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Sample records for gas abatement study

  1. Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Abatement Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study (ALGAS) AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility,...

  2. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options fotw#879_web.xlsx (18.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Fall 2015 Quarterly

  3. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting ...

  4. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized ...

  5. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options | Department of Energy 9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Providing workplace charging is one of the more effective ways for businesses to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their employees' daily commute. Offering a bike purchase subsidy can be even more cost effective but may not be suitable for

  6. Benefit cost estimation and cooperation in greenhouse gas abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaide, B.

    1997-12-31

    The world is divided in five players: the USA, the other OECD countries, the former Soviet Union, China and the Rest of the World. The damage equation is formulated around the benchmark damage (at twice the CO{sub 2} level) and the change of temperature in time due to past concentration and current emissions. For having damage cost data (or benefit data) with respect to emissions reduction, damages must be computed at each level of restriction, summed from 2000 to 2100 and discounted back at a predetermined two percent rate of time preference. Abatement costs have been estimated by various authors, some of which believe in no-regrets and some of which only believe in low-regrets policy, some of which are aggregate and some of which are disaggregate. Both theories are taken into account to find abatement cost data between the lower bound of some studies and the upper bound of others. Finally, all exercise is undertaken for getting a curve through the disaggregated benefit and cost data and the best regional fit, represented by a mathematical expression is chosen.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  8. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  9. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  10. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  11. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  12. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  13. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  14. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  15. Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The abatement applies to property used to generate electricity from renewable energy resources including solar, wind, biomass*, fuel cells, geothermal or hydro. Generation facilities must have a...

  16. Pollution-abatement revenue bonds as a source of finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J.F.; Christofi, P.

    1980-01-31

    The use of pollution-abatement revenue bonds, or environmental improvement bonds, is a comparatively new development in electric-utility financing. It has proven to be a convenient and relatively low-cost source of funds for certain kinds of required capital investment. The authors conducted a study of the extent to which, and manner in which, these instruments have been utilized by utilities, examining and analyzing the contents of 363 pollution-abatement revenue bond issues that appeared from 1971 to 1978. The report on their findings and on the benefits of this form of financing for utilities is presented.

  17. Harris County- Property Tax Abatement for Green Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This type of tax abatement may be sought by an applicant of the County’s standard economic development tax abatement, or as a stand-alone tax abatement. When an applicant seeks only a LEED Certif...

  18. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed ...

  19. NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation technology results of CO{sub 2} capture & disposal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audus, H.; Riemer, P.W.F.; Ormerod, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The Programme has examined, on a consistent basis, the options available for capturing and disposing of the CO{sub 2} product from a range of gas and coal fired power generation plant types, each with an output of 500MW(e). Systems under consideration include PF+FGD, IGCC, NGCC and a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} recycle scheme. CO{sub 2} capture technologies considered include chemical and physical absorption, solid adsorption, cryogenics, membrane separation and gas separation membranes. Carbon dioxide disposal options considered are; disposal in the oceans, in aquifers, in depleted gas reservoirs and terrestrial storage as a solid. In addition, a number of studies have evaluated the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery and the manufacture of chemicals, including a detailed investigation of dimethyl carbonate production. Comparison is also made with the alternative stance of compensatory forest plantations and substitution of fossil fuels with biomass. Emphasis has been placed on a requirement to determine the impact of the various technologies on the cost of electricity generation. This has been achieved by analysing the core of specific schemes, on a common basis, and comparative results are presented for various CO{sub 2} abatement options. A member of studies have also been carried out to evaluate transport options and the environmental impact of these technology combinations for carbon dioxide disposal. The results indicate that by combining the most favourable technologies for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal to efficient power generation technology, electricity generation costs could be increased by around 50%. Alternative schemes have similar or even greater cost penalties.

  1. OTEC gas-desorption studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, F.C.; Golshani, A.

    1981-01-01

    OTEC gas desorption studies were initiated with the goal of mitigating these effects and were carried out in four areas: (1) vacuum deaeration in a packed column, (2) deaeration in a barometric water intake system, (3) noncondensibles disposal through hydraulic air compression, and (4) OTEC deaeration subsystems' analysis. Laboratory experiments to date have completed the vacuum deaeration test of three different kinds of packings, barometric intake deaeration experiments, and a series of hydraulic air compression tests. Preliminary analyses based on the experimental data have shown that, as compared to the previous baseline study, reduction both in deaerator cost and pumping power can be realized with a combination of barometric intake and packed column deaeration. The design and operation of the gas desorption test loop, experimental and computer simulation results obtained, and an analysis of OTEC deaeration subsystem design based on the test results and their implication on OTEC open-cycle power systems are presented.

  2. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas ...

  3. Natural Gas Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Study Guide - High School Natural Gas Study Guide - High School (434.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Study Guide - Middle School Fossil Fuels Study ...

  4. Natural Gas Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Middle School Natural Gas Study Guide - Middle School Natural Gas Study Guide - Middle School (246.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Study Guide - High School What ...

  5. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-02-01

    This case study explores the use of heavy-duty refuse trucks fueled by compressed natural gas highlighting three fleets from very different types of organizations.

  6. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide

  7. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  8. City of Cincinnati- Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Cincinnati offers property tax abatements for residential and commercial buildings constructed or renovated to meet LEED certification standards. The original green building tax...

  9. Program Review, Workplace Inspections, Hazards Analysis And Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides guidance information and suggested procedures for performing program review, workplace inspections, hazards analysis, and abatement, successfully at DOE Federal employee worksites.

  10. Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info Sector Name State Administrator Nevada State Office of Energy Website http:energy.nv.govProgramsGreenBuilding(LEED)TaxAbatements State Nevada Program Type...

  11. Taxes, Permits, and the Adoption of Abatement Technology under...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    adoption. However, in terms of welfare, the ranking of the instruments is not so straightforward: taxes may induce lower emissions damages, while TEPs induce lower abatement,...

  12. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  13. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  14. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  15. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  16. City of Cleveland- Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Cleveland, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga County Auditor's Office, provides a 10 to 15 year 100% tax abatement for increases in assessed real estate value for eligible residential...

  17. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_bunting_1.pdf (1.08 MB) More Documents

  18. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle deer11_henry.pdf (1.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light

  19. Case Study - Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas ............................................................................................................................. 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 4 Project-Specific

  20. Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and uniform set of data that will support Indonesia's decision-making process, as we work together with relevant ministries, regional governments, and others to reduce...

  1. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs - Case Study, 2013 ArcelorMittal USA, Inc.'s Indiana Harbor steel ...

  2. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  3. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models

  4. Feasibility studies of waterflooding gas-condensate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, J.D.; Howes, R.I.; Hawkyard, I.R.; Fishlock, T.P.

    1988-08-01

    Preliminary results obtained from a program of experimental and theoretical studies examining the uncertainties of waterflooding gas-condensate reservoirs are reported. In spite of high trapped-gas saturations (35 to 39%), further aggravated by an unusual type of hysteresis, recoveries of gas and liquids can be increased over those obtained under natural depletion.

  5. GE Announces Vic Abate as New Chief Technology Officer | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and create next." Abate will become only the 10th leader in GE Global Research's 115-year history. As Chief Technology Officer, Abate will oversee GE's nine global research center...

  6. Major challenges loom for natural gas industry, study says

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1994-01-28

    The 1994 edition of Natural Gas Trends, the annual joint study by Cambridge Energy Research Associates and Arthur Anderson Co., says that new oil-to-gas competition, price risks and the prospect of unbundling for local distribution companies loom as major challenges for the natural gas industry. With a tighter supply-demand balance in the past two years compounded by the fall in oil prices, gas is in head-to-head competition with oil for marginal markets, the report states. And with higher gas prices in 1993, industrial demand growth slowed while utility demand for gas fell. Some of this was related to fuel switching, particularly in the electric utility sector. Total electric power demand for gas has risen slightly due to the growth in industrial power generation, but there has yet to be a pronounced surge in gas use during the 1990s - a decade in which many had expected gas to make major inroads into the electric power sector, the report states. And while utilities still have plans to add between 40,000 and 45,000 megawatts of gas-fired generating capacity, gas actually has lost ground in the utility market to coal and nuclear power: In 1993, electricity output from coal and nuclear rose, while gas-fired generation fell to an estimated 250 billion kilowatt-hours - the lowest level since 1986, when gas generated 246 billion kwh.

  7. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  8. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  9. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  10. Cost of lead-based-paint abatement in public housing. Volume 2. Appendix C-F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This study provides data on lead incidence and the estimated costs of abating lead hazards in public housing at several possible threshold levels of lead concentration in applied paint. The data were collected at a sample of family projects by cooperating Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Programs using data collection forms designed for the study. National estimates are provided based on the assumption that the construction year of a dwelling or building is the only characteristic related to lead incidence. The estimates are provided for all family dwelling units, defined as those of two-bedrooms or larger; for all buildings in family projects; and for site-wide facilities in family projects.

  11. Cost of lead-based-paint abatement in public housing. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    This study provides data on lead incidence and the estimated costs of abating lead hazards in public housing at several possible threshold levels of lead concentration in applied paint. The data were collected at a sample of family projects by cooperating Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Programs using data collection forms designed for the study. National estimates are provided based on the assumption that the construction year of a dwelling or building is the only characteristic related to lead incidence. The estimates are provided for all family dwelling units, defined as those of two-bedrooms or larger; for all buildings in family projects; and for site-wide facilities in family projects.

  12. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  13. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  14. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of lead on human beings, and particularly on young children, have been known for many years. Amendments to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (LPPPA) in 1987 and 1988 required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to undertake a lead-based paint abatement demonstration program. The overall objective of the demonstration was to 'utilize a sufficient number of abatement methods in a sufficient number of areas and circumstances to demonstrate their relative cost-effectiveness...' One component of the demonstration was conducted in HUD-owned, vacant, single-family properties and was completed in the fall of 1990. A public housing component is expected to be completed in 1991. The report describes the objectives, research design, experience and findings of the completed component, which is generally known as the FHA demonstration, named after the Federal Housing Administration, which held title to the houses.

  15. Comparison of non-thermal plasma techniques for abatement of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-01-11

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in atmospheric-pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge or electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. Recent laboratory-scale experiments show that the electron beam method is remarkably more energy efficient than competing non-thermal plasma techniques based on pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge plasma. Preliminary cost analysis based on these data also show that the electron beam method may be cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  16. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  19. 15 Years of Successful H2S Abatement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Journal Article: 15 Years of Successful H2S Abatement Abstract NA Author Gary J. Nagl Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, 2009 DOI Not Provided...

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Unconventional Gas Market Study 2018 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technical recoverable shale gas reserves, but currently does not hold any shale gas production. However, the growth is expected to commence by 2015. Growth of Shale Gas, Tight...

  2. Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

    2010-12-03

    ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

  3. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  4. GE Announces Vic Abate as New Chief Technology Officer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Names Vic Abate New Chief Technology Officer; Succeeds Mark Little Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Names Vic Abate New Chief Technology Officer; Succeeds Mark Little Vic Abate, President and CEO of GE's Power Generation business, to succeed Mark Little and continue GE's leadership in the Digital

  5. Applications of Modern Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography for the Study...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: Advances in Gas Chromatography, Applications of Modern Pyrolysis Gas ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, ...

  6. Applications of Modern Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography for the Study...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: Advances in Gas Chromatography, Applications of Modern Pyrolysis Gas ... States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  7. Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be met in order for a project to receive an abatement. Depending on the population of the county or city where the project...

  8. New York City- Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2008 the State of New York enacted legislation allowing a property tax abatement for photovoltaic (PV) system expenditures made on buildings located in cities with a population of 1 mil...

  9. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA). Volume 2. Appendices i-p

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The document is volume 2 of the two-volume appendices accompanying 'The HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration' report. The document contains paint testing, abatement, cleanup and disposal guidelines; the part NIOSH plays in the project; health and safety training manual; tables from Tractor Technology Resources; list of manufacturers; quality assurance project plan for collection and analysis of air and wipe samples; and release of housing unit from the demonstration.

  10. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA). Volume 1. Appendices a-h

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The document is Volume 1 of the two-volume appendices accompanying 'The HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration' report. The document contains contract documents; management and work plan narrative in support of HUD 441.1-baseline plan; research design of the lead based paint abatement demonstration; field detection of lead; quality assurance plan of detection of lead; and different forms used in recording data.

  11. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  12. Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beamtarget propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed...

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  14. Optimal CO{sub 2} abatement in the presence of induced technological change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulder, L.H.; Mathai, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of policy-induced technological change for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The authors derive analytical expressions characterizing optimal CO{sub 2} abatement and carbon tax profiles under different specifications for the channels through which technological progress occurs. They consider both R and D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, and they examine each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. The authors show analytically in a cost-effectiveness setting that the presence of induced technological change (ITC) always implies a lower time profile of optimal carbon taxes. The same is true in a benefit-cost setting as long as damages are convex in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. The impact of ITC on the optimal abatement path varies. When knowledge is gained through R and D investments, the presence of ITC justifies shifting some abatement from the present to the future. However, when knowledge is accumulated via learning-by-doing the impact on the timing of abatement is analytically ambiguous. Illustrative numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC upon overall costs and optimal carbon taxes can be quite large in a cost-effectiveness setting but typically is much smaller under a benefit-cost policy criterion. The impact of ITC on the timing of abatement is very slight, but the effect (applicable in the benefit-cost case) on cumulative abatement over time can be large, especially when knowledge is generated through learning-by doing.

  15. Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Hydroelectric Municipal Solid Waste Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Landfill Gas Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digestion Fuel Cells...

  16. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  17. Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Performance Studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Table 6. Advantages of Fuel CellGas Turbine Technologies System has lower capital costs ... power generation. Additionally, the capital and life costs of the fuel cellgas ...

  18. An Integrated Study Method For Exploration Of Gas Hydrate Reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    based on the analysis of geochemical anomalies to the main components, such as methane and hydrocarbon series, an integrated assessment of prospective gas hydrate...

  19. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Frank, M.L.; Garten, C.T.; Houston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Berry, J.B.; Talmage, S.S. ); Amano, H. ); Jimenez, B.D. ); Kitchings, J.T.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  20. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  1. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    BroadRock Renewables, LLC built two high efficiency electricity generating facilities that utilize landfill gas in California and Rhode Island. The two projects received a total of $25 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Private-sector cost share for the projects totaled approximately $186 million.

  2. Silent discharge plasma for point-of-use abatement of VOC emissions. Final report ESHCOO3(b)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coogan, J.J.; Jassal, A.

    1997-02-14

    Los Alamos and SEMATECH have evaluated a silent discharge plasma (SDP) device for point-of-use (POU) control of specific semiconductor VOC emissions at the source. Destruction efficiencies were initially determined at the bench scale using controlled gas mixtures and system performance was measured for simulated emissions containing a variety of volatile organic compounds (including HMDS) and PFCs. Based on this work, a field-pilot unit was designed and tested at a SEMATECH member site using two slip-streams: (1) PGMEA and HMDS gas mixture from lithography tools and the, (2) acetone, PCE and methanol from a wet bench cleaning tool. Based on the pilot test data, CoO estimates for the SDP technology show annual operating expenses (including amortized capital and installation costs, maintenance, and utilities) are $8.3K for a single 250 scfm lithotrack tool. End-of-pipe (EOP) system costs are $33.3K per 1000 scfm as compared to about $22K per 1000 scfm for a typical EOP concentrator/thermal abatement system. LANL does not recommend replacing existing EOP systems with SDP. However SDP could be easily installed in {open_quotes}niche{close_quotes} circumstances for POU control of VOCs from lithotrack tools.

  3. Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Performance Studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NG-SOFCCC) novel power plant systems were earlier introduced as high efficient systems. ... This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide ...

  4. JISEA News: Study on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems Indicates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Priorities - News Releases | NREL JISEA News: Study on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems Indicates New Priorities Study findings published in Policy Forum of Journal Science February 18, 2014 A new study published in the journal Science says that the total impact of switching to natural gas depends heavily on leakage of methane (CH4) during the natural gas life cycle, and suggests that more can be done to reduce methane emissions and to improve measurement tools which help

  5. Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

  6. Case Studies from the Climate Technology Partnership: Landfill Gas Projects in South Korea and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larney, C.; Heil, M.; Ha, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    This paper examines landfill gas projects in South Korea. Two case studies provide concrete examples of lessons learned and offer practical guidance for future projects.

  7. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    -scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  8. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  9. DOE-Sponsored Project to Study Shale Gas Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A consortium led by the Energy Department's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) will implement a process to monitor unconventional gas production at a test site near Morgantown, WV. The goal is to develop ways to increase efficiency and reduce environmental impacts.

  10. Research Division flammable gas system calibration procedure and stability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenchenko, A.; Hojvat, C.

    1993-03-01

    The number of detectors which shifted from initial 50% LEL calibration by more than 5% over 90 days period is small enough in order to increase the time interval between calibrations at least to 120 days, but with any further increase in time between the calibrations probability of SC100 failure greatly increases. In order to keep the number of detectors with abnormal sensitivity low, we would recommend 120 days to be the maximum allowable interval for our present environmental conditions. Information is also presentd on the calibration of the SC100 Combustible Gas Sensor and the DC110 controller. The sensorand controlled form part of the flammable gas detecting systems installed at Fermilab.

  11. Feasibility study of Northeast Thailand Gas Pipeline Project. Final report. Part 2. Compressed natural gas. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The volume is the second part of a three part study submitted to the Petroleum Authority of Thailand. Part II analyzes the potential use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel for high mileage vehicles traveling the highway system of Thailand. The study provides an initial estimate of buses and trucks that are potential candidates for converting to natural gas vehicles (NGV). CNG technology is briefly reviewed. The types of refueling stations that may be sited along the highway are discussed. The estimated capital investments and typical layouts are presented. The report also discusses the issues involved in implementing a CNG program in Thailand, such as safety, user acceptability and the government's role.

  12. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  13. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  14. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions- Case Study, 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study overviewing two large landfill projects in California and Rhode Island funded by the Recovery Act

  15. Abating climate change. What will be done and the consequences for investors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raskin, A.; Mellquist, N.; Shah, S.; Winton, B.

    2008-01-15

    This report is meant for institutional investors. Sections discuss: the science of climate change; global emissions - abatement scenario; coal - the world's dominant fuel for electric generation; CO{sub 2} transport and storage; nuclear energy - the new green solution; renewable energy - harnessing the power of water, wind and sun; regulation; increasing energy efficiency - the lowest cost option; enhancing the efficiency of electric applications; enhancing the efficiency of transportation; macroeconomic implications; and investment implications.

  16. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Czachowski, John B.; Zoldak, John T.

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  17. Review of current research and activities involving characterization, abatement, and disposal of lead-containing paint films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKnight, M.E.

    1990-05-01

    In response to a recent regulation for abating lead-based paint in housing and other environmental regulations, research projects and other activities are being conducted to provide information on procedures for carrying out abatement and maintenance of lead-containing paint films in a safe and cost-effective manner. Relevant Federal regulations, and current research projects and other activities addressing the issues are reviewed.

  18. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, M.; Zilberman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

  20. High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciocco, M.V.; Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    2007-06-01

    NETL’s Office of Research and Development is exploring the integration of membrane reactors into coal gasification plants as a way of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Water-Gas Shift Reaction experiments were conducted in membrane reactors at conditions similar to those encountered at the outlet of a coal gasifier. The changes in reactant conversion and product selectivity due to the removal of hydrogen via the membrane reactor were quantified. Research was conducted to determine the influence of residence time and H2S on CO conversion in both Pd and Pd80wt%Cu membrane reactors. Effects of the hydrogen sulfide-to-hydrogen ratio on palladium and a palladium-copper alloy at high-temperature were also investigated. These results were compared to thermodynamic calculations for the stability of palladium sulfides.

  1. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conceptual design ...

  2. GE to Invest in Penn State Center to Study Natural Gas Supply...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Invest in Penn State Center to Study Natural Gas Supply Chains Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share...

  3. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  4. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  5. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    President Obama’s “All-of-the-Above” energy strategy focuses on safely and efficiently developing America’s natural resources, and emphasizes that energy must be produced in a responsible and sustainable manner. Today, a study released by the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory provides further clarity on responsible development that both furthers America’s energy security and environmental stewardship. It does not speak broadly to all cases of hydraulic fracturing, and is a limited study focused around specific wells in Pennsylvania.

  6. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  7. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Black, M.C. ); Gatz, A.J. Jr. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  8. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  9. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  10. Lead-based paint: Interim guidelines for hazard identification and abatement in public and Indian housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The interim Guidelines provide information on the need for and appropriate methods of identifying and abating lead-based paint (LBP) in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Public and Indian Housing program. It should be noted that these are interim Guidelines and are subject to change as new information becomes available. All requirements for Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) are considered to apply to Indian Housing Authorities (IHAs), except where specifically excluded by statute. Thus, these Guidelines apply to PHAs and IHAs inclusively. These Guidelines have been prepared by a panel of distinguished experts in the field of LBP and are an outgrowth of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) effort, which developed the first draft of these guidelines under contract to HUD. These Guidelines represent the first national compilation of technical protocols, practices, and procedures on testing, abatement, worker protection, clean-up, and disposal of LBP in residential structures. These Guidelines should be used in conjunction with the requirements of any State or local codes and regulations which may apply to the specific project under consideration.

  11. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  12. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K.

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  13. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  14. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 90-070-2181, HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussell, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Officer for Policy Development and Research, an investigation was made into possible hazardous working conditions during the HUD Lead Based Paint Abatement Demonstration (SIC-1521). The demonstration took place in 172 vacant housing units in several different cities. The abatement methods used included abrasive removal, chemical removal, heat gun removal, encapsulation, enclosure, and replacement. Evaluations were made during the demonstrations and it was determined that the workers were exposed to lead (7439921) with the highest exposure levels coming during the heat gun method of removal. Exposures to volatile organic compounds were low. Maximum personal and general area airborne lead concentrations were 916 micrograms/cubic meter and 1296 micrograms/cubic meter, respectively. Soil sampling indicated that lead paint abatement in some cases resulted in increases in soil lead levels 1 to 3 feet from the exterior walls. The author concludes that workers were potentially overexposed to lead during lead abatement. The author recommend specific measures concerning training, work practices, engineering controls, safety programs, risk assessment, respiratory protection programs, medical monitoring and surveillance.

  16. Control of gas contaminants in air streams through biofiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, T.; Lackey, L.

    1996-11-01

    According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the maximum styrene concentration allowed in the work place is 50 ppm for up to a 10-hour work day during a 40-hour work week. The US EPA has classified styrene as one of the 189 hazardous air pollutants listed under Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments to be reduced by a factor of 90% by the year 2000. Significant quantities of styrene are emitted to the atmosphere each year by boat manufacturers. A typical fiberglass boat manufacturing facility can emit over 273 metric tons/year of styrene. The concentration of styrene in the industrial exhaust gas ranges from 20 to 100 ppmv. Such dilute, high volume organically tainted air streams can make conventional abatement technologies such as thermal incineration, adsorption, or absorption technically incompetent or prohibitively expensive. An efficient, innovative, and economical means of remediating styrene vapors would be of value to industries and to the environment. Biofilter technology depends on microorganisms that are immobilized on the packing material in a solid phase reactor to remove or degrade environmentally undesirable compounds contaminating gas streams. The technology is especially successful for treating large volumes of air containing low concentrations of contaminants. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using biofiltration to treat waste gas streams containing styrene and to determine the critical design and operating parameters for such a system.

  17. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  18. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  19. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  20. Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

    2008-04-01

    A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: • Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements • Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout • Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required • Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems • Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs • Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

  1. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  2. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  3. Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY lab 18 Aug 2015 Richard Hammack, Monitoring Team Lead USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production DOE Tribal Leaders Forum Denver, Colorado Newfield Exploration, Bakken Petroleum System, North Dakota * Reduce Environmental Impacts * Demonstrate Safe/Reliable Operations * Improve Efficiency of Hydraulic Fracturing Program Objectives * Surface Monitoring - Ambient Air Quality - Air Emissions - Ground Motion -

  4. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Cada, G F.

    2001-03-23

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. We investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  5. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    This study identifies vital gas turbine (GT) parameters and quantifies their influence in meeting the DOE Turbine Program overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant goals of 50% net HHV efficiency, $1000/kW capital cost, and low emissions. The project analytically evaluates GE advanced F class air cooled technology level gas turbine conceptual cycle designs and determines their influence on IGCC plant level performance including impact of Carbon capture. This report summarizes the work accomplished in each of the following six Tasks. Task 1.0--Overall IGCC Plant Level Requirements Identification: Plant level requirements were identified, and compared with DOE's IGCC Goal of achieving 50% Net HHV Efficiency and $1000/KW by the Year 2008, through use of a Six Sigma Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Tool. This analysis resulted in 7 GT System Level Parameters as the most significant. Task 2.0--Requirements Prioritization/Flow-Down to GT Subsystem Level: GT requirements were identified, analyzed and prioritized relative to achieving plant level goals, and compared with the flow down of power island goals through use of a Six Sigma QFD Tool. This analysis resulted in 11 GT Cycle Design Parameters being selected as the most significant. Task 3.0--IGCC Conceptual System Analysis: A Baseline IGCC Plant configuration was chosen, and an IGCC simulation analysis model was constructed, validated against published performance data and then optimized by including air extraction heat recovery and GE steam turbine model. Baseline IGCC based on GE 207FA+e gas turbine combined cycle has net HHV efficiency of 40.5% and net output nominally of 526 Megawatts at NOx emission level of 15 ppmvd{at}15% corrected O2. 18 advanced F technology GT cycle design options were developed to provide performance targets with increased output and/or efficiency with low NOx emissions. Task 4.0--Gas Turbine Cycle Options vs. Requirements Evaluation: Influence coefficients on 4 key

  6. Multidiscipline studies of the depletion behavior of the F23 Gas Field, offshore Sarawak, East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijna, H.B.; Sin, S.L.M.; Ing, S.T.T.; Van Vliet, A.; Wong, K.; Hassan, W.M.W. )

    1994-07-01

    The F23 gas field is located 178 km north-northwest of Bintulu in the central Luconia province, offshore Sarawak. The accumulation consists of a late Miocene layered platform-type carbonate buildup 22 km[sup 2] and a maximum gas thickness of over 1000 ft. Eleven development wells and one observation well were completed in 1983, with initial gas delivery to Malaysia LNG in October 1983. Annual TDT surveys are conducted in the observation well to monitor the movement of the GWC in the central area of the field. As of April 1992, a cumulative rise of 25 ft was observed. This contrasts with material balance calculations predicted rise of some 60 ft based on Sgr of 50% inferred from core measurements. Among the potential explanations were irregular bottom-water encroachment, preferential flank water advance, or larger GIIP. As all had potentially important consequences to depletion strategy and ultimate reserves, multidiscipline studies were initiated. Time-lapse seismic data were used to better determine the existing fluid levels across the field and reservoir simulation studies were used to match observation well data and predict future reservoir behavior. Concurrent reservoir and simulation studies suggested that the material balance and observation well data could be reconciled by (1) a reduced aquifer, and/or increased GIIP, and/or a lower residual gas saturation, or (2) preferential flank water influx due to internal low-permeability layers. As (1) would not lead to early water breakthrough, the simulation effort was aimed to investigate (2), the possibility and implications of early edge water breakthrough via the flank zone.

  7. A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

    1998-10-19

    New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g

  8. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  9. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  10. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  11. Comprehensive and workable plan for the abatement of lead-based paint in privately owned housing. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitz, S.; Clickner, R.P.; Blackburn, A.; Buches, D.

    1991-01-01

    The report proposes a balanced and comprehensive plan designed to overcome the barriers that have inhibited efforts to address the hazards of lead-based paint in the past, and to support State and local governments and the private sector in the difficult but necessary task of reducing these hazards in American homes. The report focuses on lead paint abatement, as mandated by the Congress.

  12. Gas-phase study on uridine: Conformation and X-ray photofragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itl, Eero Kooser, Kuno; Levola, Helena; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Ha, Dang Trinh; Kukk, Edwin

    2015-05-21

    Fragmentation of RNA nucleoside uridine, induced by carbon 1s core ionization, has been studied. The measurements by combined electron and ion spectroscopy have been performed in gas phase utilizing synchrotron radiation. As uridine is a combination of d-ribose and uracil, which have been studied earlier with the same method, this study also considers the effect of chemical environment and the relevant functional groups. Furthermore, since in core ionization the initial core hole is always highly localized, charge migration prior to fragmentation has been studied here. This study also demonstrates the destructive nature of core ionization as in most cases the C 1s ionization of uridine leads to concerted explosions producing only small fragments with masses ?43 amu. In addition to fragmentation patterns, we found out that upon evaporation the sugar part of the uridine molecule attains hexagonal form.

  13. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  14. SO[sub 2] abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landolt, C.A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J.D.; McDonald, R.N. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO[sub 2] emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O[sub 2]/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO[sub 2] off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

  15. A blasting additive that renders wastes non hazardous in lead paint abatement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.; Rapp, D.J.; McGrew, M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance of steel structures often produces abrasive wastes that are considered toxic and hazardous due to the lead content of the old paint system present in spent abrasives. Environmental regulations in the US and Canada effectively preclude on-site treatment and disposal of these wastes, thereby forcing them into costly transport and secure disposal options. The authors have developed an abrasive additive that allows dry or wet blasting to remove old paint systems, but the resultant wastes are considered non-hazardous and are eligible for recycling or non-hazardous waste disposal, both at sharply reduced costs. The agent does not ``mask`` environmental test results, but does produce a stable residue suitable for long term disposal or reuse. Surface conditions after application of abrasives appear to be amenable to virtually all paint systems tested. The process is in use on an estimated 10% of all steel based lead paint abatement projects in the US, and is experiencing considerable growth in market acceptance. The technology may allow disposal cost reductions in excess of 50%.

  16. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  17. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Developing a Natural Gas- Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study George Mitchell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-64756 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

  18. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L.

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  20. DDR-type zeolite membrane synthesis, modification and gas permeation studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Shaowei; Cao, Zishu; Arvanitis, Antonios; Sun, Xinhui; Xu, Zhi; Dong, Junhang

    2016-01-22

    DDR-type zeolite membrane was synthesized on porous α-alumina substrate by hydrothermal treatment of a ball-milled Sigmal-1 crystal seed layer in an aluminum-free precursor solution containing 1-Adamantylamine as the structure directing agent (SDA). The as-synthesized DDR zeolite membranes were defect-free but the supported zeolite layers were susceptible to crack development during the subsequent high-temperature SDA removal process. The cracks were effectively eliminated by the liquid phase chemical deposition method using tetramethoxysilane as the precursor for silica deposits. The modified membrane was extensively studied for H2, He, O2, N2, CO2, CH4, and i-C4H10 pure gas permeation and CO2/CH4 mixture separation. At 297more » K and 2-bar feed gas pressure, the membrane achieved a CO2/CH4 separation factor of ~92 for a feed containing 90% CO2, which decreased to 62 for a feed containing 10% CO2 with the CO2 permeance virtually unchanged at ~1.8×10–7 mol/m• sup>2 s • Pa regardless of the feed composition. It also exhibited an O2/N2 permselectivity of 1.8 at 297 K. Furthermore, the gas permeation behaviors of the current aluminum-containing DDR type zeolite membrane are generally in good agreement with the findings in both experimental and theoretical studies on the pure-silica DDR membranes in recent literature.« less

  1. Texas Bi-Fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pickup Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Matthews, R. D.; Popova, E. T.

    1999-05-24

    Alternative fuels may be an effective means for decreasing America's dependence on imported oil; creating new jobs; and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, exhaust toxics, and ozone-forming hydrocarbons. However, data regarding in-use fuel economy and maintenance characteristics of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been limited in availability. This study was undertaken to compare the operating and maintenance characteristics of bi-fuel vehicles (which use liquefied petroleum gas, or propane, as the primary fuel) to those of nominally identical gasoline vehicles. In Texas, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most widely used alternative fuels. The largest fleet in Texas, operated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), has hundred of bi-fuel (LPG and gasoline) vehicles operating in normal daily service. The project was conducted over a 2-year period, including 18 months (April 1997-September 1998) of data collection on operations, maintenance, and fuel consumption of the vehicles under study. This report summarizes the project and its results.

  2. Feasibility Study of Compact Gas-Filled Storage Ring for 6D Cooling of Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Garren, J. Kolonlo

    2005-10-31

    The future of elementary particle physics in the USA depends in part on the development of new machines such as the International Linear Collider, Muon Collider and Neutrino Factories which can produce particle beams of higher energy, intensity, or particle type than now exists. These beams will enable the continued exploration of the world of elementary particles and interactions. In addition, the associated development of new technologies and machines such as a Muon Ring Cooler is essential. This project was to undertake a feasibility study of a compact gas-filled storage ring for 6D cooling of muon beams. The ultimate goal, in Phase III, was to build, test, and operate a demonstration storage ring. The preferred lattice for the storage ring was determined and dynamic simulations of particles through the lattice were performed. A conceptual design and drawing of the magnets were made and a study of the RF cavity and possible injection/ejection scheme made. Commercial applications for the device were investigated and the writing of the Phase II proposal completed. The research findings conclude that a compact gas-filled storage ring for 6D cooling of muon beams is possible with further research and development.

  3. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, W. G. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F., E-mail: zfding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-05-15

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times.

  4. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kent Barefield; Charles L. Liotta; Henry M. Neumann

    2002-04-08

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  6. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  7. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  8. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  9. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  10. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of gas dynamic window for electron beam transport into the space with increased pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.

    2014-12-09

    The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the gas jet technical device for obtaining axisymmetric flow with low pressure in its near axis region. The studied geometry of the device is typical of that used in the plasma generator consisting of an electron gun with a hollow (plasma) cathode and a double supersonic ring nozzle. The geometry of the nozzles as well as the relation between the gas flow rates through the nozzles providing the electron beam extraction into the region with increased pressure are tested both experimentally and numerically. The maximum external pressure of about 0.25 bar that does not disturb the electron beam is achieved.

  12. Analysis and Methane Gas Separations Studies for City of Marsing, Idaho An Idaho National Laboratory Technical Assistance Program Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Orme

    2012-08-01

    Introduction and Background Large amounts of methane in well water is a wide spread problem in North America. Methane gas from decaying biomass and oil and gas deposits escape into water wells typically through cracks or faults in otherwise non-porous rock strata producing saturated water systems. This methane saturated water can pose several problems in the delivery of drinking water. The problems range from pumps vapor locking (cavitating), to pump houses exploding. The City of Marsing requested Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assist with some water analyses as well as to provide some engineering approaches to methane capture through the INL Technical Assistance Program (TAP). There are several engineering approaches to the removal of methane and natural gas from water sources that include gas stripping followed by compression and/or dehydration; membrane gas separators coupled with dehydration processes, membrane water contactors with dehydration processes.

  13. Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide with Enhanced Gas Recovery-CaseStudy Altmark, North German Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebscher, Dorothee; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-10-12

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage is one strategy for reducingCO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Depleted natural gas reservoirs are anobvious target for CO2 storage due to their proven record of gascontainment. Germany has both large industrial sources of CO2 anddepleting gas reservoirs. The purpose of this report is to describe theanalysis and modeling performed to investigate the feasibility ofinjecting CO2 into nearly depleted gas reservoirs in the Altmark area inNorth Germany for geologic CO2 storage with enhanced gasrecovery.

  14. Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P

    2008-01-01

    A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120). The effect of the EGR components CO2 and H2O was to suppress the compression temperature because of their higher heat capacities, which retarded SOC. For a concentration of O2 higher than the stoichiometric amount, or excess O2, there was an effect of advancing SOC for n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, but SOC for ethanol was not advanced. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) for n-heptane was also found to be highly dependent on excess O2, and mild endothermic reaction was observed for cases when excess O2 was not present.

  15. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    As of the end of 2014, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) had connected over 130,000 DG PV systems in its service territory, more than any other utility in the U.S. In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes.

  16. Study of the one dimensional electron gas arrays confined by steps in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijie E-mail: sh-yyang@semi.ac.cn; Zhao, Guijuan; Liu, Guipeng; Wei, Hongyuan; Jiao, Chunmei; Yang, Shaoyan E-mail: sh-yyang@semi.ac.cn; Wang, Lianshan; Zhu, Qinsheng

    2014-05-21

    One dimensional electron gas (1DEG) arrays in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterostructures have been studied. The steps at the interface would lead to the lateral barriers and limit the electron movement perpendicular to such steps. Through a self-consistent Schrdinger-Poisson approach, the electron energy levels and wave functions were calculated. It was found that when the total electron density was increased, the lateral barriers were lowered due to the screening effects by the electrons, and the electron gas became more two-dimension like. The calculated 1DEG densities were compared to the experimental values and good agreements were found. Moreover, we found that a higher doping density is more beneficial to form 1-D like electron gas arrays.

  17. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  18. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  19. Ocean thermal energy conversion gas desorption studies. Volume 1. Design of experiments. [Open-cycle power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F.C.

    1980-10-01

    Seawater deaeration is a process affecting almost all proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power systems. If the noncondensable dissolved air is not removed from a power system, it will accumulate in thecondenser, reduce the effectiveness of condensation, and result in deterioration of system performance. A gas desorption study is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the goal of mitigating these effects; this study is designed to investigate the vacuum deaeration process for low-temperature OTEC conditions where conventional steam stripping deaeration may not be applicable. The first in a series describing the ORNL studies, this report (1) considers the design of experiments and discusses theories of gas desorption, (2) reviews previous relevant studies, (3) describes the design of a gas desorption test loop, and (4) presents the test plan for achieving program objectives. Results of the first series of verification tests and the uncertainties encountered are also discussed. A packed column was employed in these verification tests and test data generally behaved as in previous similar studies. Results expressed as the height of transfer unit (HTU) can be correlated with the liquid flow rate by HTU = 4.93L/sup 0/ /sup 25/. End effects were appreciable for the vacuum deaeration system, and a correlation of them to applied vacuum pressure was derived.

  20. The role of IRP in the natural gas industry: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.A.; Brockman, L.; Herman, P.

    1994-09-29

    The natural gas industry has changed radically over the last decade. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Order 636 completed plans to unbundle interstate pipeline services and create open access for distribution companies and their customers. There has also been increasing competition for local distribution companies (LDCs) from fuel oil, electricity and unregulated energy service companies. Meanwhile, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes provisions that encourage energy efficiency and promote reliance on competitive forces. In response to these changes, coupled with growing environmental concerns and the need for increased energy efficiency, a number of state public utility commissions and LDCs took an interest in integrated resource planning (IRP) for gas utilities. Gas IRP was in its formative stages and a variety of regulatory approaches were being considered when this project began. In response, this project originated with the total project scope being to define, implement and institutionalize an IRP process for the Gas Customer Service Business Unit of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMGas).

  1. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  2. FE-Funded Study Released on Key Factors Affecting China Shale Gas Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As many people know, over the past decade the United States has experienced a shale gas revolution that has beneficially transformed its energy landscape. In witnessing this transformation, other nations with significant shale resources are understandably interested in pursuing the responsible development of their domestic reserves, and achieving for their people accompanying economic, energy security and environmental benefits.

  3. DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a newly awarded project, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy are partnering with European scientists to track injected carbon dioxide in the world's first and longest running carbon storage operation located at the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea.

  4. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  5. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  6. Stratified charge and homogeneous charge flowfields in natural gas fueled rotary engines. Interim report on task 2. 1. 7 combustion/stratification studies'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.

    1988-12-09

    Natural gas stratification and combustion in a rotary engine are studied with a three-dimensional model. The validated model could be employed as a useful tool in selection of optimum spark plug locations, number of spark plugs, spark timings, pocket geometry, and optimization studies of natural gas fired rotary engines.

  7. First-principles study of noble gas impurities and defects in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Alexander E.; Wolverton, C.

    2011-10-01

    We performed a series of density functional theory + U (DFT + U) calculations to explore the energetics of various defects in UO{sub 2}, i.e., noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), Schottky defects, and the interaction between these defects. We found the following: (1) collinear antiferromagnetic UO{sub 2} has an energy-lowering distortion of the oxygen sublattice from ideal fluorite positions; (2) DFT + U qualitatively affects the formation volume of Schottky defect clusters in UO{sub 2} (without U the formation volume is negative, but including U the formation volume is positive); (3) the configuration of the Schottky defect cluster is dictated by a competition between electrostatic and surface energy effects; (4) the incorporation energy of inserting noble gas atoms into an interstitial site has a strong dependence on the volume of the noble gas atom, corresponding to the strain it causes in the interstitial site, from He (0.98 eV) to Xe (9.73 eV); (5) the energetics of each of the noble gas atoms incorporated in Schottky defects show strong favorable binding, due to strain relief associated with moving the noble gas atom from the highly strained interstitial position into the vacant space of the Schottky defect; and (6) for argon, krypton, and xenon, the binding energy of a noble gas impurity with the Schottky defect is larger than the formation energy of a Schottky defect, thereby making the formation of Schottky defects thermodynamically favorable in the presence of these large impurities.

  8. Development of the CD Symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Glenn, S.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; and others

    2014-09-15

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T{sub 2}-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within the CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.

  9. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; et al

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within themore » CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.« less

  10. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Chen, K. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoover, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Kervin, P.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Moore, A.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Widmann, K.; Wilson, D. C.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within the CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.

  11. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process: A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process: A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric Kristen Ardani and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-65066 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  12. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  13. Computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase particle-gas system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the interaction of a shock wave with a multiphase particle-gas system which creates an instability somewhat similar to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability but with a larger parameter space. Because this parameter space is large, we only present an introductory survey of the effects of many of these parameters. We highlight the effects of particle-gas coupling, incident shock strength, particle size, effective system density differences, and multiple particle relaxation time effects. We focus on dilute flows with mass loading up to 40% and do not attempt to cover all parametric combinations. Instead, we vary one parameter at a timemore » leaving additional parametric combinations for future work. The simulations are run with the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a multiphase particulate transport method to model two-way momentum and energy coupling. A brief validation of these models is presented and coupling effects are explored. It is shown that even for small particles, on the order of 1μm, multi-phase coupling effects are important and diminish the circulation deposition on the interface by up to 25%. These coupling effects are shown to create large temperature deviations from the dusty gas approximation, up to 20% greater, especially at higher shock strengths. It is also found that for a multiphase instability, the vortex sheet deposited at the interface separates into two sheets. In conclusion, depending on the particle and particle-gas Atwood numbers, the instability may be suppressed or enhanced by the interactions of these two vortex sheets.« less

  14. On-line gas chromatographic studies of rutherfordium (Element 104), hahnium (Element 105), and homologs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadkhodayan, B.

    1993-05-01

    Gas-phase isothermal chromatogaphy is a method by which volatile compounds of different chemical elements can be separated according to their volatilities. The technique, coupled with theoretical modeling of the processes occurring in the chromatogaphy column, provides accurate determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g., adsorption enthalpies) for compounds of elements, such as the transactinides, which can only be produced on an atom-at-a-time basis. In addition, the chemical selectivity of the isothermal chromatogaphy technique provides the decontamination from interfering activities necessary for the determination of the nuclear decay properties of isotopes of the transactinide elements. Volatility measurements were performed on chloride species of Rf and its group 4 homologs, Zr and Hf, as well as Ha and its group 5 homologs, Nb and Ta. Adsorption enthalpies were calculated for all species using a Monte Carlo code simulation based on a microscopic model for gas thermochromatography in open columns with laminar flow of the carrier gas. Preliminary results are presented for Zr- and Nb-bromides.

  15. Control Sensitivity Study for a Hybrid Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banta, Larry; Absten, Jason; Tsai, Alex; Gemmen, R.S.; Tucker, D.A.

    2008-06-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed a hardware simulator to test the operating characteristics of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid systems. The Hybrid Performance (HyPer) simulator has been described previously, and has contributed to the understanding of SOFC/GT system operation. HyPer contains not only the requisite elements of gas turbine/compressor/generator, recuperator, combustor, and associated piping, but also several air flow control valves that are proposed as system control mechanisms. It is necessary to know how operation of these valves affects the various entities such as cathode air flow, turbine speed, and various temperatures important to the safe and efficient operation of fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid systems. To determine the interactions among key variables, a series of experiments was performed in which the effect of modulating each of the key manipulated variables was recorded. This document outlines the test methods used and presents some of the data from those tests, along with analysis and interpretation of that data in the context of control system design.

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phani, A.R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  18. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  19. THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN XENON AND POSITIVE SILVER CLUSTERS IN GAS PHASE AND ON THE (001) CHABAZITE SURFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, D.

    2009-03-16

    A systematic study on the adsorption of xenon on silver clusters in the gas phase and on the (001) surface of silver-exchanged chabazite is reported. Density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the cluster model was employed. The results indicate that the dominant part of the binding is the {sigma} donation, which is the charge transfer from the 5p orbital of Xe to the 5s orbital of Ag and is not the previously suggested d{sub {pi}}-d{sub {pi}} back-donation. A correlation between the binding energy and the degree of {sigma} donation is found. Xenon was found to bind strongly to silver cluster cations and not to neutral ones. The binding strength decreases as the cluster size increases for both cases, clusters in the gas-phase and on the chabazite surface. The Ag{sup +} cation is the strongest binding site for xenon both in gas phase and on the chabazite surface with the binding energies of 73.9 and 14.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The results also suggest that the smaller silver clusters contribute to the negative chemical shifts observed in the {sup 129}Xe NMR spectra in experiments.

  20. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  1. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  2. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, George

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  3. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  4. Geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin for the applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process for simultaneous gas recovery and water disposal in production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maryn, S.

    1994-03-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted a geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin to evaluate the applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for gas recovery and water disposal in production wells. A review of available publications was conducted to identify, (1) natural gas reservoirs which generate large quantities of gas and water, and (2) underground injection zones for produced water. Research efforts were focused on unconventional natural gas formations. The Antrim Shale is a Devonian gas shale which produces gas and large quantities of water. Total 1992 production from 2,626 wells was 74,209,916 Mcf of gas and 25,795,334 bbl of water. The Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone is a major injection zone for produced water. ``Waterless completion`` wells have been completed in the Antrim Shale for gas recovery and in the Dundee Limestone for water disposal. Jack McIntyre`s patented process has potential application for the recovery of gas from the Antrim Shale and simultaneous injection of produced water into the Dundee Limestone.

  5. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice BhatnagarGrossKrook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  6. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  7. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  8. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  9. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  10. Dry Gas Zone, Elk Hills field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Engineering text and exhibits: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The Dry Gas Zone in the Elk Hills field is comprised of fourteen separate productive horizons deposited in the MYA Group of the San Joaquin Formation of Pliocene Age. Eighty-six separate Reservoir Units have been identified within the interval over an area roughly ten miles long and four miles wide. One basal Tulare sand, the Tulare B, was also included in the geologic study. Five earlier studies have been made of the Dry Gas Zone; each is referenced in the Appendix of this report. Most of these studies were geologic in nature, and none provided in-depth reservoir analyses. This report is made up of ten (10) separate volumes which include: engineering text and exhibits (white dot); engineering data (black dot); geologic text and tables (green dot); structure and isochore maps (light blue dot); structural cross sections (dark blue dot); stratigraphic cross sections (brown dot); geologic data sheets -book 1 (yellow dot); geologic data sheets - book 2 (orange dot); geologic data sheets - book 3 (red dot); and geologic data sheets - book 4 (pink or coral dot). Basic production, injection, pressure, and other assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy engineering staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made at independent verification.

  11. Feasibility study for the construction of a new LNG receiving terminal, turkey. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information. [LNG (liquified natural gas)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The report was prepared by The M. W. Kellogg Co. for BOTAS Petroleum Pipeline Corporation of Ankara, Turkey. The study was undertaken to evaluate the cost and economics of constructing a second liquified natural gas (LNG) terminal in Turkey to meet future requirements for natural gas. Volume 2 contains the following appendices: LNG Storage Tanks; Vaporizers; Compressors; Pumps; Loading Arms; Marine Installations; Shipping; and Seismic Study.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  13. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  14. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  15. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  16. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  17. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  18. Selective CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal–Organic Frameworks-A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  19. Gas venting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edwin F.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas venting from radioactive-material containers which utilizes the passageways between interbonded impervious laminae.

  20. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieffer, F.

    1994-02-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

  2. A Study on a Tritium Separation Process Using Self-Developing Gas Chromatography with Pd-Pt Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, S.; Yokosawa, M.; Matsuyama, M.; Numata, M.; Kato, T.; Watanabe, K.

    2005-07-15

    To study the practical application of a tritium separation process using Self-Developing Gas Chromatography (SDGC) using a Pd-Pt alloy, intermediate scale-up experiments (22 mm ID x 2 m length column) and the development of a computational simulation method have been conducted. In addition, intermediate scale production of Pd-Pt powder has been developed for the scale-up experiments.The following results were obtained: (1) a 50-fold scale-up from 3 mm to 22 mm causes no significant impact on the SDGC process; (2) the Pd-Pt alloy powder is applicable to a large size SDGC process; and (3) the simulation enables preparation of a conceptual design of a SDGC process for tritium separation.

  3. 2D PIC-MCC Code for Electron-Hydrogen Gas Interaction Study in H- Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benmeziane, Karim; Ferdinand, Robin; Gobin, Raphael; Sherman, Joseph D.

    2005-04-06

    In order to make a reliable H- ion source, a hybrid PIC 2D MCC 3D fluid code has been developed. The aim of the code is to study the effect of electron injection into a cylindrical gas chamber. This new version takes into account the 2D space charge distribution. Thus, it is possible to calculate the H- ion distribution everywhere in the plasma chamber. Many results have been brought as well as the best injected energy and the electron penetration length efficiency. Moreover, the calculations explain why it is more problematic to get an efficient volume production at high pressure (100 mTorr) than at low pressure (6 mTorr). The temporal H- production evolution is finally discussed.

  4. In situ, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of natural gas conversion by CO[sub 2] reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcroft, A.T. ); Cheetham, A.K. ); Jones, R.H.; Natarajan, S.; Thomas, J.M.; Waller, D. ); Clark, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The selective CO[sub 2] reforming of methane to synthesis gas over a rare-earth iridate pyrochlore, Ln[sub 2]Ir[sub 2]O[sub 7] (Ln = Eu), and rare-earth ruthenate pyrochlores, Ln[sub 2]Ru[sub 2]O[sub 7] (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), has been studied in situ by using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. Analysis of the diffraction data shows that the oxides are activated by reduction to the platinum group metal, the iridate by a second-order kinetic reaction, and the ruthenates by a first-order process. Temperature programmed reductions under carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane establish that the iridates proceed directly to the metal, whereas the ruthenates reduce via an oxygen deficient pyrochlore. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; Voet, Ester van der

    2011-06-15

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  6. Equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2009-05-15

    The equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas is studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. Going down to as low densities as na{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -100} permits us to obtain agreement on beyond mean-field level between predictions of perturbative methods and direct many-body numerical simulation, thus providing an answer to the fundamental question of the equation of state of a two-dimensional dilute Bose gas in the universal regime (i.e., entirely described by the gas parameter na{sup 2}). We also show that the measure of the frequency of a breathing collective oscillation in a trap at very low densities can be used to test the universal equation of state of a two-dimensional Bose gas.

  7. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  8. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Final report, September 1991--January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1995-01-01

    The approach in this project has been to integrate the principles of rock physics into a quantitative processing and interpretation scheme that exploits, where possible, the broader spectrum of fracture zone signatures: (1) anomalous compressional and shear wave velocity; (2) Q and velocity dispersion; (3) increased velocity anisotropy; (4) amplitude vs. offset (AVO) response, and (5) variations in frequency content. As part of this the authors have attempted to refine some of the theoretical rock physics tools that should be applied in any field study to link the observed seismic signatures to the physical/geologic description of the fractured rock. The project had 3 key elements: (1) rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, (2) acquisition and processing of seismic reflection field data, and (3) interpretation of seismic and well log data. The study site is in a producing field operated by Amoco and Arco at the southern boundary of the Powder River basin in Wyoming. During the winter of 1992--1993 the authors collected about 50 km of 9-component reflection seismic data and obtained existing log data from several wells in the vicinity. The paper gives background information on laboratory studies, seismic field studies of fracture anisotropy, and the problem of upscaling from the laboratory to the field. It discusses fluid effects on seismic anisotropy and a method for predicting stress-induced seismic anisotropy. Then results from the field experiment are presented and discussed: regional geologic framework and site description; seismic data acquisition; shear wave data and validation; and P-wave data analysis. 106 refs., 52 figs.

  9. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  10. Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters: Expanded studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations strongly suggested that the municipal anaerobic sludge digestion process could be enhanced by reactor operation with subatmospheric headspace pressures. Enhanced solids destruction and methane production along with increased process stability were observed in these earlier studies. However, due to the small scale of the anaerobic reactors used ( {approx}1.5 L), definitive steady-state measurements could not be obtained. These expanded studies were undertaken to verify and define the magnitude of the benefits that might be obtained with vacuum operation of sludge digesters. Four reactors ({approx}15.0 L) were fed municipal sludge at three different organic loading rates while being maintained with a 15-day solids retention time. One reactor had a constant headspace pressure of 1.02 atm; a second was maintained at 0.75 atm; and the remaining two reactors were operated for the majority of the day at 1.02 atm, and for part of the day with a 0.75 atm headspace pressure. Additional small-scale, batch experiments were performed to help identify controlling digestion mechanisms. The results of these expanded studies indicate that vacuum operation did not yield significant advantages over the organic loading range investigated (0.088 to 0.352 lb VSS/ft{sup 3}{center_dot}d).

  11. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  12. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher inmore » homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.« less

  13. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  14. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Sluder, Scott; Lance, Michael J; Styles, Dan; Simko, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  15. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  16. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  17. A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

    2015-03-24

    Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable,more » the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.« less

  18. A Study of Strain Rate Effects for Turbulent Premixed Flames with Application to LES of a Gas Turbine Combustor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemenov, Konstantin A.; Calhoon, William H.

    2015-03-24

    Large-scale strain rate field, a resolved quantity which is easily computable in large-eddy simulations (LES), could have profound effects on the premixed flame properties by altering the turbulent flame speed and inducing local extinction. The role of the resolved strain rate has been investigated in a posterior LES study of GE lean premixed dry low NOx emissions LM6000 gas turbine combustor model. A novel approach which is based on the coupling of the lineareddy model with a one-dimensional counter-flow solver has been applied to obtain the parameterizations of the resolved premixed flame properties in terms of the reactive progress variable, the local strain rate measure, and local Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. The strain rate effects have been analyzed by comparing LES statistics for several models of the turbulent flame speed, i.e, with and without accounting for the local strain rate effects, with available experimental data. The sensitivity of the simulation results to the inflow velocity conditions as well as the grid resolution have been also studied. Overall, the results suggest the necessity to represent the strain rate effects accurately in order to improve LES modeling of the turbulent flame speed.

  19. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  20. H. R. 4299: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in order to provide an incentive for business to invest in pollution abatement property and related assets, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, February 25, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on February 25, 1992 to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in order to provide an incentive for business to invest in pollution abatement property and related assets. This relates to a plant or other property in operation before January 1, 1991, to prevent, abate or control pollution.

  1. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B.

    2012-06-06

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  2. Ruthenium trisbipyridine as a candidate for gas-phase spectroscopic studies in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scott, Jill R.; Ham, Jason E.; Durham, Bill; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal polypyridines are excellent candidates for gas-phase optical experiments where their intrinsic properties can be studied without complications due to the presence of solvent. The fluorescence lifetimes of [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 1+ trapped in an optical detection cell within a Fourier transform mass spectrometer were obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization to generate the ions with either 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or sinapinic acid (SA) as matrix. All transients acquired, whether using DHB or SA for ion generation, were best described as approximately exponential decays. The rate constant for transients derived using DHB as matrix was 4×10 7 s −1 ,more » while the rate constant using SA was 1×10 7 s −1 . Some suggestions of multiple exponential decay were evident although limited by the quality of the signals. Photodissociation experiments revealed that [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 1+ generated using DHB can decompose to [Ru(bpy) 2 ] 1+ , whereas ions generated using SA showed no decomposition. Comparison of the mass spectra with the fluorescence lifetimes illustrates the promise of incorporating optical detection with trapped ion mass spectrometry techniques.« less

  3. An analytical model for studying effects of gas release from a failed fuel pin of a liquid-metal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    A analytical model for describing dynamics of a gas bubble in the liquid sodium of a liquid-metal reactor as the result of failed fuel pins is discussed. A model to describe the coupled response of the liquid sodium surrounding the gas bubble is also discussed. The analysis method is programmed in a computer code and used to analyze some available experimental data, and the results are discussed.

  4. Feasibility study for the construction of a new LNG receiving terminal. Turkey. Volume 1. Export trade information. [LNG (liquified natural gas)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The report was prepared by The M. W. Kellogg Co. for BOTAS Petroleum Pipeline Corporation of Ankara, Turkey. The study was undertaken to evaluate the cost and economics of constructing a second liquified natural gas (LNG) terminal in Turkey to meet future requirements for natural gas. Volume 1 is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Summary and Conclusions; (3) Design Basis; (4) Site Evaluation; (5) LNG Terminal Design; (6) Major Equipment and Instrumentation; (7) Marine Operations; (8) Safety Considerations; (9) Environmental Review; (10) Preliminary Project Execution Strategy; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Project Master Schedule; (13) Economic Analysis; (14) Financing; (15) Future Work.

  5. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  6. Permian basin gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1995-06-01

    Of the 242 major gas fields in the Permian basin, 67 are on the Central Basin Platform, 59 are in the Delaware basin, 44 are in the Midland basin, 28 are in the Val Verde basin, 24 are on the Eastern Shelf, 12 are in the Horshoe Atoll and eight are on the Northwest Shelf. Eleven fields have produced over one trillion cubic feet of gas, 61 have produced between 100 billion and one trillion cubic feet of gas and 170 have produced less than 100 billion cubic feet. Highlights of the study show 11% of the gas comes from reservoirs with temperatures over 300 degrees F. and 11% comes from depths between 19,000 and 20,000 feet. Twenty percent of the gas comes from reservoirs with pressures between 1000 and 2000 psi, 22% comes from reservoirs with 20-24% water saturation and 24% comes from reservoirs between 125 and 150 feet thick. Fifty-three reservoirs in the Ellenburger formation have produced 30% of the gas, 33% comes from 88 reservoirs in the Delaware basin and 33% comes from reservoirs with porosities of less than five percent. Forty percent is solution gas and 46% comes from combination traps. Over 50% of the production comes from reservoirs with five millidarcys or less permeability, and 60% of the gas comes from reservoirs in which dolomite is the dominant lithology. Over 50% of the gas production comes from fields discovered before 1957 although 50% of the producing fields were not discovered until 1958.

  7. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    , distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  8. Gas magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  11. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... Grid Integration & Advanced Inverters Materials & Fabrication Microsystems Enabled ...

  12. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  13. Dry Gas Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Geologic text and tables: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-29

    The Dry Gas Zone was defined by US Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 Engineering Committee (1957) as ''/hor ellipsis/all sands bearing dry gas above the top of the Lower Scalez marker bed. The term is used to include the stratigraphic interval between the Scalez Sand Zone and the Tulare Formation - the Mya Sand Zone. The reservoirs in this upper zone are thin, lenticular, loosely cemented sandstones with relatively high permeabilities.'' Other than the limited Tulare production in the western part of the field, the Dry Gas Zone is the shallowest productive zone in the Elk Hills Reserve and is not included in the Shallow Oil Zone. It is Pliocene in age and makes up approximately eighty percent of the San Joaquin Formation as is summarized in Exhibit TL-1. The lithologic character of the zone is one of interbedded shales and siltstones with intermittent beds of various thickness sands. The stratigraphic thickness of the Dry Gas Zone ranges from 950 to 1150 feet with a general thickening along the flanks and thinning over the crests of the anticlines. The productive part of the Dry Gas Zone covers portions of 30 sections in an area roughly 10 miles long by 4 miles wide. 4 refs.

  14. Process studies for a new method of removing H/sub 2/S from industrial gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, D.W.; Lynn, S.

    1986-07-01

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal-derived gas streams has been developed. The basis for the process is the absorption of H/sub 2/S into a polar organic solvent where it is reacted with dissolved sulfur dioxide to form elemental sulfur. After sulfur is crystallized from solution, the solvent is stripped to remove dissolved gases and water formed by the reaction. The SO/sub 2/ is generated by burning a portion of the sulfur in a furnace where the heat of combustion is used to generate high pressure steam. The SO/sub 2/ is absorbed into part of the lean solvent to form the solution necessary for the first step. The kinetics of the reaction between H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ dissolved in mixtures of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA)/ Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and DMA/Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether was studied by following the temperature rise in an adiabatic calorimeter. This irreversible reaction was found to be first-order in both H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/, with an approximates heat of reaction of 28 kcal/mole of SO/sub 2/. The sole products of the reaction appear to be elemental sulfur and water. The presence of DMA increases the value of the second-order rate constant by an order of magnitude over that obtained in the glycol ethers alone. Addition of other tertiary aromatic amines enhances the observed kinetics; heterocyclic amines (e.g., pyridine derivatives) have been found to be 10 to 100 times more effective as catalysts when compared to DMA.

  15. Preliminary experimental study on cold fusion using deuterium gas and deuterium plasma in the presence of palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, A.G.; Teng, R.K.F.; Miller, M.S.; Sprouse, W.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments using deuterium gas and deuterium plasma in the presence of palladium designed to observe the possibility of cold fusion. Two kinds of preliminary experiments were recently performed. One involved the diffusion of deuterium gas into paladium. The gas was cooled by liquid nitrogen, and then the temperature was permitted to rise to room temperature, going from near -34 to 19{sup 0}C (-30 to 67{sup 0}F) in 75 min. A spherical lithium neutron detector, 21 cm from the palladium gave an audible indication of neutron levels approximately equal to, but above, background. A second experiment used a deuterium ion beam (1 keV) that bombarded a palladium target.

  16. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Jackson, Robert A.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  17. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  18. Radcalc for windows benchmark study: A comparison of software results with Rocky Flats hydrogen gas generation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCFADDEN, J.G.

    1999-07-19

    Radcalc for Windows Version 2.01 is a user-friendly software program developed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations for the U.S. Department of Energy (McFadden et al. 1998). It is used for transportation and packaging applications in the shipment of radioactive waste materials. Among its applications are the classification of waste per the US. Department of Transportation regulations, the calculation of decay heat and daughter products, and the calculation of the radiolytic production of hydrogen gas. The Radcalc program has been extensively tested and validated (Green et al. 1995, McFadden et al. 1998) by comparison of each Radcalc algorithm to hand calculations. An opportunity to benchmark Radcalc hydrogen gas generation calculations to experimental data arose when the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Residue Stabilization Program collected hydrogen gas generation data to determine compliance with requirements for shipment of waste in the TRUPACT-II (Schierloh 1998). The residue/waste drums tested at RFETS contain contaminated, solid, inorganic materials in polyethylene bags. The contamination is predominantly due to plutonium and americium isotopes. The information provided by Schierloh (1 998) of RFETS includes decay heat, hydrogen gas generation rates, calculated G{sub eff} values, and waste material type, making the experimental data ideal for benchmarking Radcalc. The following sections discuss the RFETS data and the Radcalc cases modeled with the data. Results are tabulated and also provided graphically.

  19. Molecular gas heating mechanisms, and star formation feedback in merger/starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; Van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y. E-mail: zyzhang@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2014-06-20

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (L {sub IR} ≥ 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J = 4-3 onward, with NGC 6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp 193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L {sub FIR}/L {sub CO,} {sub 1} {sub –0}, L {sub HCN}/L {sub CO} (J = 1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp 193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount (∼5%-15%) of dense gas (n ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) unlike NGC 6240 where most of the molecular gas (∼60%-70%) is dense (n ∼ (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}) cm{sup –3}). Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas. In NGC 6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp 193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon-Dominated Regions. We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar initial mass function averaged over galactic evolution.

  20. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  1. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  2. H. R. 527: A Bill to authorize research and evaluation programs for monitoring, detecting, and abating lead based paint and other lead exposure hazards in housing, and for other purposes, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Lead poses a significant environmental health problem since adverse effects have been conclusively demonstrated at relatively low exposures. H.R.527 was introduced into the US House of Representatives on January 14 1991 to authorize research and evaluation programs for monitoring, detecting, and abating lead based paint and other lead exposure hazards in housing. Attention is focused on the following: laboratory analysis standardization; detection technologies; research on abatement and in-place management techniques; abatement products; lead exposure in children; public education; and authorization of appropriations.

  3. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollen, Georg; Morrissey, David

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called stopped beams for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create stopped beams techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  4. Gas-Saving Tips

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Gas-Saving Tips Some consumers believe fuel economy ratings are a fixed number, like engine size or cargo volume. However, a vehicle's fuel economy can vary significantly due to several factors, including how the vehicle is driven, the vehicle's mechanical condition, and the environment in which it is driven. Fortunately, you may be able to improve your vehicle's gas mileage through proper maintenance and driving habits. Studies suggest the average driver can improve his/her fuel economy by

  5. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  6. Equation of state of an interacting Bose gas at finite temperature: A path-integral Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilati, S.; Giorgini, S.; Sakkos, K.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.

    2006-10-15

    By using exact path-integral Monte Carlo methods we calculate the equation of state of an interacting Bose gas as a function of temperature both below and above the superfluid transition. The universal character of the equation of state for dilute systems and low temperatures is investigated by modeling the interatomic interactions using different repulsive potentials corresponding to the same s-wave scattering length. The results obtained for the energy and the pressure are compared to the virial expansion for temperatures larger than the critical temperature. At very low temperatures we find agreement with the ground-state energy calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method.

  7. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  8. A new Stark decelerator based surface scattering instrument for studying energy transfer at the gas-surface interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhart, Daniel P.; Grätz, Fabian; Wagner, Roman J. V.; Wodtke, Alec M.; Schäfer, Tim; Haak, Henrik; Meijer, Gerard

    2015-04-15

    We report on the design and characterization of a new apparatus for performing quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments. The apparatus combines optical state-specific molecule preparation with a compact hexapole and a Stark decelerator to prepare carrier gas-free pulses of quantum-state pure CO molecules with velocities controllable between 33 and 1000 m/s with extremely narrow velocity distributions. The ultrahigh vacuum surface scattering chamber includes homebuilt ion and electron detectors, a closed-cycle helium cooled single crystal sample mount capable of tuning surface temperature between 19 and 1337 K, a Kelvin probe for non-destructive work function measurements, a precision leak valve manifold for targeted adsorbate deposition, an inexpensive quadrupole mass spectrometer modified to perform high resolution temperature programmed desorption experiments and facilities to clean and characterize the surface.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the Ground-State Properties of a Fermi Gas in the BCS-BEC Crossover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgini, S.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.

    2006-11-07

    The ground-state properties of a two-component Fermi gas with attractive short-range interactions are calculated using the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction strength is varied over a wide range by tuning the value of the s-wave scattering length of the two-body potential. We calculate the ground-state energy per particle and we characterize the equation of state of the system. Off-diagonal long-range order is investigated through the asymptotic behavior of the two-body density matrix. The condensate fraction of pairs is calculated in the unitary limit and on both sides of the BCS-BEC crossover.

  10. Study investigates eletron beam scrubbing for removal of (SO{sub 2}) and (NO{sub x}) from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A beam of high-energy electrons can be used to initiate simultaneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in flue gas from coal-fired power plants. This process, known as electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS), has been under development since 1970 and shows great promise as it continues towards commercialization. One obstacle, the high cost and low power of conventional electron beam generator, may be overcome through integration of an advanced electron beam generator being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC - McLean, Virginia). SAIC was funded to (1) design, construct, and test a prototype of its continuously pulsed, high- average-power electron beam generator; and (2) evaluate the performance and economics of EBDS with the advanced electron beam generator as applied to high-sulfur coal-fired power plants. Results of the EBDS evaluation are reported in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  12. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  13. Ventura_E_gas.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class No 2004 Gas Reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Study Area Outline 0 4 8 2 6 Miles ± The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by

  14. A Study of Advanced Materials for Gas Turbine Coatings at Elevated Temperatures Using Selected Microstructures and Characteristic Environments for Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravinder Diwan; Patrick Mensah; Guoqiang Li; Nalini Uppu; Strphen Akwaboa; Monica Silva; Ebubekir Beyazoglu; Ogad Agu; Naresh Polasa; Lawrence Bazille; Douglas Wolfe; Purush Sahoo

    2011-02-10

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that can be suitable for use in industrial gas turbine engines have been processed and compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) microstructures for applications in advanced gas turbines that use coal-derived synthesis gas. Thermo-physical properties have been evaluated of the processed air plasma sprayed TBCs with standard APS-STD and vertically cracked APS-VC coatings samples up to 1300 C. Porosity of these selected coatings with related microstructural effects have been analyzed in this study. Wet and dry thermal cycling studies at 1125 C and spalling resistance thermal cycling studies to 1200 C have also been carried out. Type I and Type II hot corrosion tests were carried out to investigate the effects of microstructure variations and additions of alumina in YSZ top coats in multi-layered TBC structures. The thermal modeling of turbine blade has also been carried out that gives the capability to predict in-service performance temperature gradients. In addition to isothermal high temperature oxidation kinetics analysis in YSZ thermal barrier coatings of NiCoCrAlY bond coats with 0.25% Hf. This can affect the failure behavior depending on the control of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface. The TGO growth kinetics is seen to be parabolic and the activation energies correspond to interfacial growth kinetics that is controlled by the diffusion of O{sub 2} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference between oxidation behavior of the VC and STD structures are attributed to the effects of microstructure morphology and porosity on oxygen ingression into the zirconia and TGO layers. The isothermal oxidation resistance of the STD and VC microstructures is similar at temperatures up to 1200 C. However, the generally thicker TGO layer thicknesses and the slightly faster oxidation rates in the VC microstructures are attributed to the increased ingression of oxygen through the grain boundaries of the vertically

  15. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  17. GAS SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  18. A DETAILED STUDY OF SPITZER-IRAC EMISSION IN HERBIG-HARO OBJECTS. II. INTERACTION BETWEEN EJECTA AND AMBIENT GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Nisini, Brunella; Ray, Thomas P.

    2011-12-20

    We present a new analysis of the physical conditions in three Herbig-Haro complexes (HH 54, HH 212, and the L 1157 protostellar jet) using archival data from the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. As described in detail in Paper I, the emission observed using the 4.5 {mu}m filter is enhanced in molecular shocks (T = 1000-4000 K) at relatively high temperatures or densities compared with that observed with the 8.0 {mu}m filter. Using these data sets, we investigate different distributions of gas between high and low temperatures/densities. Our analysis reveals the presence of a number of warm/dense knots, most of which appear to be associated with working surfaces such as the head of bow shocks and cometary features, and reverse shocks in the ejecta. These are distributed not only along the jet axis, as expected, but also across it. While some knotty or fragmenting structures can be explained by instabilities in shocked flows, others can be more simply explained by the scenario that the mass ejection source acts as a 'shot gun', periodically ejecting bullets of material along similar but not identical trajectories. Such an explanation challenges to some degree the present paradigm for jet flows associated with low-mass protostars. It also gives clues to reconciling our understanding of the mass ejection mechanism in high- and low-mass protostars and evolved stars.

  19. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural Gas ...

  20. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural Gas ...

  1. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  2. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  3. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary ... Fossil Energy Research Benefits FE's early investments in shale research in the 1970s ...

  4. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber; Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-02-12

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance.

  5. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  6. Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

  7. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Improving Gas Furnace Performance-A Field and Lab Study at End of Life Location: ...

  8. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines This study ...

  9. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building ...

  10. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  11. Unconventional gas outlook: resources, economics, and technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2006-08-15

    The report explains the current and potential of the unconventional gas market including country profiles, major project case studies, and new technology research. It identifies the major players in the market and reports their current and forecasted projects, as well as current volume and anticipated output for specific projects. Contents are: Overview of unconventional gas; Global natural gas market; Drivers of unconventional gas sources; Forecast; Types of unconventional gas; Major producing regions Overall market trends; Production technology research; Economics of unconventional gas production; Barriers and challenges; Key regions: Australia, Canada, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States; Major Projects; Industry Initiatives; Major players. Uneconomic or marginally economic resources such as tight (low permeability) sandstones, shale gas, and coalbed methane are considered unconventional. However, due to continued research and favorable gas prices, many previously uneconomic or marginally economic gas resources are now economically viable, and may not be considered unconventional by some companies. Unconventional gas resources are geologically distinct in that conventional gas resources are buoyancy-driven deposits, occurring as discrete accumulations in structural or stratigraphic traps, whereas unconventional gas resources are generally not buoyancy-driven deposits. The unconventional natural gas category (CAM, gas shales, tight sands, and landfill) is expected to continue at double-digit growth levels in the near term. Until 2008, demand for unconventional natural gas is likely to increase at an AAR corresponding to 10.7% from 2003, aided by prioritized research and development efforts. 1 app.

  12. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  13. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New York Natural Gas ...

  14. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO₂ nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Si, Rui; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Martinez-Arias, Arturo; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-23

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H₂O → CO₂) was studied over CuO/CeO₂ catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO₂ (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO₂ (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO₂ (ns), such as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ce³⁺ in CeO₂ (ns).

  15. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions: Theoretical development and application in the study of phase separation in gas-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikkinides, E. S.; Monson, P. A.

    2015-03-07

    Building on recent developments in dynamic density functional theory, we have developed a version of the theory that includes hydrodynamic interactions. This is achieved by combining the continuity and momentum equations eliminating velocity fields, so the resulting model equation contains only terms related to the fluid density and its time and spatial derivatives. The new model satisfies simultaneously continuity and momentum equations under the assumptions of constant dynamic or kinematic viscosity and small velocities and/or density gradients. We present applications of the theory to spinodal decomposition of subcritical temperatures for one-dimensional and three-dimensional density perturbations for both a van der Waals fluid and for a lattice gas model in mean field theory. In the latter case, the theory provides a hydrodynamic extension to the recently studied dynamic mean field theory. We find that the theory correctly describes the transition from diffusive phase separation at short times to hydrodynamic behaviour at long times.

  16. Pulse studies to decipher the role of surface morphology in CuO/CeO₂ nanocatalysts for the water gas shift reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Si, Rui; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Martinez-Arias, Arturo; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-23

    The water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H₂O → CO₂) was studied over CuO/CeO₂ catalysts with two different ceria particle morphohologies, in the form of nanospheres (ns) and nanocubes (nc). To understand the strong dependence of the WGS reaction activity on the ceria nanoshapes, pulses of CO (without and with water vapor) were employed during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absoprtion near edge structure (XANES) measurements done to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that CuO/CeO₂ (ns) exhibited a substantially better activity than CuO/CeO₂ (nc). The higher activity was associated with the unique properties of CuO/CeO₂ (ns), suchmore » as the easier reduction of highly dispersed CuO to metallic Cu, the stability of metallic Cu and a larger concentration Ce³⁺ in CeO₂ (ns).« less

  17. Evaluation of asbestos abatement techniques. Phase 2. Encapsulation with latex paint. Final report, May 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesson, J.; Margeson, D.P.; Ogden, J.; Bauer, K.; Bergman, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Airborne asbestos levels were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before, during and after encapsulation of asbestos-containing material with latex paint in a suburban junior high school. The ceilings of the school were covered with a sprayed-on material containing chrysotile asbestos. Air samples were collected at four types of sites: indoor sites with unpainted asbestos material scheduled for painting, indoor sites with asbestos material which had been painted 16 months prior to the study, indoor sites with no asbestos material, and outdoor sites on the roof of the building. Bulk samples were collected prior to painting and analyzed by polarized light microscopy (PLM) to characterize the asbestos-containing material.

  18. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes. Our goal is to draw insights from PG&E's experience that can help to inform decision making at other utilities across the U.S. that may face similar trajectories for DG PV market growth.

  19. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  20. Feasibility study to evaluate plasma quench process for natural gas conversion applications. [Quarterly report], July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Kong, P.C.; Detering, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this work was to conduct a feasibility study on a new process, called the plasma quench process, for the conversion of methane to acetylene. FY-1993 efforts were focused on determining the economic viability of this process using bench scale experimental data which was previously generated. This report presents the economic analysis and conclusions of the analysis. Future research directions are briefly described.

  1. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  2. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  3. Tax Abatement for Solar Manufacturers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In May 2009, Washington enacted SB 6170, effective July 1, 2009. This bill reduced the B&O tax rate to 0.275%, effective October 1, 2009. This tax rate is 43% lower than the standard...

  4. The feasibility study of small long-life gas cooled fast reactor with mixed natural Uranium/Thorium as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal,; Monado, Fiber; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-06

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. In this study, design GCFR with Helium coolant which can be continuously operated by supplying mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium without fuel enrichment plant or fuel reprocessing plant. The active reactor cores are divided into two region, Thorium fuel region and Uranium fuel region. Each fuel core regions are subdivided into ten parts (region-1 until region-10) with the same volume in the axial direction. The fresh Natural Uranium and Thorium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh natural Uranium/Thorium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions in both cores area, i.e. shifted the core of i{sup th} region into i+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. For the next cycles, we will add only Natural Uranium and Thorium on each region-1. The calculation results show the reactivity reached by mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium with volume ratio is 4.7:1. This reactor can results power thermal 550 MWth. After reactor start-up the operation, furthermore reactor only needs Natural Uranium/Thorium supply for continue operation along 100 years.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  6. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  7. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  8. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New Mexico Natural ...

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) North Dakota Natural ...

  10. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  12. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  14. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  16. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  20. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  1. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  2. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  3. Imported resources - gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marxt, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines aspects of the supply and demand of natural gas and natural gas products such as LNG in the Czech Republic.

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  7. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  8. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  13. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  16. Unconventional Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... lb Pound LCA Life cycle analysis LNG Liquefied natural gas M Magnitude (Richter ... reversed plans to import liquefied natural gas (LNG), and many are now proposing exports. ...

  17. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  18. Case Study - Liquefied Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A total of 840 billion was ultimately provided to achieve these goals. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) received ...

  19. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  20. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  1. IEA Webinar: Green Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Internal Webinar Series, the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office invites you to join a webinar on Thursday, June 2, 2016, at 8 a.m. Eastern Time. During the webinar, participants will learn about the technologies and feedstocks that can contribute to reaching 100% green gas in the gas grid by 2050. The international webinar—Green Gas—will be presented by Professor Jerry D. Murphy, task leader for IEA Bioenergy Task 37 on Energy from Biogas. IEA is an autonomous international organization that studies energy issues related to reliability, affordability, and sustainability. Instructions on how to join the webinar are below. View the international toll free numbers to find your dial-in number (for the United States and Canada, dial 1-888-289-4573).

  2. Excimer laser photolysis of V(CO)/sub 6/: time-resolved infrared studies of gas-phase V(CO)/sub x/ (x = 5-2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Hackett, P.A.; Rayner, D.M.

    1987-10-28

    The photolysis of gas-phase vanadium hexacarbonyl V(CO)/sub 6/, has been studied at excimer laser wavelengths (351, 308, 248, and 193 nm) by observing the coordinatively unsaturated transient products, V(CO)/sub x/ (x = 5-3 and possibly 2), via time-resolved infrared kinetic absorption spectroscopy. The dependence of the initial fragment distribution on photolysis wavelength is consistent with the model of sequential CO elimination established by similar studies on Fe(CO)/sub 5/, Cr(CO)/sub 6/, and Co(CO)/sub 3/NO. The high reactivity of unsaturated metal carbonyl species with saturated carbonyls to form binuclear complexes is again observed, with rate constants for the reaction of V(CO)/sub 3/ and V(CO)/sub 4/ with V(CO)/sub 6/ found to be of the order 3 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Infrared assignments for V(CO)/sub x/ are supported by kinetic measurements in the presence of added CO. Rate constants for the reaction of CO with V(CO)/sub 3/, V(CO)/sub 4/, and V(CO)/sub 5/ are found as (0.4 +/- 0.1) x 10/sup -10/, (0.5 +/- 0.1) x 10/sup -10/, and (0.5 +/- 0.1) x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, respectively, leading to the expectation that ground-state V(CO)/sub 3-5/ share the doublet character of V(CO)/sub 6/. The infrared assignments are in disagreement with infrared absorption and some ESR studies of V(CO)/sub x/ fragments in low-temperature matrices.

  3. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  4. Carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery: Identifying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    studies, we propose a field test of the Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR) process. The objective of the field test is to evaluate the feasibility of ...

  5. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  6. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  7. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  8. Asian natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Ohashi, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

  9. NETL: Natural Gas Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Resources Useful for heating, manufacturing, and as chemical feedstock, natural gas has the added benefit of producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other fossil fuels used in power production.The United States is endowed with an abundance of natural gas resources, so increasing use of natural gas power can help strengthen domestic energy security. NETL research efforts enhance technologies that reduce the cost, increase the efficiency, and reduce the environmental risk of

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PIR) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances in containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. During this period, experimental setup with optical and electronic instrumentation that is necessary for measuring the radiant heat output and the emission gas output of the burner has been established. The radiation measurement instrument, an FTIR, has been purchased and installed in the porous burner experimental system. The radiation measurement capability of the FTIR was tested and found to be satisfactory. A standard blackbody source, made by Graseby Infrared, was employed to calibrate the FTIR. A collection duct for emission gas measurement was fabricated and connected to the existing Horiba gas analyzer. Test runs are being conducted for flue gas analysis. A number of published research papers on modeling of porous burners were reviewed. The physical mechanism and theoretical analysis of the combustion process of the PIR burner was formulated. The numerical modeling, and implementation of a PIR burner code at CAU`s computing facility is in progress.

  11. A DETAILED STUDY OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY PROPERTIES AND INTERSTELLAR GAS TOWARD THE γ-RAY SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7–3946

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K.; Tanaka, T.; Inoue, T.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Yamazaki, R.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, A.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have carried out a spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-ray data in the 0.4-12 keV range toward the shell-type very high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7–3946. The aims of this analysis are to estimate detailed X-rays spectral properties at a high angular resolution up to 2 arcmin and to compare them with the interstellar gas. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal and used to calculate absorbing column density, photon index, and absorption-corrected X-ray flux. The photon index varies significantly from 2.1 to 2.9. It is shown that the X-ray intensity is well correlated with the photon index, especially in the west region, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The X-ray intensity tends to increase with the averaged interstellar gas density while the dispersion is relatively large. The hardest spectra, with photon indexes of less than 2.4, are found outside of the central 10 arcmin of the SNR, from the north to the southeast (∼430 arcmin{sup 2}) and from the southwest to the northwest (∼150 arcmin{sup 2}). The former region shows low interstellar gas density, while the latter shows high interstellar gas density. We present a discussion of possible scenarios that explain the distribution of the photon index and its relationship with the interstellar gas.

  12. Studies Related to the Oregon State University High Temperature Test Facility: Scaling, the Validation Matrix, and Similarities to the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schultz; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; William T. Taitano; James R. Wolf; Glenn E. McCreery

    2010-09-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5 year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant project. Because the NRC interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC). Since DOE has incorporated the HTTF as an ingredient in the NGNP thermal-fluids validation program, several important outcomes should be noted: 1. The reference prismatic reactor design, that serves as the basis for scaling the HTTF, became the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR has also been chosen as the reference design for all of the other NGNP thermal-fluid experiments. 2. The NGNP validation matrix is being planned using the same scaling strategy that has been implemented to design the HTTF, i.e., the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology developed by Zuber in 1991. Using this approach a preliminary validation matrix has been designed that integrates the HTTF experiments with the other experiments planned for the NGNP thermal-fluids verification and validation project. 3. Initial analyses showed that the inherent power capability of the OSU infrastructure, which only allowed a total operational facility power capability of 0.6 MW, is

  13. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  14. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  15. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  16. Influence factors on the flue gas desulfurization in the circulating fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, J.; Tang, D.; Liu, H.; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Kito, Nobo

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a dry SO{sub 2} removal method -- the absorbent (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was injected into the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactor at the coolside of the duct to abate SO{sub 2} in the flue gas -- with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing dry/semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology such as Spray Drying. A patent for coolside Flue Gas Desulfurization in the Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor (CFB-FGD) was approved by the China Patent Bureau in September of 1995 and the additional laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated bench scale quartz circulating fluidized bed reactor of 2350mm in height and 23mm in diameter in January, 1996. The influences of steam, ratio of calcium and sulfur, reactor temperature, and absorbent utilization efficiency were invested. The results show that: (1) Water steam plays a key role in the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the CFB reactor; (2) There is a positive effect of Ca/S on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency; (3) The temperature is an another key factor for SO{sub 2} removal efficiency for the CFB-FGD process; (4) The absorbent can be enhanced in the CFB reactor; (5) The CFB reactor is better than the dry/semi-dry FDG technology. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be as high as 84.8%.

  17. Variable leak gas source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Combined Natural Gas Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  19. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  20. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  1. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  2. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  3. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  4. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  5. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  6. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  7. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  8. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  9. ,"Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  10. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  11. ,"Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  12. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  13. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural ...

  14. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural ...

  15. Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Virginia Underground Natural ...

  16. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  17. Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  18. US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  19. Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  20. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  1. Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  2. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  3. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  4. Graph facilitates tracking water and gas influx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruy, H.J. )

    1990-03-26

    Graphing the vertical distribution of reservoir volume is an easy method for estimating the acre-ft remaining to be exploited in reservoirs with water or gas encroachment. To evaluate reservoir performance and estimate oil and gas reserves in water-drive reservoirs or oil reservoirs with a gas cap, it is necessary to determine the magnitude of the movement of oil-water and gas-oil contact surfaces. In reviewing reserve estimates and reservoir studies done by others, the authors have found that very few reservoir engineers or geologists have an easy method for tracking the movement of these surfaces and estimating the volumes of oil displaced water encroachment, gas cap expansion, or the volumes of oil lost by wetting the gas cap. The following method evolved from the author's studies of the East Texas field starting in 1942, and it took this form in the early 1950s.

  5. NERSC Supercomputers Help Reveal Secrets of Natural Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helps Reveal Secrets of Natural Gas Reserves NERSC Supercomputers Help Reveal Secrets of Natural Gas Reserves New structural information could yield more efficient extraction of gas and oil from shale December 3, 2013 Supercomputers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Research Supercomputing Center (NERSC) helped scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study gas and oil deposits in shale and reveal structural information that could lead to more efficient extraction of gas

  6. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  7. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    delivery volumes. Northern Natural Gas Company issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) for all market-area zones for gas day February 21, 2008. The SOL was the result of...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 2,414 Bcf as of Friday, January 9,...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 821 Bcf as of May 2, according to...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Natural gas stocks stood at 2,155 Bcf as of Friday, July 9,...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage as of September 2 totaled 2,669 Bcf,...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  14. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  15. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped 0.24 from the previous Friday to 4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of...

  19. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  20. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    while the OFO was in effect. Pacific Gas and Electric Company extended a systemwide high-inventory OFO on its California Gas Transmission system through Saturday, July 5. It was...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the OFO customers who delivered more than 110 percent of their actual gas usage into the system would be assessed for charges. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in storage, as well as decreases in the price of crude oil. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 2,905 Bcf as of...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of natural gas into storage, despite robust inventories. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 3,258 Bcf as of...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas inventories...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Northeast were expected to be in the single digits. Prices off Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line in New York and Algonquin Gas Transmission in the New England region yesterday...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in combination with water. Gas hydrate is thought to exist in great abundance in nature and has the potential to be a significant new energy source to meet future energy...

  14. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  15. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    withdrawal from working gas storage reported last Thursday. A contributing factor to the run-up in natural gas prices could be climbing crude oil prices, which rallied late last...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

  18. offshore_gas.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Source: Energy Information Administration based on data from MMS, HPDI, CA Dept of Oil , Gas & Geothermal Updated: April 8, 2009 Alabama 20 0 m Gas Production, Last Reported Year ...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on Thursday, May 9, 2002. A sample of EIA's report can be seen at: Weekly Gas Storage Test Page. The Natural Gas Weekly Market Update report will convert to the new data series...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.217 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.315 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 17) Natural gas spot prices increased this week (Wednesday to Wednesday, March 2-9) as a late season cold front moved into major gas-consuming...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  5. ,"Texas Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","2... 6:46:23 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TX3"...

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Measuring Quantities of Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measuring Quantities of Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Measuring Quantities of Gas Objective The objective is to enable students to become familiar with the measuring units of small amounts of gas in the atmosphere which may otherwise be confusing Materials

  7. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  10. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  11. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M.

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  13. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  14. Liquefied Natural Gas Safety Research

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page 1 Liquefied Natural Gas Safety ... Energy | May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page i Message from the ...

  15. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  16. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  17. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  18. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  19. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  20. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection effect of

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission Path Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural Gas Transmission Path

  2. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard S. Meyer

    2004-10-01

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on design and planning for of a 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid testing at ChevronTexaco's Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX. Potting and module materials testing concluded. Construction of the bench-scale equipment continued and a pre-engineering study on a subsea application of the technology was performed cofunded contracts with Research Partnership for Secure Energy for America and Gas Research Institute. GTI has decreased the effort under this contract pending DOE's obligation of the total contract funding.

  3. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H.; Spencer, B. B.; Strachan, D. M.; Jubin, R. T.; Soelberg, N. R.; Riley, B. J.

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these

  4. Note: Fiber optic transport probe for Hall measurements under light and magnetic field at low temperatures: Case study of a two dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.

    2015-05-15

    A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360–800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8–300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0–7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.

  5. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... distribution, or storage operations. 2 Capacity ... as found in the Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Transportation Information System, Natural Gas ...

  6. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  7. Simulated Passage Through A Modified Kaplan Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Cada, G. F.

    2002-03-15

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The responses of fall Chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to these two stresses, both singly and in combination, were investigated in the laboratory. A previous test series (Abernethy et al. 2001) evaluated the effects of passage through a Kaplan turbine under the ?worst case? pressure conditions. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a Kaplan turbine under a more ?fish-friendly? mode of operation. The results were compared to results from Abernethy et al. (2001). Fish were exposed to total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 100%, 120%, or 135% of saturation for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa) or 30 ft (191 kPa) of pressure, then held at surface pressure at 100% saturation for a 48-hour observation period. Sensitivity of fall Chinook salmon to gas supersaturation was slightly higher than in the previous test series, with 15% mortality for surface-acclimated fish at 120% TDG, compared to 0% in the previous tests.

  8. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  9. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  10. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  11. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  13. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  15. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  16. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

  17. Reliability of natural gas cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Cogeneration systems fueled by natural gas exceed the reliability of most central station power generating units, according to a study conducted by RINC Corporation for Gas Research Institute (GRI). In the study, researchers obtained operating data from 122 natural gas cogeneration units nationwide representing 2,200 megawatts (MW) of capacity and nearly 2 million hours of operating time at 37 facilities. Units were grouped into categories reflecting size (from 60 kilowatts to 100 MW), type of system (gas engine or gas turbine technology), use of emission controls, and type of thermal application. Various types and sizes of gas systems reported average availability factors ranging from 90.0 to 95.8 versus a weighted average of 85.9 percent for fossil-fuel steam, nuclear, and gas-turbine-based central station power generating units. Comparisons are based on study data and data reported by the North American Electric Reliability Council for utility power plants. Gas cogeneration can improve utility operations because as a group the relatively small, dispersed cogeneration units are more reliable than one or more large central station units of similar capacity.

  18. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  19. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  20. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  1. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  2. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  3. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stations Compressor Stations Illustration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Illustration, 2008 Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil & Gas, Natural Gas Division, Natural Gas Transportation Information System. The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security

  5. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  6. Pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  8. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    As of February 14, Northern Natural Gas implemented a system overrun limitation (SOL) affecting all market area zones. These zones are located in the northern part of the...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Company, for example, on Tuesday, October 21, issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) that allows for penalties on variances between flows and nominations. The SOL is in...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Government Accountability Office into specific leases that excluded price threshold language and a court action by Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corporation challenging the Department...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    oil and gas resources will be necessary even as efficiency improvements reduce demand and renewable sources become more available. In order to retain public trust environmentally...

  13. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    average, the general price level in the natural gas market has shown surprising resilience over the past few weeks. After an extended price decline since mid December, spot...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Other Market Trends: MMS Issues Final Notice of Western Gulf Lease Sale: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) will offer several incentives to increase domestic oil and gas...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Storage Estimates Database. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on the Fundamentals of Natural Gas Storage: EIA prepared a new report to provide general background...

  17. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    over the next few days. To avoid penalties, Northwest requested that customers stay within their scheduled volumes, and asked customers who owe gas to Northwest north of...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Upward pressure on prices at the NYMEX also appears related to concerns over events in Japan that could affect energy markets. Japan, the worlds largest liquefied natural gas...

  20. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    , 2009 Next Release: July 9, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 2, 2009) Since...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6, 2008 Next Release: November 14, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, November 5) Since...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2009 Next Release: August 6, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 29, 2009) Since...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2008 Next Release: July 24, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview The report week ended July 16 registered significant...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    constraint. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a systemwide Stage 2 high-inventory OFO for Saturday, May 5, because of projections that linepack on the California...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), futures prices also increased this week in tandem with the crude oil prices. The natural gas futures contract for delivery in June...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on December 9, falling from somewhat higher intraweek levels. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage dropped 64 Bcf during the...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and October 2010 contracts all fell by less than 1 cent. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working natural gas inventories set a new record,...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    recorded last year. Other Market Trends: FERC Releases Report on Underground Natural Gas Storage: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a report last week that...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Estimates Database. Other Market Trends: Comments Received on Proposed Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Revision Policy: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) solicited...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    compared with its settlement price a week ago, ending yesterday at 5.974 per MMBtu. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that natural gas inventories in...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    storage facilities. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases Report on Underground Natural Gas Storage Developments: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) released a special...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 7, 2009) Since Wednesday, December...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    March 12, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 4, 2009) A late winter cold spell in...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, April 15, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 7, 2010) Since...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, February 25, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, February 17, 2010)...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, March 18, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 10, 2010) Since...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release: Thursday, March 24, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 16, 2011) With...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Inventory of Onshore Federal Lands' Oil and Gas Resources and the Extent and Nature of Restrictions or Impediments to Their Development. The report, which was...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Accounting Standards Board. The changes will allow FERC an understanding of the nature and extent to which hedging activities are used by electric utilities and gas...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storm activity has been above average this year, there has been little impact on natural gas markets. Tropical Depression 6 showed up in the eastern Caribbean early this...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 Next Release: December 11, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, December 3, 2008) Since...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2009 Next Release: March 26, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 18, 2009) Warmer...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    P.M. Next Release: October 29, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, October 21, 2009) Since...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 Next Release: October 2, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (Wednesday, September 17, to Wednesday, September 24)...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Release: Thursday, January 20, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 12, 2011)...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    with hopes for the eventual return of winter was likely the catalyst enabling natural gas prices to recapture the 4 mark this week despite an environment of negative...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, May 19, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 11, 2011) Natural...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thursday, September 16, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 8, 2010) Price...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thursday, September 23, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 15, 2010)...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next Release: Thursday, May 12, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 4, 2011) Wholesale...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    data to EIA. The number of companies reporting increased by 3 from 2008, to include Alon USA, Chalmette Refining LLC, and Western Refining, Inc. Natural Gas Transportation Update...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    kept up significant downward pressure on both cash and futures prices. Lower prices may eventually lead to fewer rigs exploring for gas, thereby stemming the growth in production....

  14. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    planning information that will assist in maintaining the operational integrity and reliability of pipeline service, as well as providing gas-fired power plant operators with...

  16. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2009 Next Release: August 13, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 5, 2009) Natural...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, July 1, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 23, 2010)...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, September 9, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 1,...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, January 14, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 6,...