National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas coal nuclear

  1. Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Electricity Production in Mexico Independent 15.74% Hydro 7.4% Wind 0.004% Nuclear 5.81% Coal 9.83% Geothermal 3.47% Thermal 58.15% Figure 1. Distribution of the total electricity ...

  2. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  3. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  4. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  5. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  6. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas beats coal in power generation The amount of U.S. electricity generated by natural gas is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in ...

  7. DOE - Fossil Energy: The Cleanest Coal Technology - A Real Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-Cleanest Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Cleanest Coal Technology - a Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. ...

  8. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  9. AEO 2015 Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Preliminary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Preliminary Results For Joint Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables AEO2015 Working Group September 15, 2014 | Washington, DC By EIA, ...

  10. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG Final Technical Report Reporting Period Start Date Reporting Period End Date Report issued October 01, 2000 March 31, 2013 February 5, 2016 Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40978 Submitted by: Appalachian-Pacific Coal Mine Methane Power Company 5053 Glenbrook Terrace NW Washington, DC 20016-2602 1 DISCLAIMER: "This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor

  11. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-09-01

    A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

  12. Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & ASSOCIATED VERTICAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT ... Ute Growth Fund Sam Woods, Energy Policy Advisor, Navajo Nation 10:15am -11:45am ...

  13. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  14. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  15. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  16. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  17. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  18. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  19. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  1. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  3. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  4. State of Illinois 1982 annual coal, oil and gas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This data compilation contains statistics from the coal industry and petroleum industry of Illinois. Data are given on the production, accidents, explosives, and mechanization of coal mines. Metal mines are only briefly described. The report from the Division of Oil and Gas contains data on oil well completions, oil wells plugged, water input wells, and salt water and waste disposal wells. The results of hearings in the division are included. The Land Reclamation Division reports data on permits and acreage affected by surface mining of coal, limestone, shale, clay, sand, and gravel. 2 figures, 76 tables.

  5. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  6. Saga of coal bed methane, Ignacio Blanco gas field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, B.C.; Harr, C.L.; Burch, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Prior to the 1977 discovery of the Cedar Hill Basal Fruitland pool (the first officially designated coal-bed methane field in the western US) 28.5 bcf of gas had been produced from Fruitland Formation coal seams in the Ignacio Blanco Fruitland-Pictured Cliffs field, Northern San Juan basin, Colorado. The discovery well for the field, Southern Ute D-1, was drilled and completed in 1951 on the Ignacio anticline, La Plata County, Colorado. Initial completion was attempted in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The well was plugged back after making water from the Pictured Cliffs and was completed in the lower coal-bearing section of the Fruitland Formation. The well produced 487,333 mcf of gas in nine years and was abandoned in 1959 due to water encroachment. Additionally, 52 similarly completed Ignacio anticline Fruitland wells were abandoned by the early 1970s due to the nemesis of If it's starting to kick water, you're through. Under today's coal-bed methane technology and economics, Amoco has twinned 12 of the abandoned wells, drilled five additional wells, and is successfully dewatering and producing adsorbed methane from previously depleted coal sections of the Ignacio structure. Field-wide drilling activity in 1988 exceeded all previous annual levels, with coal-seam degasification projects leading the resurgence. Drilling and completion forecasts for 1989 surpass 1988 levels by 50%.

  7. RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  10. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas

  12. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  13. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics www.eia.gov Natural Gas Monthly April 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 April 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  14. Displacing oil and gas with coal: Constraints and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    It is obvious that a major result of the oil supply interruptions of the 1970s was to dramatically increase the competitiveness of coal as an industrial and utility fuel. In fact, between 1973 and 1981, coal's share of the energy feed to the electric utility industry did increase from 43 to 52 percent. However, given the actual market place incentives, this increase is not a remarkable improvement, and reflects the fact that disappointingly few existing units have been converted from oil to coal. In the wake of the 1973 embargo, the passage of the Energy Supply and Coordination Act of 1974 (''ENSECA'') and the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (''FUA'') provided the Executive Branch with the power to mandate the conversion of oil and gas units to coal. However, ENSECA lacked strong enforcement provisions and there resulted few conversions other than those which were made voluntarily on purely economic grounds. As a result, in 1978, Congress enacted the Fuel Use Act which placed the burden of proof upon owners to demonstrate that a specified coal convertible unit could not be converted.

  15. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  16. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  17. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  18. Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

    2009-10-16

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

  19. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  20. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  1. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  2. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  3. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    Report comparing the impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal.

  4. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  5. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  6. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  7. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

  8. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2005-08-15

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  10. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  12. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Laug, Matthew T.; Lambert, John D. B.; Herzog, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

  13. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  14. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  17. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  18. Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

  19. NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    implements ... NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear weapon components Posted: June 12, 2012 - 1:34pm The National Nuclear Security Administration...

  20. A new laboratory technique to estimate gas diffusion characteristics of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpalani, S.; Ouyang, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a new experimental technique developed to measure the diffusion coefficient (D) for a coal-methane system using the transient flow mechanism, and examine its dependency on factors that change with continued flow-pressure and gas concentration. Although developed primarily for coalbed methane reservoirs and coal in the gob regions, it also has application in situations where a second gas is injected in coal since it utilizes the principle of counter-diffusion. The results show that there is a continuous decrease in the value of D with decreasing mean concentration of methane in coal. The logarithm of D varies directly with the pressure. Two effects may be responsible for this decrease. The first is a possible change in the flow mechanism with decreasing methane concentration due to the existence of varying pore sizes in coal. The other is the volumetric strain of solid coal matrix induced by desorption of gas, the so called shrinkage effect. This matrix shrinkage may be resulting in reduced pore sizes, and consequently, a decrease in the value of D.

  1. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  2. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while maintaining an arsine outlet concentration at less than 10 ppb.

  3. Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.; Laug, Matthew T.

    1985-01-01

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

  4. Improved gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1983-09-26

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, sealed as tags in different cladding nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Cladding failure allows fission gases and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas. The isotopes are Ne/sup 20/, Ne/sup 21/ and Ne/sup 22/ and Ar/sup 36/, Ar/sup 38/ and Ar/sup 40/, and the cover gas is He. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between 0 and -25/sup 0/C to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags, and the second or tag recovery system bed between -170 and -185/sup 0/C to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be determined.

  5. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  7. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  8. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  9. Gas turbines for coal-fired turbocharged PFBC boiler power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenglarz, R.; Drenker, S.

    1984-11-01

    A coal-fired turbocharged boiler using fluidized bed combustion at high pressure would be more compact than a pulverized coal fired boiler. The smaller boiler size could permit the utility industry to adopt efficient modular construction methods now widely used in other industries. A commercial turbocharger of the capacity needed to run a 250 MW /SUB e/ power plant does not exist; commercial gas turbines of the correct capacity exist, but they are not matched to this cycle's gas temperature of less than 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). In order to avoid impeding the development of the technology, it will probably be desirable to use existing machines to the maximum extent possible. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of applying either standard gas turbines or modified standard gas turbines to the turbocharged boiler.

  10. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  11. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  12. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas - April 2009 1 Natural gas market centers first began to develop in the late 1980s following the implementation of the initial open- access transportation initiative under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 436 (1985). 1 Market centers since have become a key component of the North American natural gas transportation network (see box, "Market Center Development"). Located at strategic points on the pipeline grid,

  13. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  14. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  15. SOLID GAS SUSPENSION NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schluderberg, D.C.; Ryon, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A fuel assembly is designed for use in a gas-suspension cooled nuclear fuel reactor. The coolant fluid is an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium with particles such as carbon suspended therein. The fuel assembly is contained within an elongated pressure vessel extending down into the reactor. The fuel portion is at the lower end of the vessel and is constructed of cylindrical segments through which the coolant passes. Turbulence promotors within the passageways maintain the particles in agitation to increase its ability to transfer heat away from the outer walls. Shielding sections and alternating passageways above the fueled portion limit the escape of radiation out of the top of the vessel. (AEC)

  16. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  17. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  19. Adsorptive removal of catalyst poisons from coal gas for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.; Golden, T.C.; Hsiung, T.H. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    As an integral part of the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process development program, the present study evaluated adsorptive schemes to remove traces of catalyst poisons such as iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from coal gas on a pilot scale. Tests were conducted with coal gas from the Cool Water gasification plant at Daggett, California. Iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were effectively removed from the coal gas. The adsorption capacities of Linde H-Y zeolite and Calgon BPL carbon for Fe(CO){sub 5} compared well with previous bench-scale results at similar CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Adsorption of COS by Calgon FCA carbon appeared to be chemical and nonregenerable by thermal treatment in nitrogen. A Cu/Zn catalyst removed H{sub 2}S very effectively. With the adsorption system on-line, a methanol catalyst showed stable activity during 120 h operation, demonstrating the feasibility of adsorptive removal of trace catalyst poisons from the synthesis gas. Mass transfer coefficients were estimated for Fe(CO){sub 5} and COS removal which can be directly used for design and scale up.

  20. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  2. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastalerz, Maria; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Rupp, John A

    2012-01-01

    Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

  4. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  6. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  7. The gas centrifuge and nuclear weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Houston G.; Glaser, Alexander; Kemp, R. Scott

    2014-05-09

    Uranium enrichment by centrifugation is the basis for the quick and efficient production of nuclear fuel-or nuclear weapons.

  8. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  9. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  10. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the

  11. Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 2014 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the

  12. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  13. NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear weapon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components | Y-12 National Security Complex implements ... NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear weapon components Posted: June 12, 2012 - 1:34pm The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) today announced that it has deployed a nondestructive process at its Y-12 facility for assessing nuclear weapon components as part of its Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS). The NDLGS system is capable of

  14. List of Landfill Gas Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  15. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  16. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  17. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  20. Gas cofiring in coal-fired stokers for emissions reduction and performance improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, H.B.; Drennan, S.; Chan, I.; Kinney, W.L.; Borland, D.

    1996-12-31

    Adding gas burners above the grate of a coal-fired stoker can be an economical method of reducing gaseous and particulate emissions and improving efficiency and operational flexibility. With this cofiring configuration, the improved heat distribution and mixing with the stoker combustion products can give reduced opacity, reduced emissions of particulate, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, improved carbon burnout and lower overall ash, reduced excess air, faster load response, cleaner and quicker lightoffs, improved turndown at both lower and upper capacity limits, and improved performance with problematic coals. To develop and validate the cofiring technology, three cofire field experiments have been conducted. A 165,000 lb/hr spreader stoker and mass feed chain grate stokers rated at 40,000 and 75,000 lb/hr have been retrofit with gas burners and tested in the field. The two larger units used dual, opposed burners, while the smaller unit was retrofit with a single burner. With the spreader stoker, the primary benefits of gas cofire was reduction in opacity episodes with coal quality variability and recovery of lost derate. With the larger chain grate unit, the primary benefit was reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to within Title V limits and elimination of opacity episodes during startup and load swings. With the smaller chain grate, the primary benefit was ability to operate at low loads without unacceptable opacity excursions which had previously required a backup boiler. In all cases, the economics justified the capital burner system retrofit cost and incremental fuel costs.

  1. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation�s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  2. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and low-cost CO{sub 2} compression equipment, an incremental LCOE of $33/MWh at 90% capture can be achieved (40% lower than the advanced MEA case). Even with lower cost compression, it appears unlikely that a membrane process using high feed compression (>5 bar) can be competitive with amine absorption, due to the capital cost and energy consumption of this equipment. Similarly, low vacuum pressure (<0.2 bar) cannot be used due to poor efficiency and high cost of this equipment. High membrane permeance is important to reduce the capital cost and footprint of the membrane unit. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is less important because it is too costly to generate a pressure ratio where high selectivity can be useful. A potential cost ?sweet spot? exists for use of membrane-based technology, if 50-70% CO{sub 2} capture is acceptable. There is a minimum in the cost of CO{sub 2} avoided/ton that membranes can deliver at 60% CO{sub 2} capture, which is 20% lower than the cost at 90% capture. Membranes operating with no feed compression are best suited for lower capture rates. Currently, it appears that the biggest hurdle to use of membranes for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is compression equipment cost. An alternative approach is to use sweep membranes in parallel with another CO{sub 2} capture technology that does not require feed compression or vacuum equipment. Hybrid designs that utilize sweep membranes for selective CO{sub 2} recycle show potential to significantly reduce the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation.

  3. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Ronald; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  4. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  5. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  6. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Yoon, Kyung J.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation of new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.

  7. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

  8. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

  9. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  10. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  11. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, ...

  12. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the moisture range of 2.5-13.6 v% moisture at 140 C and 120-123 psia. (2) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} appear to decrease slightly with increased reaction temperatures over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. (3) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} increase significantly with increased reaction pressures over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C.

  13. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  14. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  15. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  16. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  17. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  18. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  19. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  20. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the BI-GAS coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurkewycz, R.; Firestone, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    Corrosion monitoring of test materials was conducted in the BI-GAS coal gasification pilot plant from 1976 through 1981. Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal was processed at pressures of 750 psia (5175 kPa). Metals were exposed at low to moderate temperatures (700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C)) in the coal preparation area, gasifier slag quench, and the product gas scrubbing system. Refractories and metals were evaluated in the gasifier high temperature (1372/sup 0/F (744/sup 0/C)-1915/sup 0/F (1046/sup 0/C)) test sites at the top of stage II. In the moderate temperature aqueous environments, alloys 26-1, Types 329, 304, 316, 405, and IN-825 were superior in performance to Monel 400, carbon steel A515, and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo. Stress corrosion cracking was not observed in welded U-bend samples (A515, 304, 316, 329, 26-1). First-exposure gasifier corrosion test results generally indicated that uncoated alloys with 23.0 to 26.2 wt % Cr and less than 30 wt % Ni exhibited the best performance. Alloy Types 446 and 310 experienced the least corrosion attack with linear corrosion rates less than 20 mpy (0.51 mm/y); marginal performing alloys were Type 314, 22-13-5, and RA-333. During the second exposure, all uncoated alloys incurred acceptable corrosion losses. Alloys with Co, Cr, and Ni (N155, 556) in approximately equal proportions, at concentrations of approx. 20 wt %, ranked higher in performance than alloys such as Type 310, IN-800, Cru-25, and RA-333. Gasifier exposure of pack-aluminized alloys IN-800(A1) and Type 310(A1)showed that the coating provided corrosion protection. Cracks in the bulk coating were filled with Fe-Al rich oxides. The refractories were changed very little by exposure with two exceptions: tar was removed from a tar-impregnated brick, and a lightweight insulating castable deteriorated greatly.

  1. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  2. Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: capital and operating cost estimate, financial/legal analysis, project implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This volume of the final report is a compilation of the estimated capital and operating costs for the project. Using the definitive design as a basis, capital and operating costs were developed by obtaining quotations for equipment delivered to the site. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a summary of the capital and operating costs estimated for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. In the course of its Phase I Feasibility Study of a medium-Btu coal-gas facility, Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) identified the financing mechanism as having great impact on gas cost. Consequently, PGW formed a Financial/Legal Task Force composed of legal, financial, and project analysis specialists to study various ownership/management options. In seeking an acceptable ownership, management, and financing arrangement, certain ownership forms were initially identified and classified. Several public ownership, private ownership, and third party ownership options for the coal-gas plant are presented. The ownership and financing forms classified as base alternatives involved tax-exempt and taxable financing arrangements and are discussed in Section 3. Project implementation would be initiated by effectively planning the methodology by which commercial operation will be realized. Areas covered in this report are sale of gas to customers, arrangements for feedstock supply and by-product disposal, a schedule of major events leading to commercialization, and a plan for managing the implementation.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  4. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  5. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  6. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  7. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  8. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    This study identifies vital gas turbine (GT) parameters and quantifies their influence in meeting the DOE Turbine Program overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant goals of 50% net HHV efficiency, $1000/kW capital cost, and low emissions. The project analytically evaluates GE advanced F class air cooled technology level gas turbine conceptual cycle designs and determines their influence on IGCC plant level performance including impact of Carbon capture. This report summarizes the work accomplished in each of the following six Tasks. Task 1.0--Overall IGCC Plant Level Requirements Identification: Plant level requirements were identified, and compared with DOE's IGCC Goal of achieving 50% Net HHV Efficiency and $1000/KW by the Year 2008, through use of a Six Sigma Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Tool. This analysis resulted in 7 GT System Level Parameters as the most significant. Task 2.0--Requirements Prioritization/Flow-Down to GT Subsystem Level: GT requirements were identified, analyzed and prioritized relative to achieving plant level goals, and compared with the flow down of power island goals through use of a Six Sigma QFD Tool. This analysis resulted in 11 GT Cycle Design Parameters being selected as the most significant. Task 3.0--IGCC Conceptual System Analysis: A Baseline IGCC Plant configuration was chosen, and an IGCC simulation analysis model was constructed, validated against published performance data and then optimized by including air extraction heat recovery and GE steam turbine model. Baseline IGCC based on GE 207FA+e gas turbine combined cycle has net HHV efficiency of 40.5% and net output nominally of 526 Megawatts at NOx emission level of 15 ppmvd{at}15% corrected O2. 18 advanced F technology GT cycle design options were developed to provide performance targets with increased output and/or efficiency with low NOx emissions. Task 4.0--Gas Turbine Cycle Options vs. Requirements Evaluation: Influence coefficients on 4 key IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  11. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic FeCu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with FeCu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most FeCu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic FeCu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 C to 900 C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported FeCu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800900 C and might be successfully used up to 900 C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  12. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  13. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support to moderate demand and improve energy efficiency.

  14. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

  15. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  16. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  17. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  18. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  19. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  20. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  2. 1983 annual outlook for US coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, M.K.

    1983-11-01

    This report highlights projections and discusses them in relation to coal's future domestic uses; the report also examines factors affecting coal's future growth. Coal was the primary source of energy in the United States from the mid-1800's until after World War II. After that war, coal lost most of its markets to oil and natural gas. In the 1960's, coal development was also hampered by environmental and mine safety concerns, and by the emergence of nuclear power. The 1973-74 oil embargo, however, demonstrated that the United States could no longer depend on imported oil to fuel its energy growth. Through 1990, coal is projected to meet an increasing share of total US energy demand. The projections for the 1985 to 1990 time period show an increased growth in coal consumption, particularly in the electric utility sector where new coal-fired power plants are coming on line. The projected growth in coal production, however, is subject to a series of potential constraints and/or obstacles that must be overcome. These potential constraints and obstacles are described after the history of coal supply and demand is reviewed and future projections are discussed.

  3. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes a decrease in free-carrier concentration and plasmon frequency with increasing temperature. Increased scattering of electrons with increasing temperatures results in an increased damping frequency for free carriers. The thermo-optic coefficient of TiO{sub 2} is assumed to be constant or decreasing with increasing temperature. A Custom Designed System Can Be Used to Monitor Optical Transmission and Reflection of Films at Elevated Temperatures and Upon Exposure to Changing Ambient Gas Atmospheres. The calculated extinction peak broadens and reduces peak height with increasing temperature. Extinction spectra measured using the elevated temperature system deviate from measurements performed with an integrating sphere. Modifications to measured transmittance and reflectance spectra are observed with increasing temperatures. Optical constants of Au nanoparticles were measured for elevated temperature. The thermo-optic coefficient of TiO{sub 2} strongly affects the shift in LSPR absorption peak. Peak broadening is dictated by the increased damping frequency of Au. In all cases of the theoretical modeling, we are assuming a particle of Au embedded in a TiO{sub 2} matrix without any interparticle interaction. Localized surface plasmon resonance in noble metal nanoparticles is associated with the free electrons. Surface charges create an internal field that acts as a restoring force on displaced charge carriers resulting in an oscillation with an associated resonance. An estimate of the sensitivity as a function of wavelength for sensing done using a single wavelength transmission measurement can be derived by focusing on the partial derivative of Q{sub abs} with respect to the material parameter that we assume is changing during the experiment. We focus on the free carrier density. However, other material parameters may also change in some cases. Peak sensitivity for transmission or absorption based sensing occurs on either side of the LSPR absorption peak maximum. Theoretically predicted wavelength dependence is consistent with the literature. The wavelength of LSPR ab

  4. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-02-15

    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H2S, NH3, HCN, AsH3, PH3, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS3, NH4NO3, NH4OH, KNO3, HBr, HF, and HNO3) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts.

  6. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  7. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  8. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids program. The program also aims to reduce the cost of these low-emission fuels, and will take advantage of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) Program Activities: The C&CBTL Program

  9. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  10. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2001-07-31

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H2 separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}1 mm) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H2 separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 4}0 alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

  11. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  12. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  13. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  14. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  15. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    2011-02-27

    The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

  16. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  17. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2003-01-01

    For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

  18. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  20. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  1. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  3. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  4. Fluid/particle separation and coal cleaning: Progress, potential advances, and their effects on FGD (flue-gas desulfurization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been investigating several approaches to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control that could play significant roles in future emission-control strategies. These techniques include greater application of an existing technology, physical coal cleaning (PCC), as a precombustion complement to FGD, and the combined removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems based on spray drying (a wet/dry process) or in-duct injection of dry sorbents. This paper discusses the results of some of that research with particular attention to the beneficial role of fabric filtration in the dry and wet/dry FGC processes. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  7. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  8. Underground gasification of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  9. Application of Phase-field Method in Predicting Gas Bubble Microstructure Evolution in Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-30

    Fission product accumulation and gas bubble microstructure evolution in nuclear fuels strongly affect thermo-mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, gas release, volumetric swelling and cracking, and hence the fuel performance. In this paper, a general phase-field model is developed to predict gas bubble formation and evolution. Important materials processes and thermodynamic properties including the generation of gas atoms and vacancies, sinks for vacancies and gas atoms, the elastic interaction among defects, gas re-solution, and inhomogeneity of elasticity and diffusivity are accounted for in the model. The simulations demonstrate the potential application of the phase-field method in investigating 1) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles at defects; 2) effect of elastic interaction, inhomogeneity of material properties, and gas re-solution on gas bubble microstructures; and 3) effective properties from the output of phase-field simulations such as distribution of defects, gas bubbles, and stress fields.

  10. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  11. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  12. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  13. Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2010-12-31

    Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

  14. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  16. Control of Radioactive Gas Releases from the Processing of Used Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuel: Possible Waste Forms and Volume Considerations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Control of Radioactive Gas Releases from the Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel: Possible Waste Forms and Volume Considerations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Control of Radioactive Gas Releases from the Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel: Possible Waste Forms and Volume Considerations No abstract prepared. Authors: Jubin, Robert Thomas [1] ; Spencer, Barry B [1] ; Del Cul, Guillermo [1] ; Patton,

  17. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  18. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,..."Natural Gas ... " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,..."Natu...

  19. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  20. Analytical model for transient gas flow in nuclear fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, D.S.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1981-08-01

    An analytical model for calculating gas flow and pressure inside a nuclear fuel rod is presented. Such a model is required to calculate the pressure loading of cladding during ballooning that could occur for postulated reactor accidents. The mathematical model uses a porous media (permeability) concept to define the resistance to gas flow along the fuel rod. 7 refs.

  1. The NuGas{sup TM} Concept - Combining a Nuclear Power Plant with a Gas-Fired Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, Paul; Smith, Alistair

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear power plants produce low carbon emissions and stable, low cost electricity. Combined cycle gas-fired power plants are cheap and quick to build and have very flexible operation. If you could combine these two technologies, you could have an ideal base-load power plant. (authors)

  2. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago ...

  3. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  4. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  5. Methane modeling: predicting the inflow of methane gas into coal mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1982-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, C.M. II; Hoysan, P.M.; Pavone, A.M.; Richmond, O.; Schwerer, F.C.; Smelser, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Work on Phase I of the Contract program is essentially complete and was reported in the Phase I Technical Report which has been reviewed and accepted by the Contract Technical Project Officer. Phase I work included a survey of relevant technical literature and development, demonstration and documentation of a computer model, MINE1D, for flow of methane and water in coal strata for geometries corresponding to an advancing mine face and to a mine pillar. The Phase I models are one-dimensional in the space variable but describe time-dependent (nonsteady) phenomena and include gas sorption phenomena. Some revisions have been made to input/output sections of MINE1D and the documentation has been expanded. These modifications will be reported in the next Quarterly Technical Report. Preliminary test scenarios have been formulated and reviewed with the Contract Technical Project Officer for measurement of emissions during room-and-pillar and longwall mining operations. These preliminary scenarios are described in this report. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the increased stresses on the coal seam near mine openings. The model is based on an approximate elastic/plastic treatment of the coal seam and an elastic treatment of surrounding strata. In this model, elastic compaction of the coal seam decreases porosity and permeability, whereas plastic deformation increases the porosity of the natural fracture network and thereby increases the permeability. The model takes into account the effect of changes in pore fluid pressure (in the natural fracture network of the coal seam) on the deformation of the coal seam. This model is described in this report, and will be programmed for inclusion in revised versions of MINE1D and for use in the two-dimensional computer models now under development. 8 figures.

  6. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  8. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a useful tool to help reduce the number of iterations necessary to perform laboratory experiments or alloy development. However, we clearly are not able to rely solely on computational techniques in the development of high temperature materials for IGT applications. A significant amount of experimentation will continue to be required.

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  10. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  11. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to tritium migration.

  13. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  14. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  15. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  16. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  17. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  18. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a ... The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to ...

  19. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  20. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  1. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  2. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  3. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon’s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of advanced reactor concepts: The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banjac, V.; Heger, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket (GCNR), a design first proposed in the 1960s for fast round-trip missions to Mars and the outer planets, is generally considered to be the most advanced, and therefore the most complex, iteration of the fission reactor concept. The GCNR technology involves the extraction of fission energy, by means of thermal radiation, from a high-temperature plasma core to a working fluid. A specific derivative of GCNR technology is the nuclear fight bulb (NLB) rocket engine, first proposed by the then United Aircraft Research Laboratories (UARL) in the early 1960s. The potential operating parameters provided the motivation for a detailed thermal hydraulics analysis.

  5. Panel Discussion: New Directions in Human Reliability Analysis for Oil & Gas, Cybersecurity, Nuclear, and Aviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold S. Blackman; Ronald Boring; Julie L. Marble; Ali Mosleh; Najmedin Meshkati

    2014-10-01

    This panel will discuss what new directions are necessary to maximize the usefulness of HRA techniques across different areas of application. HRA has long been a part of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the nuclear industry as it offers a superior standard for risk-based decision-making. These techniques are continuing to be adopted by other industries including oil & gas, cybersecurity, nuclear, and aviation. Each participant will present his or her ideas concerning industry needs followed by a discussion about what research is needed and the necessity to achieve cross industry collaboration.

  6. PERCOLATION ON GRAIN BOUNDARY NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO FISSION GAS RELEASE IN NUCLEAR FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett

    2012-02-01

    The percolation behavior of grain boundary networks is characterized in two- and three-dimensional lattices with circular macroscale cross-sections that correspond to nuclear fuel elements. The percolation of gas bubbles on grain boundaries, and the subsequent percolation of grain boundary networks is the primary mechanism of fission gas release from nuclear fuels. Both radial cracks and radial gradients in grain boundary property distributions are correlated with the fraction of grain boundaries vented to the free surfaces. Our results show that cracks surprisingly do not significantly increase the percolation of uniform grain boundary networks. However, for networks with radial gradients in boundary properties, the cracks can considerably raise the vented grain boundary content.

  7. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  8. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  9. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  10. Annual Energy Outlook 2016 2nd Coal Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas-AEO2015 Reference Gas-2015 EIA Clean Power Plan Study WORKING GROUP ...issues - Need for a 111b compliant coal technology - Lack of differentiation between ...

  11. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  12. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  13. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  14. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  15. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  16. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  17. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  18. Erosion-oxidation of carbon steel in the convection section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, J.J.; Walsh, P.M.

    1997-07-01

    Walsh et al. (1994) reported measurements of erosion of carbon steel by fly ash and unburned char particles in the convective heat transfer section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas. Changes in shape of the surface were measured using a surface profiler. Time-averaged maximum erosion rates were obtained from the differences between the original surface height and the lowest points in the profiles. A model was developed by Xie (1995) to describe wastage of tube material in the presence of erosion by particle impacts and oxidation of the metal. The observed changes in erosion rate with temperature and oxygen concentration were consistent with a mechanism based upon the following assumptions: (1) metal was eroded as a ductile material, at a rate that increased with increasing temperature; (2) oxide was eroded as a brittle material, at a rate independent of temperature; (3) the oxide scale was strongly attached to the metal; (4) the erosion resistance of metal and scale was a linear combination of the resistances of the individual components; (5) oxide formed according to the parabolic rate law, with a rate coefficient proportional to the square root of the oxygen partial pressure; (6) erosion resistance from particles sticking to, or embedded in, the surface was negligible. Using the model and rate coefficients for metal and oxide erosion derived from the measurements, estimates were made of the erosion rate of a boiler tube as functions of impaction angle and gas velocity. Under the conditions of metal temperature, gas composition, particle size, particle concentration, and particle composition investigated, erosion of carbon steel is expected to be slower than 0.05 {micro}m/h when the gas velocity in the convection section is less than approximately 8 m/s.

  19. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  20. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  1. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  2. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

  3. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  4. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  5. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  6. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  7. Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGhee, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from ENDF/B-V data via the MATXS6s master cross section library. Cross sections were self shielded assuming one homogeneous core region, and doppler broadened to 1300 K using the cross section preparation code TRANSX. Calculations were performed using an S{sub 4}/P{sub 1} approximation and 80 neutron energy groups. Part Two of the study consisted of a theoretical investigation into the behavior of helium gas in the primary loop of lithium cooled space reactors. The SP-100 space power system was used as a representative of such a system. Topics investigated included: (1) heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation; (2) bubble growth/collapse by diffusion, mechanical temperature/pressure effects, and coalescence; and, (3) the effects on bubble distribution of microgravity, magnetic fields, and inertially induced buoyancy. 104 refs., 78 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Radiation re-solution of fission gas in non-oxide nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Christopher; Schwen, Daniel; Klein, Andrew C.

    2015-02-01

    Renewed interest in fast nuclear reactors is creating a need for better understanding of fission gas bubble behavior in non-oxide fuels to support very long fuel lifetimes. Collisions between fission fragments and their subsequent cascades can knock fission gas atoms out of bubbles and back into the fuel lattice. We showed that these collisions can be treated as using the so-called ‘‘homogenous’’ atom-by-atom re-solution theory and calculated using the Binary Collision Approximation code 3DOT. The calculations showed that there is a decrease in the re-solution parameter as bubble radius increases until about 50 nm, at which the re-solution parameter stays nearly constant. Furthermore, our model shows ion cascades created in the fuel result in many more implanted fission gas atoms than collisions directly with fission fragments. This calculated re-solution parameter can be used to find a re-solution rate for future bubble simulations.

  9. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1995-01-15

    The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

  10. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  12. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J.

    2011-04-01

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  13. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  14. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  15. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Chun, Jaehun; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. Foams from the residual gases can significantly alter the melting rate through mass and heat transfers. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) and developed a simple calibration model which correlates the overall mass loss rate with the evolution rates for individual gases. The model parameters are obtained from the least squares analysis, assuming that the gas-evolving reactions are independent. Thus, the EGAmore » adds the ‘chemical identity’ to the reactions indicated by the ‘phenomenological’ kinetic model.« less

  16. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  17. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  18. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  19. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  20. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  2. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  3. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Missimer, David M.; Guenther, Chris P.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; VanEssendelft, Dirk T.; Means, Nicholas C.

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  4. Method of preparing gas tags for identification of single and multiple failures of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Norman J.

    1976-01-01

    For use in the identification of failed fuel assemblies in a nuclear reactor, the ratios of the tag gas isotopic concentrations are located on curved surfaces to enable the ratios corresponding to failure of a single fuel assembly to be distinguished from those formed from any combination of two or more failed assemblies.

  5. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Eleventh quarterly report, [January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-09

    During this reporting period comparison was made between theoretical and actual biogas production in the upflow reactors, where Texas lignite (TxL) was loaded at 0% (control) and 10% solids loadings. Data for methane and total gas production from task 4 were used. Calculations were made on the assumption that Texas lignite contains 60% carbon and theoretically all of this carbon is converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. Analysis of the data obtained from the bioreactor experiments showed that higher biogas production is due to more efficient biogasification of Texas lignite in bioreactor with reethanol (Table 1) . As it was previously mentioned, methanol (at 0.5% concentration of the total volume of reactants) can be used as hydrogen donor for biogasification (data presented in the 10th Quarterly report). Data in Table 1 clearly indicates, that the theoretical CH{sub 4} and biogas production from methanol is negligible and net biomethanation of TxL is enhanced by the addition of methanol. Observation of high methane production in the reactor where Texas lignite was supplemented with methanol, supports our hypothesis that methanol acts as an additional hydrogen donor.

  6. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  7. EIA - Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal > Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of

  8. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  9. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 ...

  10. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  11. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  12. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  13. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  14. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  15. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  16. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  17. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  18. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  19. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  20. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  1. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  2. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  5. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  6. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  7. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  9. Well-to-wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael Q.; Vyas, Anant D.; Wade, David C.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2004-07-01

    A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this effort, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H{sub 2} production pathways: (1) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using Light Water Reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H{sub 2} production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using steam from High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR); (3) H{sub 2} production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium ore transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H{sub 2} production in nuclear power plants; H{sub 2} transportation; H{sub 2} compression; and H{sub 2} FCVs operation. Due to large differences in electricity requirements for uranium fuel enrichment between gas diffusion and centrifuge technologies, two scenarios were designed for uranium enrichment: (1) 55% of fuel enriched through gaseous diffusion technology and 45% through centrifuge technology (the current technology split for U.S. civilian nuclear power plants); and (2) 100% fuel enrichment using the centrifuge technology (a future trend). Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H{sub 2} compared to natural gas-based H{sub 2} production via steam methane reforming for a unit of H{sub 2} delivered at refueling stations. In particular, 73-98% of GHG emissions and 81- 99% of fossil energy use are reduced by nuclear-based H{sub 2} relative to natural gas-based H{sub 2}, depending on the uranium enrichment technology and type of nuclear reactor used. When H{sub 2} is applied to FCVs, the WTW results also show large benefit in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. (authors)

  10. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  11. Magnetic relaxation - coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1994-10-26

    The aim of the contract was to employ electron and nuclear magnetic relaxation techniques to investigate solvent swelling of coals, solvent extraction of coals and molecular interaction with solvent coal pores. Many of these investigations have appeared in four major publications and a conference proceedings. Another manuscript has been submitted for publication. The set of Argonne Premium Coals was chosen as extensively characterized and representative samples for this project.

  12. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  13. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  14. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection when inlet loading and mercury removal were low. The resulting mercury removal varied between 50 and 98%, with an overall average of 85.6%, showing that the process was successful at removing high percentages of vapor-phase mercury even with a widely varying mass loading. In an effort to improve baghouse performance, high-permeability bags were tested. The new bags made a significant difference in the cleaning frequency of the baghouse. Before changing the bags, the baghouse was often in a continuous clean of 4.4 p/b/h, but with the new bags the cleaning frequency was very low, at less than 1 p/b/h. Alternative sorbent tests were also performed using these high-permeability bags. The results of these tests showed that most standard, high-quality activated carbon performed similarly at this site; low-cost sorbent and ash-based sorbents were not very effective at removing mercury; and chemically enhanced sorbents did not appear to offer any benefits over standard activated carbons at this site.

  15. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  17. 2,"Four Corners","Coal","Arizona Public Service Co",1540

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gas","Southwestern Public Service Co",466 6,"Rio Grande","Natural gas","El Paso Electric Co",324.2 7,"Escalante","Coal","Tri-State G & T Assn, Inc",247 8,"Afton ...

  18. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  19. EIS-0105: Conversion to Coal, Baltimore Gas & Electric Company, Brandon Shores Generating Station Units 1 and 2, Anne Arundel County, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Economic Regulatory Administration Office of Fuels Program, Coal and Electricity Division prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with prohibiting the use of petroleum products as a primary energy source for Units 1 and 2 of the Brandon Shores Generating Station, located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

  20. Coal gasification construction materials: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, J.M.; Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

    1981-12-01

    Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

  1. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  2. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  3. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  7. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation ... YearQuarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 ...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  9. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  10. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total

  15. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum

  16. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409

  17. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3

  18. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5

  19. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110

  20. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 .0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100

  1. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100

  2. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Nuclear Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (nw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand nwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,549 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Nuclear Profile 2010 New York profile New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Nuclear Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total

  15. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8

  16. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031

  17. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3

  18. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0

  19. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total

  20. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630

  1. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0

  2. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ohio Nuclear Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 .0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322

  14. nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en U.S-, Japan Exchange Best Practices on Nuclear Emergency Response http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesu.s-japan-exchange-best-practices-nuclear-emergency-respon...

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other 1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable 1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  16. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  17. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Connecticut Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable 1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  18. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Illinois Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable 1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110 0.1 Total 44,127 100.0 201,352 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    21 Louisiana Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable 1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3 3,281 3.2 Total 26,744 100.0 102,885 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  1. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  2. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  3. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Minnesota Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,594 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable 1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 New Hampshire New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable 1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge

  6. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    41 New Jersey New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by source, 2010 Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable 1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235 0.4 Total 18,424 100.0 65,682 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  7. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  8. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  9. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  10. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    48 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas,

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  14. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 California California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable 1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 67,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Connecticut Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable 1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  16. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Florida Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other 1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable 1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  17. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Maryland Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable 1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  18. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Michigan Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable 1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Mississippi Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable 1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 81 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 New Hampshire New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable 1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge

  1. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 New York New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable 1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  2. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    34 North Carolina North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable 1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste,

  3. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Ohio Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable 1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts,

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 South Carolina South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable 1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982 100.0 104,153 100.0 - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas,

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Texas Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable 1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0 411,695 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  6. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  7. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermochimica Acta 592 (2014) 86-92 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Thermochimica Acta journal homepage www.elsevier.com/locate/tca Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification Carmen P. Rodrigueza, Jaehun Chun3'*, Michael J. Schweigera, Albert A. Krugerb, Pavel Hrma a,c a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland,WA 99352, USA b U.S. Department of Energy Office of River

  8. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Models - About JEDI Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Coal Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Coal model allows the user to estimate economic development impacts from coal power generation projects. Applying a similar user interface as the JEDI Wind model, JEDI Coal requires a few additional user inputs. JEDI Coal user inputs include: Capacity Factor Heat Rate Fuel Costs Fuel Produced Locally (Percent)* Results are presented in the same manner as those in the JEDI Wind and Natural Gas models. This allows

  9. Coal-Producing Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State October - December 2015 July - September 2015 October - December 2014 2015 2014 ...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  13. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  14. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  15. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  16. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  17. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  18. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  2. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  3. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  4. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  5. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  6. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  7. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  8. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing; Parasher, Sukesh; Hare, Jeffrey J.; Harding, N. Stanley; Black, Stephanie E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  9. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  10. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

  11. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,251",8.0,"9,643",17.7 "Coal","2,526",16.1,"13,629",25.0 "Natural Gas","11,640",74.2,"29,619",54.4

  12. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  13. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  14. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  15. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  16. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  17. Coal-fired boiler for petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketterman, W.R.; Heinzmann, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a significant amount of interest in conversion from oil/gas fired boilers to coal-fired equipment since the Arab oil embargo of 1973. The CRA Incorporated Coffeyville Refinery decided in 1977 to proceed with the installation of a 86.183 Kg/h coal fired boiler to generate process steam at 650 psig (4,482 k Pa) 596/sup 0/F (313/sup 0/C). A significant portion of this steam is passed through steam turbines to obtain mechanical power. Building and operating a coal-fired steam plant is a ''Different Kettle of Fish'' from building and operating an oil/gas-fired steam plant. The intention of this paper is to deal with some of the ''Why's and Wherefores'' of the conversion to coal-fired equipment.

  18. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  19. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  20. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  1. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  2. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  3. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  4. Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on unconventional reservoirs such as coal bed methane, tight gas, tight oil, shale gas, and shale oil. Over the period of time, hydraulic fracturing technique has found...

  5. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. STEO December 2012 - natural gas production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A big portion of that natural gas is going to the U.S. electric power sector, which is generating more electricity from gas in place of coal. Consumption of natural gas for power ...

  7. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  8. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  10. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patti, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today`s world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal.

  11. Two-stage, close coupled catalytic liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Panvelker, S.V.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1990-09-01

    During the first quarter of 1990, work was carried out in the microautoclave, microreactor, and Bench-Scale units. An economics analysis on sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities was also completed. Several supported catalysts and a sample of iron oxide were screened in the microautoclave unsulfided and sulfided with DMDS and TNPS. A second shipment of Black Thunder coal from Wilsonville, oil agglomerated cleaned Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City, OTISCA cleaned coal a New Mexico coal were evaluated for relative conversions with and without catalyst. Results of Bench-Scale developments with cleaned, oil agglomerated, Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City(CC-6), Dispersed Catalyst/Supported Catalyst Two-Stage and reversed sequential operation (CC-7), on Black Thunder Coal (CC-7), and preliminary observations on OTISCA cleaned coal are presented. The oil agglomerated cleaned coal gave higher conversion and distillate production than the OTISCA cleaned coal. The Dispersed/Supported Two-Stage operation yielded higher gas production than the reverse sequence but also showed the higher coal conversion. Economic analysis of sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities showed a 3% higher return on investment with a 50% increase in space velocity. 13 tabs.

  12. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  13. Extraction of weakly reductive and reductive coals with sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Wu; Haoquan Hu; Shiping Huang; Yunming Fang; Xian Li; Meng Meng

    2008-11-15

    On a semi-continuous apparatus, a weakly reductive Shenfu-Dongsheng (SD) coal and a reductive Pingshuo (PS) coal were non-isothermally extracted with sub- and supercritical water to explore the differences between the two coals. The effect of the temperature on the extract formation rate, conversion, and product composition under different pressures was investigated. The extraction results of two coal samples indicate that the extract formation rate has a maximum in the studied temperature range between room temperature and 500{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate, changing with the pressure, is between 390 and 410{degree}C. The gas yield, extract yield, and conversion of two coals increase with the increasing pressure. In comparison to PS coal, SD coal has a low temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate under the same pressure. Both coals have a main fraction of asphaltene, but SD coal has a higher fraction of oil than PS coal. The main gas components are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}. The gas from PS coal has a higher CH{sub 4} content and lower CO{sub 2} content than that from SD coal. The analysis results of the extraction residue indicated that SD coal has a low residue yield and the residue shows a large surface area and small average pore diameter compared to PS coal. 17 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy

  15. 1,"Union Power Partners LP","Natural gas","Union Power Partners LP",2020

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Union Power Partners LP","Natural gas","Union Power Partners LP",2020 2,"Arkansas Nuclear One","Nuclear","Entergy Arkansas Inc",1819.6 3,"Independence Steam Electric Station","Coal","Entergy Arkansas Inc",1680.5 4,"White Bluff","Coal","Entergy

  16. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  17. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  18. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  19. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  20. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. ...

  1. 2,"Donald C Cook","Nuclear","Indiana Michigan Power Co",2069

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gas","Consumers Energy Co",1714 6,"Belle River","Coal","DTE Electric Company",1506 7,"J H Campbell","Coal","Consumers Energy Co",1421 8,"St Clair","Coal","DTE Electric ...

  2. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  5. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  6. Oil-fired cycling station converted to base-loaded, coal-burning operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.; Steinbach, P.

    1982-04-01

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has been able to modify its oil-fired Brandon Shores plant while under construction to a base-loaded plant able to burn either oil or coal. Utility planners had the foresight prior to the 1973 embargo to see advantages in a dual-fuel capability. Brandon Shores has experienced the same financing and fluctuating load problems as other projects, but it has evolved into a facility suited for the 1980s and 90s. The original plan included space to handle coal and wastes as well as specifying dual-fuel equipment throughout to minimize future modifications. During one construction delay, the utility initiated a preventative-maintenance program comparable to that of a nuclear plant that has been continued. Extensive environmental planning and interaction with the public have avoided other costly delays. (DCK)

  7. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  8. Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Resource Challenges From Energy Production Major Types of Power Generation in SRB - Total 15,300 Megawatts - 37.5% 4.0% 12.0% 15.5% 31.0% Nuclear Coal Natural Gas Hydroelectric Other Marcellus Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin The Basin: * 27,510-square-mile watershed * Comprises 43 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed * 4.2 million population * 60 percent forested * 32,000+ miles of waterways The Susquehanna River: * 444 miles, largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay

  9. Approach to IAEA verification of the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.; Younkin, J.M.; DeVito, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP), should that plant be placed under IAEA safeguards. The strategy makes use of the attributes and variables measurement verification approach, whereby the IAEA would perform independent measurements on a randomly selected subset of the items comprising the U-235 flows and inventories at the plant. In addition, the MUF-D statistic is used as the test statistics for the detection of diversion. The paper includes descriptions of the potential verification activities, as well as calculations of (a) attributes and variables sample sizes for the various strata, (b) standard deviations of the relevant test statistics, and (c) the sensitivity for detection of diversion which the IAEA might achieve by this verification strategy at GCEP.

  10. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  11. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two ...

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows: *How does exported liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the U.S. compare

  13. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  14. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  15. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  16. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  17. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  18. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  19. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  20. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  1. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  2. Nuclear option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-03-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed.

  3. Green Gas International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Gas International Place: Richmond upon Thames, United Kingdom Zip: TW10 6UW Product: The company establishes coal mine,...

  4. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kent Barefield; Charles L. Liotta; Henry M. Neumann

    2002-04-08

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996.

  5. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  6. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  7. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  8. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  9. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  10. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  11. Methane modeling: predicting the inflow of methane gas into coal mines. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, C.M. II; Hoysan, P.M.; Pavone, A.M.; Schwerer, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Maintenance and laboratory calibrations were obtained for automatic recording methanometers for use during in-mine tests. Speecifications and quotations have been obtained for battery operated versions of the automatic recording methanometers for monitoring in the tailgate region of the longwall operation. Due to mine closings, meetings with mine operators to discuss in-mine testing and to observe the mining section to be monitored have been delayed until February 1983. Assuming a resumption of coal production, actual in-mine tests are tentatively scheduled for March, 1983. Development and testing of software modules for a general two-dimensional model has continued with good progress. The major work emphasis is on the efficient computer execution of the numerical algorithms. Preliminary simulation test runs of an isolated, unstimulated well in an isotropic, homogeneous coalbed have been made. Work has been initiated on incorporating an infinite conductivity fracture in the simulation. Graphical representation of the data generated from the two-dimensional model will be produced and verified. A request was initiated for a no-cost, six-minths extension; this request has subsequently been approved. There is no change in the contract objectives or technical approach, and the project is on target with respect to expenditures.

  12. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  13. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  14. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  15. JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Naural...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    new coal, gas, or wind plant: * Year of installation * Size of the project * Location * Cost (kW) * Any other site-specific information The more information the user provides,...

  16. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2 Citation Details In-Document ... The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel ...

  17. 1,"Gerald Gentleman","Coal","Nebraska Public Power District"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Public Power District",318.4 8,"Whelan Energy Center","Coal","City of Hastings - (NE)",309 9,"Rokeby","Natural gas","Lincoln Electric System",258 10,"Beatrice","Natural ...

  18. 1,"Sherburne County","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,"Lakefield Junction","Natural gas","Great River Energy",517.6 7,"Allen S King","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",511 8,"Black Dog","Natural ...

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  1. "Annual Coal Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  2. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  3. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  5. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Arizona Total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable 1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  6. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  7. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  8. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Iowa Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable 1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

  9. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20 Kansas Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable 1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

  10. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste,

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Nebraska Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,363 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,849 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable 1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  14. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  15. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arizona Arizona Total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable 1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  16. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arkansas Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable 1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  17. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Georgia Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.4 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 53.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.2 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 17.4 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable 1 637 1.7 3,181 2.3 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 137,577 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  18. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Iowa Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable 1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    20 Kansas Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable 1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Massachusetts Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable 1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste,

  1. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Missouri Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable 1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  2. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Nebraska Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,363 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,849 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable 1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630 100.0 Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1

  3. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Tennessee Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable 1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Virginia Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable 1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966 100.0 * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. - = No data reported. Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal

  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Carolina profile South Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 6,486 27.0 51,988 49.9 Coal 7,230 30.1 37,671 36.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,006 16.7 1,442 1.4 Natural Gas 5,308 22.1 10,927 10.5 Other 1 - - 61 0.1 Other Renewable1 284 1.2 1,873 1.8 Petroleum 670 2.8 191 0.2 Total 23,982

  6. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee profile Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0

  7. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas profile Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0

  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia profile Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tennessee profile Tennessee total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,401 15.9 27,739 33.7 Coal 8,805 41.1 43,670 53.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,277 20.0 7,416 9.0 Natural Gas 4,655 21.7 2,302 2.8 Other 1 - - 16 * Other Renewable1 222 1.0 988 1.2 Petroleum 58 0.3 217 0.3 Total 21,417 100.0 82,349 100.0

  12. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas profile Texas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,966 4.6 41,335 10.0 Coal 22,335 20.6 150,173 36.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 689 0.6 1,262 0.3 Natural Gas 69,291 64.0 186,882 45.4 Other 1 477 0.4 3,630 0.9 Other Renewable1 10,295 9.5 27,705 6.7 Petroleum 204 0.2 708 0.2 Total 108,258 100.0

  13. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Virginia profile Virginia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,501 14.5 26,572 36.4 Coal 5,868 24.3 25,459 34.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 4,107 17.0 10 * Natural Gas 7,581 31.4 16,999 23.3 Other 1 - - 414 0.6 Other Renewable1 621 2.6 2,220 3.0 Petroleum 2,432 10.1 1,293 1.8 Total 24,109 100.0 72,966

  14. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  15. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  16. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from the coal for storage or for enhanced oil recovery. To better understand the basic concepts behind Gasification, watch this short video: What is Gasification? The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of producing coal syngas. Click on the Graphic

  17. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  18. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  19. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. • The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. • To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. • Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

  20. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.