced greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, while also reducing water use, creating renewable energy jobs and suppressing wholesale electricity and natural gas prices.

  12. New Study: Renewable Energy for State Renewable Portfolio Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A new study estimates that 2.2 billion in benefits come from reduced greenhouse gas emissions and 5.2 billion from reductions in other air pollution for state renewable portfolio ...

  13. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  14. National Renewable Energy

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Because original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles designed to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have only been available in limited models in past years, many fleets have had to rely on conversions as a source for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The Federal fleet is no different-so far it has converted approximately 900 vehicles to CNG or LPG, providing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with an opportunity to test a variety of conversion

  15. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the Energy Department's investments in clean, renewable energy technologies -- including wind, solar and geothermal sources -- are helping strengthen the American economy.

  16. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  17. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two distinct processes: Indirect Liquefaction and Direct Liquefaction. In Indirect Liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas for short), which is a mixture containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a commercial process that can be used

  18. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, simulated gasifier-product streams were contacted with the zinc titanate desulfurization sorbent in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 538 to 750 {degree}C (1000 to 1382 {degree}F). The first set of experiments involved treating a medium-Btu fuel gas (simulating that of a ``Texaco`` oxygen-blown, entrained-bed gasifier) containing 1.4 percent H{sub 2}S and HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 1500 ppmv. The second experimental set evaluated hot-gas desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas (simulating the product of the ``U-Gas`` air-blown gasifier), with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppmv. These operating conditions were typical of the gas-treatment requirements of gasifiers fueled by Illinois basin coals containing up to 0.6 percent chlorine. The results of the experiments at 538 and 650 {degree}C at all the HCl concentrations revealed no deleterious effects on the capability of the sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from the fuel gas mixtures. In most cases, the presence of the HCl significantly enhanced the desulfurization reaction rate. Some zinc loss, however, was encountered in certain situations at 750 {degree}C when low-steam operating conditions were present. Also of interest, a portion of the incoming HCl was removed from the gas stream and was retained permanently by the sorbent. This behavior was examined in more detail in a limited set of experiments aimed at identifying ways to modify the sorbents composition so that the sorbent could act as a simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination agent in the hot-gas cleanup process.

  19. Florida Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","WoodWood Waste" ... " Hydro Conventional",55,0.1 " Solar",123,0.2 " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood ...

  20. Delaware Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","Municipal Solid ... " Hydro Conventional","-","-" " Solar","-","-" " Wind",2,0.1 " WoodWood ...

  1. New Jersey Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","Municipal Solid ... " Hydro Conventional",4,"*" " Solar",28,0.2 " Wind",8,"*" " WoodWood ...

  2. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","Municipal Solid ... " Hydro Conventional",122,1.5 " Solar","-","-" " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood ...

  3. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 122 1.5 Solar - - Wind - - WoodWood Waste - - MSW...

  4. City of Aspen- Renewable Energy Goal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: As of September 2015, Aspen obtains 100% of its electricity from renewable sources (46% hydroelectric, 53% wind, 1% landfill gas).

  5. Renewable Energy Systems Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Wind (All) Hydroelectric Geothermal Heat Pumps Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Landfill Gas Solar Pool Heating Wind (Small) Geothermal Direct-Use Fuel Cells...

  6. Community Renewable Energy Deployment: University of California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Davis Project AgencyCompany Organization US Department of Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment and Integration, Other, Renewable Energy,...

  7. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  9. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  10. Hawkeye Renewables formerly Midwest Renewables | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (formerly Midwest Renewables) Place: Iowa Falls, Iowa Zip: 50126 Product: Midwest bioethanol producer References: Hawkeye Renewables (formerly Midwest Renewables)1 This...

  11. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Renewable Fuels...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    energy sources: biomass, geothermal, conventional hydroelectricity, landfill gas, solar thermal, solar photovoltaics, and wind 1. Some renewables, such as landfill gas...

  12. Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians - Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...yr Electric Cost: 1.6 millionyr * * Natural Gas Cost: 570,000yr Natural Gas Cost: ... for GTB Renewable Energy Options for Integration Integration * * Biomass (wood and ...

  13. Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewa Indians - Renewable...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooms), Gas Station, etc. Gas Station, etc. * * Gov Gov ' ... Natural Resources, etc. Day Care, Natural Resources, etc. ... wind power * * Economic integration of renewable energy ...

  14. Annual Energy Outlook 2016 2nd Coal Working Group

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Pulverized Coal * CoalBiomass Co-Fire (15%Biomass) Adv GasOil Comb. Cycle Conv GasOil Comb Cycle Conventional Comb. Turbine Advanced Comb. Turbine PV (fixed tilt) PV (tracker) ...

  15. Chapter 4 - Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 4 Coal Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, coal remains the second-largest energy source worldwide- behind petroleum and other liquids-until 2030. From 2030 through 2040, it is the third-largest energy source, behind both liquid fuels and natural gas. World coal consumption increases from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0.6%/year, from 153 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 169

  16. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  17. Renewable Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen NREL Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Dr. Robert J. Remick November 16, 2009 NREL/PR-560-47433 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. U.S. Dependence on Imported Oil National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Energy Solutions are Challenging We need a balanced portfolio of options- including clean, domestic energy

  18. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy The WIPP Site Holds Promise as an Ideal Source of Renewable Energy Encompassing 16 square miles of open Chihuahuan desert with abundant sunshine and minimal surface roughness, the WIPP site is ideal for either solar- or wind-generated electricity production, demonstration or testing. In fact, WIPP is striving to take advantage of its abundance of sunshine and wind. The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has created what is being called the Energy Park

  19. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research, Development, and Deployment in Meeting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Goals: The Case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, S.; Wood, F.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. federal government is considering actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so the cost of these technologies could significantly influence the overall cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits. This paper examines the potential benefit of reduced technology cost by analyzing the case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191). This act had a goal of reducing national carbon emissions in 2050 to levels 72 percent below 2006 emission levels. In April 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published an analysis of the effects of S.2191 on the U.S. energy sector. This report presents a similar analysis: both analyses examined the impacts of S.2191, and both used versions of the National Energy Modeling System. The analysis reported here used modified technology assumptions to reflect U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program goals. The results show that achieving EERE program goals could reduce the cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits, reduce the cost of renewable electricity generation and biofuels, and reduce energy intensity.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research, Development, and Deployment in Meeting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Goals. The Case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S. 2191)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. federal government is considering actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so the cost of these technologies could significantly influence the overall cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits. This paper examines the potential benefit of reduced technology cost by analyzing the case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191). This act had a goal of reducing national carbon emissions in 2050 to levels 72 percent below 2006 emission levels. In April 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published an analysis of the effects of S.2191 on the U.S. energy sector. This report presents a similar analysis: both analyses examined the impacts of S.2191, and both used versions of the National Energy Modeling System. The analysis reported here used modified technology assumptions to reflect U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program goals. The results show that achieving EERE program goals could reduce the cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits, reduce the cost of renewable electricity generation and biofuels, and reduce energy intensity.

  1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  2. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  3. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  5. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  6. Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    two energy efficient 30,000 lbshr steam boilers to replace a 1950s vintage coal-fired steam plant with a wood-burning (biomass) unit - a "renewable energy source" providing an ...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  8. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  9. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  10. The National Renewable

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, which is widely known for its alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) emissions information, is also doing much to bring better alternative fuel vehicles to the field. Many of the AFVs of tomor- row will include components developed through NREL's research, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Most of NREL's projects involve ethanol, methanol, natural gas, biodiesel, and propane, but researchers are

  11. Commercialization of waste gob gas and methane produced in conjunction with coal mining operations. Final report, August 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The primary objectives of the project were to identify and evaluate existing processes for (1) using gas as a feedstock for production of marketable, value-added commodities, and (2) enriching contaminated gas to pipeline quality. The following gas conversion technologies were evaluated: (1) transformation to liquid fuels, (2) manufacture of methanol, (3) synthesis of mixed alcohols, and (4) conversion to ammonia and urea. All of these involved synthesis gas production prior to conversion to the desired end products. Most of the conversion technologies evaluated were found to be mature processes operating at a large scale. A drawback in all of the processes was the need to have a relatively pure feedstock, thereby requiring gas clean-up prior to conversion. Despite this requirement, the conversion technologies were preliminarily found to be marginally economic. However, the prohibitively high investment for a combined gas clean-up/conversion facility required that REI refocus the project to investigation of gas enrichment alternatives. Enrichment of a gas stream with only one contaminant is a relatively straightforward process (depending on the contaminant) using available technology. However, gob gas has a unique nature, being typically composed of from constituents. These components are: methane, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Each of the four contaminants may be separated from the methane using existing technologies that have varying degrees of complexity and compatibility. However, the operating and cost effectiveness of the combined system is dependent on careful integration of the clean-up processes. REI is pursuing Phase 2 of this project for demonstration of a waste gas enrichment facility using the approach described above. This is expected to result in the validation of the commercial and technical viability of the facility, and the refinement of design parameters.

  12. Kinetics of MN-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Semiannual report, December 15, 1996--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-01

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios >1:1 Mn:substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from the cyclic crush strength tests, sulfur profile test, and cyclic testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre-breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre-breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  13. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, September 15 - December 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  15. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  16. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  17. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  18. Erosion-oxidation of carbon steel in the convection section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, J.J.; Walsh, P.M.

    1997-07-01

    Walsh et al. (1994) reported measurements of erosion of carbon steel by fly ash and unburned char particles in the convective heat transfer section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas. Changes in shape of the surface were measured using a surface profiler. Time-averaged maximum erosion rates were obtained from the differences between the original surface height and the lowest points in the profiles. A model was developed by Xie (1995) to describe wastage of tube material in the presence of erosion by particle impacts and oxidation of the metal. The observed changes in erosion rate with temperature and oxygen concentration were consistent with a mechanism based upon the following assumptions: (1) metal was eroded as a ductile material, at a rate that increased with increasing temperature; (2) oxide was eroded as a brittle material, at a rate independent of temperature; (3) the oxide scale was strongly attached to the metal; (4) the erosion resistance of metal and scale was a linear combination of the resistances of the individual components; (5) oxide formed according to the parabolic rate law, with a rate coefficient proportional to the square root of the oxygen partial pressure; (6) erosion resistance from particles sticking to, or embedded in, the surface was negligible. Using the model and rate coefficients for metal and oxide erosion derived from the measurements, estimates were made of the erosion rate of a boiler tube as functions of impaction angle and gas velocity. Under the conditions of metal temperature, gas composition, particle size, particle concentration, and particle composition investigated, erosion of carbon steel is expected to be slower than 0.05 {micro}m/h when the gas velocity in the convection section is less than approximately 8 m/s.

  19. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  20. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  1. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  3. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, December 15, 1993--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-03

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents, with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from cyclic crush strength tests, Sulfur profile tests and cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C and lower flowrate cyclic testing are presented. Crush strength testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  4. Renewable Energy Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: H.B. 40, enacted in June 2015, created Vermont's Renewable Energy Standard and repeals the Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development program's renewable energy goals. The Renewable...

  5. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  6. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  7. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  8. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  9. District of Columbia Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 806 806 790 790 790 Coal - - - - - Petroleum 806 806 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  10. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 1,743 1,754 1,754 1,754 1,754 Coal - - - - - ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  11. New Hampshire Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 2,411 2,371 2,235 2,226 2,262 Coal 528 528 528 528 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  12. Idaho Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 667 667 828 834 834 Coal 17 17 17 17 17 Petroleum 5 5 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  13. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 5,498 5,361 5,466 5,582 5,845 Coal 551 551 553 564 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  14. Maine Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 2,770 2,751 2,761 2,738 2,738 Coal 85 85 85 85 85 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  15. Oregon Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 3,349 3,686 3,653 3,626 3,577 Coal 585 585 585 585 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  16. Hawaii Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 2,208 2,209 2,208 2,223 2,196 Coal 180 180 180 180 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  17. United States Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 761,603 763,994 770,221 774,279 782,176 Coal 312,956 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  18. Alaska Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 1,485 1,561 1,593 1,591 1,618 Coal 105 105 112 111 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  19. South Dakota Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 1,374 1,364 1,449 1,448 1,401 Coal 492 492 497 497 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  20. California Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." ... Fossil 39,351 39,961 39,950 41,443 42,654 Coal 389 389 367 ... Natural Gas includes single-fired and dual-fired plants ...

  1. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ... DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITY ...

  3. San Antonio City Public Service (CPS Energy)- Renewable Portfolio Goal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CPS Energy focuses on wind, solar, and landfill gas as renewable energy alternatives and is planning to reach a generation capacity of 1,500 Megawatts of renewable energy by 2020. Current capacit...

  4. Type: Renewal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National

  5. AEO 2014 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DATE: September 30, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Office of Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO 2014 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting Summary ATTENDEES: In person John Conti Alan Beamon Bob Eynon Chris Namovicz Danielle Lowenthal-Savy Erin Boedecker Gwen Bredehoeft Jim Diefenderfer Marie Rinkoski Spangler Michael

  6. Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 13, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting held on July 24, 2014 Presenters: Chris Namovicz, Gwen Bredehoeft Topics included AEO2014 model and data updates, a summary of AEO2014 model results,

  7. Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE February 29, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting held on February 9, 2016 Presenter: Chris

  8. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  9. Gas-and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    Mesaverde Group reservoirs in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado contain a large reservoir base. Attempts to exploit this resource base are stymied by low permeability reservoir conditions. The presence of abundant natural fracture systems throughout this basin, however, does permit economic production. Substantial production is associated with fractured reservoirs in Divide Creek, Piceance Creek, Wolf Creek, White River Dome, Plateau, Shire Gulch, Grand Valley, Parachute and Rulison fields. Successful Piceance Basin gas production requires detailed information about fracture networks and subsurface gas and water distribution in an overall gas-centered basin geometry. Assessment of these three parameters requires an integrated basin analysis incorporating conventional subsurface geology, seismic data, remote sensing imagery analysis, and an analysis of regional tectonics. To delineate the gas-centered basin geometry in the Piceance Basin, a regional cross-section spanning the basin was constructed using hydrocarbon and gamma radiation logs. The resultant hybrid logs were used for stratigraphic correlations in addition to outlining the trans-basin gas-saturated conditions. The magnitude of both pressure gradients (paludal and marine intervals) is greater than can be generated by a hydrodynamic model. To investigate the relationships between structure and production, detailed mapping of the basin (top of the Iles Formation) was used to define subtle subsurface structures that control fractured reservoir development. The most productive fields in the basin possess fractured reservoirs. Detailed studies in the Grand Valley-Parachute-Rulison and Shire Gulch-Plateau fields indicate that zones of maximum structural flexure on kilometer-scale structural features are directly related to areas of enhanced production.

  10. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  11. REAP Renewable Energy Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable Energy Alaska Project (REAP) is hosting their annual Renewable Energy Fair at Fairview Elementary School.

  12. Renewable Energy 101 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2012-03-01

    Presentation given at the 2012 Department of Homeland Security Renewable Energy Roundtable as an introduction to renewable technologies and applications.

  13. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  14. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,782 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 28 1.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 0.2 Solar - - Wind 2 0.1 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 24 1.3 Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net

  15. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  16. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  17. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1995-01-15

    The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

  18. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  19. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Fifteenth quarterly report, [January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-04-26

    Maximum methane production was obtained in the experimental vials that contained 0.2% SNTM supplemented with 10 mM sodium citrate and 1% TxL (144 cc), while in the control vials CH{sub 4} production was only 58 cc. The conversion efficiency was 24%. This clearly shows citrate to be an important mediator for the formation of acetate (main precursor for CH{sub 4} formation) in the glyoxylate cycle, on the one hand, and as a sequestering agent, on the other. These results further indicate that citrate can, be successfully used as co-substrate for enhancement of the TxL biogasification process. The results obtained reconfirmed our hypothesis that the metals (such as Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sup 2+}, Zr{sup 2+}, etc., present in the coal structure) are chelated/sequestered by the addition of citrate. Mass balance calculations show that this increase in CH{sup 4} production is due to the biomethanation of TxL and not because of the chemical conversion of co-substrate(s) to CH{sub 4} (Table 1). The effect of sodium citrate on biomethanation of TXL from the first experiment ``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1`` was reconfirmed in this experiment. The peak in acetate concentration (1317 ppm) on day 7 was followed by a rapid conversion of this precursor to CH{sub 4} (Figure 16). The VFA data obtained from both experiments (``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1 and No. 2``) confirms the hypothesis that citrate and methanol can significantly enhance the biomethanation of TxL (Figure 17).

  20. Alabama Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 32,417 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 3,855 11.9 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3,272 10.1 Solar - - Wind - - Wood/Wood Waste 583 1.8 MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 152,151 100.0 Total

  1. South Dakota Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 3,623 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,223 61.3 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 1,594 44.0 Solar - - Wind 629 17.3 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 10,050 100.0 Total

  2. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J.

    2011-04-01

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  3. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  4. Bio Gas Technologies LTd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Technologies LTd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bio-Gas Technologies LTd Place: Norwalk, Ohio Zip: 44857 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Bio-gas Technologies is involved...

  5. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  6. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  7. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  8. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  9. Florida Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source WoodWood Waste ... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 55 0.1 Solar 123 0.2 Wind - - WoodWood Waste 344 0.6 ...

  10. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  11. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  12. Liaoning Kaitian Renewable Energy Environment Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liaoning-based company that develops landfill gas utilisation projects that provide warm water to surrounding areas. References: Liaoning Kaitian Renewable Energy & Environment...

  13. Shanghai Laogang Renewable Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Product: A project developer for a 15MW landfill gas power plant in Shanghai. References: Shanghai Laogang Renewable Energy Co Ltd1 This...

  14. Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Hydroelectric Municipal Solid Waste Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Landfill Gas Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digestion Fuel Cells...

  15. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  17. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy ...

  18. Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, ...

  19. Natural Innovative Renewable Energy formerly Northwest Iowa Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovative Renewable Energy formerly Northwest Iowa Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Natural Innovative Renewable Energy (formerly Northwest Iowa Renewable...

  20. PPM Atlantic Renewable Formerly Atlantic Renewable Energy Corp...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PPM Atlantic Renewable Formerly Atlantic Renewable Energy Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: PPM Atlantic Renewable (Formerly Atlantic Renewable Energy Corp) Place: Virginia...

  1. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  2. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  3. North Dakota Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 6,188 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,941 31.4 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 508 8.2 Solar - - Wind 1,423 23.0 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass 10 0.2 Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 34,740 100.0 Total Renewable Net Generation 6,150

  4. Ohio Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Hydro Conventional Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 33,071 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 231 0.7 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 101 0.3 Solar 13 * Wind 7 * Wood/Wood Waste 60 0.2 MSW/Landfill Gas 48 0.1 Other Biomass 2 * Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 143,598 100.0 Total Renewable

  5. Oklahoma Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 21,022 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 2,412 11.5 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 858 4.1 Solar - - Wind 1,480 7.0 Wood/Wood Waste 58 0.3 MSW/Landfill Gas 16 0.1 Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 72,251 100.0 Total Renewable Net Generation

  6. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  7. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Eleventh quarterly report, [January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-09

    During this reporting period comparison was made between theoretical and actual biogas production in the upflow reactors, where Texas lignite (TxL) was loaded at 0% (control) and 10% solids loadings. Data for methane and total gas production from task 4 were used. Calculations were made on the assumption that Texas lignite contains 60% carbon and theoretically all of this carbon is converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. Analysis of the data obtained from the bioreactor experiments showed that higher biogas production is due to more efficient biogasification of Texas lignite in bioreactor with reethanol (Table 1) . As it was previously mentioned, methanol (at 0.5% concentration of the total volume of reactants) can be used as hydrogen donor for biogasification (data presented in the 10th Quarterly report). Data in Table 1 clearly indicates, that the theoretical CH{sub 4} and biogas production from methanol is negligible and net biomethanation of TxL is enhanced by the addition of methanol. Observation of high methane production in the reactor where Texas lignite was supplemented with methanol, supports our hypothesis that methanol acts as an additional hydrogen donor.

  8. PPC Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PPC Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: PPC Renewables Place: Greece Sector: Renewable Energy Product: The renewables division of Public Power Corp. of Greece (PPC)....

  9. First Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: First Renewables Place: United Kingdom Sector: Biomass, Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: First Renewables owns and operates a portfolio of renewable...

  10. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  11. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source","Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas" "Capacity (megawatts)","Value","Percent of State Total" "Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity",1782,100 "Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity",28,1.6 " Geothermal","-","-" " Hydro

  12. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  13. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  14. AEO2014 Coal Working Group Meeting I Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    July 22, 2013 MEMORANDUM TO: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO2014 Coal Working Group Meeting I Summary Attendees (41) Name Affiliation Greg Adams (Moderator) US DOE: EIA Vlad Dorjets Bob Eynon Karen Freedman Tyler Hodge Paul Holtberg Elias Johnson Ayaka Jones Diane Kearney Mike Leff Mike Mellish Carrie Milton Nick Paduano Margaret Cook US

  15. Renewable Energy Powers Renewable Energy Lab, Employees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Powers Renewable Energy Lab, Employees For more information contact: Mike Marsh (303) 275-4085 email: marshm@tcplink.nrel.gov Golden, Colo., July 9, 1997 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) does more than just research renewable energy. It runs on it. And so do NREL employees. Site Operations Director John Shaffer today announced that the laboratory will purchase 4,000 kilowatt hours from Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSC)

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  17. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  18. Renewable Energy Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, Minnesota legislation modified the state's 2001 voluntary renewable energy objective to create a mandatory renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Public utilities (i.e., investor-owned...

  19. Renewable Energy Innovations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We are applying our expertise in chemical and materials science to provide innovations in renewable energy generation, storage, and use. 4 08 FACT SHEET Renewable Energy ...

  20. Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

  1. Renewable energy technology characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    1997-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describe the technical and economic status of the major emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY SCIENCE PROJECTS 1 SCIENCE PROECTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY A guide for Secondary School Teachers Authors and ...

  3. Power-to-Gas for Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power-to-Gas for Energy Storage Rob Harvey Director, Energy Storage DOE Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO - Feb 28, 2014 1 Integrate Renewables Renewable Gas Options 2 Power-to-Gas converts clean generation when it is not needed into renewable fuel, power or heat where and when it is needed Power-to-Gas Solution Surplus Power Industrial H2 Natural Gas Grid Clean Fuel Dispatchable Power Low Carbon Heating Electrolyzer Solar Power Wind Power

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  5. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  6. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  7. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  9. Technical and economic assessment on coal-fired power generation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CHINA; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; SULFUR DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; FLUE GAS; DESULFURIZATION; WASTE ...

  10. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    oil and gas resources will be necessary even as efficiency improvements reduce demand and renewable sources become more available. In order to retain public trust environmentally...

  12. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  13. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  14. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  15. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  16. Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation | Department of Energy Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation Guide to Purchasing Green Power: Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and On-Site Renewable Generation Document describes renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates, and on-site renewable generation, which agencies and organizations can consider to diversify their energy supply and

  17. Federal Off-Site Renewable Energy Purchases and Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Certificates | Department of Energy Renewable Energy Procurement » Federal Off-Site Renewable Energy Purchases and Renewable Energy Certificates Federal Off-Site Renewable Energy Purchases and Renewable Energy Certificates If developing an on-site renewable energy project is impractical, federal agencies can purchase renewable energy from off-site renewable energy projects or purchase renewable energy certificates (RECs). Renewable energy purchases do not require project financing and can

  18. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  19. Combustion test for RDF and coal in the 1.3 MWth ACFB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajita, A.; Tanaka, T.; Narukawa, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nishiyama, A.; Oide, M.

    1999-07-01

    The diversification of fuel for the generating electricity becomes necessary to secure long-term energy. In this situation, coal is very important fuel resource because of great quantity of reserves under the ground and wide production area over the world. Therefore, the development of the high efficiency burning technology of coal fuel is required. The city garbage is also useful energy resource and it is socially expected the effective utilization technology with renewal energy and good for the environment. In such a background, it becomes important to know the combustion performance of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) in a efficient way with minimizing pollutant emissions. The authors conducted the coal and RDF burn tests using the 1.3 MW{sub th} ACFB (Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized-Bed) combustion test facility. The tests were conducted for both of 100% RDF combustion and combination of coal and RDF combustion with varied Ca contents and varied Cl contents in RDF. During combustion test, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and HCl emissions in flue gas were measured. The result of the tests is reported and discussed in this paper.

  20. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.