Sample records for garbage bagasse sewerage

  1. Garbage Collection (Garbage collection)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bshouty, Nader

    1 1 1 1 #12;9Garbage Collection : , leftright . :{u,r,l} . :root -w )-rootGarbage Collection )( U U U U U U Lparent w U U U U L U L parent w #12;©cs,Technion 12Garbage Collection )( U U L U L U L parent wU U U U L U L parent w #12;©cs,Technion 13Garbage Collection )( U U L U L U

  2. Sewerage service charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Samuel Robert

    1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    budget items in the tax levy* lll/ith new laws prohibiting stream polution, the need for better sewage treatment will become more emphasized* The cost of developing and operating the sewerage facilities will be borne by the users of the system...

  3. Concurrent Garbage Collection of Persistent Heaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concurrent Garbage Collection of Persistent Heaps Scott Nettles James O'Toole y David Gifford y.S. Government. #12; Keywords: persistence, transaction processing, garbage collection, copying garbage collection, concurrent garbage collection, replication copying garbage collection #12; Abstract We describe

  4. `Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development sanitation ``Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development of modern nursing

  5. The Mechanized Verification of Garbage Collector Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract The Mechanized Verification of Garbage Collector Implementations Andrew Evan Mc complex, requiring a garbage collector. Garbage collectors are becoming increasingly sophis- ticated to adapt them to high-performance, concurrent and real-time applications, making internal collector

  6. Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services,...

  7. The Omniscient Garbage Collector: a Resource Analysis Framework (extended abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Omniscient Garbage Collector: a Resource Analysis Framework (extended abstract) Aurélien point of view, we develop the omniscient garbage collector (OGC), which decides precisely when the resource index requires an omniscient garbage collector, a NP-complete problem tightly connected

  8. LANL debuts hybrid garbage truck

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as ReadyAppointedKyungmin Ham,work underHybrid garbage

  9. Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Stephen J.

    means that water markets globally (and specifically the demand for water and sewerage services) will continue to grow well into the twenty-first century. Since 1960 the world population has doubled to approximately 7 billion today, and is projected... sectors1 Michael G. Pollitt Steven J. Steer ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group University of Cambridge August 2011 Abstract Many studies of the water and sewerage industries place significant importance on the benefits of economies...

  10. Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chang-Ming

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    untreated bagasse . . . . . . . . Iso-Butyric acid concentrations from untreated bagasse . . . Iso-Valeric acid concentrations from untreated bagasse Total acid concentrations from Ca(OH)2-treated bagasse . . Acetic acid concentrations from Ca(OH)2...(OH)q-treated bagasse . . . . . . . Iso-Butyric acid concentrations from Ca(OH/-treated bagasse . . Iso-Valeric acid concentrations from Ca(OH)q-treated bagasse . . Total acid yields from untreated bagasse . 53 54 55 56 57 59 30 31 32 Acetic acid yields...

  11. A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators Andrew McCreight + Zhong and security of a large portion of the world's mission­critical software. Unfortunately, garbage collectors uniform approach to verifying the safety of both a mutator and its garbage collector in Hoare­style logic

  12. A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators Andrew McCreight Zhong and security of a large portion of the world's mission-critical software. Unfortunately, garbage collectors uniform approach to verifying the safety of both a mutator and its garbage collector in Hoare-style logic

  13. Flexible Reference-Counting-Based Hardware Acceleration for Garbage Collection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Onur

    Flexible Reference-Counting-Based Hardware Acceleration for Garbage Collection José A. Joao Onur automatic memory management (garbage col- lection) are increasingly used to write all kinds of applications be- cause they provide clear software engineering and security advan- tages. Unfortunately, garbage

  14. Generational Garbage Collection and the Radioactive Decay Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clinger, William D.

    Generational Garbage Collection and the Radioactive Decay Model William D Clinger and Lars T Hansen a rational basis for deciding how many objects to promote, when to collect garbage, and which generations to collect. Analysis of the model leads to a new kind of gen- erational garbage collector whose effectiveness

  15. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Smith, Douglas R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the upper reaches of a family of concurrent garbage collectors by refinement from a formal specification, emphasizing the application of domain-independent design theories and transformations. A key contribution is an extension to the classical lattice-theoretic fixpoint theorems to account for the dynamics of concurrent mutation and collection.

  16. Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

  17. Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case of vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case The article presents the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to a complete sanitation system including of water sanitation systems may be done using the LCA approach (Life Cycle Assessment). Indeed

  18. Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawblitzel, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Garbage collectors are notoriously hard to verify, due to their low-level interaction with the underlying system and the general difficulty in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either the proofs were hand-written or the collectors were too simplistic to use on practical applications. In this work, we present two mechanically verified garbage collectors, both practical enough to use for real-world C# benchmarks. The collectors and their associated allocators consist of x86 assembly language instructions and macro instructions, annotated with preconditions, postconditions, invariants, and assertions. We used the Boogie verification generator and the Z3 automated theorem prover to verify this assembly language code mechanically. We provide measurements comparing the performance of the verified collector with that of the standard Bartok collectors on off-the-shelf C# benchmarks, demonstrating their competitiveness.

  19. Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors Chris Hawblitzel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors Chris Hawblitzel Microsoft Research One Technion Haifa 32000 Israel erez@cs.technion.ac.il Abstract Garbage collectors are notoriously hard in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either

  20. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas R.

    Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1 , Peter Pepper2 , and Douglas R¨at Berlin and Fraunhofer FIRST, Berlin pepper@cs.tu-berlin.de Abstract. Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors

  1. Towards Hinted Collection Annotations for decreasing garbage collector pause times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Necula, George

    Towards Hinted Collection Annotations for decreasing garbage collector pause times Philip Reames are influenced as much by garbage collector behavior as by resource availability. We present an alternate performance not correct- ness. Our hinted collector algorithm uses these hints to identify a subset

  2. Integrating Generations with Advanced Reference Counting Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    Integrating Generations with Advanced Reference Counting Garbage Collectors Hezi Azatchi 1 and Erez counting work on the old generation (where many objects survive). Matching the expected survival rate a couple of milliseconds. Keywords: Runtime systems, Memory management, Garbage collection, Genera- tional

  3. Exploiting Memory Usage Patterns to Improve Garbage Collections in Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Francis C.M.

    Exploiting Memory Usage Patterns to Improve Garbage Collections in Java Liangliang Tong Department Science The University of Hong Kong fcmlau@cs.hku.hk Abstract Copying-based garbage collectors It is a common belief, however, that ob- jects' survival rates are generally too low to make full use

  4. Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose of varying sugarcane bagasse concentrations on xylose monomer and oligomer yields was experimentally measured

  5. Type-Preserving Garbage Collectors Daniel C. Wang Andrew W. Appel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appel, Andrew W.

    Type-Preserving Garbage Collectors Daniel C. Wang Andrew W. Appel Department of Computer Science that acts as a tracing garbage collector for the program. Since the garbage collector is an explicit function, we do not need to provide a trusted garbage collector as a runtime service to manage memory

  6. Age-Based Garbage Collection Darko Stefanovic Kathryn S. McKinley J. Eliot B. Moss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    Age-Based Garbage Collection Darko Stefanovi´c Kathryn S. McKinley J. Eliot B. Moss Department@cs.umass.edu ABSTRACT Modern generational garbage collectors look for garbage among the young objects, because they have live. We introduce new garbage collection algorithms, called age-based, some of which postpone

  7. Garbage Collection in a Very Large Address Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Peter B.

    The address space is broken into areas that can be garbage collected separately. An area is analogous to a file on current systems. Each process has a local computation area for its stack and temporary storage that is ...

  8. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  10. Garbage, society, and environment in a Mexican municipio: The case of Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilburn, Andrew Michael

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the practice of garbage management and its construction as a set of environmental issues across the municipio of Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico. The generation and sustainable management of garbage ...

  11. Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator. The garbage collector therefore directly deter- mines program performance by making a classic space-time trade canonical tracing garbage collectors: semi-space, mark-sweep, and mark-compact each sacrifice one ob

  12. A Study of the Scalability of Stop-the-world Garbage Collectors on Multicores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Study of the Scalability of Stop-the-world Garbage Collectors on Multicores Lokesh Gidra, Ga challenges for garbage collectors (GCs). In particular, throughput-oriented stop- the-world algorithms-oriented garbage collector of OpenJDK 7, called Parallel Scavenge. We identify its bottlenecks, and show how

  13. Concurrent Compacting Garbage Collection of a Persistent Heap James O'Toole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian C.

    Concurrent Compacting Garbage Collection of a Persistent Heap James O'Toole Scott Nettles David Gifford Abstract We describe a replicating garbage collector for a persistent heap. The garbage collector operations are committed they are preserved in stable storage and survive system failures. Clients can freely

  14. Fault-Tolerant Distributed Garbage Collection in a Client-Server Object-Oriented Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fault-Tolerant Distributed Garbage Collection in a Client-Server Object-Oriented Database Umesh a scalable garbage collection scheme for sys- tems that store objects at multiple servers while clients run for such a sys- tem: Servers recover from failures and retrieve information needed for safe garbage collection

  15. Garbage Collection Hints Dries Buytaert, Kris Venstermans, Lieven Eeckhout, and Koen De Bosschere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eeckhout, Lieven

    Garbage Collection Hints Dries Buytaert, Kris Venstermans, Lieven Eeckhout, and Koen De Bosschere {dbuytaer, kvenster, leeckhou, kdb}@elis.UGent.be Abstract. This paper shows that Appel-style garbage collectors often make suboptimal decisions both in terms of when and how to collect. We argue that garbage

  16. Olderfirst Garbage Collection in Practice: Evaluation in a Java Virtual Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Older­first Garbage Collection in Practice: Evaluation in a Java Virtual Machine #3; Darko recently, the best performing copying garbage collectors used a generational policy which repeatedly collects the older space. A previous study that used garbage­ collection simulation pointed to potential

  17. Older-first Garbage Collection in Practice: Evaluation in a Java Virtual Machine,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Older-first Garbage Collection in Practice: Evaluation in a Java Virtual Machine, Darko Stefanovid performing copying garbage collectorsused a generational policy which repeatedly collects the very youngest. A previous study that used garbage- collection simulation pointed to potential improvements by using an Older

  18. FaultTolerant Distributed Garbage Collection in a ClientServer ObjectOriented Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fault­Tolerant Distributed Garbage Collection in a Client­Server Object­Oriented Database Umesh a scalable garbage collection scheme for sys­ tems that store objects at multiple servers while clients run for such a sys­ tem: Servers recover from failures and retrieve information needed for safe garbage collection

  19. Inferring Type Maps during Garbage Collection HansJ. Boehm Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inferring Type Maps during Garbage Collection Hans­J. Boehm Zhong Shao boehm@parc.xerox.com zsh@cs.princeton.edu September 10, 1993 Abstract Conservative garbage collectors are designed to operate in environments that do during the garbage collection time. The inferred information might be used to make the subsequent passes

  20. Garbage Collection Without Paging Matthew Hertz Yi Feng Emery D. Berger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Emery

    survival rate, generational collection reduces the frequency of full-heap garbage collections. HoweverGarbage Collection Without Paging Matthew Hertz Yi Feng Emery D. Berger Department of Computer Garbage collection offers numerous software engineering advan- tages, but interacts poorly with virtual

  1. Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors Harel Paz 1 and Erez Petrank 2 1-counting collector. We propose potential prefetching opportunities for the advanced reference-counting collector and report an implementation of a collector that employs such prefetch- ing. The proposed prefetch

  2. Bachelor's thesis Garbage collection for TakaTuka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    . It aims to enable programming of sensor motes, the nodes of a wireless ad-hoc network, by means of a high erstmals m¨oglich komplexere Java Anwendungen unter TakaTuka f¨ur die Sensor Motes zu entwickeln, die die¨ur Speichermanag- ment und Garbage-Collection implementiert, die anhand von Testprogram- men verglichen werden. #12

  3. SNES 2000: Environmental Sciences Colloquium Garbage and Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    September 28 Barbara Eckstrom, Solid Waste Manager, Tompkins County Solid Waste Management Division. October October 26 Solid waste management Jean Bonhotal, Cornell Waste Management Institute, Crop & Soil ScienceSNES 2000: Environmental Sciences Colloquium Fall 2012 Garbage and Waste Management Friday

  4. COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD Qinglin Wu School of Forestry, Wildlife panels (6.35 mm x 1.22 m x 2.44 m in size) were manufactured from hammer milled bagasse. A combination be successfully developed. Keywords: bagasse, laminate floor, particleboard, pMDI, stability, and strength

  5. Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars t s Sugarcane bagasse biochars were effective in removing Pb from aqueous solution. Pyrolytic temperatures Lead Bagasse biochar Sorption kinetics Functional groups a b s t r a c t The characteristics

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper

  7. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  8. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  9. A Lock-Free, Concurrent, and Incremental Stack Scanning for Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    A Lock-Free, Concurrent, and Incremental Stack Scanning for Garbage Collectors Gabriel Kliot Bjarne.Steensgaard@microsoft.com Abstract Two major efficiency parameters for garbage collectors collectors with as short as possible pause times. Pause lengths have decreased significantly during the years

  10. Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chien-An

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    collection and compare it to that of more proactive schemes. I develop formulas to assess the schedulability of hard real- time periodic task sets under simpli ed memory consumption models. Results show that I prove the proactive schemes achieve the larger... work in the area of ash memory management. Moreover, we review the previous research about garbage collection in real-time system. In Chapter III we will describe a simpli ed ash memory model that will be used throughout the rest of the thesis...

  11. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  12. Coordinating Garbage Collection for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Junghee [ORNL] [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although solid-state drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDDs) for a number of workloads, they can exhibit substantial variance in request latency and throughput as a result of garbage collection (GC). When GC conflicts with an I/O stream, the stream can make no forward progress until the GC cycle completes. GC cycles are scheduled by logic internal to the SSD based on several factors such as the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests. When SSDs are used in a RAID with currently available technology, the lack of coordination of the SSD-local GC cycles amplifies this performance variance. We propose a global garbage collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID of SSDs. We include a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices and algorithms to coordinate the GGC cycles. We develop reactive and proactive GC coordination algorithms and evaluate their I/O performance and block erase counts for various workloads. Our simulations show that GC coordination by a reactive scheme improves average response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write-dominated workloads, response time was improved by 69% and performance variability was reduced by 71%. We show that a proactive GC coordination algorithm can further improve the I/O response times by up to 9% and the performance variability by up to 15%. We also observe that it could increase the lifetimes of SSDs with some workloads (e.g. Financial) by reducing the number of block erase counts by up to 79% relative to a reactive algorithm for write-dominant enterprise workloads.

  13. A discussion of sanitary engineering problems in army camps in the United States in relation to water supply, sewerage, and garbage problems from the standpoint of the medical department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haskins, Charles Arthur

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will consult free­ ly with the engineer officer and the officer in charge of cantonment construction, in connection with the purchases of such equipment as power plants, pumping machinery, refrigerating plants and similar items. .;.. "6. COLSTRUCTION...

  14. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, G.

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

  15. Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vechakul, Jessica

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

  16. Proc. 20th Symp. Principles of Programming Languages, 1993, pages 113--123. A concurrent, generational garbage collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leroy, Xavier

    , generational garbage collector for a multithreaded implementation of ML Damien Doligez Xavier Leroy ' Ecole and implementation of a ``quasi real­time'' garbage collector for Concurrent Caml Light, an implementation of ML with threads. This two­generation system combines a fast, asynchronous copying collector on the young

  17. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1, Peter Pepper2, and Douglas R. Smith1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1, Peter Pepper2, and Douglas R¨at Berlin and Fraunhofer FIRST, Berlin pepper@cs.tu-berlin.de Abstract. Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors

  18. Proc. 20th Symp. Principles of Programming Languages, 1993, pages 113{123. A concurrent, generational garbage collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leroy, Xavier

    , generational garbage collector for a multithreaded implementation of ML Damien Doligez Xavier Leroy Ecole a \\quasireal-time"garbage collector for Concurrent Caml Light, an implementation of ML with threads. This two-generation system combines a fast, asynchronous copying collector on the young generation with a non- disruptive

  19. A Generational On-the-y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    A Generational On-the- y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani #3; Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z Abstract An on-the- y garbage collector does not stop the program threads to perform the collection. Instead, the collector executes in a separate thread (or pro- cess) in parallel to the program

  20. A Generational On-the-y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    A Generational On-the- y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani #3; Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z Abstract An on-the- y garbage collector does not stop the program threads to perform the collection. Instead, the collector executes in a separate thread (or process) in parallel to the program. On

  1. The Dalhousie Employee Guide to Materials Management on Campus Look for the 4 system bins around campus designated for recyclables, paper/cardboard, organics and garbage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    , straws, and dvd cases (garbage) Foams & soft # 6 plastics (garbage) Broken glass (garbage) What belongs cans, liquor/beer containers Milk containers Glass bottles and containers Tin, steel, and aluminum sweepings Broken glass (must be boxed & taped) Disposable gloves (latex, vinyl, etc.) Ceramics Packaging

  2. A Study of Concurrent Real-Time Garbage Collectors Filip Pizlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinetzky, Noam

    A Study of Concurrent Real-Time Garbage Collectors Filip Pizlo Purdue University West Lafayette at the microseconds level. Concurrent collectors also offer much better scalability over incremental collectors. The main prob- lem with concurrent real-time collectors is their complexity. The first concurrent real

  3. Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

  4. Appears in 1993 ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, pp. 73{82. 1 A Concurrent Copying Garbage Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huelsbergen, Lorenz

    A Concurrent Copying Garbage Collector for Languages that Distinguish (Im)mutable Data Lorenz Huelsbergen- tion of a concurrent compacting garbage collector for languages that distinguish mutable data from functionallanguagessuch as Haskell). Thecollector runs on shared-memory parallel computers and re- quires minimal mutator/collector

  5. An OntheFly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views Hezi Azatchi + Yossi Levanoni # Harel Paz Erez Petrank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    An On­the­Fly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views #3; Hezi Azatchi + Yossi garbage collector has become acute. We propose a novel mark and sweep on­the­fly algorithm based on the sliding views mechanism of Levanoni and Petrank. We have implemented our collector on the Jikes Java

  6. The Dalhousie Employee Guide to Materials Management on Campus Look for the 4 system bins around campus designated for recyclables, paper/cardboard, organics and garbage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    can on bid on excess goods for reuse, please visit the Purchasing Department website ( http://purchasing.dal.ca/Surplus all waste for potential reuse before discarding! HAZARDOUS WASTE On-campus, contact Environmental cartons and drink trays Not Acceptable: Coffee cups (garbage) Carbon paper (garbage) Soiled paper

  7. Spitzer should focus on turning garbage into renewable energy By ALYSSAA. LAPPEN and JACK D. LAUBER Eliot Spitzer, listen up.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    disposal system and switch to waste-to-energy, eliminating transport costs and pollution. The New York City energy, New York City taxpayers will continue to export garbage, and pollution risks, at a cost of more energy. Continuing on New York City's current track, though, will generate incalculable costs. Diesel

  8. The Dalhousie Guide to Waste Management on Campus Look for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics and garbage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics.) · Ceramics · Potato chip bags & candy wrappers · Styrofoam Not acceptable: · Organics · Recyclables and dry. Organic Waste No liquids. Garbage Reconsider all waste for potential reuse before discarding

  9. Berea College currently recycles 21% of the solid wastes. Recently, a SENS class did a garbage audit--sorting the contents of bags of trash to see how much could have been recycled. 62.5% of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    · Berea College currently recycles 21% of the solid wastes. Recently, a SENS class did a garbage away 9 times as much waste as does a person in Africa or Central America, but we also generate two to three times the amount of waste as people living in industrial countries with a comparable or better

  10. From garbage to electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G. [Filter/Engineered Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills provide an easy-to-tap source of methane gas to fuel power-generation gas turbines. However, they also produce hydrogen sulfide which when burned in a gas turbine, produces acidic sulfur dioxide that corrodes plant equipment and erodes community support. The Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center in Broward County FL operates the nation`s largest landfill gas to energy plant. After Hurricane Andrew hydrogen sulfide became a big problem. To reduce this and other air pollution problems, the Center installed the LO-CAT II process. This process removes hydrogen sulfide from landfill gas, eliminating oders and cutting corrosion. This article describes process alternatives, the process itself and the success of the project.

  11. Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority (BRSA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France:Barstow,Bayport Biomass Facility Jump

  12. Beijing Besieged by Garbage Wang Jiuliang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    landfill, a large residential compound was under construction. With my eyes on the high-rise buildings under construction, I lamented the proximity of the landfills to our city. On maps of Beijing, however be a potential dump site. Then, I went to each of the noted locations and confirmed their status. Using

  13. Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    different feedstocks (bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshellCost of H 2 Switchgrass Switchgrass Switchgrass BagasseBagasse Bagasse Bagasse Nutshell mix IRR CRF Wood Wood Wood

  14. Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    different feedstocks (bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshellCost of H 2 Switchgrass Switchgrass Switchgrass BagasseBagasse Bagasse Bagasse Nutshell mix IRR CRF Wood Wood Wood

  15. QUANTIFYING AND IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF GARBAGE COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hertz, Matthew

    of the ALI and PLASMA research groups over the years, especially Steve Blackburn, Alistair Dundas, Yi (Eric

  16. The Return of the Rest of the Garbage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continued," I have just returned from Ghilnar 6." "Can't say I've ever heard of it. Outer Rim?" Nodding, Avnar drained the last ofhis drink. "Thank you, my Lord, for the refill. Quite exquisite brandy. Ple'jan, I presume?" "Correct, Merchant. So what...

  17. Lab employees don't treat their trash like garbage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s -Lab

  18. Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brooke Ray

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Social History 13(1): 83. Platt, Harold L. 2004. “Cleverand doctors in the formation of policy” (Platt 2004, 152).Platt further asserts that scientists simply could not

  19. Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brooke Ray

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the concept of biological treatment of wastewater, whichwastewater treatment planning. Contrasting Paradigms: Biologicalbiological treatment, incorporating ecological, social, and economic benefits into municipal wastewater

  20. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of agave bagasse. .. 168 Figurealkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse using xylanases fromhydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose at varying

  1. Bagasse-based cogeneration projects in Kenya. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenda, W.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Definitional Mission team evaluated the prospects of the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a feasibility study that would assist the Government of Kenya in developing power cogeneration plants in three Kenyan sugar factories and possibly two more that are now in the planning stage or construction. The major Kenyan sugar producing region around Kisumu, on Lake Victoria has climatic conditions that permit cane growing operations ideally suitable for cogeneration of power in sugar factories. The total potentially available capacity from the proposed rehabilitation of the three mills will be approximately 25.15 MW, or 5.7 percent of total electricity production.

  2. Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocana Camacho, Ronay

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of lignocellulosic materials are available as residues from some forestry and agricultural operations. Also, it may be possible to grow crops specifically for production of lignocellulosic biomas. The three main components of lignocellulosic materials, cellulose...

  3. Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Zhihong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of bio-oils: Pyrolysis and liquefaction Pyrolysis is an important thermal conversion process for biomass. Up to now, pyrolysis is less developed than gasification. Major attention was especially caused by the potential deployment of this technology... on small scale in rural areas and as feedstock for the chemical industry. Pyrolysis converts biomass at temperatures around 500?C in the absence of oxygen to liquid (bio-oil), gaseous, and solid (char) fractions (Adjaye et al. 1992; Demirbas and Balat...

  4. apple bagasse anacardium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have collected a considerable amount of data relating to apple (Malus domestica Biggs, Alan R. 74 Crop Conditions Apple Diseases: What To Do? Environmental Sciences and...

  5. AFEX treatment of coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Jae-Hoon

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollution). We are also faced with pollution by using fossil and nuclear fuels. In the case of coal- fired plants, their smokestacks emit air pollution. Land is scarred from strip mining and water is polluted from the acids that leak out of coal mines..., Nuclear power plants also risk releasing dangerous radioactive substances into the environment through plant or shipping accidents. Furthermore, proper disposal of U. S. nuclear wastes has not yet been addressed. The use of lignocellulose has...

  6. Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Zhihong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ?????????????. 17 1.4 Project description????????????..?... 25 II MATERIALS AND METHODS???????????? 27 2.1 Biomass feedstock??????????????. 27 2.2 Biomass pretreatment????????????? 29 2.3 Fermentation material and methods.... This is followed by introducing promising lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and challenges in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Subsequently, it presents the process description and recent advances of the MixAlco process, a novel and promising biomass...

  7. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stover  and   sugarcane  bagasse  is  more  complex,  in  use  of  sugarcane   bagasse,  corn  stover,  or  other  

  8. The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. , 1994. Pretreatment of Bagasse by Nonionic Surfactantenzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse and decreased the amount of

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    yields a fibrous residue, “bagasse,” that can be used foron the economics, bagasse will be used for electricityIf the sweet sorghum bagasse were also utilized for

  10. Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, Andrea Gillian

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composites reinforced with bagasse fibre before and afterCotton Grasses and reeds Bagasse (sugar cane), Bamboo,PARTICLEBOARDS Flax Hemp Bagasse Jute Bamboo MEDIUM DENSITY

  11. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollister, E.B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw. Appl.Fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure toConversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids using a

  12. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale cogeneration of bagasse energy in Mauritius. EnergyBerkeley Natu S. C. Bagasse based cogeneration, IndiaProd/arquivos/bagasse_based_cogeneration.doc. MITCON

  13. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy projects. Several bagasse cogeneration and hydroprojects (small hydro and bagasse co-generators) and 201 MWgrid. These facilities burn bagasse when it is available and

  14. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in above newsletter is for bagasse and not corn stover astheir Figure 19 is for bagasse. Therefore assumptions, basedthe Purdue analysis of bagasse. Presumably the results would

  15. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATERIALS AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse. Ray P.AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse Approximately 2pounds of bagasse stalks and stems were received through the

  16. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    yields a fibrous residue, “bagasse,” that can be used foron the economics, bagasse will be used for electricityIf the sweet sorghum bagasse were also utilized for

  17. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for enhancement ofhydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. J. Food Eng. 2002; 55:hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by steam

  18. Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Yueh-Du

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose to producehydrolysis in sweet sorghum bagasse for xylose production.after juices production (bagasse) are combusted to provide

  19. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse and Beech Bark. Bioresourceand xylan contents of bagasse, P. deltoides and switchgrass,110 Figure 4.2. For bagasse, P. deltoides and switchgrass,

  20. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sugar Cane Juice , Molasses • , Bagasse Pineapple MethanolSugar Cane • Sugar Production in Hawaii Bagasse Production/Consumption Bagasse and Cane Trash Displayed by Sugar

  1. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II, Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bagasse Pith A, Sciamanna HighA, Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bagasse Pith We recently receivedapproximately 2 KG of bagasse pith fraction (sucrose pre-

  2. Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Xiadi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    material 8491, sugarcane bagasse whole biomass feedstock.and found that for bagasse, only specific surface areas wasWicklow, Ireland). Sugarcane bagasse (NIST 8491), Eastern

  3. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on waste paper, 32% on bagasse and agriculture residues, andon waste paper, 32% on bagasse and agriculture residues, andbroad leaves Agri-residues Bagasse, rice and wheat Domestic

  4. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Implication of Plastic Debris in Marineat 2014. Consumption of plastics by marine animals has beenC. Thompson et al. , Our Plastic Age, 364 PhIL. TRANSAc--

  5. Garbage on the wharf : a transfer station for the City of Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Phillip Gregory

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps because they address processes at the expense of space or have many "conditions" limiting architectural design freedom, infrastructure and particularly the infrastructure of waste, are commonly neglected in ...

  6. Garbage Collection in Open Distributed Tuple Space Ronaldo Menezes \\Lambda and Alan Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Alan

    supported by Funda¸c~ao Coodena¸c~ao de Aperfei¸coamento de Pessoal de N'ivel Superior (CAPES), under grant

  7. Taxes In, Garbage Out The Need for Better Solid Waste Disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................... 8 THE FISCAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CURRENT DISPOSAL PRACTICES.....................9 Fiscal..................................................................................... 2 History of the Municipal System Impact

  8. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic water quality and solid waste disposal laws inquantity generator waste, and industrial solid waste. 197sewer overflows, lit- tering, solid waste disposal sites and

  9. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90% of world plastic material demands. Anthony L. Andrady &a result, the world-wide demand for plastics was expected to

  10. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    later disposal ashore or incineration aboard." ' 156 Becausewould be 'dumping' or 'incineration at sea' within the

  11. High quality garbage: A neural network plastic sorter in hardware and software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, S.L.; Alam, M.K.; Hebner, G.A.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to produce pure polymer streams from post-consumer waste plastics, a quick, accurate and relatively inexpensive method of sorting needs to be implemented. This technology has been demonstrated by using near-infrared spectroscopy reflectance data and neural network classification techniques. Backpropagation neural network routines have been developed to run real-time sortings in the lab, using a laboratory-grade spectrometer. In addition, a new reflectance spectrometer has been developed which is fast enough for commercial use. Initial training and test sets taken with the laboratory instrument show that a network is capable of learning 100% when classifying 5 groups of plastic (HDPE and LDPE combined), and up to 100% when classifying 6 groups. Initial data sets from the new instrument have classified plastics into all seven groups with varying degrees of success. One of the initial networks has been implemented in hardware, for high speed computations, and thus rapid classification. Two neural accelerator systems have been evaluated, one based on the Intel 8017ONX chip, and another on the AT&T ANNA chip.

  12. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    originally con- ceived to combat oil pollution of the seas.1 34 While oil pollution was recognized to be a significantthe Prevention of Pollution by Oil, and II, Regulations for

  13. Coordinated Garbage Collection for RAID Array of Solid State Disks - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution AndControllingCool Magnetic MoleculesCRADA

  14. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cellulosic plant residue (bagasse) is used to generate thea considerab-le quantity of bagasse ·is left over after80 TONS Sugars Steam from Bagasse 468 tons BAGASSE LEFT TO

  15. Physicochemical Analysis of Selected Biomass Materials in Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .............................................................................................................. 7 2.1.1 Bagasse and sugarcane trash

  16. Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shaffer et al. 2009). Bagasse, the mostly ligno- cellulosiccon- tent is about 50%. Bagasse is commonly burned for steam

  17. An Overview of the Louisiana Forest Products Development Center &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Engineered Wood Products #12;Thermal-bonded Wood/ Bagasse Nonwoven Thermal-bonded Wood/Bagasse Composite

  18. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wastes • Sugar cane bagasse • Corn stover and fiber • FutureSugarcane Sugarcane Bagasse Louisiana Rice Hulls Pile Energy

  19. Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, Lisa Danielle

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    virtually impossible to strip from the panels. As little as 5% wt/wt contribution of guayule resin in the composition was enough to render the coatings strippable. Also, when guayule resin modified epoxy coatings were applied to surface panels... researched as a potential base for hardboard materials. Another product is a guayule resin, which has most recently been tested as the overlay coating for these hardboard materials. Guayule resin has also . been experimentally used as an adhesion modifier...

  20. Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98100, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    the more costly process- ing steps for biologically based routes to bioethanol production (3­5). For

  1. Volatile fatty acid fermentation of AFEX-treated newspaper and bagasse by rumen microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blasig, Jorge Dari?o

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    days and filters were replaced every 12 hours. Loading rate does not include alfalfa. H A D Figure 4. Continuous culture system. A, buffer reservoir, B, fermenter; C, overflow effluent reservoir; D, filtered effluent reservoir; E, gas collector; F..., G, peristaltic pumps; H, filter, I, magnetic stir plate, containing up to 4 fermenter vessels; J, temperature bath circulator 28 FIGURE 5. Fermentor diagram. 1, fermenter lid; 2, buffer input; 3, gas outlet; 4, overflow port; 5, filter; 6...

  2. A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

  3. Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

  4. Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Maxine Janette

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to improving product yields. The process uses lime pretreatment, which can be enhanced using new decrystallization pretreatment methods, namely hydrodynamic cavitation and shock tube pretreatment.Previous studies on biomass decrystallization showed an increase...

  5. Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction. The performance of a pilot-scale screw-press conveyor was tested for dewatering capabilities and power consumption. The unoptimized equipment decreased megasse moisture from 96 to 89%. Simulation of the process suggested that eight stages...

  6. Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    New technologies, such as an efficient vapor-compression evaporator, a stationary lime kiln (SLK), and the MixAlco process, compelled us to re-evaluate methods for producing sugar from cane. These technologies allow more water and lime to be used...

  7. Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Maxine Janette

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to improving product yields. The process uses lime pretreatment, which can be enhanced using new decrystallization pretreatment methods, namely hydrodynamic cavitation and shock tube pretreatment.Previous studies on biomass decrystallization showed an increase...

  8. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, T. J.

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl?, NO[subscript 3]?, and 20 metals from 10 ...

  9. University of St Andrews Simon Dobson and Juan Ye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Simon

    "Garbage in, garbage out" The wrong data will generate the wrong output If the parameters don't meet provoke such a question. Charles Babbage. Passages from the Life of a Philosopher. 1864. Quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garbage_In,_Garbage if their inputs are "garbage" (or at least imperfect) #12;Sensor networks ­ 1 Sensor networks Lots of small

  10. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the crop residues (bagasse) are abundant and easily used forproduction, the use of bagasse (the cellulosic stalks andIn some facilities the bagasse is being used to cogenerate

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and benefits. If true, then risk of serious respiratory illness caused by working with bagasse should Fig. 2: Composition comparison between bagasse and wood fibre paper (Pulp and Paper Resources the inhaled air. Bagasse A

  12. FORECASTING THE ROLE OF RENEWABLES IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    next plants. burn oi1 and bagasse, Steam supplemented poweri.dual oiL ed by Electrici bagasse~fired ion. was assumed toin Ha"~Bagasse combined with oil and

  13. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the combustion of bagasse (sugar cane waste) in boilersMost recently, two fractions of bagasse were analyzed in theIt would appear that bagasse pith fraction is well worth

  14. CHEMICAL PROCESS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most recently, two fractions of bagasse were analyzed in theIt v10uld appear that bagasse pith fraction is well worthFarm By-products (cane bagasse for steam generation)

  15. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels. Direct com- bustion of bagasse (a fibrous sugar canechips and wastes (such as bagasse, MSW, and pineapple trash)MW on the other islands combined Bagasse, which is already a

  16. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results from sugar cane bagasse and high fiber cane co-Test results from sugar cane bagasse and high fiber cane co-sugarcane trash and bagasse, would be possible solutions to

  17. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process residual like bagasse are now available (Cornland etsugar in- dustry uses bagasse and the edible oils industrySection 7.4.7. ). The use of bagasse for energy is likely to

  18. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy demand by burning bagasse, the ligno-cellulosic fiberis rich in sucrose, and bagasse, which is used to meet theto the non-CO2 emissions from bagasse combustion, which, in

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - activated rice husk Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heater Biomass Gasifiers Bagasse Rice Husk 12;Applications Biomass Gasifiers - Process Heat Solar... available -wood, rice husk,coconut stalks,shells , sugarcane leaves, bagasse...

  20. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONFLICT OR COMPLEMENT?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provided by the burning of bagasse, the residue from thecane. bagasse was dumped in the ocean. Years ago the A new

  1. Sweet-Talking the Climate? Evaluating Sugar Mill Cogeneration and Climate Change Financing in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Malini; Haya, Barbara; Kirpekar, Sujit

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004).   Bagasse  Cogeneration  ??  Global  Review  and ?Promotion  of  biomass  cogeneration  with  power  export WADE  2004.   Bagasse  Cogeneration  –  Global  Review  and 

  2. 24 Webservices 24.2 bergabe eigener Klassen an Webservice 24-15(438) Der Webservice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arndt, Holger

    Speicherbereich für die Objekte Zugriff Synchronisiert Speicherbereinigung automatisiert durch Garbage Collector nächsten Befehl in der Method Area Bei nativen Methoden undefiniert Garbage Collector Spezifikation Automatische Speicherbereinigung wird gefordert Spezielle Methoden sind nicht spezifiziert #12;Garbage

  3. Commercialization of the Conversion of Bagasse to Ethanol. Summary quarterly report for the period January-September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These studies were intended to further refine sugar yield parameters which effect sugar yield such as feedstock particle size, debris, acid soak time, temperature, dewatering, and pretreatment conditions (such as temperature, reaction time, percentage solids concentration, acid concentration), liquid-solids separation, and detoxification parameters (such as time temperature and mixing of detoxification ingredients). Validate and refine parameters, which affect ethanol yield such as detoxification conditions mentioned above, and to fermenter conditions such as temperature, pH adjustment, aeration, nutrients, and charging sequence. Materials of construction will be evaluated also. Evaluate stillage to determine clarification process and suitability for recycle; evaluate lignocellulosic cake for thermal energy recovery to produce heat and electricity for the process; and Support Studies at UF - Toxin Amelioration and Fermentation; TVA work will provide pre-hydroylsates for the evaluation of BCI proprietary methods of toxin amelioration. Pre-hydrolysates from batch studies will allow the determination of the range of allowable hydrolyze conditions that can be used to produce a fermentable sugar stream. This information is essential to guide selection of process parameters for refinement and validation in the continuous pretreatment reactor, and for overall process design. Additional work will be conducted at UFRFI to develop improved strains that are resistant to inhibitors. The authors are quite optimistic about the long-term prospects for this advancement having recently developed strains with a 25%--50% increase in ethanol production. The biocatalyst platform selected originally, genetically engineered Escherichia coli B, has proven to be quite robust and adaptable.

  4. An Information Product Approach For Total Information Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Richard

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    To fight terrorism successfully, the quality of data must be considered to avoid garbage-in-garbage-out. Research has shown that data quality (DQ) goes beyond ...

  5. CCCCoooommmmppppaaaarrrraaaattttiiiivvvveeee PPPPrrrrooooppppeeeerrrrttttiiiieeeessss ooooffff BBBBaaaaggggaaaasssssssseeee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /year in sugar-related products Producing 16 Million tons of bagasse as by- product #12;Harvested Sugar Cane #12;Sugar Extraction #12;Sugar Mill #12;By-Product - Bagasse #12;By-Product - Bagasse #12;About 30 about 65 percent fiber, 25 percent pith cells, and 10 percent water soluble. Bagasse fibers average 1

  6. WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    bagasse to pro- duce paper pulps, value added biopolymers and bioethanol. The possibility to integrate pre

  7. Ris Energy Report 2 Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol. Bioenergy is the only

  8. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or fisheries. Examples of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol

  9. Ris Energy Report 2 New and emerging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or fisheries. Examples of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol

  10. Groupe de travail "Ecomateriaux" Amac/Mecamat, Lyon, 30.06.11 PHOTODEGRADATION DE COMPOSITES CONSTITUES DE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONSTITUES DE POLYETHYLENE HAUTE DENSITE ET DE BAGASSE DELIGNIFIEE Peyvand DARABI1,2,3 , Marie, la bagasse, etc. Au cours des dernières décennies le bois composite a trouvé sa propre place dans les expliqué dans la littérature [2]. Dans cette étude, la bagasse et la bagasse délignifiée ont été utilisées

  11. Everglades Research and Education Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    . Wright; and K. Krawchuk This brochure was printed on recycled paper made with sugarcane bagasse. "A

  12. Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (UT)methodwasusedtodifferentiatetheeffectsofparticlesizeonpanelpropertiesforori- ented strandboard (OSB), redcedar particleboard (RCPB), and bagasse particleboard (BAPB

  13. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000181 Synthesis of Furfural from Xylose and Xylan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    for utilization of impor- tant biomass feedstocks such as bagasse, corn stover, Miscan- thus, switchgrass

  14. PMOS Revisited Fred Brown and Dave Munro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munro, David S.

    Object Space, PMOS, garbage collection algorithm is designed to incrementally collect all garbage of garbage into small enough units so that disruption to the running system is insignificant. PMOS is able to collect the small units in arbitrary orders whilst eliminating cyclic garbage and being able to guarantee

  15. Visualizing the Allocation and Death of Objects Raoul L. Veroy, Nathan P. Ricci, Samuel Z. Guyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Samuel Z.

    , a dynamic program analysis tool for Java which produces detailed traces of garbage collection-related events of the interesting cases of memory be- havior requires a brief digression into garbage collection. Most modern JVM garbage collectors are generational garbage collectors. Generational collectors exploit the observation

  16. An Efficient Parallel Heap Compaction Algorithm Diab Abuaiadh Yoav Ossia Erez Petrank # Uri Silbershtein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    ---Memory management (garbage collection) General Terms Languages, Performance, Algorithms # Dept. of Computer Science 1­58113­831­8/04/0010 ...$5.00. Keywords Garbage collection, Java, JVM, Parallel garbage collection­ tible to fragmentation. Because the garbage collector does not move objects during the collection

  17. Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    garbage burning (7), incineration of municipal and medicalindustrial settings, incineration fa- cilities (5), biomass

  18. The Dalhousie Guide to Waste Management on Campus Look for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics and garbage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics.) · Ceramics · Potato chip bags & candy wrappers · Styrofoam Not acceptable: · Organics · Recyclables. For personal cell phone disposal, visit: call2recycle.ca · Employees can request office related e-waste

  19. Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Open-air pits are used to burn garbage and other wastes at bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    found in the study: Acetone, Acrolein**, Benzene, Carbon Disulfide, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chloromethane, Toluene Acrolein and Hexachlorobutadiene were occasionally detected far above the MEG ratio--over 1800 percent above the MEG for Acrolein and over 500 percent above the MEG for Hexachlorobutadiene. Plaintiffs

  20. Mini-review Received: 8 April 2013 Revised: 1 July 2013 Accepted article published: 13 July 2013 Published online in Wiley Online Library: 9 August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    starting in 1921 by the Quaker Oats company using oat hulls, corn cobs, and sugar cane bagasse, but due raw materials such as bagasse or corn cobs. In this review, furfural and its catalytic products

  1. Diethylamine and ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holthus, Robert Earl

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a process for pretreating bagasse with diethylamine to enhance lignocellulose reactivity. The bagasse was soaked in diethylamine for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hour time intervals, and the pressure was released slowly. The treated...

  2. Sujet de thse / LGPM mars 2011 Modlisation double chelle de la transformation arobie et anarobie de la

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezerianos, Anastasia

    /utilisation du modèle sur au moins une configuration réelle. Le stockage de la bagasse de canne à sucre est l

  3. Everglades Research and Education Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    sugarcane bagasse. "A university should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning." Benjamin Disraeli

  4. Approvisionnement responsable Vous organisez un vnement ou un repas d'affaires qui ncessitent l'utilisation de vaisselle? Voici quelques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plastifié, en bambou ou en bagasse qui sera compostée; - les ustensiles en bois qui seront compostés; - la

  5. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Production by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .0 Resource Assessment of Biomass Feedstocks 1.1 Bagasse, Sw itch Grass, and Nut Shell Availability and Cost 1

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has been introduced to the market. Bagasse is a by-product that remains after sugarcane and sorghum stalks worldwide has come from agricultural crops, such as bagasse. Currently, an increasing number of companies

  7. 15/09 2005 10:23 FAX +27317642494 TAPPSA 1i!I02 Francois Woltiillrdt"', Chris Rabie-' &. Mike Wingfield'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to increased int.rest in biopulping olthe,e libres. This revi,w will focus on the biopulping of bagasse. beeaus. Diopulping of bagasse is, therefore, ofspt".cial significance to the South Afric::inpulping industry. TIle'OPULP'NG EXPER'ENCE One of the hurdles to oVlm:omein the pulping of bagasse is tbe seasonal a

  8. The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Michigan State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    simultaneously extracted while the remaining lignocellulose in bagasse was alkali pretreated in a novel combined diffusion extraction/pretreatment technique. The carbohydrates in the bagasse were then hydrolyzed extraction was achieved and a glucose yield of 70% was obtained on the pretreated bagasse. An ethanol

  9. Thse N Anne 2012 De l'Universit Thran et de l'Universit Montpellier 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of composites of high density polyethylene and bagasse flour: effect of fiber delignification and surface-degradation of a HDPE/bagasse composite 3 Dedication To my beloved family Acknowledgments I would like to sincerely - Photo and bio-degradation of a HDPE/bagasse composite 4 Abstract The use of wood-polymer composites (WPC

  10. MAISONDELARECHERCHE COLLEGEDESETUDESDOCTORALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    agronomiques et environnementaux de l'épandage de la vinasse et de la cendre de charbon/bagasse sur les terres efficacement la bagasse durant la période de récolte pour produire l'électricité. Cependant ces deux filières la cendre de charbon/bagasse durant la production d'énergie électrique), qu'il faudrait valoriser et

  11. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's personal copy Creep behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced polymer composites Yanjun Xu, Qinglin Wu *, Yong in revised form 16 December 2009 Accepted 16 December 2009 Available online 12 January 2010 Keywords: Bagasse of bagasse-based composites with virgin and recycled polyvinyl chloride (B/PVC) and high density polyethylene

  12. UNIVERSITE D'AVIGNON ET DES PAYS DE VAUCLUSE Prsente pour obtenir le grade de Docteur en Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    'EPANDAGE DE VINASSE ET DE CENDRE DE CHARBON/BAGASSE SUR LES TERRES AGRICOLES DE L'ILE MAURICE Laboratoire mobilisation des métaux 29 lourds dans le sol 2.7.2 Les cendres volantes de charbon et de bagasse 31 2 bagasse 2.8 Réglementation de l'épandage des déchets 38 2.9 Problématique et démarches adoptées 40 2

  13. Doctorat ParisTech pour obtenir le grade de docteur dlivr par

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;3 L'expérience sur les MO brutes a montré que trois des quatre MO (bagasse, écumes de sucrerie et diminuant la pression parasitaire tout en augmentant sa croissance. La bagasse et les déchets verts, avec la bagasse, de nématodes carnivores. L'expérience en pot sur l

  14. Original article Cultivation of shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , bracts of pineapple crown, coffee husk, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane leaves. The last four substrates their high- est production in sugarcane bagasse, with biological efficiencies of 130-133 %, followed by 83'ananas, cosse du grain de café, bagasse et feuilles de la canne à sucre. La meilleure croissance a été obtenue

  15. -les mthodes de schage conduisent des rsultats analogues, contrairement une exp-rience prcdente laissant entendre que le schage en deux temps, notamment, prservait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'effet des régimes riches en mélasse (30 à 4o p. ioo) associée à divers taux de bagasse et de sucre brut sur croissante de bagasse au régime (o, 6 et 12 p. 100) provoque une diminution de la croissance journalière des. 100 environ), elle tend à diminuer avec l'incorporation de bagasse. SUMMARY UTILIZATION OF HIGH

  16. JOURNAL OF WOOD CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY, 19(1&2), 151-1 65 (1 999) PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    from sugarcane bagasse was studied at 40°C between 0.25 and 8 h by Fourier- transformed infrared, reaction B).384 We studied the hydroxymethylation of sugarcane bagasse (Saccharurn oficcinarurn) lignin conditions for the obtention of sugarcane bagasse lignin were described Hydroxymethylation was performedwith

  17. Published by Information Services, University of B.C., 2075 Wesbrook Mail, Vancouver. 6.C: V6T 1W5. 228-3131. J. A. Banham and Judith Walker, editors. VOl. 23, NO. 16.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    into landfill projects,Dr.Cameron says, and extractionof the gas fromold B.C.garbage dumpsmaybecome feasible engineering in the Faculty of Applied Science,says garbage dumplandfills generate methane,an inflammable gas

  18. publication 420-050 Learning to Live with Coyotes in Metropolitan Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    good chance for survival here. Being general- ists, they eat plants, animals, and even garbage. However. Children should tell an adult if they see one. 4. Take your garbage can to the curb on the morning of your

  19. On Models for Object Lifetime Distributions Darko Stefanovi c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ---memory management (garbage collection); G.3 [Mathematics of Computing]: Probability and Statistics---survival in salient shape characteristics with the gamma distribution family used in statistical survival analysis analysis General Terms Measurement Keywords Object lifetimes, lifetime distributions, garbage collection

  20. CONNECTING CAIRO TO THE NILE Renewing Life and Heritage on the River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondolf, G. Mathias M; Mozingo, Louise; Marzion, Rachael; Balakrishnan, Krishnachandran; Gohar, Amir; et al.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boat landings. Empty bottles, plastic bags, trash, anddents to dispose of plastic bags, bottles, and other garbage

  1. anaerobic bioreactor landfills: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 10 Mathematical...

  2. alternative landfill cover: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    words: landfills; energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors...

  3. ardeer landfill scotland: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 13 Parenting...

  4. annual landfill gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 18 Proceedings...

  5. areas treating landfill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 9 FATALITY...

  6. 19:39:58 140 CS61B: Lecture 40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    , while a few go on to survive through many garbage collections. This observation has inspired long before it gets full. When Eden fills up, it is garbage collected and the surviving objects garbage collector. If an unexpectedly large number of objects survive Eden, the survivor spaces can expand

  7. Decrypting The Java Gene Pool Predicting objects' lifetimes with micro-patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    -lived and immortal objects into infre- quently or never collected regions reduces garbage collec- tion costs.4 [Programming Languages]: Processors--Memory management (garbage collection) General Terms Design, Performance. Tracing garbage collectors spend much of their time fol- lowing the graph of live objects, either copying

  8. Write Barrier Removal by Static Analysis Karen Zee and Martin Rinard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinard, Martin

    present a set of static analyses for removing write barri- ers in programs that use generational garbage~lysis, generational garbage col lection, write barriers 1. INTRODUCTION Generational garbage collectors have become age by surviving collections, the collector promotes them into older generations. Generational

  9. 05/14/14 18:31:57 Generational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , while a few go on to survive through many garbage collections. This observation has inspired long before it gets full. When Eden fills up, it is garbage collected and the surviving objects garbage collector. If an unexpectedly large number of objects survive Eden, the survivor spaces can expand

  10. Finding Memory Leaks in Java with JDeveloper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livshits, Ben

    believe, Java's garbage collector does not solve all me- mory problems that might occur in practice feature of memory management in Java is its garbage-collected heap. A typical garbage collector that comes all objects reach- able from a set of roots. These reachable objects survive collections because

  11. Towards Intelligent Analysis Techniques for Object Pretenuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Jeremy

    for generational garbage collection systems, which are standard in most high performance Java virtual machines in a common framework. A study of garbage collection traces from four standard Java benchmark programs shows.4 [Programming Languages]: Processors--Memory management (garbage collection) General Terms Measurement Keywords

  12. Pretenuring Based on Escape Analysis mjump@cs.utexas.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump, Maria

    involved pro- #12;ling; our approach instead employs static analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION Garbage collection research area [2, 3, 7, 8]. The generational copying collector is a widely adopted type of garbage]. The memory allocator allocates all objects into the nurs- ery, and the garbage collector collects the nursery

  13. 18:31:57 140 CS61B: Lecture 40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , while a few go on to survive through many garbage collections. This observation has inspired long before it gets full. When Eden fills up, it is garbage collected and the surviving objects garbage collector. If an unexpectedly large number of objects survive Eden, the survivor spaces can expand

  14. Science of Computer Programming ( ) Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Francis C.M.

    of Computer Programming journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scico Skew-space garbage collection compact Semi space Garbage collection Space efficiency a b s t r a c t Semispace garbage collectors. As much as half of the heap could be reserved as it is possible that all the allocated objects survive

  15. Write Barrier Removal by Static Analysis Karen Zee and Martin Rinard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinard, Martin

    present a new analysis for removing unnecessary write barriers in programs that use generational garbage to virtually any memory manage- ment system that uses write barriers to enable generational garbage collection and Subject Descriptors D.3.4 [Programming Languages]: Processors--compil- ers, memory management (garbage

  16. NonIntrusive Conservative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Läufer, Konstantin

    A Look at Non­Intrusive Conservative Garbage Collection Purdue University Page 1 of 16 A Look at Non­Intrusive Conservative Garbage Collection Gustavo Rodriguez­Rivera Vincent Russo Purdue University {grr,russo@cs.purdue.edu} #12; A Look at Non­Intrusive Conservative Garbage Collection Purdue

  17. Ahmet H. Aydilek, 1 Tuncer B. Edil, 1 Patrick J. Fox2 Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sludge ________________________________________________________________________ Reference: Aydilek, A. H., Edil, T. B., and Fox, P. J., "Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge", Geotechnics of High contaminated sludge. The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District evaluated different remediation alternatives

  18. Evaluation of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies in Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knutson, Jason R. (Jason Richard)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is estimated that 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation, and 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged into the environment without any treatment. However, the construction of sewerage ...

  19. Adaptive reuse and revitalization of water heritage in Nicosia, Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Marisa (Marisa May-Lan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bi-communal sewerage system developed for the divided capital of Nicosia, Cyprus has been lauded as a rare example of cooperation between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities. The story of how the project ...

  20. Phosphate and ammonium removal from waste water, using constructed wetland systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drizo, Aleksandra

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphorus and nitrogen in waste water from sewerage systems contribute to excessive nutrient enrichment of surface waters, presenting a threat to nature conservation, domestic and industrial water supplies, and recreation. ...

  1. In: Management of Wet-Weather Flow in the Watershed (Edited by Dan Sullivan and Richard Field). CRC Press, Boca Raton. Publication in 2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    1 In: Management of Wet-Weather Flow in the Watershed (Edited by Dan Sullivan and Richard Field...........................................................................................................................................................................14 Prevention of Dry-Weather Pollutant Entries into Sewerage Systems

  2. Swamp rats, fat cats and soggy suburbs : planners and engineers in south east Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelan, Katherine A., 1971-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. cities continue to physically expand, supported by and creating demand for water supply, road, sewerage, electricity networks. But the relationship between the professional values, education and practices of city or ...

  3. UNIVERSITE D'AVIGNON ET DES PAYS DE VAUCLUSE Prsente pour obtenir le grade de Docteur en Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'EPANDAGE DE VINASSE ET DE CENDRE DE CHARBON/BAGASSE SUR LES TERRES AGRICOLES DE L'ILE MAURICE Laboratoire sol 2.7.2 Les cendres volantes de charbon et de bagasse 31 2.7.2.1 Nature et composition chimique 31 2.7.2.2 Les études réalisées sur les cendres de charbon 34 et de bagasse 2.8 Réglementation de l'épandage des

  4. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resources – Agricultural wastes • Sugar cane bagasse • Cornwaste disposal Low impact biomass crops Can improve air quality • Economic Abundant, inexpensive, domestic feedstock Low cost potential without subsidies Agricultural and

  5. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy projects (small hydro and bagasse co-generators) andPCF) in Guatemala for a small hydro project assumes that the

  6. Author's personal copy Journal of Hazardous Materials 190 (2011) 909915

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sorption capacity of various biochars ranges from 2.4 (rice husk) to 20.5 mg/g (sugarcane bagasse) [9

  7. DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefiner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    its proprietary technology for the production of ethanol from a wide array of biomass feedstocks, including sugarcane bagasse, agricultural byproducts, waste wood products, and...

  8. actor critic algorithm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more accurately than was possible in a previous study. Shailesh Chandrasekharan; James C. Osborn 2000-10-20 40 Actor Garbage Collection in Distributed Systems using Graph...

  9. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allgaier, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fungi occurring during composting and self-heatingof Temperature on Composting of Sewage-Sludge. Applied andcommunities in the garbage composting with rice hull as an

  10. A Dynamic Operating System for Sensor Nodes Chih-Chieh Han, Ram Kumar, Roy Shea, Eddie Kohler and Mani Srivastava

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohler, Eddie

    - tive resource garbage collection. Individual modules can be added and removed with minimal system, surviving environmental hardships while conserv- ing energy as much as possible. Sensor network applica

  11. Preparing for an Emergency Why Do I Need to Prepare for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    ) for 2 weeks · Backup equipment necessary for survival (generator, manual wheelchair) · Extra cash bleach (unscented) · Small shovel (optional) or plastic garbage bags for disposing of waste · Matches

  12. Are You Ready? A Texas Hurricane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Are You Ready? A Texas Hurricane Survival Guide evacuation information Evacuation information ___ plastic garbage bags and ties ___ liquid soap, detergent, disinfectant, household chlorine bleach

  13. A publication of the Airport Technical Assistance Program of the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota Winter 2012 The 2012 Fall Forum will be held in Mankato, Minn. Details will be posted at www.AirTAP.umn.edu.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ...the harder it is for them to survive. And that attitude gets passed on to the customers." Many general day, emptying garbage cans, making neces

  14. Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of humanwildlife conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Colleen

    and urban-interface patches and conflicts are common. We used survival as a fitness currency and body fat laws reduced availability of garbage

  15. MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    . . . . . 11 Garbage / Recycling . . . . 11 Vehicles / Parking . . . . 11 Guests collec ng has led to the deple on of the habitats surrounding many field sta ons. Therefore, please

  16. air force landfill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 64 The Evening...

  17. ammonium-rich sanitary landfill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 14 CHAPTER 2...

  18. Application of Fibrolytic Enzymes and Bacterial Inoculants to Sorghum Silage and Small-Grain Hay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Martha 1980-

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass to ethanol could produce an average of 6147 L ha-1 (Dahlberg et al., 2011). Besides ethanol produced from juice squeezed from 15 sorghum, bagasse is a by-product of sorghum feedstock (Sipos et al., 2009). Bagasse can be utilized...

  19. Derivation and Evaluation of Concurrent Collectors Martin T. Vechev1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grove, David

    Derivation and Evaluation of Concurrent Collectors Martin T. Vechev1 , David F. Bacon2 , Perry garbage collection algorithm, and show how existing snapshot and incremental update collectors, can that reduces floating garbage while terminating quickly. We have implemented a concurrent collector framework

  20. GREEN GUIDE MAISON AM GROND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    For this task, we took the ideas from Zihomara Matar. Author of the ECO2 practice guides. Task 4 ­ Laundry: GoodGREEN GUIDE MAISON AM GROND One Earth... Once Chance Team Members: Jose Miguel Lopez Becerra ­ Green Guide Task 1 ­ Garbage Separation This task is related to explain the different types of garbage

  1. Solid-state Cache Mohit Saxena and Michael M. Swift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Michael

    the disk into SSD addresses for the cache. If the cache is to survive crashes, this map must be persistent its status as a cache to re- duce the cost of garbage collection. Unlike a storage device, which be erased before being written, requiring a garbage collection step to create free blocks. An SSD must copy

  2. Morph Endo! Task Description of the Tenth Interstellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    dropped on Earth by an Interstellar Garbage Collector. Both the life form and its faithful space ship was hit by a cargo container that was also dropped by the Garbage Collector. Endo is now in serious trouble. It cannot survive on planet Earth in its present form, and Arrow is running low on power

  3. Eiffel as a framework for verification Bertrand Meyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Bertrand

    , references (type-safe pointers), exception handling, dynamic object creation, automatic garbage collection errors in the case of static typing, memory errors in the case of garbage collection -- hence easing change frequently and new ideas for products or strategies, critical to a company's survival, need

  4. Simple GC Algorithms see web pages for links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfahringer, Bernhard

    phases, objects move (i.e. addresses change), NOTE: does not actually collect garbage, but extracts" and one or more older generations ­ More frequent collections in younger generations ­ Objects surviving work by not detecting all garbage e.g. Assume all references from the stack to alive Most collectors

  5. 11. Memory Limitations in Artificial Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    [424], take the oldest known scien- tific treatise surviving from the ancient world, the surgical confronted to AI for many years. As an example, take the garbage collector problem. Min- sky [551] proposes the first copying garbage collector for LISP; an algorithm using serial secondary memory. The live data

  6. 2011 Media Kit Dialysis Turns 50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    A LU M N I M A G A Z I N E · M A R 1 0 THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF GARBAGE THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF GARBAGE LECTURER soldiers from a North Vietnamese grenade. They survived. Leisy did not. For his act of bravery, he

  7. Home Composting William T. Hlubik, Middlesex County Agricultural Agent; Jonathan Forsell, Former Essex County Agricultural Agent (deceased);

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    ? ! Composting can save money! ! Reduces fertilizer and water use ! Avoids garbage collection and landfill fees of garbage going to land- fills, transfer stations and incinerators ! Composting benefits your soil survive. A good balance can be achieved by mixing two parts of nitrogen rich green materials such as grass

  8. Department of Information and Computing Sciences Utrecht University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stansifer, Ryan

    by the Garbage Collector. Endo is now in serious trouble. It cannot survive on planet Earth in its present form not properly adapted. Endo had the bad luck of being dropped on Earth by an Interstellar Garbage Collector been able to come up with a form in which Endo will survive. Unfortunately, given its current condition

  9. Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    of these flies are associated with garbage and filth. All but the flesh fly will breed in decaying organic matter where garbage accumulates, or that are not cleaned on a regular basis voids or ceilings or rodent traps and glue boards not serviced regularly. · Larvae only survive

  10. Morph Endo! Report on the Tenth Interstellar Contest on Fuun Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolstra, Eelco

    it to survive on our planet. The alien's DNA had to be modi- fied by means of a prefix that modified its meaning of survival. In this report we describe the task, how to solve it, how we created it, and how the contestants of strange objects where it was picked up by an Interstellar Garbage Collector. Interstellar Garbage

  11. The Dalhousie Student Guide to Materials Management on Campus We currently divert over 60% of materials from landfill; with your help we can reach our goal of 75%!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ) Foams & soft # 6 plastics (garbage) Broken glass (garbage) What belongs: Dry & clean paper (white Milk containers Glass bottles and containers Tin, steel, and aluminum cans Tetra juice packs & mini coffee cups Aerosol cans (empty non- hazardous) Floor sweepings Broken glass (must be boxed & taped

  12. This document was prepared as part of the Alternative Fuel Implementation Team project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. The U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Tool Kit Case Study on Biodiesel: Metropolitan Sewerage District Introduction Metropolitan a total of 113 on road vehicles, 59 of which use biodiesel. These 59 vehicles span light, medium of off-road construction equipment (e.g. backhoes, loaders, earth compactors) utilize biodiesel. The 91

  13. Universit e sostenibilit: luci e ombre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sproston, Jeremy

    should be among the concern of the university, i.e. recycling program, toxic waste recycling, organic and plastic in campus. The indicators are: 1.Recycling program for university waste 2.Toxic waste recycling 3.Organic waste treatment 4.Inorganic waste treatment 5.Sewerage disposal 6.Policy to reduce the use

  14. VAT STATUS -SALES Please find below a list of expenditure types with the relevant VAT codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    Laboratory Equipment BS Leaflets BZ Lectureship Fee BE Library Fines 0 Live animal for human consumption BZ Periodicals BZ Pet Food Canned, Biscuits and meal BS Photocopying - Other than student BS Photocopying for propogation of plants for human or animal consumption BZ Sewerage services and water BZ Sponsorships BS SRS

  15. VAT STATUS -PURCHASES Please find below a list of expenditure types with the relevant VAT codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    for human consumption AZ Maps, charts and topographical plans AZ Medical Equipment used in Medical AS 0 Penalties 0 Periodicals AZ Pet Food Canned, Biscuits and meal AS Photocopying - Other than student for human or animal consumption AZ Sewerage services and water AZ Sponsorships AS Sterilising Equipment used

  16. Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement Marco Gonzalez-Navarro UC peripheries in many developing country cities lack basic local public goods like pavement, water, sewerage pavement provision in Mexico. Our findings show that homes in streets that were paved increased their value

  17. Access to water in a Nairobi slum: women's work and institutional learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben; Odaba, Edmond

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lack of pumping capacity and a “tendency to divert available waterlack one or more of the following: durable housing, suf?cient living area, access to improved water,lack of sewerage. They offered to engage in a series of initiatives to regularize connections, pay water

  18. Admissions 2011 M.Tech. in Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Adjunct Faculty: S. Wagle-Policy and Governance Bakul Rao -Environment Analysis and Assessment P. Modak;The T&D core values Concrete beneficiary/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households, hamlets, gram. Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal budget and so on. Skills: GIS, simulations, social

  19. Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Faculty: S. Wagle-Policy and Governance Bakul Rao -Environment Analysis and Assessment P. Modak #12;The T&D core operational values Concrete beneficiary/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal budget Skills: GIS

  20. The emerging role of the developmentalist Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Analysis and Assessment P. Modak -Environment and Natural Resource Mgt. S. Agnihotri -Governance and Govt/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households, hamlets, gram-panchayats, villages, towns and cities Basic areas-soil, water Municipal Council to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal

  1. UNCORRECTEDPROOF INDCRO 5141 16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) or 14 bagasse­polymer composites (Talavera et al., 2007), provides a 15 prospective solution for moreMDI) resin as binder and wax emulsion as dimension stabilizer. A factorial experiment was conducted

  2. Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almendarez, Maria Elena

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

  3. Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almendarez, Maria Elena

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

  4. Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soderman, Kristi Lee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cellulosic material from bagasse are generated as co-products of rubber extraction. The cellulosic material uses which are favored at this time require combustion. Bagasse affords the potential for use as biomass fuel in the production of process steam... of chromium, if present in the hexavalent state, no unusually toxic constituents were found in the smoke particulates, gaseous state or as condensible liquids for flaming and smoldering combustion of guayule fireplace logs. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a...

  5. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  6. Monadic Regions: Formal Type Soundness and Correctness Matthew Fluet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluet, Matthew

    - agement [9, 6], it is not possible to manage particular data by one scheme or the other. Cyclone [12 garbage collection and a simple type system. A separate line of research has investigated mechanisms

  7. Spending Plan Worksheet Instructions: 1.Calculate monthly net income in box 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , insurance premiums, auto servicing, tires, license, birthdays and holidays, educational costs, vacations/Taxes* $_______ Utilities Telephone $_______ Heating $_______ Electricity` $_______ Trash/garbage $_______ Water and repairs $_______ Other transportation $_______ $_______ Personal/MedicalCare $_______ Education

  8. accumulate pollen principally: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ing brood cells or for storage in colony pollen pots (Roubik by analysis of garbage pellets: a new method Thomas ELTZa*, Carsten A. BR?HLa, Sander VAN DER KAARSb, K sampling...

  9. Respect their nature-crocodiles are shy and want to be left alone, so observe them from a safe distance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    of fish scraps in garbage bins, and keep your pet away from crocodile-inhabited areas. DO NOT FEED of Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and at the northern end of its range in South Florida

  10. Sustainable Development & Land Use Committee Meeting Meeting 2009-2010 #5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to improve recycling and composting on campus. One of the things that they have asked to change is to remove the black garbage bags from the composting containers in The Grill as the composting containers look like

  11. Abstract--File systems make unreasonable attempts to provide data to the point that they will block an application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications do not handle I/O errors and will silently process garbage and produce and incorrect result. (2 was supported in part by DARPA/ATO's Organically Assured and Survivable Information Systems (OASIS) program (Air

  12. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    type safe [Nec97, MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run-time type dispatch [Mor95]. The bene#12

  13. Space Issues in Compiling with Intersection and Union Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run-time type dispatch [Mor95]. The bene#12;ts of using a TIL

  14. Adding Persistence to the OberonSystem Markus Knasmller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    . Persistent objects, which are not referenced by other persistent objects, are reclaimed by a garbage an object's lifetime. In a language with persistence, objects may survive between program runs. In contrast

  15. Recovering from Main-Memory Lapses H.V. Jagadish Avi Silberschatz S. Sudarshan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudarshan, S.

    is normally resident only in main memory, and is garbage collected after transaction commit. Second, our, updates mustbe noted in stable storage on disk in order to survive system failure. Recovery related

  16. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbak, Franklyn

    ), the resulting object code is certifiably type safe [Nec97, MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run­time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run

  17. 2013 ENVIRONMENTAL FILM FESTIVAL AT YALE BESTOWS TOP HONORS TO A RIVER CHANGES COURSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    City's canners the men and women who survive by redeeming bottles and cans they collect from curbs, garbage cans and apartment complexes. Other highlights of the festival included the first annual EFFY

  18. Lesson 1. Inquiry Lesson Plan Title: Now You See It! Now You Don't: The Purpose and Benefit of Camouflage in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    · Access to 2 different environments (i.e., one indoors and one outdoors) · Garbage bags or newspapers · 10 survive well, some do not survive as well, and some cannot survive at all. 5.4.5: Explain how changes

  19. Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sanitary board is established to deal with long-term serious problems relating to water pollution and solid waste disposal in the area. The district can set regulations regarding garbage...

  20. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbak, Franklyn

    object code is certifiably type safe [Nec97, MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run-time type

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION Effect of Malathion on Larval Competition Between Aedes albopictus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This is the Þrst report of synergistic survival of a weaker mosquito competitor in the presence of a pesticide due on mortality and competitive interactions (Relyea 2004). ArtiÞcial containers such as garbage cans, toys, tires

  2. Spring/Summer 2009 A Newsletter of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Think first about the basics of survival: fresh water, food, clean air, and warmth. This list, and plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter-in-place. Moist towelettes, garbage bags, and plastic ties

  3. Business Plan Turning waste into fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    of a slum in New Delhi, India. All around you are people that struggle on a daily basis to survive. Two key. #12;Business Plan 4 Source: http://wastelines.com/2010/11/14/garbage

  4. Recovering from MainMemory Lapses H.V. Jagadish Avi Silberschatz S. Sudarshan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudarshan, S.

    is normally resident only in main memory, and is garbage collected after transaction commit. Second, our, updates must be noted in stable storage on disk in order to survive system failure. Recovery related

  5. Decentralized Storage Consistency via Versioning Servers Garth Goodson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , consistency protocol, versioning servers, distributed systems #12; Introduction Survivable storage systems (e produce garbage. Protocols exist for achieving such consistency, they generally involve significant extra], survival client compromises [34]. Further, implemented with minimal performance cost ( [34] and capacity

  6. DECEMBER 2000 IEEE Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hougen, Dean F.

    , scouts make cient of resources (e.g., batteries) in order survive a 1070­9932/00/$10.00©2000IEEEuseful [6]; janitorial service [12], where ­ have clean room unfamiliar building empty ­ garbage, dusting

  7. A woodchuck mows down an entire row of new cabbage transplants... A porcupine is destroying a hedge of hemlocks...Flyingsquirrelsarekeepingfamilymembersawake,chatteringandracingthroughthewallsallnight.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    virus can survive in saliva and central nervous tissue for hours after a rabid animal has died. Also or bird seed, bird feeders, bags of garbage. · Do not attempt to manage a wild bear on your own. Contact

  8. Spanner: Google's Globally-Distributed Database James C. Corbett, Jeffrey Dean, Michael Epstein, Andrew Fikes, Christopher Frost, JJ Furman,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as long as they can survive 1 or 2 datacenter failures. Spanner's main focus is managing cross- cally timestamped with its commit time; old versions of data are subject to configurable garbage

  9. Annual Pumpkin Drop Friday, October 24, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    from the roof of the 11 story high WVU Engineering Sciences Building. The surviving pumpkins that land garbage cans are acceptable. *No liquids are allowed. *No electrical sources are allowed. *Package must

  10. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE LABORATORY RAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    , Alaska, at 60 degrees North latitude, where rats feed on human garbage, to South Georgia Island, at 55 members that had survived their ini- tial contact with the poisoned bait and had learned to avoid eating

  11. The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Peter M.

    the actions necessary to survive, and succeed, in the animat's surrounding environment. Thus while we might frogs can do the same, a small robot street-sweeper that satisfied its goals of collecting garbage

  12. RESEARCH Open Access Evolution before genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    of a self-reproducing `garbage bag' ('coacervate') of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell progression that makes the `survival of the fittest' possible [7,8]. Dyson [9,10] and Kauffman [1,11] had

  13. FlashTier: a Lightweight, Consistent and Durable Storage Cache Mohit Saxena, Michael M. Swift and Yiying Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Michael

    following a crash. Finally, FlashTier leverages cache behavior to silently evict data blocks during garbage the disk into SSD addresses for the cache. If the cache has to survive crashes, this map must be persistent

  14. Inside the Cell U.S. DEPARTMENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    , Packaging, and Mailing Centers 10 Lysosomes: Recycling Centers and Garbage Trucks 10 Mitochondria: Let's Split! 50 Meiosis: Sex, Heredity, and Survival 52 Why You're Not Just Like Your Relatives 58

  15. Evolution with a Purpose http://web.mit.edu/manoli/evolution/www/main.html 1 of 8 11/18/2003 5:53 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellis, Manolis

    more attention to introns as intelligently constructed rather than garbage accumulated over generations Vision - DNA encodes what species learned about survival and about Evolution Just like information about that lets only the fittest survive. b. In

  16. A MANUAL FOR THE REMOVAL, FIXATION AND PRESERVATION OF CETACEAN EARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survival Suits Ice Packs Quick Clot * First Aid Kit - Professional Sunscreen Disinfectant Soap/Hand Cleaner.g. Zip Loc) Cooler Duffel Bag Plastic Bags Labels/Tags Lidded buckets Garbage Bags Pencils Body Bags

  17. Main Memory Management for Persistence Antony L. Hosking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosking, Antony

    Reachability-based persistence imposes new requirements for main memory management in general, and garbage col memory heap. However, objects may survive from one run of a program to the next, by virtue of being

  18. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbak, Franklyn

    ), the resulting object code is certifiably type safe [Nec97, MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run

  19. Phone: 210-458-6851 Fax: 210-458-7602

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodla, Ramana

    aspect that could be the survival plan that ensures you and others don't become vic- tims in the wake physician about alternatives in emergency situations. · Moist towlettes, garbage bags and plastic ties

  20. Systems and Networking Ph.D. Qualifier Exam Sample Answers, Spring 2007 Systems and Networking Ph.D. Qualifier Exam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    : Failure-Oblivious Computing Rinard et al. propose failure-oblivious computing as a technique for surviving. The effect the error will be limited to truncating the line in the logs. Probably, appending some garbage

  1. Sustainable Transportation on Campus and in the Community Keynote Address: "Seeking Healthy Buildings"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyte, Michael

    dropped off. I can add, on a personal level, five years ago, I was diagnosed with cancer. And I survived somebody make the suggestion that we should each take the garbage we produce in a year and just put

  2. CX-008523: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Disposal Contract (Garbage Collection) CX(s) Applied: A1, A8, B1.3 Date: 07/10/2012 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. VOLUME SIXTEEN, NUMBER TWENTY-ONE OCTOBER 29, 1970, VANCOUVER 8, B.C.-J

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    ,streetsandhighways clotted with cars, slums, overcrowding, garbage, de-personalization, sprawl. This is the face of many undertakenso far for the survival of our society, a project initiated by a group at the University of B

  4. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimock, Allyn

    , MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run-time type dispatch [Mor95]. The bene#12;ts of using

  5. Lightweight Support for FineGrained Persistence on Stock Hardware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    cannot survive the Ph.D. experience without the support and guidance of a great many people. To those and improving the garbage collector toolkit, Rick Hudson for our many technical discussions, and Norm Walsh

  6. Asthma and Allergies PAY ATTENTION TO YOUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , warmth, and shelter to survive. You can control roaches, mice and other pests by making these things hard and spills right away. Empty your garbage often. Wash your dirty dishes right after eating. Don't leave

  7. The Yin and Yang of Hardware Heterogeneity: Can Software Survive?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    The Yin and Yang of Hardware Heterogeneity: Can Software Survive? Kathryn S. McKinley Microsoft- ingly choose high-level managed programming languages with safe pointer disciplines, garbage collection

  8. Program Representation Size in an Intermediate Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbak, Franklyn

    object code is certifiably type safe [Nec97, MWCG99]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run­time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run­time type

  9. An Interactive Environment for Beginning Java Programmers Kenneth J. Goldman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Kenneth J.

    computer science. A clean, type-safe language, Java provides a garbage collected heap and a comprehensive learning curve in an artificial syntax survive. Such courses demand a bottom-up learning style and appeal

  10. Fall I99S Volume ,x, Number , Nota Bene ~ News from the YQ.IR~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as they are published. " It was fascinating ... to observe the fight for survival of the old established Ihouses], previ. Excavated from the remains of temple scriptoria, mummy wrappings, and garbage pits, papyri offer glimpses

  11. 51st Annual Early Childhood Conference Dr. Aimee Lee Govett: Center for Math and Science Education,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    that plants and animals are made up of smaller parts and use food, water, and air to survive. · Investigate Early Childhood Conference #12;Why do we compost? · To reduce the amount of garbage we throw away

  12. Lightweight Support for Fine-Grained Persistence on Stock Hardware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosking, Antony

    cannot survive the Ph.D. experience without the support and guidance of a great many people. To those the garbage collector toolkit, Rick Hudson for our many technical discussions, and Norm Walsh for his advice

  13. Small Fruit in the Home Garden Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Environmental Horticulture, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    or transit. Such plants seldom survive. Water root system lightly only if they are very dry. If the plants cannot be set immediately, they should be kept either in cold storage or heeled-in.Wrap them in a garbage

  14. June 22, 2007 -Issue 13Purdue Cooperative Extension Service http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Krupke, John Obermeyer, and Larry Bledsoe) · Rootworms are surviving the dry conditions, feeding damage the root mass and surrounding soil and place on a dark surface (black plastic garbage bags work well

  15. This article was originally published in the Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maestripieri, Dario

    and in close contact with people. They have learned to raid crops, eat garbage, or steal food directly from to their resilience to stress and their ability to survive and reproduce in almost any environment. These character

  16. WaveScript: A Case-Study in Applying a Distributed Stream-Processing Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Ryan

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel,and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScriptis a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe,garbage-collected ...

  17. Language design for distributed stream processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Ryan Rhodes, 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel, and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScript is a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe, garbage-collected ...

  18. On a Routing and Scheduling Problem Concerning Multiple Edge Traversals in Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vuuren, Jan H.

    include bus routing [1, 4, 5, 8, 10], meter reading [38, 40], control of plotting and drilling machines [24], optimiza- tion of laser­plotter beam movements [22], mail delivery [32, 37], garbage collection

  19. Plastic Recycling Toter -ORANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    microfuge tubes - beakers - flasks - bottles - jars - Plastic disposable pipettes with cotton plugsPlastic Recycling Toter - ORANGE Glass Recycling Toter - TEAL Garbage Yellow sharps container Categories - All Plastic except Styrofoam - rinsed 3 times - may have contained Biohazard level 1 bacteria

  20. General Dorm Regulations -All residents who enter their dorm after midnight must register their name at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    in this regard, please make sure to report it to the Head Resident. - Money and valuables should never be left home. Please take good care of it and keep it clean. Garbage should be disposed of properly and dirty

  1. This is a General University (G.U.) Classroom Audio-Visual assistance & information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    -2111 ext. 82222 Classroom Management Group http://www.ipb.uwo.ca/cmg/ A/V system guidance conditions & Building systems: 519 661-2111 ext. 83304 Facilities Management http Lighting, electrical controls & outlets Ambient temperature & air quality · Cleanliness, garbage

  2. Your Guide to 1912 SW 6th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latiolais, M. Paul

    . Laundry Laundry facilities are located on every other floor (starting on the 3rd floor) on the South wing-recyclable garbage in recycling areas. If you leave trash, abandoned furniture, and other goods in common areas

  3. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  4. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  5. Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagwani, Murlidhar

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : lime loading = 2 to 30 g Ca(OH)2/100 g dry material, water loading = 6 to 19 g water/g dry material, treatment temperature = 50 to 145'C, and treatment time = 1 to 36 h. High sugar yields were obtained from bagasse and wheat straw. For bagasse.... There was no significant effect of water loading on sugar yields, although 10 g water/g dry material produced slightly higher yields. Lime loadings of 10 and 15 g Ca(OH)2/100 g dry material were best. The effects of treatment time and temperature were interdependent...

  6. 26 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 1 9.8.14 NFR BioEnergy Announces $312 Million Energy Project In South PLAQUEMINE, La. -- Today, Gov. Bobby Jindal and Chief Operating Officer Frank Randazzo of NFR BioEnergy mills. NFR BioEnergy will convert sugar cane waste, known as bagasse, into hardened energy pellets

  7. Syllabus -Plants for Bioenergy Fall 2011 Instructors: Stacy Bonos and Zane R. Helsel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    (Quiz on fiber crops) Specca Oct 19 Manure waste Westendorf Oct 24 Yard/Municipal Wastes/ Food and Spent Oil Specca Oct 26 Row Crop Residues, moldy hay, bagasse Helsel Oct 31 Anaerobic Digestion Fennel Post assessment Specca/Brennan Sep 19 US energy portfolio biomass inventories (USDOE Billion Ton Report) Helsel

  8. THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into second generation biofuels using sugar cane bagasse, it's still at an experimental level but is expected/7/2010 GAIN Report Number:TH0098 Thailand Biofuels Annual Annual 2010 Approved By: Orestes Vasquez Highlights: The report discusses the effects of Thailand's biofuel policy on production, supply and demand

  9. HAWAII NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTEwww.hnei.hawaii.edu Bioenergy Products from Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathways #12;HAWAII NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTEwww.hnei.hawaii.edu Biomass Resources in Hawaii Manure Bagasse for transportation, greater power generation efficiency, greater number of potential end uses ­ Gasification quality standards (e.g. ash chemistry) to meet requirements of pyrolysis and gasification technologies

  10. Renewables for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    available ­wood, rice husk,coconut stalks,shells , sugarcane leaves, bagasse 20%CO, 15%H2,4%CH4 , 11%CO2 REFINED OIL, ELECTRICITY RAILWAYS, TRUCKS, PIPELINES WHAT CONSUMERS BUY DELIVERED ENERGY AUTOMOBILE, LAMP Fossil fuel reserves finite Motivation for energy conservation ­ Cost Reduction, Emission reduction

  11. Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falls, Matthew David

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced the 72-h glucan digestibility of several promising biomass feedstocks: bagasse (74.0), corn stover (92.0), poplar wood (94.0), sorghum (71.8), and switchgrass (89.0). Highly digestible lignocellulose can also be used as ruminant animal feed. Shock...

  12. Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management By Evridiki Bersi -Kathimerini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management rules By Evridiki Bersi but that day has already come in Germany. On June 1, 2005, Germany imposed a ban on traditional garbage dumps, replacing them with one of the most advanced waste-management systems in the world. In the 1970s, Germany

  13. Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector Tomas Kalibera garbage collectors must update all references to ob- jects they move. Updating is a lengthy operation references have been updated which, in a real-time collector, must be done incrementally. One solution

  14. Turning The Web Into An Effective Knowledge Repository INESC-ID / IST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo

    . This includes safely preserving static and dynamic content as well as performing stor- age managementTurning The Web Into An Effective Knowledge Repository Luis Veiga INESC-ID / IST Rua Alves Redol, 9 management, web proxy, detecting distributed cycles, distributed garbage collection. Abstract: To fulfill

  15. Article in Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2008, (U.S. News,p.3) (excerpt also at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    were being created amid garbage- industry consolidation and low gasoline prices. Incinerators saw observers. The business began to change in the past few years as higher gasoline prices pushed up the cost Costs and Uncertain Oil Prices Drive an Expansion of Existing Trash Incinerators, Plans for New Ones

  16. Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    the area used for garbage collection and landfilling; and how to provide sufficient energy to power a city. However, `waste-to-energy' as a viable energy source in urban areas is a relatively new concept and is one at Bombay, which is the largest city in India, and how the waste-to-energy process has played out

  17. Dalhousie Neighbourhood Conversation: Boundary -Part 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    , faculty and neighbours Concerns over exhaust vents outside of Risley Hall Balance neighbourhood? Need for good city planning for urban density Garbage blowing through neighbourhoods Lack of privacy Mobility (pedestrian, transit) Vibrancy/energy Vitality and youth Learning and academic excellence

  18. at the Weizmann Institute We are launching a new cardboard recycling e ort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Ehud

    Cardboard Recycling at the Weizmann Institute We are launching a new cardboard recycling e ort and brought to the Weizmann warehouse for reuse. Damaged boxes will be compressed and recycled by the by the recycling company (Kamam). Why do it? Re-using and recycling saves garbage burial space and frees space

  19. Taught Masters Module Guide LEC Taught Masters Module Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    ;MODULE NUMBER: BIOL 405 MODULE TITLE: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Number warming, ozone depletion, elevated CO2, tropospheric air pollution) and an in-depth analysis health: impacts, adaptation and mitigation Week 2 Air pollutants: plants as our garbage chutes

  20. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY ARE YOU READY? 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY ARE YOU READY? 13 Shelter T aking shelter is often a critical in your home for sev- eral days without electricity or water services following a winter storm. We also an emergency toilet, if necessary. · Use a garbage container, pail or #12;14 ARE YOU READY? FEDERAL EMERGENCY

  1. Household Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion of household products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    over a larger area and releases them into the air. Pouring hazardous liquids on the ground can poisonHousehold Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion should be considered hazardous. You cannot treat hazardous wastes like other kinds of garbage

  2. Turning waste into energy beats landfilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Turning waste into energy beats landfilling By Christopher Hume The Hamilton Spectator (Nov 16, the fact remains that dumping garbage in a landfill site is far more environmentally destructive, damaging wrong with that picture: it describes landfill, where spontaneous combustion occurs regularly

  3. Indian River to look at outsourcing more government By Henry A. Stephens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    added to the landfill in Oslo. But county Solid Waste Director Himanshu Mehta said the county couldn for bids, not only for the current landfill operation Waste Management provides, but also for solid, Fellsmere, Winter Beach, Gifford and Oslo, and hauling garbage from those stations to the landfill. "We

  4. KRT Wire | 07/19/2004 | 'Wonderbug' changes waste into power News | Business | Sports | Entertainment | Living/FYI | Classifieds | Jobs | Cars | Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Lovely, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts, discovered Geobacter, a class of bacteria. 'Wonderbug' changes waste into power By ROBERT S. BOYD Knight Ridder Newspapers WASHINGTON - Geobacter, generate electricity from rust and garbage, and even run a toy car. It's a lot to expect from an invisible

  5. How much do I pay? Our state gas tax is 20 per gallon. The average driver pays $9.52 a month in state fuel taxes. Of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in state fuel taxes. Of this, a nickel goes to public education. The monthly net to the highway fund is $7 $100 $150 $200 $250 $300 $350 $400 $450 $500 California Florida Louisiana New Mexico Oklahoma Texas the 2030 Committee Report. Utilities $265 (includes gas, electricity, wastewater and garbage collection

  6. Efficient Recovery in Harp Barbara Liskov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the background, while old log entries already applied to the file system are garbage collected. Essentially survives individual node failures because it exists in volatile memory at several nodes. It survives servers, we store only n + 1 copies, since this is enough to allow information to survive n failures

  7. On Nodems for Object Lifetime Distributions Darko Stefanovi6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    in salient shape characteristics with the gamma distribution family used in statistical survival analysis]:Processors--memorymanagement (garbagecollection);G.3 [Mathematicsof Computing]:Probability and Statistics--survival analysis General Terms Measurement Keywords Object lifetimes, lifetime distributions, garbage collection modelling 1. INTRODUCTION

  8. Dynamic Object Sampling for Pretenuring Department of Computer Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    mckinley@cs.utexas.edu ABSTRACT Many state-of-the-art garbage collectors are generational, collect- ing every n bytes of allocation. The collector then computes per-site nursery survival rates. Sampling allocation load with high nursery survival. Our pre- tenuring system consistently improves one of these, 213

  9. 978-3-9810801-8-6/DATE12/2012 EDAA Error Patterns in MLC NAND Flash Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -bit multi-level cell (MLC) can only survive for ~3k P/E cycles for 30- 40nm (i.e., 3x-nm) technology patterns. Assuming typical write amplification of 2 times (due to additional writes caused by garbage

  10. Formal Executable Models of Cell Signaling Carolyn Talcott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of cell surface receptors, can influence fundamental cell fates such as proliferation, growth, survival) which is important for cell survival under certain conditions [8]. Thinking of proteins and protein a given functionality, or tag an agent for degradation (garbage collection). Agents work together

  11. Preventing Late Blight Late blight is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora intestans); in Latin the name means "plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    it in the garbage. Never put affected plants on the compost pile. Prevent overwintering: the fungus needs live tissue to survive the winter so remove any potato plants that come up next spring. The fungus will not survive on any dead tomato foliage that clings to cages or supports. Choose resistant varieties. Although

  12. Decentralized Storage Consistency via Versioning Servers Garth R. Goodson, Jay J. Wylie, Gregory R. Ganger, Michael K. Reiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survivable storage systems (e.g., Petal [19], Myriad [7], SwiftRAID [21], PASIS [35], and Cheops [3 of the data and mismatched fragments produce garbage. Protocols exist for achieving such consistency, including recovery from user mistakes [32], recovery from system fail- ure [14], and survival of client

  13. Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    organic matter. This includes but is not limited to rotting fruit and veg- etables, garbage, soil,cheeseandhumancadavers;andfungusgnats can feed on fungus growing in wet soil. INSPECTION TIPS · Larvae only survive in organic matter equipment and floor. Dry out moist areas ­ remember larvae need a moist habitat to survive. Cheese skippers

  14. An Educational Series for Grades 3 & 4 Renewable &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    they started, again and again. This is a good thing, because all living things need air and water to survive, or garbage dumped on the side of the road are examples of this problem. So what can you do to take care

  15. Report on the Tenth ICFP Programming Contest Eelco Dolstra Jurriaan Hage Bastiaan Heeren Stefan Holdermans Johan Jeuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    of a stranded alien life form to enable it to survive on our planet. The alien's DNA had to be modified by means, increasing its probability of survival. In this report we describe the task, how to solve it, how we created's spaceship Arrow drifted into a heap of strange objects where it was picked up by an Interstellar Garbage

  16. Morph Endo! Report on the Tenth Interstellar Contest on Fuun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    form to enable it to survive on our planet. The alien's DNA had to be modi- fied by means of a prefix its probability of survival. In this report we describe the task, how to solve it, how we created it drifted into a heap of strange objects where it was picked up by an Interstellar Garbage Collector

  17. Appears in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, June 2004. Efficient Byzantine-tolerant erasure-coded storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consistency proto- col for survivable storage that exploits local data versioning within each storage- ficient implementation of Byzantine-tolerant state machine replication. 1. Introduction Survivable storage versions of the frag- ments they are sent (in practice, until garbage collection frees them). To perform

  18. Reversible Circuit Synthesis Using ACO and SA based Quine-McCluskey method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    not survive. Due to inherent information loss and other factors associated with irreversible computing of transistors to touch the subatomic dimension where laws of classical physics can not survive in recent years, presence of garbage output etc. So, no traditional Boolean circuit synthesis methods like Karnaugh TABLE I

  19. Wasp encounters can be painful, even life-threatening, for a few highly sensitive people. Yet some New Hampshire species are not very aggressive and they also serve as valuable predators of soft-bodied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    females of Vespidae species survive the winter. These females overwinter individually, usually in deep leaf litter in the woods. In the spring, those that survived emerge and search for a site to start on honeydew, fruit and other sugary foods, carrion and garbage. (Honeydew is the sugary secretion that drips

  20. Efficient Byzantine-tolerant erasure-coded storage Garth R. Goodson, Jay J. Wylie, Gregory R. Ganger, Michael K. Reiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consistency proto- col for survivable storage that exploits local data versioning within each storage- ficient implementation of Byzantine-tolerant state machine replication. 1. Introduction Survivable storage versions of the frag- ments they are sent (in practice, until garbage collection frees them). To perform

  1. Appears in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, June 2004. Efficient Byzantinetolerant erasurecoded storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consistency proto­ col for survivable storage that exploits local data versioning within each storage­ ficient implementation of Byzantine­tolerant state machine replication. 1. Introduction Survivable storage versions of the frag­ ments they are sent (in practice, until garbage collection frees them). To perform

  2. Efficient Byzantine-tolerant erasure-coded storage Garth R. Goodson, Jay J. Wylie, Gregory R. Ganger, Michael K. Reiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Michael

    consistency proto- col for survivable storage that exploits local data versioning within each storage- ficient implementation of Byzantine-tolerant state machine replication. 1. Introduction Survivable storage (in practice, until garbage collection frees them). To perform a read, a client fetches the latest

  3. Birds That Go Wild for the City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with it massive environmental damage, in- cluding garbage and air pollution. "Noise is a big problem, too," says with Henrik Brumm are conducting field studies and experiments in acoustic laboratories to investigate how birds adapt their singing to the environment. 1 Mathias Ritschard records birdsong in noise-polluted

  4. Community Voices in Sustainable Slum-Upgrading Processes: The Nairobi People Settlement Network (NPSN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    infections, lack of health facilities; (4) water and sanitation (lack of water sources, high costs of purchasing water) and (5) environment (overcrowding, lack of garbage disposal sites, poor drainage systems improved tenure; · Provision or improvement of technical services e.g., water, waste and waste water

  5. Worming up to composting in Montreal By Yannis Themelis (EEC Jr. Associate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Worming up to composting in Montreal By Yannis Themelis (EEC Jr. Associate) Five years ago, Olivier it was time his fellow urbanites get acquainted with his intimate knowledge on garbage and composting. However, when it came to urban composting, Pelletier had one problem: How would he convince people living

  6. P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008. 1 Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S. According to the State of Garbage, in 2006, forty-six of the fifty states reported tonnage data for "recycled" (composted or mulched

  7. TR-CS-03-01 Building and Testing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCreath, Eric Charles

    in this series: TR-CS-02-06 Stephen M Blackburn and Kathryn S McKinley. Fast garbage collection without a long the SHYSTER-MYCIN Hybrid Legal Expert System Thomas A. O'Callaghan tom@tom-ocallaghan.com> James Popple in this technical report is available in [21] and [22], and at tom/>. 1 #12

  8. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Wastes with Worms Lori Marsh, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering Department,Virginia Tech create odor problems and adds to the volume of waste going to the landfill. Disposing of kitchen scraps in a garbage dis- posal is convenient, but it adds to the burden of the waste-treatment system and throws away

  9. Activity: Should Your Children be Getting More?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as raking leaves, taking out the garbage, sweeping or picking up toys. Choose to walk or bike with your, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation well. · Help your child explore activities they can continue into adulthood, like hiking or biking

  10. Final Report-Lux Greeners GO GREEN!! SAVE EARTH!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    , even people separate plastic, it is only restricted to plastic bottles (water bottles, soft drink a regular practice in our residence that people separate the total garbage into plastic, paper, glass in every kitchen from all the floors. In some kitchens some people separate plastic from other waste

  11. MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is to leave them in the ground and mulch them heavily with straw or leaves. They then can be dug throughout radishes can also be stored in plastic bags or other con- tainers for months. Store as close to 32u F as possible (without freezing) and in high relative humidity. Perforated plastic bags or garbage can liners

  12. NEWS RELEASE LOCAL STUDENTS PRESENT TOY DESIGN AT TOYchallenge EAST NATIONAL SHOWCASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    in the TOYchallengeTM 2005 East Coast National Showcase. The team, led by Cliff Lissenden and Christine Masters. Bonus cards feature recycling facts and special directions. At the end of the game, the players sort their trash and bring it to the dump or recycling plant. Points are given for the amount of garbage collected

  13. By Herb Ziegler Teach students about one fundamental component of the internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Paul

    of a flywheel mass. Materials: Items were obtained at a local home improvement center; part #'s are from Lowe.80 1" threaded cap (this will allow attachment of the flywheel) · (#23464) x 1 ~$1.75 PVC cement · (#23775) 1 ~$1.90 PVC primer/cleaner · Plastic snow disk or garbage can lid for the flywheel (3'-4'dia

  14. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Computer memory management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  16. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)] [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  17. Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Lisa

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    using the bathroom ? After changing a diaper or assisting a child in the bathroom ? After handling uncooked foods (meat, poultry or fish) ? After caring for a sick person ? After blowing your nose, sneezing or coughing ? After touching garbage... tissues to cover coughs and to blow your nose. Step Three: Maintaining a clean living space ? Sanitize high risk surfaces. Examples are food preparation areas, diaper changing tables and surfaces soiled with body fluid (flood, feces and vomit...

  18. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Hazardous Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    dangerous chemical reac- tions that could release the products. H Have emergency equipment, such as adsorbents and shovels, ready to contain spills. Farm and Household Waste This category of potentially hazardous sub- stances includes the following items: H... that can be composted (such as household garbage, leaves and straw). H Recyclable materials should be taken to a recycling facility and uncontaminated trash to a licensed landfill or a municipal incinerator. Farm and household waste is excluded from...

  19. Helpful Hints for Operating Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Schreppler, S.; Cliver, R. E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    student, has resulted in significantly increased costs for schools. Before this tripling of the outside air required, most IAQ related problems observed by the author were caused by maintenance personnel completely closing outside air dampers. Owners... are home to many varieties of bacteria. Most bacteria are friendly, playing key roles in beneficial activities like waste and garbage decomposition, carbon dioxide production, digestion, fermentation, crop nutrition, and toxic waste cleanup. Disease...

  20. Spotlight, April 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oread. The board hopes to revive this tradition by working with students on annual planting and tree inventory projects. Students fro m the Enviro nmental Law Society help plant a redb ud tree. Sou rce: KU Scho ol of Law. You can help fund...: Sarah Link Left: Garbage - mostly plastic - accumulates on the Damon Slough Beach in Oakland, CA. Right: Manuel Mansylla from Plastic Pollution Coalition displays the plastic waste he collected in about an hour at the beach. Source: Sarah Link...

  1. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  2. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  3. Illinois Turning Landfill Trash into Future Cash

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Will County, Illinois officials yesterday formally broke ground on a new $7 million project (that includes $1 million of Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant funds) to turn methane gas from the Prairie View Landfill into electricity in a partnership with Waste Management. Will County will receive revenue from the sale of the gas created from decomposing garbage which will be harnessed and converted to generate 4.8 megawatts of green electrical power and used to power up to 8,000 homes. The future revenue generated from the sale of the gas and the sale of the electricity could reach $1 million annually.

  4. Compiled 11/ 14/ 2011 by OPBA. These assumptions are for modeling purposes only. They are subject to change. Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    .1 Electricity 2% 2% 231.7 3.7 Fuel Oil 9% 8% 240.8 3.9 Natural Gas -25% 0% 253.1 5.1 Lab Gas 0% 0% 260.3 2.8 Water 3% 3% 273.2 5.0 Sewer 6% 5% 279.3 2.2 Garbage 4% 4% 281.8 0.9 *FY13 based on projections dated 6.03% 18.46% 3.33% 5.54% Higher Education Price Index (HEPI)* Utility Assumptions Fiscal Year 2002 3,679 3

  5. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 19, 2010- Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 16, 2011debuts hybrid garbage truck

  6. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, November 24, 2008-A Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 16, 2011debuts hybrid garbage

  7. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  8. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2002 time period.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE(PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the January 1--March 31, 2003 time period.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  14. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  15. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  16. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  17. Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streicher, A.

    1985-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

  18. Biomass Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

  19. Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

  20. Towards High Performance Processing In Modern Java Based Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misiowiec, M; Buttner, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CERN controls software is often developed on Java foundation. Some systems carry out a combination of data, network and processor intensive tasks within strict time limits. Hence, there is a demand for high performing, quasi real time solutions. Extensive prototyping of the new CERN monitoring and alarm software required us to address such expectations. The system must handle dozens of thousands of data samples every second, along its three tiers, applying complex computations throughout. To accomplish the goal, a deep understanding of multithreading, memory management and interprocess communication was required. There are unexpected traps hidden behind an excessive use of 64 bit memory or severe impact on the processing flow of modern garbage collectors. Tuning JVM configuration significantly affects the execution of the code. Even more important is the amount of threads and the data structures used between them. Accurately dividing work into independent tasks might boost system performance. Thorough profili...

  1. Heavy metal distribution in sediments from Calabar River, southeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ntekim, E.E.U.; Ekwere, S.J.; Ukpong, E.E. [Univ. of Calabar (Nigeria)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration and areal distribution of selected metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Fe, and Cr) in the sediments of the Calabar River were studied to determine the extent of anthropogenic input and to estimate the effects of dumping industrial waste materials into the river. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu indicate relatively moderate pollution mainly on the left-hand side of the river while Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, and Fe levels are below values found to have adverse effects on the lives of marine biota. High metal contents are found close to industrial establishments and so enhanced metal concentrations are related to industrial sewage and metal leaching from garbage and solid waste dumps. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. Under this contract a series of pilot plant tests are being conducted to ascertain PGM performance with a variety of fuels. The performance and economics of a PGM based plant designed for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity will also be determined. This report describes the work performed during the April-June 30, 2004 time period.

  4. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunker silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.

  5. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  6. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  7. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  8. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  9. Urban Waste Conversion Systems. IGT Project 61030 final report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowen, D.S.; Daniels, E.J.; Novil, M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to assess the market potential of the various systems available, or under development, for converting urban wastes into synthetic gas or liquids. The primary data base for this assessment is a survey which IGT has sent out to experts in this field. The experts were asked to evaluate various conversion systems by assigning point totals to an evaluation matrix. They were also asked to summarize their work in urban waste conversion, to list critical paths which represent obstacles to be surmounted by R and D, and to assess the effect of those obstacles on the market potential of that process. Critical areas for R and D work focus on materials handling and separation techniques, and protection of equipment from abrasive, caustic, or corrosive chemicals in the wastes. Also, prohibitive capital and operating costs in some existing systems must be cited, since investor confidence is eroded by evidence of such experiences. Downtime has been excessive with many systems, stemming from feed problems brought on by the heterogeneous nature of the feedstock. Systems using homogeneous feeds have shown considerably less problems. Perhaps a critical area from a social impact point of view is, can garbage separation be instituted for the home, factory, etc. If so, the chances for waste converison systems to overcome technical problems on the front end are greatly improved, and so is the potential for market penetration.

  10. HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL] [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [IBM Corporation, Almaden Research Center] [IBM Corporation, Almaden Research Center; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University] [Pennsylvania State University; Piotr, Berman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University] [Pennsylvania State University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

  11. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H. [Da-Yeh Univ., Chang-Hwa (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  12. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  13. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with a soybean-based alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, B.; Rivera, P.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the best preventative measures, ruptured hoses, spills and leaks occur with use of all hydraulic equipment. Although these releases do not usually produce a RCRA regulated waste, they are often a reportable occurrence. Clean-up and subsequent administrative procedure involves additional costs, labor and work delays. Concerns over these releases, especially related to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) vehicles hauling waste on public roads prompted Fleet Services (FS) to seek an alternative to the standard petroleum based hydraulic fluid. Since 1996 SNL has participated in a pilot program with the University of Iowa (UNI) and selected vehicle manufacturers, notably John Deere, to field test hydraulic fluid produced from soybean oil in twenty of its vehicles. The vehicles included loaders, graders, sweepers, forklifts and garbage trucks. Research was conducted for several years at UNI to modify and market soybean oils for industrial uses. Soybean oil ranks first in worldwide production of vegetable oils (29%), and represents a tremendous renewable resource. Initial tests with soybean oil showed excellent lubrication and wear protection properties. Lack of oxidative stability and polymerization of the oil were concerns. These concerns were being addressed through genetic alteration, chemical modification and use of various additives, and the improved lubricant is in the field testing stage.

  14. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  15. New designs of reversible sequential devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A clear protocol for synthesis of sequential reversible circuits from any particular gate library has been provided. Using that protocol, reversible circuits for SR latch, D latch, JK latch and T latch are designed from NCT gate library. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule). It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities, lower number of garbage bits, lower quantum cost and lower number of feedback loops compared to the earlier proposals. For a fair comparison, the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same after converting the earlier proposed circuits into equivalent NCT circuits. Further, we have shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an artifact and if it is allowed then every reversible circuit block can be reduced to a single gate. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have been addressed. A protocol for minimization of quantum cost of reversible circuit has also been proposed here.

  16. On the Synthesis of Sequential Reversible Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2007-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible circuits for SR flip flop, JK flip flop, D flip flop, T flip flop, Master Slave D flip flop and Master Slave JK flip flop have been provided with three different logical approaches. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule) and the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same. It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities and lower number of garbage bits compared to the earlier proposals. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an \\textcolor{black}{artifact} and if it is allowed then every circuit block (unless there is a measurement) can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that a reversible flip flop can be constructed even without a feedback. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have also been addressed.

  17. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. A simple example of "Quantum Darwinism": Redundant information storage in many-spin environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robin Blume-Kohout; Wojciech H. Zurek

    2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    As quantum information science approaches the goal of constructing quantum computers, understanding loss of information through decoherence becomes increasingly important. The information about a system that can be obtained from its environment can facilitate quantum control and error correction. Moreover, observers gain most of their information indirectly, by monitoring (primarily photon) environments of the "objects of interest." Exactly how this information is inscribed in the environment is essential for the emergence of "the classical" from the quantum substrate. In this paper, we examine how many-qubit (or many-spin) environments can store information about a single system. The information lost to the environment can be stored redundantly, or it can be encoded in entangled modes of the environment. We go on to show that randomly chosen states of the environment almost always encode the information so that an observer must capture a majority of the environment to deduce the system's state. Conversely, in the states produced by a typical decoherence process, information about a particular observable of the system is stored redundantly. This selective proliferation of "the fittest information" (known as Quantum Darwinism) plays a key role in choosing the preferred, effectively classical observables of macroscopic systems. The developing appreciation that the environment functions not just as a garbage dump, but as a communication channel, is extending our understanding of the environment's role in the quantum-classical transition beyond the traditional paradigm of decoherence.

  19. Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

  20. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  1. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  2. Renewable energy in Hawaii--Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, H.M.; Totto, L.; Harvison, D. [Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawaii`s extensive renewable resources and limited access to conventional fuels has, in a sense, created a natural environment for the development and implementation of renewable energy processes, technologies, and materials. Aside from its traditional combustion of bagasse at sugar mills, Hawaii has invested in a wide range of renewable energy technologies, including municipal waste-to-energy incineration, hydropower, wind energy, solar photovoltaic (PV), small-scale solar, geothermal, and innovative hybrid wind/diesel and wind/pumped hydro systems. While regarded as a leader in the field of renewable energy, Hawaii`s pioneering approach has generally focused on research and development rather on implementation and commercialization. Despite being a front-runner in the utilization of a number of renewable energy resources, Hawaii`s dependence on petroleum continues to be among the highest in the United States. In 1990, petroleum constituted 92% of Hawaii`s energy supply in contrast to renewable energy`s contribution of 8%. The introduction of coal-fired electricity generation in 1992 has helped to diversify the energy base and decrease the share of oil. But, coal`s low fuel costs may also impact negatively on the prospects for renewable energy. The combination of the impending decline of sugarcane and the growing concerns for the islands` energy and environmental security is changing Hawaii`s energy landscape. While a number of traditional options may be phased out over the next few years, the emergence of new prospects holds considerable promise for an expanded role for renewable energy in the future.

  3. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [White Cliff Biosystems, Rockwood, Tennessee; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel [ORNL; Thompson, Olivia A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Yin, Hengfu [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  4. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  5. Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Kamal

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU, it will soon be possible to provide other technical information for the development of process flow diagrams (PFD’s) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID’s). This information can be used for the equipment layout and general arrangement drawings for the proposed process and eventual plant. An efficient bio-butanol pilot plant to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock from bagasse and wood chips will create significant number of green jobs for the Orangeburg, SC community that will be environmentally-friendly and generate much-needed income for farmers in the area.

  6. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by NDEP/BFF. The generator of permissible waste is responsible for preparing documentation related to waste acceptance criteria, waste characterization, and load verification. Waste and Water (WW) personnel are responsible for operating the disposal site and reviewing documentation to determine if the waste is acceptable.

  7. GTI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTI

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys. design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  8. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

  9. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  10. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m