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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Winnebago County Landfill Gas Biomass Facility Facility Winnebago County Landfill Gas Sector Biomass...

3

Biomass Gas Electric LLC BG E | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Gas Electric LLC BG E Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass Gas & Electric LLC (BG&E) Place Norcross, Georgia Zip 30092 Sector Biomass Product Project developer...

4

Co-utilization of biomass and natural gas: a new route for power productin from biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Co-utilization of biomass and natural gas: a new route for power productin from biomass production is proposed in which biomass energy is used to partially reform natural gas in gas turbines. As a result, part of the natural gas fuel supply can be replaced by biomass while keeping the biomass

Glineur, François

5

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

6

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation Huub H. J. Cox, Marc A as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass for- mation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addi- tion

7

Biomass gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel study on biomass-air gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas has been conducted. The study was designed (more)

Legonda, Isack Amos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Biomass Cofiring with Natural Gas in California: Phase 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report by EPRI for the California Energy Commission presents the major cost and performance parameters of systems that enable natural gas to be augmented by 10 percent biomass fuel. The basic natural gas fired power plant is taken to be a 400 MWe natural gas-turbine/combined-cycle (NGCC). The biomass component is to generate 40 MWe from biomass fuel. Two forms of the biomass section of the power plant are considered: (1) biomass gasification with the gas derived from the biomass combined with the na...

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a ?¢????Therminator?¢??? to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700???°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

11

Texas Mandate Landfill Gas Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Texas Mandate Landfill Gas Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Texas Mandate...

12

Maintenance Guidelines for Air Conveyors in Biomass Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are beginning to add wood and other biomass fuels to fire their generating units. This enables them to produce carbon-neutral electricity and participate in state or national renewable energy programs. New equipment is available to convey biomass. This equipment is analogous in function to existing conveyors, but it is different from the detail, design, maintenance, and operations perspectives. Air-supported belt conveyors have replaced the carry idlers that are common to conventional belt conv...

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

13

Modeling Swtichgrass Biomass Production and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling Swtichgrass Biomass Production and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions Weiyuan Zhu, Johan in the atmosphere have led to renewed interest in energy from plant biomass. Surfing the internet or flipping to a series of concerns, apprehensions and challenges presented by a shift to a heavier reliance on biomass

California at Davis, University of

14

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However, they have a higher manufacturing cost and lower thermal efficiency, especially when high temperature air is needed. For this reason, a direct air heater applicable for or feed and industrial raw products is put forward, which has advantages such as less production cost, smaller dimensions and higher thermal efficiency. Their design, working principles, characteristics, structure and applications are presented in this article, and brief comparisons are made between the indirect and direct air heater. Finally, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium.

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Exergy Analysis of Biomass Gasification with Steam/Air: A Comparison Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass gasification with steam/air is compared from an exergetic aspect. The comparison details include the exergy efficiencies of the product gases, tar, char and the lost part from the same biomass of both steam gasification and air gasification. ... Keywords: exergy analysis, biomass gasification, steam, air, comparison study

Zhang Yaning; Li Bingxi; Li Hongtao; Liu Hui

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Kane County, Illinois Coordinates 41.987884°, -88.4016041° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.987884,"lon":-88.4016041,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

17

Greene Valley Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greene Valley Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Greene Valley Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Greene Valley Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Greene Valley Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Du Page County, Illinois Coordinates 41.8243831°, -88.0900762° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8243831,"lon":-88.0900762,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

18

Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Woodland Landfill Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Kane County, Illinois Coordinates 41.987884°, -88.4016041° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.987884,"lon":-88.4016041,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Facility Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

20

Altamont Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Altamont Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Altamont Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Altamont Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Altamont Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Alameda County, California Coordinates 37.6016892°, -121.7195459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6016892,"lon":-121.7195459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CSL Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CSL Gas Recovery Biomass Facility CSL Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name CSL Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility CSL Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Broward County, Florida Coordinates 26.190096°, -80.365865° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":26.190096,"lon":-80.365865,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

22

Lake Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Lake Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Cook County, Illinois Coordinates 41.7376587°, -87.697554° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7376587,"lon":-87.697554,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

23

CID Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CID Gas Recovery Biomass Facility CID Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name CID Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility CID Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Cook County, Illinois Coordinates 41.7376587°, -87.697554° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7376587,"lon":-87.697554,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

24

Chestnut Ridge Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ridge Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Ridge Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chestnut Ridge Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Chestnut Ridge Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Anderson County, Tennessee Coordinates 36.0809574°, -84.2278796° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.0809574,"lon":-84.2278796,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

25

Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Facility Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Bergen County, New Jersey Coordinates 40.9262762°, -74.07701° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9262762,"lon":-74.07701,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

26

Palos Verdes Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Verdes Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Verdes Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Palos Verdes Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Facility Palos Verdes Gas to Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

27

Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Biomass Facility Facility Olinda Landfill Gas Recovery Plant Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Orange County, California Coordinates 33.7174708°, -117.8311428° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.7174708,"lon":-117.8311428,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

28

BJ Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BJ Gas Recovery Biomass Facility BJ Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name BJ Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility BJ Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Gwinnett County, Georgia Coordinates 33.9190653°, -84.0167423° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.9190653,"lon":-84.0167423,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

29

Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Biomass Facility Facility Spadra Landfill Gas to Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

30

Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility Facility Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates 41.7924343°, -72.8042797° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7924343,"lon":-72.8042797,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

31

Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Prairie View Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location St. Joseph County, Indiana Coordinates 41.6228085°, -86.3376761° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6228085,"lon":-86.3376761,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

32

DFW Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DFW Gas Recovery Biomass Facility DFW Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name DFW Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility DFW Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Denton County, Texas Coordinates 33.1418611°, -97.179026° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.1418611,"lon":-97.179026,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

33

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions...

35

New Mexico Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

36

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

David Liscinsky

2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

37

Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilization Project Biomass Facility Utilization Project Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility Facility Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Albany County, New York Coordinates 42.5756797°, -73.9359821° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5756797,"lon":-73.9359821,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

38

Gas Utilization Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilization Facility Biomass Facility Utilization Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Gas Utilization Facility Biomass Facility Facility Gas Utilization Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location San Diego County, California Coordinates 33.0933809°, -116.6081653° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.0933809,"lon":-116.6081653,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

39

Gasification of Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass with Enriched Air Mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass is one of the renewable and non-conventional energy sources and it includes municipal solid wastes and animal wastes in addition to agricultural residue. Concentrated animal feeding operations produce large quantities of cattle biomass which might result in land and water pollution if left untreated. Different methods are employed to extract the available energy from the cattle biomass (CB) which includes co-firing and gasification. There are two types of CB: Feedlot biomass (FB), animal waste from feedlots and dairy biomass (DB), animal waste from dairy farms. Experiments were performed in the part on gasification of both FB and DB. Earlier studies on gasification of DB with different steam-fuel ratios resulted in increased production of hydrogen. In the present study, dairy biomass was gasified in a medium with enriched oxygen percentage varying from 24% to 28%. The effect of enriched air mixture, equivalence ratio and steam-fuel ratio on the performance of gasifier was studied. Limited studies were done using a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the gasification medium and also a methodology was developed to determine the gasification efficiency based on mass and heat contents of gas. The results show that the peak temperature within the bed increases with increase in oxygen concentration in the gasification medium. Also carbon dioxide concentration in the mixture increases with corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide with increase in oxygen concentration of the incoming gasification medium. The peak temperature increased from 988C to 1192C as the oxygen concentration increased from 21% to 28% at ER=2.1. The upper limit on oxygen concentration is limited to 28% due to high peak temperature and resulting ash agglomeration. Higher heating value (HHV) of the gases decreases with increase in equivalence ratio. The gases produced using carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture had a higher HHV when compared to that of air and enriched air gasification. Typically the HHV of the gases increased from 2219 kJ/m to 3479 kJ/m when carbon dioxide and oxygen mixture is used for gasification instead of air at ER=4.2 in the absence of steam.

Thanapal, Siva Sankar

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Profitability Comparison Between Gas Turbines and Gas Engine in Biomass-Based Power Plants Using Binary Particle Swarm Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper employs a binary discrete version of the classical Particle Swarm Optimization to compare the maximum net present value achieved by a gas turbines biomass plant and a gas engine biomass plant. The proposed algorithm determines the optimal ...

P. Reche Lpez; M. Gmez Gonzlez; N. Ruiz Reyes; F. Jurado

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS for the removal of excess biomass from biotrickling ®lters for waste air treatment. Although the experiment/v) NaOH, 0.26 and 1.31% (w/v) NaClO and 11.3% (w/v) H2O2 resulted in a biomass removal signi

42

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas Development Challenges: Air Shale Gas...

43

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

air pollution from biomass combustion and acute respiratorycountries where biomass and kerosene combustion is common.to smoke from biomass fuel combustion increases the severity

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its application Copersucar, CP 162, Piracicaba, SP ­ Brazil ­ 13400-970 Biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined-from-sugarcane program. 1. Introduction The biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cy- cle (BIG

45

Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is cost-competitive with petroleum fuel, and (5) is compatible with the emerging vehicle technologies, especially those powdered by fuel cells. The methanol yield, production cost, and potential for reduction of overall fuel-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated and compared to those of reformulated gasoline. The results show that a process utilizing natural gas and biomass as cofeedstocks can meet the five requirements more effectively than individual processes utilizing those feedstocks separately. When end-use efficiencies are accounted for, the cost per vehicle mile traveled would be less than that of gasoline used in current vehicles. CO{sub 2} emissions from the vehicle fleet would be reduced 66% by methanol used in fuel cell vehicles and 8--36% in flexible-fuel or dedicated-methanol vehicles during the transition period. Methanol produced from natural gas and biomass, together in one process, and used in fuel cell vehicles would leverage petroleum displacement by a factor of about 5 and achieve twice the overall CO{sub 2} emission reduction obtainable from the use of biomass alone.

Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the Steam Gasification of Biomass," Department of EnergySteam Gasification of Biomass, 11 April 28, 1978. Liu,Conceptual Commercial Biomass Liquefaction Flow Schematic

Figueroa, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal gasification of biomass is being considered as one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into gaseous fuel. Here we present results of gasification, using an adiabatic bed gasifier with air, steam as gasification medium, of mesquite and juniper. From Thermo-gravimetric analyses the pre-exponential factor (B) and activation energy of fuels for pyrolysis were obtained using single reaction models (SRM) and parallel reaction model (PRM). The single reaction model including convention Arrhenius (SRM-CA) and maximum volatile release rate model (SRM-MVR). The parallel reaction model fits the experimental data very well, followed by MVR. The CA model the least accurate model. The activation energies obtained from PRM are around 161,000 kJ/kmol and 158,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. And, the activation energies obtained from MVR are around100,000 kJ/kmol and 85,000 kJ/kmol for juniper and mesquite fuels, respectively. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER), particle size, and moisture content on the temperature profile, gas composition, tar yield, and higher heating value (HHV) were investigated. For air gasification, when moisture increased from 6% to 12% and ER decreased from 4.2 to 2.7, the mole composition of the dry product gas for mesquite varied as follow: 18-30% CO, 2-5% H2, 1-1.5% CH4, 0.4-0.6% C2H6, 52-64% N2, and 10-12% CO2. The tar yield shows peak value (150 g/Nm^3) with change in moisture content between 6-24%. The tar collected from the gasification process included light tar and heavy tar. The main composition of the light tar was moisture. The chemical properties of heavy tar were determined. For air-steam gasification, H2 rich mixture gas was produced. The HHV of the mesquite gas increased first when S: F ratio increased from 0.15 to 0.3 and when the S: F ratio increased to 0.45, HHV of the gas decreased. Mesquite was blended with the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coal with ratio of 90:10 and 80:20 in order to increase the Tpeak and HHV. It was found that the Tpeak increased with the increase of PRB coal weight percentage (0% to 20%).

Chen, Wei 1981-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Bruce A. Mc Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Today society faces important prevalent greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide - CO2), it is important in the total picture. According

McCarl, Bruce A.

51

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy nations. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), biomass provides more than 90% of household energy needs in many nations. The combustion of biomass emits pollutants that currently cause over 1.6 million annual deaths

Kammen, Daniel M.

52

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Gas turbine intake air quality  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of preliminary research intended to evaluate the causes and effects of compressor fouling on pipeline gas turbines. A literature search and field-experience survey of pipeline operators provides the basis for the conclusions and recommendations.

Lawson, C.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Development of biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program to develop biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines was started at Aerospace Research Corporation in 1980. The research culminated in construction and installation of a power generation system using an Allison T-56 gas turbine at Red Boiling Springs, Tennessee. The system has been successfully operated with delivery of power to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Emissions from the system meet or exceed EPA requirements. No erosion of the turbine has been detected in over 760 hours of operation, 106 of which were on line generating power for the TVA. It was necessary to limit the turbine inlet temperature to 1450{degrees}F to control the rate of ash deposition on the turbine blades and stators and facilitate periodic cleaning of these components. Results of tests by researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute -- Columbus Division, give promise that deposits on the turbine blades, which must be periodically removed with milled walnut hulls, can be eliminated with addition of lime to the fuel. Operational problems, which are centered primarily around the feed system and engine configuration, have been adequately identified and can be corrected in an upgraded design. The system is now ready for development of a commercial version. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provided support only for the evaluation of wood as an alternative fuel for gas turbines. However, the system appears to have high potential for integration into a hybrid system for the production of ethanol from sorghum or sugar cane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

Hamrick, J T [Aerospace Research Corp., Roanoke, VA (USA)

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrated animal feeding operations such as cattle feedlots and dairies produce a large amount of manure, cattle biomass (CB), which may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. However, the concentrated production of low quality CB at these feeding operations serves as a good feedstock for in situ gasification for syngas (CO and H2) production and subsequent use in power generation. A small scale (10 kW) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were also studied for comparison purposes. In addition, chlorinated char was also produced via pure pyrolysis of DB using N2 and N2-steam gas mixtures. The chlorinated char is useful for enhanced capture of Hg in ESP of coal fired boilers. Two main parameters were investigated in the gasification studies with air-steam mixtures. One was the equivalence ratio ER (the ratio of stochiometric air to actual air) and the second was the steam to fuel ratio (S:F). Prior to the experimental studies, atom conservation with i) limited product species and ii) equilibrium modeling studies with a large number of product species were performed on the gasification of DB to determine suitable range of operating conditions (ER and S:F ratio). Results on bed temperature profile, gas composition (CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H6, and N2), gross heating value (HHV), and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) are presented. Both modeling and experimental results show that gasification under increased ER and S:F ratios tend to produce rich mixtures in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. Increased ER produces gases with higher HHV but decreases the ECE due to higher tar and char production. Gasification of DB under the operating conditions 1.59less than0.8 yielded gas mixtures with compositions as given below: CO (4.77 - 11.73 %), H2 (13.48 - 25.45%), CO2 (11-25.2%), CH4 (0.43-1.73 %), and C2H6 (0.2- 0.69%). In general, the bed temperature profiles had peaks that ranged between 519 and 1032 degrees C for DB gasification.

Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratoryTuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: AR.D. Retherford, and K.R. Smith, Biomass cooking fuels and

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Fueling Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section...

60

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Fueling Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Station Air Quality Permit Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Street Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on AddThis.com...

62

Bioenergy Technologies Office: Natural Gas-Biomass to Liquids...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Key Publications Newsletter Project Fact Sheets Biomass Basics Multimedia Webinars Databases Analytical Tools Glossary Student & Educator...

63

Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gas. To explore the economic potential of biofuels in a greenhouse gas mitigation market, we incorporate data

McCarl, Bruce A.

65

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US  

SciTech Connect

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewaters by wet-air oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of synthetic natural gas from gasification of biomass results in the generation of a high-strength wastewater that is difficult to treat by conventional means. This study investigated the use of wet air oxidation (WAO) as a treatment method for these wastewaters. A literature review was conducted to identify the suitability of WAO for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters and to determine typical operating conditions for such treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment. Data presented in the literature showed that WAO should be suitable for treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW), and a laboratory treatability study was designed. BGW, having an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 30,800 mg/1 and initial color of 183,000 APHA units, was treated in a laboratory autoclave for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min at temperatures and pressures of 150/sup 0/C, 5.1 MPa (750 psi); 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi); 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi); and 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Maximum COD removals of 0% for the 150/sup 0/C, 5.2 MPa (750 psi) runs; 40% for the 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) runs, 55% for the 250/sup 0/C, 10.3 MPa (1500 psi) runs; and 85% for the 300/sup 0/C, 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) runs were measured. Maximum color removals for these respective runs were 56%, 82%, 97%, and 99%. Initial removal rates of COD and color were observed to increase with reaction temperature. The experimental results suggest that oxidation of BGW organics by WAO occurs in a stepwise fashion with large organic molecules first being hydrolyzed and then partially oxidized to low molecular weight intermediates. Complete oxidation of these intermediates is more difficult and most easily accomplished at high reaction temperatures. The best application of WAO to treatment of BGW appears to be as a pretreatment to biological treatment and it is recommended that this application be investigated.

English, C.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4: Modeling Emissions from Natural Gas-Related Sources 4.1Penetration of Liquefied Natural Gas Table ES2: Impacts ontypical summer demand of natural gas in the South Coast Air

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

71

Experimental Study on Direct-Fired Characteristics about Biomass Derived Crude Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to solve the problem of slagging in biomass direct-fired and high tar content in biomass gasification, the method of using low-temperature gasification and crudesyn gas high temperature direct combustion for biomass is proposed. By changing ... Keywords: Biomass, Rice Husk, Direct-Fired, Temperature, Syngas, Gas Composition, Equivalence Ratio, Steam team to Air

Li Hong-tao; Li Bing-xi; Zhang Ya-ning; Xu You-ning

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor  

SciTech Connect

An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

74

EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression Testing Phase and Temporary Site Facilities, Kings Island, San Joaquin County, California EA-1752: Pacific...

75

Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from biomass energy generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and `farmed wood' for electricity, heat and combined heat and power production (EC JRC, 2009). All of the life wood waste SRC chips Straw SRC chips SRC pellets Cofiring Biomass power plant Domestic boiler kgCO2per vary significantly ­ from about 10kgCO2e per MWh for waste products such as waste wood and MDF, up

Wynne, Randolph H.

76

Transformation of Sulfur Species during Steam/Air Regeneration on a Ni Biomass Conditioning Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sulfur K-edge XANES identified transformation of sulfides to sulfates during combined steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. This catalyst was tested over multiple reaction/regeneration/reduction cycles. Postreaction catalysts showed the presence of sulfides on H2S-poisoned sites. Although H2S was observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst, and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. Following the oxidative regeneration, the subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides, indicating the difficulty and sensitivity in achieving complete sulfur removal during regeneration for biomass-conditioning catalysts.

Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Kuhn, J. N.

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

77

Small-Scale, Biomass-Fired Gas Turbine Plants Suitable for Distributed and Mobile Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of small-scale, biomass-fired gas turbine plants that use an indirectly-fired gas turbine cycle. Such plants were originally thought to have several advantages for distributed generation, including portability. However, detailed analysis of two designs revealed several problems that would have to be resolved to make the plants feasible and also determined that a steam turbine cycle with the same net output was more economic than the gas turbine cycle. The incre...

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

Feldmann, Herman F. (Worthington, OH); Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Starter systems designed for efficient air/gas comsumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines engine starting systems designed by Pow-R-Quik. Pow-R-Quik's most recent product line includes several models that are designed to start most diesel and natural gas engines. Pow-R-Quick also offers air starting systems for a wide range of gas turbine applications. The model DS16, air or gas starter, is designed for engines with a displacement up to 500 cid diesel and up to 1000 cid natural gas. The DS60 model is also an air or gas operated starter with specially designed heavy duty bearings for maximum performance. To prove out starter durability and performance, Pow-R-Quik has installed three fully instrumented diesel engine test cells. The number of starts that can be achieved ranges from zero to 99,000. The system can be set to regulate the air for low or high pressure starts, control the lubricant, etc.

Not Available

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia Partner World Bank Development Grant Facility (DGF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), the German Development Cooperation (GiZ), Energy Foundation, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Institute for Transport Policy Studies (ITPS), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), Veolia Energy Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -TNA, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs

82

AirSea Gas Transfer: Mechanisms and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of airsea gas transfer has been largely parameterized on the basis of studies performed in laboratory tanks: empirical formulas are proposed for three wind-velocity regions. Observed features of the transfer in these regions are ...

Jin Wu

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor  

SciTech Connect

GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from NETL showed Pd80Cu20 with the highest flux, therefore it was chosen as the initial and eventually, final candidate membrane. The criteria for choice were high hydrogen flux, long-term stability, and H2S tolerance. Results from SCHOTT using glass membranes showed a maximum of 0.25 SCFH/ft2, that is an order of magnitude better than the ceramic membrane but still two orders of magnitude lower than the metallic membrane. A membrane module was designed to be tested with an actual biomass gasifier. Some parts of the module were ordered but the work was stopped when a no go decision was made by the DOE.

Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of {sup 133}Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to {sup 133}Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations.

Langford, J.; Thompson, G. (Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth (Australia) Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Biomass gasification integration in recuperative gas turbine cycles and recuperative fuel cell integrated gas turbine cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? A multi-reactor, multi-temperature, waste-heat driven biomass thermochemical converter is proposed and simulated in the process simulation tool Aspen Plus?. The thermochemical converter is in (more)

Lver, Kristian Aase

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility.

Sterzinger, G J [Economics, Environment and Regulation, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of levoglucosan in biomass combustion aerosol by high-Transport of Biomass Combustion Aerosols. Environmentalfrom diverse biomass combustion conditions have been

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &...

90

Permitting Guidance for Biomass Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass power plants could contribute significantly to reaching U.S. targets for renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Achieving these goals will require the construction of many new biomass-fired units, as well as the conversion of existing coal-fired units to biomass combustion or co-fired units. New biomass units will require air, water use, wastewater, and, in some cases, solid waste permits. Existing fossil fuel-fired units that will be converted to dedicated biomass-fired units o...

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depending on the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide. Most synthesis gas is produced by the steam reform reaction. Industrially, steam reforming is performed over a Ni/ Al2O3 catalyst.9 The typical problemSynthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K

Mallinson, Richard

92

Status of Westinghouse hot gas filters for coal and biomass power systems  

SciTech Connect

Several advanced, coal and biomass-based combustion turbine power generation technologies using fuels (IGCC, PFBC, Topping-PFBC, HIPPS) are currently under development and demonstration. A key developing technology in these power generation systems is the hot gas filter. These power generation technologies must utilize highly reliable and efficient hot gas filter systems if their full thermal efficiency and cost potential is to be realized. This paper reviews the recent test and design progress made by Westinghouse in the development and demonstration of hot gas ceramic barrier filters toward the goal of reliability. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify, through analysis and testing, practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter systems that meet the performance and operational requirements for these applications.

Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Burck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: gains.iiasa.ac.at/index.php/home-page/241-on-line-access-to-gains Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia

94

Turbine-meter air calibration proves accurate for gas service  

SciTech Connect

This article presents theory, laboratory verificati*on tests, and field evaluation test data that show that a well-engineered gas-turbine meter (single rotor or tandem rotors) calibrated in air has the same accuracy when operating in natural gas at the same line pressure and flow rate (or the same Reynolds number). The only exception occurs at very low flow rates during which the rotor slip due to mechanical friction is no loner negligible.

Lee, W.F.Z.

1988-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

95

Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Update and Summary of Recent Progress  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a result of environmental and policy considerations, there is increasing interest in using renewable biomass resources as feedstock for power, fuels, and chemicals and hydrogen. Biomass gasification is seen as an important technology component for expanding the use of biomass. Advanced biomass gasification systems provide clean products that can be used as fuel or synthesis gases in a variety of environmentally friendly processes. Advanced end-use technologies such as gas turbines or synthesis gas systems require high quality gases with narrowly defined specifications. Other systems such as boilers may also have fuel quality requirements, but they will be substantially less demanding. The gas product from biomass gasifiers contains quantities of particulates, tars, and other constituents that may exceed these specified limits. As a result, gas cleaning and conditioning will be required in most systems. Over the past decade, significant research and development activities have been conducted on the topic of gas cleanup and conditioning. This report provides an update of efforts related to large-scale biomass gasification systems and summarizes recent progress. Remaining research and development issues are also summarized.

Stevens, D. J.

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

DeCorso, M. [Power Tech Associates, Inc., Paramus, NJ (United States); Newby, R. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anson, D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Wenglarz, R. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Wright, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

Reed, T.B.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered in as many projects as are Absorption. units. Where once the only studies being analyzed were absorption vs. electric chiller operation costs. Now, the choice is: Why, Where, and How to choose between gas fired Absorption and GED chillers. WHY Absorption or Engine ? . Absorption uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water. . Absorption chillers are chiller/heaters Absorption chillers are manufactured by the four US major manufacturers Absorption chillers have few moving parts . Engine chillers provide "free" hot water Engine chillers retrofit with DX systems . Engine chillers use less gas per ton WHERE Do Absorption And Engine Chillers Belong? . Absorption: Office buildings, restaurants, industries, churches, universities . Engine: Hospitals, universities, hotels, apartments, industries HOW To Choose Between Absorption And Engine Chillers? Energy cost Operation and maintenance costs Equipment cost Environmental concerns Thermal requirements . Space requirements Staff experience

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass production between each soil were significant for Western Wheatgrass and Alfafla. The Sheridan sandy loam soil resulted in the highest production for western wheatgrass and alfalfa while the X-ranch sandy loam had the lowest production rate for both plants. Plant production levels resulting from untreated CBNG produced water were significantly higher compared to untreated conventional oil and gas produced water. However, few differences were found between water treatments. The biomass produced from the greenhouse study was analyzed for elemental composition and for forage value. Elemental composition indentified several interesting findings. Some of the biomass was characterized with seemly high boron and sodium levels. High levels of boron found in some of the biomass was unexpected and may indicate that alfalfa and western wheatgrass plants may have been impacted by either soil or irrigation water containing high boron levels. Plants irrigated with water treated using EDR technology appeared to contain higher levels of boron with increased levels of treatment. Forage evaluations were conducted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The data collected show small differences, generally less than 10%, between produced water treatments including the no treatment and 100% treatment conditions for each plant species studied. The forage value of alfalfa and western wheatgrass did not show significant tendencies dependent on soil, the amount of produced water treatment, or treatment technology.

Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Performance characterization of a pilot-scale oxygen enriched-air and steam blown gasification and combustion system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of air as biomass gasifying agent yields low heating value product gas and is only suitable for heat and power applications. Steam and (more)

Huynh, Cuong Van

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Coal Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Background Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes gasify coal, biomass, and mixtures of coal/ biomass to produce synthesis gas (syngas) that can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Positive benefits of these processes include the use of feedstocks from domestic sources and lower greenhouse gas production than can be achieved from using conventional petroleum-based fuels. However, syngas generated by coal and biomass co-gasification contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the water- gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts used in the gas-to-liquid processes. While the effect of coal contaminants on FT processes is well studied, more research

105

Combustion Gas Turbine Power Enhancement by Refrigeration of Inlet Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion gas turbines have gained widespread acceptance for mechanical drive and power generation applications. One key drawback of a combustion turbine is that its specific output and thermal efficiency vary quite significantly with variations in the ambient temperature. On hot days, a machine may experience considerable difficulty in meeting its power demand. One concept that has not received much attention is the cooling down of compressor inlet air. This paper will examine the theoretical and practical implications of concept such as evaporative cooling, intercooling, expansion cooling and compression and absorption refrigeration.

Meher-Homji, C. B.; Mani, G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

On Factors Controlling AirWater Gas Exchange in a Large Tidal River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Estuarine Research Federation 2011 Abstract Air­water gas exchange is an important process in aquatic Introduction In rivers and estuaries, knowledge of air­water gas exchange is important for evaluating how floating domes. The opportunistic gas method relies on gases in the water that either occurred naturally (e

Ho, David

107

Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies BiomassBiogas Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector StateProvince Program Administrator...

108

Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Hall, A.W. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

NREL: Biomass Research Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and green algae and gas bubbles can be seen floating in the liquid. Through biomass research, NREL is developing technologies to convert biomass-plant matter such as...

110

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

111

Multi-functional biomass systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share (more)

Dornburg, Veronika

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hynol Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Air extraction and LBTU coal gas combustion in gas turbines for IGCC systems  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the cold flow experiments is to study the effects of air extraction from two sites in a heavy-frame gas turbine: (1) the engine wrapper or manholes and (2) the compressor/combustor prediffuser inlet. The experiments involve a scale model of components of a state-of-the-art, US made gas turbine between the compressor exit and the turbine inlet Specifically, the purpose is to observe and measure how air extraction affects the flow distribution around the combustor cans and the impingement cooling flow rates on transition pieces of the combustor. The experimental data should provide turbine manufacturers the information needed to determine their preferred air extraction site. The secondary objectives for the experiments are as follows: (1) to identify regions with high-pressure losses, (2) to develop a dam base which will validate computational fluid dynamic calculations, and (3) to establish an experimental facility which may be used to assist the US industry in improving the aerodynamic design of nonrotating components of a heavy-frame gas turbine.

Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

Netter, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

116

Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration -- Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lifecycle analysis of coal-, natural gas- and biomass-based power generation systems with and without CO2 sequestration. Compares global warming potential and energy balance of these systems.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

Menghini, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Guidelines for Induced Flue Gas Recirculation: Volume 1: Reducing Air/Gas System Resistance and Enhancing Fan Capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document guides users through a logical sequence, or "road map," of activities and decisions for optimizing solutions for fans, ducts, and related equipment in fossil plant combustion air and gas systems.

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of air supply conditions in the room of a B11type gas appliance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Hungary, the prevalently used "B11" type gas appliances equipped with atmospheric burner and they have a draught hood beyond the outlet of the appliance. For the appropriate adjustment of the gas boiler to the conditions of the building, ... Keywords: CFD method, air supply, chimney, design requirements, gas appliances, numerical modelling

Lajos Barna; Rbert Goda

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer-generated turbulence in a shallow tidal sea, Nature, 400, 251­254. Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole (2001), Gas exchangeEnvironmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

Ho, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

Battelle

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Investigation Of Synergistic NOx Reduction From Cofiring And Air Staged Combustion Of Coal And Low Ash Dairy Biomass In A 30 Kilowatt Low NOx Furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alternate, cost effective disposal methods must be developed for reducing phosphorous and nitrogen loading from land application of animal waste. Cofiring coal with animal waste, termed dairy biomass (DB), is the proposed thermo-chemical method to address this concern. DB is evaluated as a cofired fuel with Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal in a small-scale 29 kW_(t) low NO_(x) burner (LNB) facility. Fuel properties, of PRB and DB revealed the following: a higher heating value of 29590 kJ/kg for dry ash free (DAF) coal and 21450 kJ/kg for DAF DB. A new method called Respiratory Quotient (RQ), defined as ratio of carbon dioxide moles to oxygen moles consumed in combustion, used widely in biology, was recently introduced to engineering literature to rank global warming potential (GWP) of fuels. A higher RQ means higher CO_(2) emission and higher GWP. PRB had an RQ of 0.90 and DB had an RQ of 0.92. For comparison purposes, methane has an RQ of 0.50. For unknown fuel composition, gas analyses can be adapted to estimate RQ values. The LNB was modified and cofiring experiments were performed at various equivalence ratios (phi) with pure coal and blends of PRB-DB. Standard emissions from solid fuel combustion were measured; then NO_(x) on a heat basis (g/GJ), fuel burnt fraction, and fuel nitrogen conversion percentage were estimated. The gas analyses yielded burnt fraction ranging from 89% to 100% and confirmed an RQ of 0.90 to 0.94, which is almost the same as the RQ based on fuel composition. At the 0.90 equivalence ratio, unstaged pure coal produced 653 ppm (377 g/GJ) of NOx. At the same equivalence ratio, a 90-10 PRB:LADB blended fuel produced 687 ppm (397 g/GJ) of NO_(x). By staging 20% of the total combustion air as tertiary air (which raised the equivalence ratio of the main burner to 1.12), NO_(x) was reduced to 545 ppm (304 g/GJ) for the 90-10 blended fuel. Analysis of variance showed that variances were statistically significant because of real differences between the independent variables (equivalence ratio, percent LADB in the fuel, and staging intensity).

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydrogen production from biomass .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass energy encompasses a broad category of energy derived from plants and animals as well as the residual materials from each. Hydrogen gas is an (more)

Hahn, John J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Biomass Equipment & Materials Compensating Tax Deduction (New...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector Commercial, Industrial Eligible Technologies Anaerobic Digestion, Biodiesel, Biomass, CHPCogeneration, Ethanol, Hydrogen, Landfill Gas, Methanol, Microturbines,...

126

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Lorenzetti, David M., Astrid H. Kristoffersen, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Indoor Air Pagination 7 Keywords recirculating ventilation, tracer decay rate Abstract Tracer gas measurements are used to estimate the flow rate of fresh air into a room or building. These methods commonly account for the decay of tracer gas concentration as the result of ventilation air supply and infiltration, using a well-mixed model of the space. Some researchers also have considered the effect of leakage in the ventilation ductwork. This paper considers the effect of recirculation through ventilation ducts on the calculated fresh air supply rate. Transport delay in the ducts can significantly alter the time evolution of tracer concentration, and hence alter the estimated air change rate.

128

Des Plaines Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Des Plaines Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Des Plaines Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Des Plaines Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

129

Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility Facility Rodefeld Landfill Ga Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

130

Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

11 15 20 17 1 1 1967-2012 Synthetic 0 1980-2012 Propane-Air 11 15 20 17 1 1 1980-2012 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 1999-2012 Other 0 2005...

131

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow, that by burning them we are just putting in terms of CO2 in the atmosphere. Investigate the national scene, which seems very pro- biomass burning

132

EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

52: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage 52: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression Testing Phase and Temporary Site Facilities, Kings Island, San Joaquin County, California EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression Testing Phase and Temporary Site Facilities, Kings Island, San Joaquin County, California Summary DOE prepared an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of an advanced compressed air energy storage plant in San Francisco, California. Public Comment Opportunities Draft EA: Comment Period Ended 12/31/13. DOE will consider late submissions to the extent practicable. Comments should be marked "PG&E Compressed Air Energy Storage Draft EA

133

Guidelines for Fuel Gas Line Cleaning Using Compressed Air or Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document lays a foundation for helping the industry to better understand common practices, design basis, and issues to consider for performing fuel gas line cleaning using compressed air or nitrogen pneumatic blow processes.

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

EIA's Testimony on Natural Gas - House Subcommittee on Energy and the Air Quality  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Statement of Beth Campbell, Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality; Committee on Energy and Commerce U. S. House of Representatives - Hearing on Natural GasFebruary 28, 2001

Information Center

2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2004 Authors Kristoffersen, Astrid H., Ashok J. Gadgil, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms - RoomVent 2004, Pagination pp 6 Date Published September 5-8, 2 Conference Location Coimbra, Portugal Abstract Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume

136

High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method  

SciTech Connect

A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

Cromer, Robert Harold (Johnstown, NY); Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Sutcu, Maz (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Engine fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect

Methods discussed for the conversion of biomass to engine fuels include the production of producer gas, anaerobic fermentation to give biogas, fermentation of sugars and starches to give EtOH, and the production of synthesis gas for conversion to MeOH or hydrocarbons. Also discussed are the suitability of these fuels for particular engines, biomass availability, and the economics of biomass-derived engine fuels.

Parker, H.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Inlet Air Chillers for Gas Turbine Capacity Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information and analysis to help power generation engineers assess the cost-effectiveness of using inlet air chillers to increase the net output capacity of combustion turbine and combined cycle generating units. It also provides an analysis of integrating the storage of chilled water or ice with the inlet air cooling system as a means of energy storage. This report provides new and updated information and analysis, building on information from previous Electric Power Research ...

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

142

Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Ruggedized Ultrasensitive Field Air Sampler for Differentially Determining Tritium Oxide and Gas in Ambient Air Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The instrument described is an operational, practical, ruggedized, ultrasensitive, tritium field air sampler assembled for the simultaneous, differential sampling of the environmental air for tritium oxide and elemental tritium. The system uses hardware assembled and packaged in such manner as to facilitate use in the field as well as in the laboratory. The sampling system occupies relatively small space and is simple to operate. The detection sensitivity approaches tritium background levels and is achieved by high volume sampling, efficient removal of tritium oxide and elemental tritium ("tritium gas"), and counting the recovered fractions by liquid scintillation spectrometry.

Brown, R.; Meyer, H. E.; Robinson, B.; Sheehan, W. E.

1971-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage 752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression Testing Phase and Temporary Site Facilities, Kings Island, San Joaquin County, California EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Compression Testing Phase and Temporary Site Facilities, Kings Island, San Joaquin County, California Summary DOE prepared an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of an advanced compressed air energy storage plant in San Francisco, California. Public Comment Opportunities Draft EA: Comment Period Ends 12/31/13. DOE will consider late submissions to the extent practicable. A notice of availability will be published in The Record (Stockton) and the

145

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Life cycle analysis is carried out for 11 predicted configurations of pyrolysis biochar systems to determine greenhouse gas balance, using an original spreadsheet model. System (more)

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Demonstration of Natural Gas Engine Driven Air Compressor Technology at Department of Defense Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent downsizing and consolidation of Department of Defense (DOD) facilities provides an opportunity to upgrade remaining facilities with more efficient and less polluting equipment. Use of air compressors by the DOD is widespread and the variety of tools and machinery that operate on compressed air is increasing. The energy cost of operating a natural gas engine-driven air compressor (NGEDAC) is usually lower than the cost of operating an electric-driven air compressor. Initial capital costs are offset by differences in prevailing utility rates, efficiencies of partial load operation, reductions in peak demand, heat recovery, and avoiding the cost of back-up generators. Natural gas, a clean-burning fuel, is abundant and readily available. In an effort to reduce its over-all environmental impact and energy consumption, the U.S. Army plans to apply NGEDAC technology in support of fixed facilities compressed air systems. Site assessment and demonstration results are presented in this paper.

Lin, M.; Aylor, S. W.; Van Ormer, H.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Instrumentation and tar measurement systems for a downdraft biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass gasification is a promising route utilizing biomass materials to produce fuels and chemicals. Gas product from the gasification process is so called synthesis gas (more)

Hu, Ming

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 [times] 10[sup 6] Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The biomass allocation model has been developed and is undergoing testing. Data bases for biomass feedstock and thermochemical products are complete. Simulated data on process efficiency and product costs are being used while more accurate data are being developed. Market analyses data are stored for the biomass allocation model. The modeling activity will assist in providing process efficiency information required for the allocation model. Process models for entrained bed and fixed bed gasifiers based on coal have been adapted to biomass. Fuel product manufacturing costs will be used as inputs for the data banks of the biomass allocations model. Conceptual economics have been generated for seven of the fourteen process configurations via a biomass economic computer program. The PDU studies are designed to demonstrate steady state thermochemical conversions of biomass to fuels in fluidized, moving and entrained bed reactor configurations. Pulse tests in a fluidized bed to determine the effect of particle size on reaction rates and product gas composition have been completed. Two hour shakedown tests using peanut hulls and wood as the biomass feedstock and the fluidized bed reactor mode have been carried out. A comparison was made of the gas composition using air and steam - O/sub 2/. Biomass thermal profiles and biomass composition information shall be provided. To date approximately 70 biomass types have been collected. Chemical characterization of this material has begun. Thermal gravimetric, pyrogaschromatographic and effluent gas analysis has begun on pelletized samples of these biomass species.

Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.; Stringer, R.P.; Bailie, R.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

DRY FLUE GAS CLEANING PROCESSES FOR ACHIEVING AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was mercury adsorption onto calcium sulfate (CaSO4), a byproduct of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wet., Powers K.W., and Pitoniak E.R. (2004) Method for Purifying Flue Gases from Combustion Sources. PatentCoupling of Advanced Oxidation and Adsorption Processes onto Silica-Titania Composites for Low

Columbia University

153

Assessing Air Pollution Control Options at the Hudson Station of Public Service Electric and Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a pilot-scale assessment of air pollutant emission control options at the Hudson Generating Station of Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G). Tests over a period of a year and a half evaluated the capabilities of a high air-to-cloth ratio pulse jet baghouse (COHPAC) in controlling particulates, acid gases, and mercury and a tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in controlling mercury emissions.

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air  

SciTech Connect

Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Deducing Ground-to-Air Emissions from Observed Trace Gas Concentrations: A Field Trial with Wind Disturbance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inverse-dispersion techniques allow inference of a gas emission rate Q from measured air concentration. In ideal surface layer problems, where MoninObukhov similarity theory (MOST) describes the winds transporting the gas, the application of ...

T. K. Flesch; J. D. Wilson; L. A. Harper

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal, Petroleum coke, Biomass, Waste, etc. Gasifier Particulate Removal Air Separator Oxygen Air Steam

159

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana) Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

GAINS-BI: business intelligent approach for greenhouse gas and air pollution interactions and synergies information system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS)-Model is studied and developed to provide a consistent framework for the analysis of co-benefits reduction strategies from air pollution and greenhouse gas sources. In this ... Keywords: ETL, GAINS, business intelligent, data warehouse

Thanh Binh Nguyen; Wolfgang Schoepp; Fabian Wagner

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project  

SciTech Connect

In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste heat and better documentation of potential of carbon credits, would also improve the economic outlook. Analysis of baseline operational conditions indicated that a reduction in methane emissions and other greenhouse gas savings resulted from implementation of the project. The project results indicate that using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-methane from agricultural biomass is a promising source of electricity, but that significant challenges need to be addressed before dairy-based biomass energy production can be fully integrated into an alternative energy economy. The biomass energy facility was found to be operating undercapacity. Economic analysis indicated a positive economic sustainability, even at the reduced power production levels demonstrated during the baseline period. However, increasing methane generation capacity (via the importation of biomass codigestate) will be critical for increasing electricity output and improving the long-term economic sustainability of the operation. Dairy-based biomass energy plants are operating under strict environmental regulations applicable to both power-production and confined animal facilities and novel approached are being applied to maintain minimal environmental impacts. The use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrous oxide control and a biological hydrogen sulfide control system were tested at this facility. Results from this study suggest that biomass energy systems can be compliant with reasonable scientifically based air and water pollution control regulations. The most significant challenge for the development of biomass energy as a viable component of power production on a regional scale is likely to be the availability of energy-rich organic feedstocks. Additionally, there needs to be further development of regional expertise in digester and power plant operations. At the Fiscalini facility, power production was limited by the availability of biomass for methane generation, not the designed system capacity. During the baseline study period, feedstocks included manure, sudan grass silage, and

William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration … Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* NREL/TP-510-32575 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 January 2004 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann Prepared under Task No. BB04.4010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393

165

5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jet-compressible-gas-july25.tex 1 Liquid jet in a high Mach number air stream T.Funada, D velocity airstream is studied assuming that the flow of the viscous gas and liquid is irrotational for the perturbations which depend on all the material properties of the incompressible liquid and compressible gas

Joseph, Daniel D.

168

Laboratory study of premixed H{sub 2}-air and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-air flames in a low-swirl injector for ultralow emissions gas turbines - article no. 031503  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to conduct laboratory experiments on low-swirl injectors (LSIs) to obtain the basic information for adapting LSI to burn H{sub 2} and diluted H{sub 2} fuels that will be utilized in the gas turbines of the integrated gasification combined cycle coal power plants. The LSI is a novel ultralow emission dry-low NOx combustion method that has been developed for gas turbines operating on natural gas. It is being developed for fuel-flexible turbines burning a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, biomass gases, and refinery gases. The adaptation of the LSI to accept H{sub 2} flames is guided by an analytical expression derived from the flow field characteristics and the turbulent flame speed correlation. The evaluation of the operating regimes of nine LSI configurations for H{sub 2} shows an optimum swirl number of 0.51, which is slightly lower than the swirl number of 0.54 for the hydrocarbon LSI. Using particle image velocimetry (PIV), the flow fields of 32 premixed H{sub 2}-air and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-air flames were measured. The turbulent flame speeds deduced from PIV show a linear correlation with turbulence intensity. The correlation constant for H{sub 2} is 3.1 and is higher than the 2.14 value for hydrocarbons. The analysis of velocity profiles confirms that the near field flow features of the H{sub 2} flames are self-similar. These results demonstrate that the basic LSI mechanism is not affected by the differences in the properties of H{sub 2} and hydrocarbon flames and support the feasibility of the LSI concept for hydrogen fueled gas turbines.

Cheng, R.K.; Littlejohn, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

The impact of natural gas imports on air pollutant emissions in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the impact that natural gas imports could have on fuel emissions in northern Mexico. The authors discuss the problem created in the 1980s when a shift from natural gas to residual oil in industrial processes increased emissions of air pollutants significantly. The benefits of substituting leaded for unleaded gasoline in the 1990s are discussed also. In July 1992 the Mexican government announced for the first time since oil nationalization that private companies in Mexico are allowed to directly import natural gas. The transportation of natural gas, however, remains reserved only for Pemex, the national oil company. This opens the possibility of reducing the burning of high-sulfur residual oil in both the industrial and the energy production sectors in Mexico, particularly in the northern region where only 6.7% of the of the country`s natural gas is produced. Natural gas imports have also opened the possibility of using compressed natural gas (CNG) in vehicles in northern Mexico. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Bustani, A.; Cobas, E. [Center for Environmental Quality, Monterrey (Mexico)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Policy considerations for biomass commercialization and its impact on the Chariton Valley biomass project  

SciTech Connect

Growing biomass energy crops on erosive lands, then using them as a substitute fuel in coal-fired power plants can reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and water pollution. Regrettably, the current market value of biomass, which is higher relative to coal, prevents this substitution. Left out of the equation are the costs of related environmental damages and the public expenditures for their prevention. The cumulative value of the benefits derived from substituting biomass for coal likely outweighs the current market price difference, when the public costs and benefits of clean air and water are considered. Public policy to encourage substitution of biomass for coal and other fossil fuels is a vital component in the commercialization of energy crops. This is specifically demonstrated in south central Iowa where switchgrass is being considered as a coal substitute in the Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development (RC and D) area. Marginal land use, rural development, and soil, air and water quality concerns are all drivers for policies to increase the value of switchgrass compared to coal.

Cooper, J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pyrolysis oils) Producer gas Synthesis gas (syngas) Substitute natural gas (SNG) Hydrogen Biochemical Biosolids Physiochemical Densified biomass

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Agency/Company /Organization: California Biomass Collaborative Partner: Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: biomass.ucdavis.edu/calculator.html Locality: California Cost: Free Provides energy cost and financial assessment tools for biomass power, bio gas, biomass combined heat and power, and landfill gas. Overview The California Biomass Collaborative provides energy cost and financial

174

Proposal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions via landfill gas management in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases by collection, flaring, and possibly beneficially using the gas from landfills in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina (GBA). Another purpose was to prepare a proposal to the US Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) for a project to collect and possibly use the landfill gas (LFG). The project was carried out from September 30, 1997 through September 30, 1998. Collection and flaring of gas is feasible provided private firms have sufficient incentive to obtain greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. The value of those benefits that would be required to motivate funding of an LFG management project was not explicitly determined. However, one independent power producer has expressed an interest in funding the first phase of the proposed project and paid for a detailed feasibility study which was conducted in August and September of 1998. As a result of this project, a proposal was submitted to the USIJI Evaluation Panel in June, 1998. In August, 1998, an office was established for reviewing and approving joint implementation proposals. The proposal is currently under review by that office.

Jones, D.B.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

None

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production and combustion testing of biomass-coal fuelsbiomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion,landfill gas combustion. Support for Biomass Projects

Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air-ingress mitigation methods are proposed in this study. Among them, the following two mitigation ideas are extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD): (1) helium injection in the lower plenum, and (2) reactor enclosure opened at the bottom. The main idea of the helium injection method is to replace air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force. This method reduces graphite oxidation damage in the severe locations of the reactor inside. To validate this method, CFD simulations are addressed here. A simple 2-D CFD model is developed based on the GT-MHR 600MWt design. The simulation results showed that the helium replace the air flow into the core and significantly reduce the air concentration in the core and bottom reflector potentially protecting oxidation damage. According to the simulation results, even small helium flow was sufficient to remove air in the core, mitigating the air-ingress successfully. The idea of the reactor enclosure with an opening at the bottom changes overall air-ingress mechanism from natural convection to molecular diffusion. This method can be applied to the current system by some design modification of the reactor cavity. To validate this concept, this study also uses CFD simulations based on the simplified 2-D geometry. The simulation results showed that the enclosure open at the bottom can successfully mitigate air-ingress into the reactor even after on-set natural circulation occurs.

Chang H. Oh

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Phase I: Clean Air Partners 0.5 g/hp-h NOx Engine Concept; Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by Clean Air Partners to develop 0.5 g/hp-h NOx natural gas engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

Wong, H. C.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A New Compact Cryogenic Air Sampler and Its Application in Stratospheric Greenhouse Gas Observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To collect stratospheric air samples for greenhouse gas measurements, a compact cryogenic air sampler has been developed using a cooling device called the JouleThomson (JT) minicooler. The JT minicooler can produce liquefied neon within 5 s ...

Shinji Morimoto; Takashi Yamanouchi; Hideyuki Honda; Issei Iijima; Tetsuya Yoshida; Shuji Aoki; Takakiyo Nakazawa; Shigeyuki Ishidoya; Satoshi Sugawara

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, HCN, AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}OH, KNO{sub 3}, HBr, HF, and HNO{sub 3}) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts; ferrochrome-based high-temperature WGS catalyst (HT-WGS, Shiftmax 120?, Süd-Chemie), low-temperature Cu/ZnO-based WGS catalyst (LT-WGS, Shiftmax 230?, Süd-Chemie), and iron- and cobalt-based Fischer-Trospch synthesis catalysts (Fe-FT & Co-FT, UK-CAER). In this project, TDA Research, Inc. collaborated with a team at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) led by Dr. Burt Davis. We first conducted a detailed thermodynamic analysis. The three primary mechanisms whereby the contaminants may deactivate the catalyst are condensation, deposition, and reaction. AsH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, NH{sub 3} and HCN were found to have a major impact on the Fe-FT catalyst by producing reaction products, while NaCl, KCl and PH{sub 3} produce trace amounts of deposition products. The impact of the contaminants on the activity, selectivity, and deactivation rates (lifetime) of the catalysts was determined in bench-scale tests. Most of the contaminants appeared to adsorb onto (or react with) the HT- and LT-WGS catalysts were they were co-fed with the syngas: ? 4.5 ppmv AsH{sub 3} or 1 ppmv PH{sub 3} in the syngas impacted the selectivity and CO conversion of both catalysts; ? H{sub 2}S slowly degraded both WGS catalysts; - A binary mixture of H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv) impacted the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst, but not the HT-WGS catalyst ? Moderate levels of NH{sub 3} (100 ppmv) or HCN (10 ppmv) had no impact ? NaCl or KCl had essentially no effect on the HT-WGS catalyst, but the activity of the LT-WGS catalyst decreased very slowly Long-term experiments on the Co-FT catalyst at 260 and 270 °C showed that all of the contaminants impacted it to some extent with the exception of NaCl and HF. Irrespective of its source (e.g., NH{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, or HNO{sub 3}), ammonia suppressed the activity of the Co-FT catalyst to a moderate degree. There was essentially no impact the Fe-FT catalyst when up to 100 ppmw halide compounds (NaCl and KCl), or up to 40 ppmw alkali bicarbonates (NaHCO{sub 3} and KHCO{sub 3}). After testing, BET analysis showed that the surface areas, and pore volumes and diameters of both WGS catalysts decreased during both single and binary H2S and NH3 tests, which was attributed to sintering and pore filling by the impurities. The HT-WGS catalyst was evaluated with XRD after testing in syngas that contained 1 ppmv PH{sub 3}, or 2 ppmv H{sub 2}S, or both H{sub 2}S (60 ppmv) and NH{sub 3} (38 ppmv). The peaks became sharper during testing, which was indicative of crystal growth and sintering, but no new phases were detected. After LT-WGS tests (3-33 ppmv NH{sub 3} and/or 0-88 ppmv H{sub 2}S) there were a few new phases that appeared, including sulfides. The fresh Fe-FT catalyst was nanocrystalline and amorphous. ICP-AA spectroscopy and other methods (e.g., chromatography) were used to analyze for

Gokhan Alptekin

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Clean air program: Liquefied natural gas safety in transit operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the safety issues relating to the use of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) in transit service. The surveys consisted of: (1) extensive interviews; (2) review of recrods, procedures, and plans relating to safety; (3) examination of facilities and equipment; (4) observations of operations including fueling, maintenance, morning start-up, and revenue service; (5) measurement of methane concentrations in the air where the buses are being fueled or stored. Interviews included all job categories associated with management, operations, safety, maintenance, acquisition, and support. The surveys also included an examination of the occupational hygiene aspects of LNG use.

Friedman, D.M.; Malcosky, N.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Biomass pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

185

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation [1] Robert H. Williams, Eric D. Larson, Ryan from biomass via indirectly heated gasifiers and their use in fuel cell vehicles would make it possible for biomass to be used for road transportation, with zero or near-zero local air pollution and very low levels

186

CLC of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developments on Developments on Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass Laihong Shen Jiahua Wu Jun Xiao Rui Xiao Southeast University Nanjing, China 2 th U.S. - China Symposium on CO 2 Emissions Control Science & Technology Hangzhou, China May 28-30, 2008 Overview  Introduction  Technical approach  Experiments on chemical looping combustion of biomass  Conclusions Climate change is a result of burning too much coal, oil and gas.... We need to capture CO 2 in any way ! Introduction CCS is the world's best chance to have a major & immediate impact on CO 2 emission reduction Introduction Introduction  Biomass is renewable energy with zero CO 2 emission  A way to capture CO 2 from biomass ?  If so, a quick way to reduce CO 2 content in the atmosphere Normal combustion

187

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and selectivities for the various syngas to products processes. Table 3 presents catalyst poisons for the various products.

Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Sound speed in liquidgas mixtures: Waterair and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sound speed of a two-phase fluid, such as a magma-gas, water-air, or water-steam mixture, is dramatically different from the sound speed of either pure component. In numerous geologic situations the sound speed of such two-phase systems may be of interest: in the search for magma reservoirs, in seismic exploration of geothermal areas, in prediction of P wave velocity decreases prior to earthquakes, and in inversion of crustal and upper mantle seismic records. Probably most dramatically, fluid flow characteristics during eruptions of volcanoes and geysers are strongly dependent on the sound speed of erupting two-phase (or multiphase) fluids. In this paper the sound speeds of water, air, steam, water-air mixtures, and water-steam mixtures are calculated. It is demonstrated that sound speeds calculated from classical acoustic and fluid dynamics analyses agree with results obtained from finite amplitude 'vaporization wave ' theory. To the extent that air and steam are represented as perfect gases with an adiabatic exponent , independent of temperature, their sound speeds vary in a simple manner directly with the square root of the absolute temperature. The sound speed of pure liquid water is a complex function of pressure and temperature and is given here to 8 kbar, 900C. In pure water at all pressures the sound speed attains a maximum value near 100C and decreases at higher temperatures; at high pressures the decrease is continuous, but at pressures below 1 kbar the sound speed reaches a minimum value in the

Susan Werner Kieffer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.C. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Hall, A.W. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

OUT Success Stories: Biomass Gasifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The world's first demonstration of an efficient, low-pressure biomass gasifier capable of producing a high-quality fuel is now operating in Vermont. The gasifier converts 200 tons of solid biomass per day into a clean-burning gas with a high energy content for electricity generation.

Jones, J.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems  

SciTech Connect

This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Biomass Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

There are many types of biomassorganic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastesthat can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007.

196

Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 1, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

High-pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Technical quarterly progress report, May 1994--July 1994  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the development of a coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. This report describes component development.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integrated- gasifier steam-injected gasturbine (BIGISTIG) cogenerationsystemsis carried out here. A detailed!l!ledin a companionpaperprepared for this conference. 781 #12;BIOMASS-GASIFIER ~.INJECTED GAS TURBINE COGENERA110N FOR THE CANE). Biomassintegrated-gasifier/steam-injectedgas-turbine (BIG/STIG) cogenerationtechnologyand prospectsfor its use

199

Biomass Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks.

200

Biomass Energy: Student Handbook and Activity Book  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane and coal are examples of stored chemical energy....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Brookside Dairy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facility Facility Brookside Dairy Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Indiana County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 40.6850762, -79.1096901 Loading map......

202

Biomass Energy Tax Credit (Personal)(South Carolina) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tax Credit Applicable Sector Industrial Eligible Technologies Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, CHPCogeneration, Landfill Gas Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector State...

203

Biomass Energy Tax Credit (Corporate) (South Carolina) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tax Credit Applicable Sector Industrial Eligible Technologies Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, CHPCogeneration, Landfill Gas Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector State...

204

Biomass Energy Production Incentive (South Carolina) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial Eligible Technologies Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, CHPCogeneration, Landfill Gas Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector State...

205

Energy Basics: Biomass Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Share this resource Biomass Biofuels Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Biomass Resources Biomass resources include any...

206

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Get Expertise Researcher Susan Hanson Inorganic Isotope & Actinide Chem Email Researcher Ruilian Wu Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Researcher Louis "Pete" Silks Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Vanadium is an inexpensive, earth-abundant metal that is well suited for promoting oxidations in air. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is

207

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

209

Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

Diebold, James P; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael; Smith, Trevor

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Lilley, Arthur (Finleyville, PA); Browne, Kingsbury III (Golden, CO); Walt, Robb Ray (Aurora, CO); Duncan, Dustin (Littleton, CO); Walker, Michael (Longmont, CO); Steele, John (Aurora, CO); Fields, Michael (Arvada, CO); Smith, Trevor (Lakewood, CO)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

211

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier DOE Hydrogen Program Contractors biomass #12;Approach Outline Gasifier Pilot Plant· Develop subsystems for the hydrogen production system heated gasifier Q Air N2 H2O CO2 O2 Steam H2 CO CO2 CmHn Biomass 45 kg/hr Biomass 180 kg/hr Sand Bed: 43

212

Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

following three natural gas to hydrogen supply pathways areHFCVs. Three natural gas-based hydrogen supply pathways areof the hy- drogen supply pathway: natural gas extraction,

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Catalyzed gasification of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is directed at controlling the gasification reaction through the use of specific catalytic agents to produce desired products including synthetic natural gas, ammonia synthesis gas (H/sub 2//N/sub 2/), hydrogen, or syn gas (H/sub 2//CO). Such gaseous products are currently produced in tonnage quantities from non-renewable carbonaceous resources, e.g., natural gas and petroleum. The production of high yields of these specified gases from biomass is accomplished through optimization of gasification conditions and proper choice of catalytic agents. For instance, high yields of synthetic natural gas can be attained through gasification with steam in the presence of gasification catalyst such as trona (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ . NaHCO/sub 3/ . 2H/sub 2/O) and a nickel methanation catalyst. The gasification catalyst enhances the steam-biomass reaction while the methanation catalyst converts gaseous intermediates from this reaction to methane, the most thermodynamically stable hydrocarbon product. This direct conversion to synthetic natural gas represents a significant advancement in the classical approach of producing synthetic natural gas from carbonaceous substrates through several unit operations. A status report, which includes experimental data and results of the program is presented.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.; Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Cox, J.L.

1978-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for cooking and heating, and promotion of solar lamps orheating fuel used Main source of light in the house Electricity Kerosene lamp Solarsolar lamps. Key words: biomass fuel, cooking-fuel smoke, heating,

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

status in the kitchen Wood No heating fuel used ( p value)Number Percentage (%) Heating fuel type Wood/Biomass Coalfuel in the house Wood No heating fuel used Work outside in

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Top Value Added Chemicals From Biomass: I. Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol. In addition to building blocks, the report outlines the central technical barriers that are preventing the widespread use of biomass for products and chemicals.

Werpy, Todd A.; Holladay, John E.; White, James F.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

379 489 454 457 392 139 1967-2012 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2012 Propane-Air 0 1980-2012 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 1993-2012 Other 379 489 454 457 392 139 1980-2012...

218

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE  

SciTech Connect

This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Biomass Integrated Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Systems Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Systems Project Summary Full Title: Cost and Performance Analysis of Biomass-Based Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (BIGCC) Power Systems Project ID: 106 Principal Investigator: Margaret Mann Brief Description: This project examines the cost and performance potential of three biomass-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems--high-pressure air blown, low-pressure air blown, and low-pressure indirectly heated. Purpose Examine the cost and performance potential of three biomass-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems - a high pressure air-blown, a low pressure indirectly heated, and a low pressure air-blown. Performer Principal Investigator: Margaret Mann

222

Report on Biomass Drying Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

Amos, W. A.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

223

Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

CO2 as Cushion Gas for Compressed Air Energy Storage - Energy ...  

Carbon sequestration; More Information FOR MORE INFORMATION Curtis M. Oldenburg, Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage, Energy and Fuels, 17, ...

225

Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL); Horazak, Dennis A. (Orlando, FL)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Russell Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Russell Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name Russell Biomass Place Massachusetts Sector Biomass Product Russell Biomass, LLC is developing a 50MW biomass to energy project at...

227

Star Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Jump to: navigation, search Name Star Biomass Place India Sector Biomass Product Plans to set up biomass projects in Rajasthan. References Star Biomass1 LinkedIn...

228

Energy Basics: Biomass Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Share this resource Biomass Biofuels Biopower Bio-Based Products Biomass Resources Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Biomass Technologies Photo of a pair of hands...

229

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

None

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Biomass burning : particle emissions, characteristics, and airborne measurements.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass burning started to attract attention since the last decade because of its impacts on the atmosphere and the environmental air quality, as well as (more)

Wardoyo, Arinto Yudi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas  

perform biomass gasification or pyrolysis for production of hydrogen, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, or other hydrocarbon based chemicals. The methods of the invention use solar thermal energy as the energy source for the biomass pyrolysis or ...

233

Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Catalysis in biomass gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RIS? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RIS?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

237

Improving the Technical, Environmental, and Social Performance of Wind Energy Systems Using Biomass-Based Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A completely renewable baseload electricity generation system is proposed by combining wind energy, compressed air energy storage, and biomass gasification. This system can eliminate problems associated with wind intermittency and provide a source of electrical energy functionally equivalent to a large fossil or nuclear power plant. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) can be economically deployed in the Midwestern US, an area with significant low-cost wind resources. CAES systems require a combustible fuel, typically natural gas, which results in fuel price risk and greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing natural gas with synfuel derived from biomass gasification eliminates the use of fossil fuels, virtually eliminating net CO{sub 2} emissions from the system. In addition, by deriving energy completely from farm sources, this type of system may reduce some opposition to long distance transmission lines in rural areas, which may be an obstacle to large-scale wind deployment.

Denholm, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

Gardner, William Payton

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

Gardner, William Payton

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Science Activities in Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activities in Biomass Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, genetics, distillation, agriculture, chemicalcarbon cycles, climatology, plants and energy resources...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Parameterization of the Cool Skin of the Ocean and of the Air-Ocean Gas Transfer on the Basis of Modeling Surface Renewal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat and gas transport in molecular sublayers at the air-sea interface is governed by similar laws. A model of renewal type based on the physics of molecular sublayers allows the derivation of a parameterization of the temperature difference ...

Alexander V. Soloviev; Peter Schlssel

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Biomass Energy in a Carbon Constrained Future  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Energy in a Carbon Constrained Future Biomass Energy in a Carbon Constrained Future Speaker(s): William Morrow Date: September 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Eric Masanet Two areas of research will be presented: potential roles that domestically sourced biomass energy could play in achieving U.S. environmental and petroleum security goals, and possible pathways for achieving California's long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Biomass energy is viewed by many in the electricity and transportation fuel sectors as offering benefits such as greenhouse gas emissions reductions and petroleum fuel substitution. For this reason a large-scale biomass energy industry future is often anticipated although currently biomass energy provides only a small contribution to these sectors. Agriculture models, however,

245

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other cleaner burning fuels (biogas or LPG) for cooking andstove with improved stove or biogas can be suggested, if thegaseous-burning-fuel stove (biogas, liquefied petroleum gas,

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. Large discrepancies between the global and regional emissions are identified, which shows that there is still no consensus on the best estimates for surface emissions of atmospheric compounds. At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 show the best agreement in most years. The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. The best consensus is for NOx emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. Emissions of CO need a better quantification in the USA for all periods; in Central Europe, the evolution of emissions during the past two decades needs to be better determined. The agreement between the different SO2 emissions datasets is rather good for the USA, but better quantification is needed elsewhere, particularly for Central Europe and China. The comparisons performed in this study show that the use of RCP8.5 for the extension of the ACCMIP inventory beyond 2000 is reasonable, until more global or regional estimates become available. Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. The large differences are due to differences in the estimates of burned areas from the different available products, as well as in the amount of biomass burnt.

Granier, Claire; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Bond, Tami C.; D'Angiola, Ariela; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Frost, G. J.; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kinne, Stefan; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, Jean; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, Catherine; Masui, Toshihiko; Meleux, Frederik; Mieville, Aude; Ohara, Toshimasa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riahi, Keywan; Schultz, Martin; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; van Aardenne, John; van der Werf, Guido R.; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

advanced low cost technologies for producing hydrogen from biomass (gasification/pyrolysis, fermentation/NEAR ZERO EMISSIONSEMISSIONS Why Hydrogen? Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Sequestration Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Sequestration #12

248

Other Biomass | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Other Biomass Other Biomass Dataset Summary Description Provides annual consumption (in quadrillion Btu) of renewable energy by energy use sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation and electricity) and by energy source (e.g. solar, biofuel) for 2004 through 2008. Original sources for data are cited on spreadsheet. Also available from: www.eia.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/trends/table1_2.xls Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords annual energy consumption biodiesel Biofuels biomass energy use by sector ethanol geothermal Hydroelectric Conventional Landfill Gas MSW Biogenic Other Biomass renewable energy Solar Thermal/PV Waste wind Wood and Derived Fuels Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon RE Consumption by Energy Use Sector, Excel file (xls, 32.8 KiB)

249

Washington State biomass data book  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Alternative-fuels technology: Natural gas vehicles as a way to curb urban air pollution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in various vehicles. Safety and emissions resulting from combustion are briefly discussed.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Compressed Air Management Program: A Performance Assessment Approach to Improving Industrial Compressed Air System Operation and Maintenance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compressed Air Management Program (CAMP) provides Pacific Gas and Electric's (PG&E's) large industrial customers with measurement-based performance assessments of their compressed air systems. Under this program, the customer's system is inspected and both short-term, high resolution, and longer-term measurements are taken of power and pressure. These data are used in developing a system simulation based on the US DOE's AIRMaster+ computer model. Model results and professional judgment are used to identify a cost-effective strategy for improving the system. Recommendations are provided to the customer along with technical support for implementing these recommendations. After improvements are complete, the performance measurements are repeated so that PG&E and its customers can judge the effectiveness of the recommendations. The program uses a standardized toolkit (all off-the-shelf components) along with software developed exclusively for this application, to accomplish the required measurements and efficiently analyze and reduce the data for use in the AIRMaster+ model.

Qualmann, R. L.; Zeller, W.; Baker, M.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

Demirel, Melik C.

253

ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of studies under a Phase II SBIR program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and a closely coordinated project sponsored by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL, formerly FETC). The overall Phase II objective of the SBIR project is to experimentally optimize the biomass reburning technologies and conduct engineering design studies needed for process demonstration at full scale. The DOE project addresses supporting issues for the process design including modeling activities, economic studies of biomass handling, and experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling. The performance of biomass has been examined in a 300 kW (1 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr) Boiler Simulator Facility under different experimental conditions. Fuels under investigation include furniture waste, willow wood and walnut shells. Tests showed that furniture pellets and walnut shells provided similar NO{sub x} control as that of natural gas in basic reburning at low heat inputs. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with walnut shell and furniture pellets was 65% and 58% respectively. Willow wood provided a maximum NO{sub x} reduction of 50% and was no better than natural gas at any condition tested. The efficiency of biomass increases when N-agent is injected into reburning and/or burnout zones, or along with OFA (Advanced Reburning). Co-injection of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with N-agent further increases efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with furniture pellets and willow wood in Advanced Reburning was 83% and 78% respectively. All combustion experiments of the Phase II project have been completed. All objectives of the experimental tasks were successfully met. The kinetic model of biomass reburning has been developed. Model agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions and thus correctly represents main features of the reburning process. Modeling suggests that the most important factors that provide high efficiency of biomass in reburning are low fuel-N content and high content of alkali metals in ash. These results indicate that the efficiency of biomass as a reburning fuel may be predicted based on its ultimate, proximate, and ash analyses. The results of experimental and kinetic modeling studies were utilized in applying a validated methodology for reburning system design to biomass reburning in a typical coal-fired boiler. Based on the trends in biomass reburning performance and the characteristics of the boiler under study, a preliminary process design for biomass reburning was developed. Physical flow models were applied to specific injection parameters and operating scenarios, to assess the mixing performance of reburning fuel and overfire air jets which is of paramount importance in achieving target NO{sub x} control performance. The two preliminary cases studied showed potential as candidate reburning designs, and demonstrated that similar mixing performance could be achieved in operation with different quantities of reburning fuel. Based upon this preliminary evaluation, EER has determined that reburning and advanced reburning technologies can be successfully applied using biomass. Pilot-scale studies on biomass reburning conducted by EER have indicated that biomass is an excellent reburning fuel. This generic design study provides a template approach for future demonstrations in specific installations.

Vladimir M. Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Schiller Biomass Con Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Schiller Biomass Con Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Schiller Biomass Con Biomass...

255

Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ware Biomass Cogen Biomass...

256

Supplemental Gas Supplies  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1996 (Million Cubic Feet) Table State Synthetic Natural Gas Propane- Air Refinery Gas Biomass Gas Other Total Alabama ...................... 0 18 0 0 0 18 Colorado...................... 0 344 0 0 a 6,443 6,787 Connecticut ................. 0 48 0 0 0 48 Delaware ..................... 0 1 0 0 0 1 Georgia........................ 0 94 0 0 0 94 Hawaii.......................... 2,761 0 0 0 0 2,761 Illinois .......................... 0 488 3,423 0 0 3,912 Indiana......................... 0 539 0 0 b 2,655 3,194 Iowa............................. 0 301 0 0 0 301 Kentucky...................... 0 45 0 0 0 45 Maine........................... 0 61 0 0 0 61 Maryland...................... 0 882 0 0 0 882 Massachusetts ............ 0 426 0 0 0 426 Michigan ...................... 0 0 0 0 c 21,848 21,848 Minnesota.................... 0 709 0 0 0 709 Missouri

257

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Air quality analysis of the potential impact of offshore oil and gas development in central and northern California. Supplement. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This supplement to the Technical Analysis presents additional results for a study prepared for the Bureau of Land Management on the anticipated air quality impacts of the oil and gas development activities associated with proposed OCS Sale No. 53 off central and northern California. This supplementary analysis examines the new Department of Interior air quality regulations and standards applicable to Sale No. 53 activities, the air emmissions likely to result from the various phase of the proposed development, and their potential impacts on onshore receptor areas. The air quality modeling analysis includes both inert and reactive pollutant modeling.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Air quality analysis of the potential impact of offshore oil and gas development in central and northern California. Technical analysis. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the detailed results of a study prepared for the Bureau of Land Management on the anticipated air quality impacts of the oil and gas development activities associated with proposed OCS Sale No. 53 off central and northern California. The report examines the air quality regulations and standards applicable to Sale No. 53 activities, the air emmissions likely to result from the various phase of the proposed development, their potential impacts on onshore receptor areas, and mitigating measures and strategies available to minimize perceived impacts. The air quality modeling analysis includes both inert and reactive pollutant modeling.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Air quality analysis of the potential impact of offshore oil and gas development in central and northern California. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This summary presents the significant results of a study prepared for the Bureau of Land Management on the anticipated air quality impacts of the oil and gas development activities associated with proposed OCS Sale No. 53 off central and northern California. The report summarizes the air quality regulations and standards applicable to Sale No. 53 activities, the air emmissions likely to result from the various phases of the proposed development, their potential impacts on onshore receptor areas, and mitigating measures and strategies available to minimize perceived impacts. The air quality modeling analysis includes both and reactive pollutant modeling.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Primary zone air proportioner  

SciTech Connect

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

262

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

Unknown

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal, and natural gas in three cases, 2011 and 2040 (million barrels per day) Subject

264

Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Supplies of Biomass Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Iowa 46 38 3 0 1993-2011 Louisiana 249 435 2010-2011 Nebraska 0 1999-2011 New Jersey 0 1993-2011 New York 1993-2005 Ohio 412 337 379 456 313 269 1993-2011 South Dakota 1999-2005...

266

Supplies of Biomass Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

375 382 508 1,294 1,405 1,573 1993-2012 Alabama 1993-2003 Georgia 52 732 701 660 1993-2012 Illinois 0 1999-2012 Iowa 38 3 1993-2008 Louisiana 249 435 553 2010-2012 Nebraska 0...

267

Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes a statewide annual CO2 budget allowance of 8,620,460 tons between...

268

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Projects Biomass Characterization Projects A photo of a magnified image on a computer screen. Many blue specks and lines in different sizes and shapes are visible on top of a white background. A microscopic image of biomass particles. Through biomass characterization projects, NREL researchers are exploring the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment and during processing. The characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion processes. Among NREL's biomass characterization projects are: Feedstock/Process Interface NREL is working to understand the effects of feedstock and feedstock pre-processing on the conversion process and vice versa. The objective of the task is to understand the characteristics of biomass feedstocks

269

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency/Company /Organization: CONEG Policy Research Center Inc. Partner: Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Rick Handley and Associates, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Other Website: www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/doer/renewables/biomass/DOER%20Biomass%20Emiss Country: United States

270

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

Francis S. Lau

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Investigation of the Gas-Diffusion-Electrode Used as Lithium/Air Cathode in Non-aqueous Electrolyte and the Importance of Carbon Material Porosity  

SciTech Connect

The gas-diffusion-electrode used in a Li-air cell has been studied in a unique homemade electrochemical cell. Three major obstacles for the development of a feasible Li-air system were discussed with a focus on the development of a functional gas-diffusion-electrode in non-aqueous electrolytes and the way of avoiding the passivation of gas-diffusion-electrodes caused by the deposition of the reduction products. It is the first time that the importance of establishing the 3-phase electrochemical interface in non-aqueous electrolyte is demonstrated by creating air-diffusion paths and an air saturated portion for an air cathode. A model mechanism of electrode passivation by the reaction products was also proposed. Lithium oxides formed during O{sub 2} reduction tend to block small pores, preventing them from further utilization in the electrochemical reaction. On the other hand, lithium oxides would accumulate inside the large pores during the reduction until the density of oxides becomes high enough to choke-off the mass transfer. Carbon materials with a high surface area associated with larger pores should be selected to make the gas-diffusion-electrode for Li-air battery. For the first time, a near linear relationship between the capacity of GDE in a non-aqueous electrolyte and the average pore diameter was demonstrated, which could be used to estimate the capacity of the GDE quantitatively.

Qu, D.; Yang, X.; Tran, C.

2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

272

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrolysis/fermentation, gasification, catalytic synthesis)biomass-to-liquids (BTL) gasification of cellulosic biomass20% from biomass gasification, and 40% from natural gas

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Woody Biomass Supply Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Woody biomass is the feedstock for the majority of biomass power producers. Woody biomass consists of bark and wood and is generally obtained as a byproduct or waste product. Approximately 40% of timber biomass is left behind in the form of slash, consisting of tree tops, branches, and stems after a timber harvest. Collecting and processing this residue provides the feedstock for many utility biomass projects. Additional sources of woody biomass include urban forestry, right-of-way clearance, and trees k...

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Characterization Capabilities Biomass Characterization Capabilities A photo of a man wearing a white lab coat and looking into a large microscope. A researcher uses an Atomic Force Microscope to image enzymes used in biochemical conversion. Through biomass characterization, NREL develops, refines, and validates rapid and cost-effective methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before and after pretreatment, as well as during bioconversion processing. Detailed and accurate characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a necessity for any biomass-to-biofuels conversion. Understanding how the individual biomass components and reaction products interact at each stage in the process is important for researchers. With a large inventory of standard biomass samples as reference materials,

279

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility Facility Tracy Biomass Sector Biomass Location San Joaquin County, California Coordinates 37.9175935°, -121.1710389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.9175935,"lon":-121.1710389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

280

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

Unknown

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

282

Catalytic conversion of biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Catalytic processes for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels have gained an increasing attention in sustainable energy production. The biomass can be converted to (more)

Calleja Aguado, Raquel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas - Bonus Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rebates Central Air Conditioner Unit 14 SEER or above: 350 Central Air Conditioner Unit Energy Star rated: 500 Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas Furnace: 200 - 500...

285

Expansion of high pressure gas into air - A more realistic blast wave model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider a more realistic model of a spherical blast wave of moderate strength. An arbitrary number of terms for the series solution in each of the regions behind the main shock-the expansion region, the nearly uniform region outside ... Keywords: Blast wave, Compressible flow, Explosion, Gas dynamics, Shock wave

Ejanul Haque; Philip Broadbridge; P. L. Sachdev

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Deducing Ground-to-Air Emissions from Observed Trace Gas Concentrations: A Field Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas emission rate Q from an artificial 36-m2 surface area source was inferred from line-average concentration CL measured by an open-path laser situated up to 100 m downwind. Using a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model, a theoretical C...

T. K. Flesch; J. D. Wilson; L. A. Harper; B. P. Crenna; R. R. Sharpe

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all fuels including electricity and syngas will be used forGas Electricity Biomass Syngas Space Heating Coal Oil Gas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex Systems

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. The gasification tests were completed. The GTI U-GAS model was used to check some of the early test results against the model predictions. Additional modeling will be completed to further verify the model predictions and actual results.

Unknown

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Trenka, A.R. (Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Caldwell, C. (Parsons (Ralph M.) Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Kwok, R. (Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co., HI (United States)); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Biomass treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

Energy Optimization of Biomass Pyrolysis and Liquefaction System in CFB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis and liquefaction technology needs inert carrier gas and high energy consumption. On the basis of analyzing its energy consumption and the using way of char and off-gas, energy in the pyrolysis and liquefaction system in CFB is optimized ... Keywords: FB biomass pyrolysis energy consumption optimize

Zhang Jun; Teng Wenrui; Wei Xinli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

Unknown

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

Unknown

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

Unknown

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

Unknown

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modeling, Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Residual Biomass Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification is a thermo-chemical process which transforms biomass into valuable synthesis gas. Integrated with a biorefinery it can address the facilitys residue handling challenges and input demands. A number of feedstock, technology, oxidizer and product options are available for gasification along with combinations thereof. The objective of this work is to create a systematic method for optimizing the design of a residual biomass gasification unit. In detail, this work involves development of an optimization superstructure, creation of a biorefining scenario, process simulation, equipment sizing & costing, economic evaluation and optimization. The superstructure accommodates different feedstocks, reactor technologies, syngas cleaning options and final processing options. The criterion for optimization is annual worth. A biorefining scenario for the production of renewable diesel fuel from seed oil is developed; gasification receives the residues from this biorefinery. Availability of Soybeans, Jatropha, Chinese Tallow and woody biomass material is set by land use within a 50-mile radius. Four reactor technologies are considered, based on oxidizer type and operating pressure, along with three syngas cleaning methods and five processing options. Results show that residual gasification is profitable for large-scale biorefineries with the proper configuration. Low-pressure air gasification with filters, water-gas shift and hydrogen separation is the most advantageous combination of technology and product with an annual worth of $9.1 MM and a return on investment of 10.7 percent. Low-pressure air gasification with filters and methanol synthesis is the second most advantageous combination with an annual worth of $9.0 MM. Gasification is more economic for residue processing than combustion or disposal, and it competes well with natural gas-based methanol synthesis. However, it is less economic than steam-methane reforming of natural gas to hydrogen. Carbon dioxide credits contribute to profitability, affecting some configurations more than others. A carbon dioxide credit of $33/t makes the process competitive with conventional oil and gas development. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates a 10 percent change in hydrogen or electricity price results in a change to the optimal configuration of the unit. Accurate assessment of future commodity prices is critical to maximizing profitability.

Georgeson, Adam

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in itsof Marcellus shale gas production may not be fully

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Woodland Biomass Power Ltd Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Woodland Biomass Power Ltd Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Woodland Biomass Power...

304

Fibrominn Biomass Power Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Fibrominn Biomass Power Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fibrominn Biomass Power...

305

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

306

NREL: Biomass Research - News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News News Below are news stories related to NREL biomass research. Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS . Learn about RSS. November 7, 2013 NREL Developed Mobile App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations Released iPhone users now have access to a free application that locates fueling stations offering alternative fuels, including electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, e85 Ethanol, propane and hydrogen. The Energy Department's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the new mobile application for DOE's Clean Cities program. Clean Cities supports local stakeholders across the country in an effort to cut petroleum use in transportation. August 21, 2013 Can "Drop-In" Biofuels Solve Integration Issues? Lab works to create biofuels indistinguishable from conventional

307

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

NREL: Biomass Research - Standard Biomass Analytical Procedures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the pertinent LAPs. Workbooks are available for: Wood (hardwood or softwood) Corn stover (corn stover feedstock) Biomass hydrolyzate (liquid fraction produced from...

309

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to Design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

Unknown

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The regional environmental impact of biomass production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

Graham, R.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Biomass Power Project Cost Analysis Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of biomass power projects presents a variety of challenges that result in high capital costs associated with developing, engineering, procuring, constructing, and operating biomass power projects. Although projects that rely on more homogeneous fuels such as natural gas must still account for site-specific issues when estimating development and construction costs, the complexities are not comparable.Recognizing the difficulties in estimating the capital costs for ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

312

Annual Report on Biomass Cofiring Program 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cofiring renewable biomass fuels with coal in existing coal-fired plants represents one of the lowest cost ways to increase the renewable component of the electricity supply and reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. This report documents nine years of EPRI / U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) / industry engineering analysis and field testing regarding wood and other biomass fuels cofired with coal in utility coal-fired boilers. These activities have propelled cofiring significantly towards the objective of b...

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

List of Biomass Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Incentives Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 757 Biomass Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-757) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active APS - Net Metering (Arizona) Net Metering Arizona Commercial Industrial Residential Nonprofit Schools Local Government State Government Fed. Government Agricultural Institutional Solar Thermal Electric Photovoltaics Wind energy Biomass No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat

314

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450? C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent were inconclusive. A computer model was developed that successfully predicted the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier. An economic comparison of an air-blown gasification plant and a ballasted gasifier plant found that operating costs for ballasted gasification plant are about 31% higher than for the air blown gasifier plant. Hydrogen from the ballasted gasification plant and air blown gasification plant are projected to be $2.43/kg and $1.85/kg, respectively. This is lower than U.S. DOEs 2010 target price of $2.90/kg and comparable to U.S. DOEs 2015 target price of $2.00/kg.

Robert C. Brown

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

317

Development of a tar decomposition model for application in a Chemical-Looping Reformer operated with raw gas from a biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) represents one of the promising alternatives for biofuel manufacture. The transport sector is where SNG has been identified (more)

Pestana, Maria Ins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Biomass for Electricity Generation  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

Zia Haq

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Biomass Energy Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Biomass Energy Program assists businesses in installing biomass energy systems. Program participants receive up to $75,000 in interest subsidy payments to help defray the interest expense on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Small Modular Biomass Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet that provides an introduction to small modular biomass systems. These systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and people without power. They use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, and animal manures.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

TORREFACTION OF BIOMASS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical pre-treatment of biomass within a narrow temperature range from 200C to 300C, where mostly the hemicellulose components of a biomass depolymerise. (more)

Dhungana, Alok

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Facility Biomass One Sector Biomass Owner Biomass One LP Location White City, Oregon Coordinates 42.4333333°, -122.8338889° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4333333,"lon":-122.8338889,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

324

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of 2002. GTI worked with DOE to develop the Statement of Work for the supplemental activities. DOE granted an interim extension of the project until the end of January 2002 to complete the contract paperwork. GTI worked with Calla Energy to develop request for continued funding to proceed with Phase II, submitted to DOE on November 1, 2001.

Unknown

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

Unknown

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from coal- or natural gas-fired power plants occur "up-of natural gas is lost before reaching the power plant." 30power plant. Yet, when it comes to upstream emissions, the lifecycle for natural gas

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to close the gap on unregulated greenhouse gas emissions.a higher lifecycle greenhouse gas content than conventionalIN- FORMATION ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONs AssocIATEIDn wrri

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Biomass Cofiring Update 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy source. When cofired with coal in a plant that would normally fire 100% coal as the fuel, biomass becomes a renewable source of electricityfor that fraction of electricity that is generated from the biomass fraction of the heat in the fuel mix to the power plant. For electric power generation organizations that have coal-fired generation, cofiring biomass with coal will often be the lowest-cost form of renewable power.

2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

331

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

Recanati, Catherine

332

EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass utilization is one solution to our nations addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nations reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with, or even replace, petroleum and other fossil fuels in the near future. It is a primary domestic, sustainable, renewable energy resource that can supply liquid transportation fuels, chemicals, and energy that are currently produced from fossil sources, and it is a sustainable resource for a hydrogen-based economy in the future.

Zygarlicke, C.J.; Schmidt, D.D.; Olson, E.S.; Leroux, K.M.; Wocken, C.A.; Aulich, T.A.; WIlliams, K.D.

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

333

CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. GTI determined that the mini-bench feed system could not handle ''raw'' biomass samples. These clogged the fuel feed screw. GTI determined that palletized samples would operate well in the mini-bench unit. Two sources of this material were identified that had similar properties to the raw fuel. Testing with these materials is proceeding.

Unknown

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

335

NREL: Biomass Research - Alexandre Chapeaux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

biofuels with industrial partners. Alex's research areas of interest are: Integrated biomass processing High solids biomass conversion Fermentation development Separation...

336

Fixed bed gasification studies on coal-feedlot biomass and coal-chicken litter biomass under batch mode operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the U.S. alone, approximately 200 million tons of dry cattle waste are being produced annually. Recently, cattle and poultry manure have been classified as biomass fuels and have been identified as sources of renewable energy. One of the processes for energy conversion of biomass fuels is thermochemical gasification. For the current study, a laboratory scale, 10 kW[th], fixed-bed gasifier (reactor internal diameter 0.15 m, reactor height 0.30 m) facility was built at the Texas A&M University Boiler Burner Laboratory, and was fired with a) coal, b) feedlot biomass (FB), c) chicken litter biomass (LB), d) high ash feedlot biomass (HFB), e) coal: FB blend (CFB), f) coal: LB blend (CLB), g) coal: HFB blend (CHFB), and h) LB: HFB blend (LHFB). The temperature profiles, and the gas species profile in the bed are measured and the species analyzed for heat contribution. The parametric studies include the effect of fuel particle size (average particle used were 0.52 mm and 9.5 mm), and the air flow rate (45 and 60 SCFH) on the gasification characteristics of the fuels. A summary of the results is as follows: The peak temperature in the bed was about 1500 K for coal (4.28 % ash), 1350 K for FB (14.83 % ash), and 1200 K for LB (43.85 % ash), correlating the decreased peak temperature with increased ash content. The devolatilization of coal, FB, and LB yielded the following: CH? (%): 2.5, 1.8, 1.0, CO (%): 27.9, 29.1, 29.1, H?: 8.5, 8.0, 7.0. On an average, the heating value of the product gas leaving the gasifier was about 5.0 MJ/m for coal, 4.8 MJ/m for FB, and 4.5 MJ/m for LB. The gasification efficiency (45 SCFH) was the lowest for coal (37 %), followed by 39 % for FB, and 68.47 % for LB fuels. LB (18.9 % (Na?O + K?O) in ash) showed consistent bed agglomeration, while FB (7.03 %) showed a reduced tendency for agglomeration, and coal (1.98 %) exhibited no agglomeration in the bed. Based on the current gasification study FB is preferred compared to LB, since the former has a lesser tendency to agglomerate.

Priyadarsan, Soyuz

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Expanding roles for modernized biomass energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produc- tion) at industrial sites or at municipal district heating fa- cilities. This produces a greater poor man's oil" because direct use by combustion for domestic cooking and heating ranks of biomass for cooking and heating. An astounding 58% of all human exposure to particulate air pollution

338

Thermal Use of Biomass in The United States | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Biomass in The United States of Biomass in The United States Jump to: navigation, search The biomass heat exchanger furnace can burn husklage, wood residue, or other biomass fuels to produce warm air for space heating or for process use such as grain drying. Courtesy of DOE/NREL. Credit - Energetics The United States much less biomass to produce thermal energy even when compared with developed countries. In 2003, the United States only consumed 727 kilotons of oil equivalent (ktoe) of biomass to produce thermal energy while consuming 6,078 ktoe of biomass to produce electricity. On the other hand, Europe consumed 6,978 ktoe of biomass to produce useful thermal energy while consuming 5,663 ktoe of biomass as electricity. In Europe (especially Sweden and other Nordic Countries) the use of biomass for heat

339

BNL | Biomass Burns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Aerosols from biomass burning are recognized to perturb Earth's climate through the direct effect (both scattering and absorption of incoming shortwave radiation), the semi-direct effect (evaporation of cloud drops due to absorbing aerosols), and indirect effects (by influencing cloud formation and precipitation. Biomass burning is an important aerosol source, providing an estimated 40% of anthropogenically influenced fine carbonaceous particles (Bond, et al., 2004; Andrea and Rosenfeld, 2008). Primary organic aerosol (POA) from open biomass burns and biofuel comprises the largest component of primary organic aerosol mass emissions at northern temperate latitudes (de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Data from the IMPROVE

340

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Biomass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass: Biomass: Organic matter, including: agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and terrestrial and aquatic crops grown solely for energy purposes. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Traditional and Thermal Use of Biomass Traditional use of biomass, particularly burning wood, is one of the oldest manners in which biomass has been utilized for energy. Traditional use of biomass is 14% of world energy usage which is on the same level as worldwide electricity usage. Most of this consumption comes from developing countries where traditional use of biomass accounts for 35% of primary energy usage [1] and greater than 75% of primary energy use is in the residential sector. The general trend in developing countries has been a

342

Estimating forest biomass in the USA using generalized allometric models and MODIS land products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating forest biomass in the USA using generalized allometric models and MODIS land products 2006; published 11 May 2006. [1] Spatially-distributed forest biomass components are essential to understand carbon cycle and the impact of biomass burning emissions on air quality. We estimated the density

Kuligowski, Bob

343

CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference publications dealing with utilization of animal waste as fuel have been published. In addition a presentation was made to a utility company interested in the new reburn technology for NO{sub x} reduction.

Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

345

Halifax Electric Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Biomass Facility Electric Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Halifax Electric Biomass Facility Facility Halifax Electric Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Plymouth County, Massachusetts Coordinates 41.9120406°, -70.7168469° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.9120406,"lon":-70.7168469,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

346

Randolph Electric Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Randolph Electric Biomass Facility Randolph Electric Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Randolph Electric Biomass Facility Facility Randolph Electric Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Norfolk County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.17668°, -71.1448516° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.17668,"lon":-71.1448516,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

347

Otay Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Otay Biomass Facility Otay Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Otay Biomass Facility Facility Otay Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Diego County, California Coordinates 33.0933809°, -116.6081653° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.0933809,"lon":-116.6081653,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

348

Tri Cities Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tri Cities Biomass Facility Tri Cities Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tri Cities Biomass Facility Facility Tri Cities Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Maricopa County, Arizona Coordinates 33.2917968°, -112.4291464° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.2917968,"lon":-112.4291464,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

349

Gude Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gude Biomass Facility Gude Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Gude Biomass Facility Facility Gude Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Montgomery County, Maryland Coordinates 39.1547426°, -77.2405153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.1547426,"lon":-77.2405153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

350

Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Lyons Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Lyons Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Cook County, Illinois Coordinates 41.7376587°, -87.697554° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7376587,"lon":-87.697554,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

351

Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Landfill Biomass Facility Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Westchester Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Westchester Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Cook County, Illinois Coordinates 41.7376587°, -87.697554° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.7376587,"lon":-87.697554,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

352

Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kiefer Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Kiefer Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Sacramento County, California Coordinates 38.47467°, -121.3541631° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.47467,"lon":-121.3541631,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

353

Milliken Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Milliken Landfill Biomass Facility Milliken Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Milliken Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Milliken Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Bernardino County, California Coordinates 34.9592083°, -116.419389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.9592083,"lon":-116.419389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

354

Colton Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colton Landfill Biomass Facility Colton Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Colton Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Colton Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Bernardino County, California Coordinates 34.9592083°, -116.419389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.9592083,"lon":-116.419389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

355

Bavarian LFGTE Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bavarian LFGTE Biomass Facility Bavarian LFGTE Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bavarian LFGTE Biomass Facility Facility Bavarian LFGTE Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Boone County, Kentucky Coordinates 38.9940572°, -84.7315563° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.9940572,"lon":-84.7315563,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

356

Bradley Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bradley Biomass Facility Bradley Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bradley Biomass Facility Facility Bradley Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

357

Grayson Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Grayson Biomass Facility Grayson Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Grayson Biomass Facility Facility Grayson Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

358

Al Turi Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Turi Biomass Facility Turi Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Al Turi Biomass Facility Facility Al Turi Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Orange County, New York Coordinates 41.3911653°, -74.3118212° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.3911653,"lon":-74.3118212,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

359

Chicopee Electric Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chicopee Electric Biomass Facility Chicopee Electric Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chicopee Electric Biomass Facility Facility Chicopee Electric Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Hampden County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.1172314°, -72.6624209° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.1172314,"lon":-72.6624209,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

360

California Street Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Street Biomass Facility Street Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name California Street Biomass Facility Facility California Street Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Bernardino County, California Coordinates 34.9592083°, -116.419389° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.9592083,"lon":-116.419389,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Girvin Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Girvin Landfill Biomass Facility Girvin Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Girvin Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Girvin Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Duval County, Florida Coordinates 30.3500511°, -81.6035062° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.3500511,"lon":-81.6035062,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

362

Berlin Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Berlin Biomass Facility Berlin Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Berlin Biomass Facility Facility Berlin Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Green Lake County, Wisconsin Coordinates 43.863117°, -89.0179332° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.863117,"lon":-89.0179332,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

363

San Marcos Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marcos Biomass Facility Marcos Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Marcos Biomass Facility Facility San Marcos Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location San Diego County, California Coordinates 33.0933809°, -116.6081653° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.0933809,"lon":-116.6081653,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

364

Lyon Development Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lyon Development Biomass Facility Lyon Development Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lyon Development Biomass Facility Facility Lyon Development Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Oakland County, Michigan Coordinates 42.5921924°, -83.336188° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5921924,"lon":-83.336188,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

365

Acme Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Landfill Biomass Facility Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Acme Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Acme Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Contra Costa County, California Coordinates 37.8534093°, -121.9017954° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.8534093,"lon":-121.9017954,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

366

Brickyard Recycling Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Recycling Biomass Facility Recycling Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Brickyard Recycling Biomass Facility Facility Brickyard Recycling Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Vermilion County, Illinois Coordinates 40.122469°, -87.697554° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.122469,"lon":-87.697554,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

367

BKK Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BKK Landfill Biomass Facility BKK Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name BKK Landfill Biomass Facility Facility BKK Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Los Angeles County, California Coordinates 34.3871821°, -118.1122679° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.3871821,"lon":-118.1122679,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

368

Reliant Bluebonnet Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reliant Bluebonnet Biomass Facility Reliant Bluebonnet Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Reliant Bluebonnet Biomass Facility Facility Reliant Bluebonnet Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Harris County, Texas Coordinates 29.7751825°, -95.3102505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.7751825,"lon":-95.3102505,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

369

Harrisburg Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Harrisburg Facility Biomass Facility Harrisburg Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Harrisburg Facility Biomass Facility Facility Harrisburg Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Dauphin County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 40.2734277°, -76.7336521° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.2734277,"lon":-76.7336521,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

370

Biodyne Beecher Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Beecher Biomass Facility Beecher Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Beecher Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Beecher Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Will County, Illinois Coordinates 41.5054724°, -88.0900762° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.5054724,"lon":-88.0900762,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

371

Sunset Farms Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sunset Farms Biomass Facility Sunset Farms Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunset Farms Biomass Facility Facility Sunset Farms Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Travis County, Texas Coordinates 30.2097015°, -97.6982272° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.2097015,"lon":-97.6982272,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

372

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Biomass processing and solar process heat  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rate at which biomass can supply useful energy depends on the available integrated solar flux density over the year, the photosynthesis yield, the harvest factor, the energy gain, and the conversion efficiency of biomass into the desired energy carrier. Using these factors, an equation is presented to determine the area required for a given annual demand. In particular, the production of ethanol from biomass is considered, based on recent data from the national alcohol program Proalcool in Brazil. Finally, an estimate is given how solar process heat can improve the yield of alcohol or provide other base material for the chemical industry such as ethylene and synthesis gas from biomass. 9 references, 4 tables.

Sizmann, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reliant Conroe Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conroe Biomass Facility Conroe Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Reliant Conroe Biomass Facility Facility Reliant Conroe Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Montgomery County, Texas Coordinates 30.3213482°, -95.4777811° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.3213482,"lon":-95.4777811,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

375

Brookhaven Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brookhaven Facility Biomass Facility Brookhaven Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Brookhaven Facility Biomass Facility Facility Brookhaven Facility Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Suffolk County, New York Coordinates 40.9848784°, -72.6151169° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.9848784,"lon":-72.6151169,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

376

Biodyne Springfield Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Biodyne Springfield Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Springfield Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Sangamon County, Illinois Coordinates 39.7337353°, -89.6251646° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.7337353,"lon":-89.6251646,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

377

Ridgeview Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ridgeview Biomass Facility Ridgeview Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ridgeview Biomass Facility Facility Ridgeview Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Manitowoc County, Wisconsin Coordinates 44.1438879°, -87.460397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.1438879,"lon":-87.460397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

378

Coffin Butte Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coffin Butte Biomass Facility Coffin Butte Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Coffin Butte Biomass Facility Facility Coffin Butte Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Benton County, Oregon Coordinates 44.6281686°, -123.3873877° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.6281686,"lon":-123.3873877,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

379

Barre Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barre Biomass Facility Barre Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Barre Biomass Facility Facility Barre Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Worcester County, Massachusetts Coordinates 42.4096528°, -71.8571331° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4096528,"lon":-71.8571331,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

Arbor Hills Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hills Biomass Facility Hills Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbor Hills Biomass Facility Facility Arbor Hills Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Washtenaw County, Michigan Coordinates 42.3076493°, -83.8473015° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.3076493,"lon":-83.8473015,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Overview of the Chariton Valley switchgrass project: A part of the biomass power for rural development initiative  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Investigation of renewable energy in Iowa is centering on the use of agricultural crops to generate electricity. Switchgrass, a native grass of Iowa, is one of the most promising biomass producers. Chariton Valley RC and D Inc., a USDA affiliated rural development organization based in southern Iowa and Alliant Power, a major Iowa energy company, are leading a statewide coalition of public and private interests to develop a sustainable biomass industry. Chariton Valley RC and D is working with local producers and the agricultural professionals to develop a biomass supply infrastructure. Alliant Power is working to develop the technology to convert agricultural crops to energy to serve as the basis for sustainable commercial energy production. Iowa State University and others are assessing the long-term potential of gasification for converting switchgrass to energy. Plans call for modifications to a 750 MW Alliant Power coal plant that will allow switchgrass to be co-fired with coal. A 5% co-fire rate would produce 35 MW of electrical power production and require 50,000 acres of dedicated biomass supply in southern Iowa. Growing biomass crops on erosive lands, then using them as a substitute fuel in coal-fired boilers can potentially reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and water pollution.

Cooper, J.; Braster, M. [Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development, Inc., Centerville, IA (United States); Woolsey, E. [E.L. Woolsey and Associates, Prole, IA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Biomass Reburning - Modeling/Engineering Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. The second reporting period (January 1- March 31) included kinetic modeling of the reburning process while firing natural gas and biomass. Modeling was done with a kinetic mechanism that combined reactions relevant to reburning from GRI-Mech 2.11 with SNCR reactions. Experimental data obtained in a 1 MMBtu/h Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF) for reburning with natural gas and biomass were modeled using the ODF kinetic code. System was treated as a series of four one-dimensional reactors. Modeling of natural gas reburning qualitatively agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions. Modeling of furniture waste reburning does not qualitatively match experimental data due to a number of model simplifications. Future work will concentrate on improving the basic reburning model to give quantitative agreement with experiments and on search for better representation of biomass composition in kinetic modeling. Experimental data on biomass reburning are included in Appendix 3. These data were obtained during the reporting period in the scope of a coordinated program funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Vladimir M. Zamansky

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

386

Simulation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass Catalytic Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, biomass catalytic gasification process for producing H2-rich gas was presented. The process consists of mainly two fluidized bedsa gasifier and a CaO regenerator. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of ... Keywords: biomass gasification, hydrogen production, Aspen Plus

Shan Cheng; Qian Wang; Hengsong Ji

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ance for new stationary source in the oil and gas industry.standards for new oil-burning stationary sources. 123 Cong.See Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities A photo of a series of large metal tanks connected by a network of pipes. Only the top portion of the tanks is visible above the metal floor grate. Each tank has a round porthole on the top. Two men examine one of the tanks at the far end of the floor. Sugars are converted into ethanol in fermentation tanks. This ethanol is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass technology that support the cost-effective conversion of biomass to biofuels-capabilities that are in demand. The NREL biomass staff partners with other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities at every stage of the biomass-to-biofuels conversion process. For these partners, our biomass

390

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

Biomass for Electricity Generation - Table 9  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Modeling and Analysis Papers> Biomass for Electricity Generation : Biomass for Electricity Generation. Table 9. Biomass-Fired Electricity Generation ...

392

Biomass for Electricity Generation - Table 3  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Modeling and Analysis Papers> Biomass for Electricity Generation : Biomass for Electricity Generation. Table 3. Biomass Resources by Price: Quantities ...

393

Biomass Cofiring Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook has been prepared as a 147how tomanual for those interested in biomass cofiring in cyclone- or pulverized-coal-fired boilers. It contains information regarding all aspects of biomass cofiring, including biomass materials and procurement, handling, storage, pulverizing, feeding, gaseous emissions, ash handling, and general economics. It relies on actual utility experience over the past many years from plants mainly in the United States, but some experience also in Europe and Australia. Many ...

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

394

Biomass Gasification Syngas Cleanup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published report 1023994, Engineering and Economic Evaluation of Biomass Gasification, prepared by CH2M HILL Engineers, Inc. (CH2M HILL). It provided a global overview of commercially available biomass gasification technologies that can be used for power production in the 25- to 50-MWe range. The report provided detailed descriptions of biomass gasification technologies, typical operational parameters, emissions information, and ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

Biomass Cofiring Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass, primarily wood waste such as sawdust, has been cofired in over twenty utility coal-fired boilers in the United States at cofiring levels where the biomass provides from 1% to 10% of the heat input to the boiler. These guidelines present insights and conclusions from five years of EPRI assessment and testing of biomass cofiring and will enable utility engineers and power plant managers to evaluate their own options and plan their own tests.

1997-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Biomass Gasification Technology Commercialization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable cost and performance data on biomass gasification technology is scarce because of limited experience with utility-scale gasification projects and the reluctance of vendors to share proprietary information. The lack of this information is a major obstacle to the implementation of biomass gasification-based power projects in the U.S. market. To address this problem, this report presents four case studies for bioenergy projects involving biomass gasification technologies: A utility-scale indirect c...

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

398

CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A&M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters.

Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometer analyzes vapors during the gasification and pyrolysis processes. NREL's biomass projects are designed to advance the production of liquid transportation fuels from...

400

Co-firing biomass  

SciTech Connect

Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

402

Waste-to-Energy Biomass Digester with Decreased Water Consumption  

The enormous amount of biomass waste created by animal feeding operations releases methane, a valuable fuel but also a greenhouse gas, and other pollutants into the environment. Waste digesters reduce this pollution by converting the waste into ...

403

The Performance Of Clostridium Phytofermentans For Biofuels Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative transportation fuel with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy security. Source-separated organic waste (more)

Percy, Benjamin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in press), Organic aerosols in the earth's atmosphere,loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratoryproperties of biomass burn aerosols, Geophysical Research

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Florida Biomass Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Florida Biomass Energy, LLC Place Florida Sector Biomass Product Florida-based biomass project developer. References Florida Biomass Energy, LLC1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

406

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury is a leading concern among the air toxic metals addressed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) because of its volatility, persistence, and bioaccumulation as methylmercury in the environment and its neurological health impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals that are emitted in particulate form, mercury is released in vapor phase in elemental (Hg0) or oxidized (Hg2+, mainly HgCl2) form. To date, there is no post combustion treatment which can effectively capture elemental mercury vapor, but the oxidized form of mercury can be captured in traditional emission control devices such as wet flue gas defulrization (WFGD) units, since oxidized mercury (HgCl2) is soluble in water. The chlorine concentration present during coal combustion plays a major role in mercury oxidation, which is evident from the fact that plants burning coal having high chlorine content have less elemental mercury emissions. A novel method of co-firing blends of low chlorine content coal with high chlorine content cattle manure/biomass was used in order to study its effect on mercury oxidation. For Texas Lignite and Wyoming coal the concentrations of chlorine are 139 ppm and 309 ppm on dry ash free basis, while for Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass it is 2,691 ppm. Co-firing experiments were performed in a 100,000 BTU/hr (29.3 kWt) Boiler Burner facility located in the Coal and Biomass Energy laboratory (CBEL); coal and biomass blends in proportions of 80:20, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 were investigated as fuels. The percentage reduction of Hg with 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 blends were measured to be 28- 50%, 42-62% and 71-75% respectively. Though cattle biomass serves as an additive to coal, to increase the chlorine concentration, it leads to higher ash loading. Low Ash and High Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass have 164% and 962% more ash than Wyoming coal respectively. As the fraction of cattle biomass in blend increases in proportion, ash loading problems increase simultaneously. An optimum blend ratio is arrived and suggested as 90:10 blend with good reduction in mercury emissions without any compromise on ash loading.

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Reproducedwith pennissionfrom Elsevier/Pergamon ~ Biomass and Bioenerg..' Vol: 10, !:!os 2-3, pp..149-l66, 1996  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reserved 0961-9534(95)00069-0 0961-9534/96SI5.00+ 0.00 BIOMASS GASIFIER GAS TURBINE POWER GENERATING-Integrating gasifiers with gas turbines, aeroderivative gas turbines in particular, makes it possible to achieve high produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems would be competitive

408

Competitiveness of Biomass-Fueled Electrical Power Plants Bruce A. McCarl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Competitiveness of Biomass-Fueled Electrical Power Plants Bruce A. McCarl Professor Department with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plant fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming

McCarl, Bruce A.

409

Ohio Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1990's 918 941 852 1,090 1,090 1,170 1,153 2000's 1,201 1,127 0 222 337 373 412 337 379 456 2010's 313 269 - No Data Reported; -- Not Applicable; NA Not Available; W ...

410

BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY) .......................................................................... 91 Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass) ......................................................................................................................... 111 Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members, and Project Advisors

413

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

414

biomass | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

biomass biomass Dataset Summary Description Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords 2008 biomass consumption industrial sector Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon industrial_biomass_energy_consumption_and_electricity_2008.xls (xls, 27.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

415

One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Michael Roberts (Primary Contact), Razima Souleimanova Gas Technology Institute (GTI) 1700 South Mount prospect Rd, Des Plaines, IL 60018 Phone: (847) 768-0518 Email: roberts@gastechnology.org DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-07GO17001 Subcontractors: * National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA * Schott North America, Duryea, PA * ATI Wah Chang, Albany, OR Project Start Date: February 1, 2007 Project End Date: June 30, 2013

416

A big leap forward for biomass gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the McNeil Generating Station in Vermont, the first industrial scale-up of Battelle Columbus Laboratory`s biomass gasification process. The plant is part of a major US DOE initiative to demonstrate gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The project will integrate the Battelle high-through-put gasifier with a high-effiency gas turbine. The history of the project is described, along with an overview of the technology and the interest and resources available in Vermont that will help insure a successful project.

Moon, S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

418

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

419

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

420

Indirect liquefaction of biomass: A fresh approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Indirect liquefaction of biomass is accomplished by first gasifying it to produce a synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, which in turn are converted to any one of a number of liquid fuels and/or chemicals by suitable choice of catalyst, synthesis gas composition and reaction conditions. This approach to producing synthetic fuels and chemicals has been extensively investigated where coal is the carbonaceous feed material, but less so for biomass or other feedstocks. It is generally recognized that the gasification to produce the synthesis gas posses one of the major technical and economic challenges to improving this technology. Herein, is reported a different slant on the indirect liquefaction that could lead to improvements in the efficiency and economics of the process.

Cox, J.L.; Tonkovich, A.Y.; Elliott, D.C. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gas biomass air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

* 52 732 701 660 1967-2012 Propane-Air 2 0 0 1980-2012 Biomass 52 732 701 660 1993-2012 Other 0 0 1980...

422

Hydropyrolysis of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

425

OpenEI - biomass  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Industrial Biomass Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Source, 2008 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/827 Biomass energy consumption and electricity net generation in the industrial sector by industry and energy source in 2008. This data is published and compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

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426

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

427

Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

East Bridgewater Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Bridgewater Biomass Facility East Bridgewater Biomass Facility Facility East Bridgewater Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Plymouth County, Massachusetts Coordinates 41.9120406°, -70.7168469° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.9120406,"lon":-70.7168469,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

429

Biodyne Peoria Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biodyne Peoria Biomass Facility Biodyne Peoria Biomass Facility Facility Biodyne Peoria Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Peoria County, Illinois Coordinates 40.7156396°, -89.7755338° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7156396,"lon":-89.7755338,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

430

lackouts, rising gas prices, changes to the Clean Air Act, proposals to open wilderness and protected offshore areas to gas drilling, and increasing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and global oil peak. ("Peak" refers to a peak in extraction, followed by inexorable decline. Peak production you know that: · Natural Gas (NG) is the second most important energy source after oil; · In the U that of oil. To the extent that the so-called War on Terror is a cover for increasingly desper- ate moves

Keeling, Stephen L.

431

EA-1752: Smart Grid, Pacific Gas & Electric, Advanced Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Rock Formation, San Francisco, California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE will prepare an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of an advanced compressed air energy storage plant in San Francisco, California.

432

Biomass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy » Energy » Biomass Biomass Learn how the Energy Department is working to sustainably transform the nation's abundant renewable resources into biomass energy. Featured Energy 101 | Algae-to-Fuel A behind-the-scenes video of how oil from algae is extracted and refined to create clean, renewable transportation fuel. Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Highlighting how a rural Oregon hospital was able to cut its heating bills while stimulating the local economy. Ceres: Making Biofuels Bigger and Better A Ceres researcher evaluates the performance of biofuel crops. | Photo courtesy of Ceres, Inc.

433

Energy Basics: Biomass Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from...

434

CLC of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developments on Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass Laihong Shen Jiahua Wu Jun Xiao Rui Xiao Southeast University Nanjing, China 2 th U.S. - China Symposium on CO 2 Emissions...

435

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

436

Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas.

None

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Flash hydrogenation of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is proposed to obtain process chemistry information on the rapid hydrogenation of biomass (wood and other agricultural products) to produce light liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks. The process is referred to as Flash Hydropyrolysis. The information will be of use in the design and evaluation of processes for the conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Results obtained in an initial experiment are discussed.

Steinberg, M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Biomass Reburning: Modeling/Engineering Studies  

SciTech Connect

Reburning is a mature fuel staging NO{sub x} control technology which has been successfully demonstrated at full scale by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) and others on numerous occasions. Based on chemical kinetic modeling and experimental combustion studies, EER is currently developing novel concepts to improve the efficiency of the basic gas reburning process and to utilize various renewable and waste fuels for NO{sub x} control. This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. Basic and advanced biomass reburning have the potential to achieve 60-90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The scope of work includes modeling studies (kinetic, CFD, and physical modeling), experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling associated with biomass reburning, and economic study of biomass handling requirements. Project participants include: EER, FETC R and D group, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and Antares, Inc. Most of the combustion experiments on development of biomass reburning technologies are being conducted in the scope of coordinated SBIR program funded by USDA. The first reporting period (October 1--December 31, 1997) included preparation of project management plan and organization of project kick-off meeting at DOE FETC. The quarterly report briefly describes the management plan and presents basic information about the kick-off meeting.

Vladimir M. Zamansky

1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

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