Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The Mechanized Verification of Garbage Collector Implementations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract The Mechanized Verification of Garbage Collector Implementations Andrew Evan Mc complex, requiring a garbage collector. Garbage collectors are becoming increasingly sophis- ticated to adapt them to high-performance, concurrent and real-time applications, making internal collector

2

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services,...

3

The Omniscient Garbage Collector: a Resource Analysis Framework (extended abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Omniscient Garbage Collector: a Resource Analysis Framework (extended abstract) Aurélien point of view, we develop the omniscient garbage collector (OGC), which decides precisely when the resource index requires an omniscient garbage collector, a NP-complete problem tightly connected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators Andrew McCreight + Zhong and security of a large portion of the world's mission­critical software. Unfortunately, garbage collectors uniform approach to verifying the safety of both a mutator and its garbage collector in Hoare­style logic

5

A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A General Framework for Certifying Garbage Collectors and Their Mutators Andrew McCreight Zhong and security of a large portion of the world's mission-critical software. Unfortunately, garbage collectors uniform approach to verifying the safety of both a mutator and its garbage collector in Hoare-style logic

6

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the upper reaches of a family of concurrent garbage collectors by refinement from a formal specification, emphasizing the application of domain-independent design theories and transformations. A key contribution is an extension to the classical lattice-theoretic fixpoint theorems to account for the dynamics of concurrent mutation and collection.

Pavlovic, Dusko; Smith, Douglas R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case of vertical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Water Treatment Plant (Renou, 2006) and wastewater sanitation systems (Doka, 2007). ApplicationLife Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case The article presents the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to a complete sanitation system including

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Garbage collectors are notoriously hard to verify, due to their low-level interaction with the underlying system and the general difficulty in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either the proofs were hand-written or the collectors were too simplistic to use on practical applications. In this work, we present two mechanically verified garbage collectors, both practical enough to use for real-world C# benchmarks. The collectors and their associated allocators consist of x86 assembly language instructions and macro instructions, annotated with preconditions, postconditions, invariants, and assertions. We used the Boogie verification generator and the Z3 automated theorem prover to verify this assembly language code mechanically. We provide measurements comparing the performance of the verified collector with that of the standard Bartok collectors on off-the-shelf C# benchmarks, demonstrating their competitiveness.

Hawblitzel, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Economies of Scale and Scope in Network Industries: Lessons for the UK water and sewerage sectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was directly transferred to 12 private firms. The government sold its remaining share of the power generators in the year 2000.4 The 2001 New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) changed the mechanism for electricity trading and the latest major reform... sectors1 Michael G. Pollitt Steven J. Steer ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group University of Cambridge August 2011 Abstract Many studies of the water and sewerage industries place significant importance on the benefits of economies...

Pollitt, Michael G.; Steer, Stephen J.

11

Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors Chris Hawblitzel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors Chris Hawblitzel Microsoft Research One Technion Haifa 32000 Israel erez@cs.technion.ac.il Abstract Garbage collectors are notoriously hard in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either

Petrank, Erez

12

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1 , Peter Pepper2 , and Douglas R¨at Berlin and Fraunhofer FIRST, Berlin pepper@cs.tu-berlin.de Abstract. Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors

Smith, Douglas R.

13

Towards Hinted Collection Annotations for decreasing garbage collector pause times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Hinted Collection Annotations for decreasing garbage collector pause times Philip Reames are influenced as much by garbage collector behavior as by resource availability. We present an alternate performance not correct- ness. Our hinted collector algorithm uses these hints to identify a subset

Necula, George

14

Verification of Parallel Garbage Collection by Abstract Model Checking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have a finite state space provided that the abstraction mapping is powerful. M¨uller and Nipkow's work working on abstract model checking. In Section 4, the abstractions we defined on garbage #12; collectionVerification of Parallel Garbage Collection by Abstract Model Checking (Extended Abstract) Masami

Hagiya, Masami

15

Type-Preserving Garbage Collectors Daniel C. Wang Andrew W. Appel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Type-Preserving Garbage Collectors Daniel C. Wang Andrew W. Appel Department of Computer Science that acts as a tracing garbage collector for the program. Since the garbage collector is an explicit function, we do not need to provide a trusted garbage collector as a runtime service to manage memory

Appel, Andrew W.

16

Garbage, society, and environment in a Mexican municipio: The case of Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation examines the practice of garbage management and its construction as a set of environmental issues across the municipio of Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico. The generation and sustainable management of garbage ...

Hilburn, Andrew Michael

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator. The garbage collector therefore directly deter- mines program performance by making a classic space-time trade canonical tracing garbage collectors: semi-space, mark-sweep, and mark-compact each sacrifice one ob

McKinley, Kathryn S.

19

A Study of the Scalability of Stop-the-world Garbage Collectors on Multicores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Study of the Scalability of Stop-the-world Garbage Collectors on Multicores Lokesh Gidra, Ga challenges for garbage collectors (GCs). In particular, throughput-oriented stop- the-world algorithms-oriented garbage collector of OpenJDK 7, called Parallel Scavenge. We identify its bottlenecks, and show how

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

SNES 2000: Environmental Sciences Colloquium Garbage and Waste Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SNES 2000: Environmental Sciences Colloquium Fall 2012 Garbage and Waste Management Friday/U, 1 credit (required for SNES SO/SR, credit optional for others) The Environmental Sciences Colloquium is open to the entire Cornell community and the public. Contemporary environmental issues pose complex

Keinan, Alon

22

Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors Harel Paz 1 and Erez Petrank 2 1-counting collector. We propose potential prefetching opportunities for the advanced reference-counting collector and report an implementation of a collector that employs such prefetch- ing. The proposed prefetch

Petrank, Erez

23

Integrating Generations with Advanced Reference Counting Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrating Generations with Advanced Reference Counting Garbage Collectors Hezi Azatchi 1 and Erez@cs.technion.ac.il Abstract. We study an incorporation of generations into a modern reference counting collector. We start with the two on-the- y collectors suggested by Levanoni and Petrank: a reference counting collector

Krintz, Chandra

24

Formal Proof of Abstract Model Checking of Concurrent Garbage Collection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the correctness of abstraction is not always easy to verify. In our pre- vious work, we applied abstract model with that of proving the concrete system from scratch (not by abstract model checking). In our previous work [6], whichFormal Proof of Abstract Model Checking of Concurrent Garbage Collection Koichi Takahashi Masami

Hagiya, Masami

25

A -calculus with limited resources, garbage-collection and guarantees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A -calculus with limited resources, garbage-collection and guarantees David Teller Abstract. Techniques such as mobility and distribution are often used to overcome limitations of resources at formalizing the notion of limited resources in process algebras for mobility and distribution. In this paper

Teller, David

26

Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

Cuzens, J.E.

1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

27

Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

A Lock-Free, Concurrent, and Incremental Stack Scanning for Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Lock-Free, Concurrent, and Incremental Stack Scanning for Garbage Collectors Gabriel Kliot Bjarne.Steensgaard@microsoft.com Abstract Two major efficiency parameters for garbage collectors collectors with as short as possible pause times. Pause lengths have decreased significantly during the years

Petrank, Erez

29

Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collection and compare it to that of more proactive schemes. I develop formulas to assess the schedulability of hard real- time periodic task sets under simpli ed memory consumption models. Results show that I prove the proactive schemes achieve the larger... work in the area of ash memory management. Moreover, we review the previous research about garbage collection in real-time system. In Chapter III we will describe a simpli ed ash memory model that will be used throughout the rest of the thesis...

Lai, Chien-An

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - apple bagasse anacardium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

under the clean development mechanism Summary: development mechanism Sugar Carbon markets a b s t r a c t Bagasse power generation projects provide a useful... . On the...

31

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

Li, G.

33

The Dalhousie Employee Guide to Materials Management on Campus Look for the 4 system bins around campus designated for recyclables, paper/cardboard, organics and garbage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, straws, and dvd cases (garbage) Foams & soft # 6 plastics (garbage) Broken glass (garbage) What belongs cans, liquor/beer containers Milk containers Glass bottles and containers Tin, steel, and aluminum sweepings Broken glass (must be boxed & taped) Disposable gloves (latex, vinyl, etc.) Ceramics Packaging

Brownstone, Rob

34

Proc. 20th Symp. Principles of Programming Languages, 1993, pages 113--123. A concurrent, generational garbage collector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, generational garbage collector for a multithreaded implementation of ML Damien Doligez Xavier Leroy ' Ecole and implementation of a ``quasi real­time'' garbage collector for Concurrent Caml Light, an implementation of ML with threads. This two­generation system combines a fast, asynchronous copying collector on the young

Leroy, Xavier

35

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1, Peter Pepper2, and Douglas R. Smith1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1, Peter Pepper2, and Douglas R¨at Berlin and Fraunhofer FIRST, Berlin pepper@cs.tu-berlin.de Abstract. Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors

Pavlovic, Dusko

36

Proc. 20th Symp. Principles of Programming Languages, 1993, pages 113{123. A concurrent, generational garbage collector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, generational garbage collector for a multithreaded implementation of ML Damien Doligez Xavier Leroy Ecole a \\quasireal-time"garbage collector for Concurrent Caml Light, an implementation of ML with threads. This two-generation system combines a fast, asynchronous copying collector on the young generation with a non- disruptive

Leroy, Xavier

37

A Generational On-the-y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Generational On-the- y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani #3; Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z Abstract An on-the- y garbage collector does not stop the program threads to perform the collection. Instead, the collector executes in a separate thread (or pro- cess) in parallel to the program

Petrank, Erez

38

A Generational On-the-y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Generational On-the- y Garbage Collector for Java Tamar Domani #3; Elliot K. Kolodner y Erez Petrank z Abstract An on-the- y garbage collector does not stop the program threads to perform the collection. Instead, the collector executes in a separate thread (or process) in parallel to the program. On

Petrank, Erez

39

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A Study of Concurrent Real-Time Garbage Collectors Filip Pizlo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Study of Concurrent Real-Time Garbage Collectors Filip Pizlo Purdue University West Lafayette at the microseconds level. Concurrent collectors also offer much better scalability over incremental collectors. The main prob- lem with concurrent real-time collectors is their complexity. The first concurrent real

Rinetzky, Noam

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sewerage service charges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEWER&.GE SERVICE CHARGES A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major Subject* Municipal suid Sanitary... Engineering By Samuel Robert Wright May 1946 BA.GRV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express appreciation to the State Health Department and to Mr* E. E. McA-dams of the League of Texas Municipalities for their aid and assistance in the collection...

Wright, Samuel Robert

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Appears in 1993 ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, pp. 73{82. 1 A Concurrent Copying Garbage Collector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Concurrent Copying Garbage Collector for Languages that Distinguish (Im)mutable Data Lorenz Huelsbergen- tion of a concurrent compacting garbage collector for languages that distinguish mutable data from functionallanguagessuch as Haskell). Thecollector runs on shared-memory parallel computers and re- quires minimal mutator/collector

Huelsbergen, Lorenz

44

An OntheFly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views Hezi Azatchi + Yossi Levanoni # Harel Paz Erez Petrank  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An On­the­Fly Mark and Sweep Garbage Collector Based on Sliding Views #3; Hezi Azatchi + Yossi garbage collector has become acute. We propose a novel mark and sweep on­the­fly algorithm based on the sliding views mechanism of Levanoni and Petrank. We have implemented our collector on the Jikes Java

Petrank, Erez

45

The Dalhousie Guide to Waste Management on Campus Look for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics and garbage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics.) · Ceramics · Potato chip bags & candy wrappers · Styrofoam Not acceptable: · Organics · Recyclables and dry. Organic Waste No liquids. Garbage Reconsider all waste for potential reuse before discarding

Brownstone, Rob

46

Preemptible I/O Scheduling of Garbage Collection for Solid State Drives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Unlike hard disks, flash devices use out-of-update operations and they require a garbage collection (GC) process to reclaim invalid pages to create free blocks. This GC process is a major cause of performance degradation when running concurrently with other I/O operations as internal bandwidth is consumed to reclaim these invalid pages. The invocation of the GC process is generally governed by a low watermark on free blocks and other internal device metrics that different workloads meet at different intervals. This results in I/O performance that is highly dependent on workload characteristics. In this paper, we examine the GC process and propose a semi-preemptible GC scheme that allows GC processing to be preempted while pending I/O requests in the queue are serviced. Moreover, we further enhance flash performance by pipelining internal GC operations and merge them with pending I/O requests whenever possible. Our experimental evaluation of this semipreemptible GC scheme with realistic workloads demonstrate both improved performance and reduced performance variability. Write-dominant workloads show up to a 66.56% improvement in average response time with a 83.30% reduced variance in response time compared to the non-preemptible GC scheme. In addition, we explore opportunities of a new NAND flash device that supports suspend/resume commands for read, write and erase operations for fully preemptible GC. Our experiments with a fully preemptible GC enabled flash device show that request response time can be improved by up to 14.57% compared to semi-preemptible GC.

Lee, Junghee [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Kim, Jongman [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Berea College currently recycles 21% of the solid wastes. Recently, a SENS class did a garbage audit--sorting the contents of bags of trash to see how much could have been recycled. 62.5% of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Berea College currently recycles 21% of the solid wastes. Recently, a SENS class did a garbage away 9 times as much waste as does a person in Africa or Central America, but we also generate two to three times the amount of waste as people living in industrial countries with a comparable or better

Baltisberger, Jay H.

48

LANL debuts hybrid garbage truck  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs & GraduatesReducing

49

Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority (BRSA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre Biomass Facility Jump to:Sector BiomassBayport

50

Revenge of the Rest of the Garbage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Fire &Water page 74 DIPLOMATIC INCIDENT by Randi DuMois page 81 TWIN LOVE by M.S. page 96 BLACK WIDOW by Elizabeth Stuart page 101 FLYBOYS by Z.P. Florian page 111 SHADOWS OF YESTERDAY by Z.P. Florian page 131 TOO HOT TO HANDLE by Elizabeth Stuart... page 210 LIMERICK by M. Barrassed page 217 Illoes by Z.P. Florian and Zyene? Cartoon by Maggie Nowakowska Attention: homemade material, dry clean only. Variations in grammar and spelling are natural to the product. Keep out of reach of children. Do...

Multiple Contributors

51

Beijing Besieged by Garbage Wang Jiuliang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

landfill, a large residential compound was under construction. With my eyes on the high-rise buildings under construction, I lamented the proximity of the landfills to our city. On maps of Beijing, however be a potential dump site. Then, I went to each of the noted locations and confirmed their status. Using

52

The Return of the Rest of the Garbage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in color in TremorlO, for all those ' who liked Anakin tall, dark, mysterious and a lot ofother things. i I L6 Index Cabin Fever by Cheree Cargill page 3 Details of an unwritten by Z.P. Florian page 7 The spice oflife by NoreAnanfa page 8 157th... Ayesso by Z.P. Florian page 13 Fate denied by Teresa Kilmer page 19 Endor night by Rae Dawid page 31 Night out by Randi Du Mois page 36 colorfulpast of Captain Solo by Z.P. Florian page 48 iffHHi Asong for Xal by A. M. S. Fox page 55 essay...

Multiple Contributors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Menace of the Rest of the Garbage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at http://zpdark.tripod.com/index-2.Htmu Explanation ofhat had happened to this zine. by Z.P. Florian - page 2 The Story ofLady Carnalia by Z.P. Florian page 4 Summer Rains Summer End by Teresa Kilmer page 7 The Gift ofTides by Alexandra Jones page 17... Connections by VicCoopers page31 The Lover by Z.P. Florian and Veronica Wilson, page 37 The Orchid by Ide Cyan page 53 iT?* The Dance by Sweet Heart, page69 Illo for the Dance.by Judy S. page 74 ACorellian in Hell, reprint ofpart one and 2 by The Mud Dwarf...

Multiple Contributors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

QUANTIFYING AND IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF GARBAGE COLLECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the ALI and PLASMA research groups over the years, especially Steve Blackburn, Alistair Dundas, Yi (Eric

Hertz, Matthew

55

Lab employees don't treat their trash like garbage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LOSEngineering | JeffersonLab celebratesLab

56

Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the concept of biological treatment of wastewater, whichwastewater treatment planning. Contrasting Paradigms: Biologicalbiological treatment, incorporating ecological, social, and economic benefits into municipal wastewater

Smith, Brooke Ray

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?????????????. 17 1.4 Project description????????????..?... 25 II MATERIALS AND METHODS???????????? 27 2.1 Biomass feedstock??????????????. 27 2.2 Biomass pretreatment????????????? 29 2.3 Fermentation material and methods.... This is followed by introducing promising lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and challenges in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Subsequently, it presents the process description and recent advances of the MixAlco process, a novel and promising biomass...

Fu, Zhihong

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Bagasse-based cogeneration projects in Kenya. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Definitional Mission team evaluated the prospects of the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a feasibility study that would assist the Government of Kenya in developing power cogeneration plants in three Kenyan sugar factories and possibly two more that are now in the planning stage or construction. The major Kenyan sugar producing region around Kisumu, on Lake Victoria has climatic conditions that permit cane growing operations ideally suitable for cogeneration of power in sugar factories. The total potentially available capacity from the proposed rehabilitation of the three mills will be approximately 25.15 MW, or 5.7 percent of total electricity production.

Kenda, W.; Shrivastava, V.K.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid; 3, Ix-L-arabinofuranose. C CH20H C H(a- CH20H HCQH HCO[CH2 ] ~ ~ HC 0 CH20H w QH l ~ OCH) \\ O CH HCOH CQ HOH2C C ~0 H CO HCOH C ? 0 HCQH H C ? IE:H C~H20H HC ~H@QH ] Ho ~ OCH3 HCOH 0 ? O 3~ QCH H2 C HOH C HC 0 2i H(OH ? 0 2, H...2CO HCOH C 0 Co w ~ OCH3 0 to~ Figure 4. Structural model for spruce lignin (Alder, 1977) CII Ch d' O 50 C/5 O CD Itl N I/5 O C' I CI I ch 'nh I Ch CC CI I/I ill O I/I Inn CC Chl O ICI Q O 05 m n5 cC CC 5- CD Ql I/I 0 Q...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

AFEX treatment of coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pollution). We are also faced with pollution by using fossil and nuclear fuels. In the case of coal- fired plants, their smokestacks emit air pollution. Land is scarred from strip mining and water is polluted from the acids that leak out of coal mines..., Nuclear power plants also risk releasing dangerous radioactive substances into the environment through plant or shipping accidents. Furthermore, proper disposal of U. S. nuclear wastes has not yet been addressed. The use of lignocellulose has...

Jun, Jae-Hoon

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Implication of Plastic Debris in Marineat 2014. Consumption of plastics by marine animals has beenC. Thompson et al. , Our Plastic Age, 364 PhIL. TRANSAc--

Harse, Grant A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Garbage Collection in Open Distributed Tuple Space Ronaldo Menezes \\Lambda and Alan Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supported by Funda¸c~ao Coodena¸c~ao de Aperfei¸coamento de Pessoal de N'ivel Superior (CAPES), under grant

Wood, Alan

63

Taxes In, Garbage Out The Need for Better Solid Waste Disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.................................................................................................................... 8 THE FISCAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CURRENT DISPOSAL PRACTICES.....................9 Fiscal..................................................................................... 2 History of the Municipal System Impact

64

Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domestic water quality and solid waste disposal laws inquantity generator waste, and industrial solid waste. 197sewer overflows, lit- tering, solid waste disposal sites and

Harse, Grant A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

90% of world plastic material demands. Anthony L. Andrady &a result, the world-wide demand for plastics was expected to

Harse, Grant A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

later disposal ashore or incineration aboard." ' 156 Becausewould be 'dumping' or 'incineration at sea' within the

Harse, Grant A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Garbage on the wharf : a transfer station for the City of Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perhaps because they address processes at the expense of space or have many "conditions" limiting architectural design freedom, infrastructure and particularly the infrastructure of waste, are commonly neglected in ...

Russell, Phillip Gregory

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High quality garbage: A neural network plastic sorter in hardware and software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to produce pure polymer streams from post-consumer waste plastics, a quick, accurate and relatively inexpensive method of sorting needs to be implemented. This technology has been demonstrated by using near-infrared spectroscopy reflectance data and neural network classification techniques. Backpropagation neural network routines have been developed to run real-time sortings in the lab, using a laboratory-grade spectrometer. In addition, a new reflectance spectrometer has been developed which is fast enough for commercial use. Initial training and test sets taken with the laboratory instrument show that a network is capable of learning 100% when classifying 5 groups of plastic (HDPE and LDPE combined), and up to 100% when classifying 6 groups. Initial data sets from the new instrument have classified plastics into all seven groups with varying degrees of success. One of the initial networks has been implemented in hardware, for high speed computations, and thus rapid classification. Two neural accelerator systems have been evaluated, one based on the Intel 8017ONX chip, and another on the AT&T ANNA chip.

Stanton, S.L.; Alam, M.K.; Hebner, G.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Waste Management: Garbage Displacement and the Ethics of Mafia Representation in Matteo Garrone’s Gomorra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By visiting dumps and quarries it is possible to see thestations, decommissioned quarries, deserted farmland. Theis full). In an abandoned quarry Franco sees a prospect: “

Bondavalli, Simona

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Coordinated Garbage Collection for RAID Array of Solid State Disks - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControlsCoolSpace

71

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C)................................................................................146 Figure 4.6 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment without air purging at 23oC. .........................................................................147 Figure 4.7 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment... without air purging at 30oC. .........................................................................148 Figure 4.8 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment without air purging at 40o...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

72

Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The determination of particle size distribution. 3. The identification of heavy metals in the smoke and ash phases. 4. The identification of other major smoke components. These tests will also be performed on normal, untreated fiberboard samples so... and untreated fiberboards were less than 10 microns in size and were, therefore, respirable to humans. Toxic species identification through the use of the gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy identified no unusually toxic chemical species within the smoke...

Paris, Lisa Danielle

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of AFEX-treated newspaper and bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

days and filters were replaced every 12 hours. Loading rate does not include alfalfa. H A D Figure 4. Continuous culture system. A, buffer reservoir, B, fermenter; C, overflow effluent reservoir; D, filtered effluent reservoir; E, gas collector; F..., G, peristaltic pumps; H, filter, I, magnetic stir plate, containing up to 4 fermenter vessels; J, temperature bath circulator 28 FIGURE 5. Fermentor diagram. 1, fermenter lid; 2, buffer input; 3, gas outlet; 4, overflow port; 5, filter; 6...

Blasig, Jorge Dari?o

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the randomizing pathway through succinate. Carbohydrate Oxatoacetate 2H Malate QH 0 Fumarate Succmate Succinyl CoA C A Methylmalonyl CoA Propionyl CoA HrO Ct ATP? FF F ~~hl A ATP Acetoacetyl CoA 2HQ Acetate B ? hydroxybutyryt CoA Acrylate HtO... to those used to obtain the best yield or production of VFA. 25 13CHtCOOH ~ 4CHsCHtCHgCHtCOOH+ 7COg+ 6HtO (3) 4CHsCOOH ~ CHsCHgCHtCHtCHgCOOH + 2COa + 2HtO (4) However, all of the VFA concentrations can be measured directly, hence it is more convenient...

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass conversion technologies are receiving increasing attention due to global climate change and most recently plans from the President of the United States to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The MixAlco process converts a variety of feedstocks...

Jones, Maxine Janette

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl?, NO[subscript 3]?, and 20 metals from 10 ...

Christian, T. J.

78

Spitzer should focus on turning garbage into renewable energy By ALYSSAA. LAPPEN and JACK D. LAUBER Eliot Spitzer, listen up.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

virtually eliminated emissions. Such plants have cut dioxins and other toxic emissions by 99 percent or more-to-energy plant emissions, combined, reach only 12 grams of dioxin annually, less than 0.5 percent of all dioxins

Columbia University

79

Sweet-Talking the Climate? Evaluating Sugar Mill Cogeneration and Climate Change Financing in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2004).   Bagasse  Cogeneration  ??  Global  Review  and ?Promotion  of  biomass  cogeneration  with  power  export WADE  2004.   Bagasse  Cogeneration  –  Global  Review  and 

Ranganathan, Malini; Haya, Barbara; Kirpekar, Sujit

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000181 Synthesis of Furfural from Xylose and Xylan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for utilization of impor- tant biomass feedstocks such as bagasse, corn stover, Miscan- thus, switchgrass

Raines, Ronald T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

garbage burning (7), incineration of municipal and medicalindustrial settings, incineration fa- cilities (5), biomass

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Dalhousie Employee Guide to Materials Management on Campus Look for the 4 system bins around campus designated for recyclables, paper/cardboard, organics and garbage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cans Tetra juice packs & mini sips All plastic bags and containers, except Styrofoam Clean aluminum Clean & painted wood Drywall & ceiling tiles Vinyl Plastic Glass Insulation Styro Tar Gravel

Brownstone, Rob

83

Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Open-air pits are used to burn garbage and other wastes at bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

found in the study: Acetone, Acrolein**, Benzene, Carbon Disulfide, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chloromethane, Toluene Acrolein and Hexachlorobutadiene were occasionally detected far above the MEG ratio--over 1800 percent above the MEG for Acrolein and over 500 percent above the MEG for Hexachlorobutadiene. Plaintiffs

Toohey, Darin W.

84

The Dalhousie Guide to Waste Management on Campus Look for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics and garbage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the four bin system around campus designated for paper, recyclables, organics.) · Ceramics · Potato chip bags & candy wrappers · Styrofoam Not acceptable: · Organics · Recyclables. For personal cell phone disposal, visit: call2recycle.ca · Employees can request office related e-waste

Brownstone, Rob

85

A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Production by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0 Resource Assessment of Biomass Feedstocks 1.1 Bagasse, Sw itch Grass, and Nut Shell Availability and Cost 1

86

I No cough, wheeze, chest tightness, or shortness of breath during the day or night  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thing to do: · Keep food and garbage in closed containers. Never leave food out. · Use poison baits

Baker, Chris I.

87

CONNECTING CAIRO TO THE NILE Renewing Life and Heritage on the River  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boat landings. Empty bottles, plastic bags, trash, anddents to dispose of plastic bags, bottles, and other garbage

Kondolf, G. Mathias M; Mozingo, Louise; Marzion, Rachael; Balakrishnan, Krishnachandran; Gohar, Amir; et al.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

anaerobic bioreactor landfills: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 10 Mathematical...

89

Evaluation of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies in Ghana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is estimated that 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation, and 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged into the environment without any treatment. However, the construction of sewerage ...

Knutson, Jason R. (Jason Richard)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Swamp rats, fat cats and soggy suburbs : planners and engineers in south east Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. cities continue to physically expand, supported by and creating demand for water supply, road, sewerage, electricity networks. But the relationship between the professional values, education and practices of city or ...

Phelan, Katherine A., 1971-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Adaptive reuse and revitalization of water heritage in Nicosia, Cyprus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The bi-communal sewerage system developed for the divided capital of Nicosia, Cyprus has been lauded as a rare example of cooperation between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities. The story of how the project ...

Lau, Marisa (Marisa May-Lan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefiner...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

its proprietary technology for the production of ethanol from a wide array of biomass feedstocks, including sugarcane bagasse, agricultural byproducts, waste wood products, and...

93

Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy projects (small hydro and bagasse co-generators) andPCF) in Guatemala for a small hydro project assumes that the

Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysing bioenergy demand Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

normally derived... of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol. Bioenergy is the only... action on climate change have all served to...

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing bioenergy options Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

origin, normally derived... of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol. Bioenergy is the only... action on climate change have all served...

96

Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and fungi occurring during composting and self-heatingof Temperature on Composting of Sewage-Sludge. Applied andcommunities in the garbage composting with rice hull as an

Allgaier, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-13-023.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

amount of waste that may be generated could include uncontaminated garbage such as plastic water bottles or other miscellaneous waste. All waste would be disposed of in...

98

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium-rich sanitary landfill Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Objective With engineered sanitary landfills... , biogas generation from garbage, pyrolysis and sanitary landfills. These methods include efforts... method in Indian cities....

99

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . 11 Garbage / Recycling . . . . 11 Vehicles / Parking . . . . 11 Guests collec ng has led to the deple on of the habitats surrounding many field sta ons. Therefore, please

Acton, Scott

100

E-Print Network 3.0 - abacates persia americana Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Task Barnes & Underwood (1959) Example: learn AB paired associates... : window-reason bicycle-garbage ... Then AC paired associates: window-locomotive bicycle-dishtowel 20...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

GREEN GUIDE MAISON AM GROND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There are some good habits while cooking which can help us to reduce the energy consumption. Some good habits are the problem that the garbage collectors from the City of Luxembourg didn't want to take the garbage which with such implementation. Out team investigated and confirmed that the City of Luxembourg is collecting the organic wastes

van der Torre, Leon

102

Derivation and Evaluation of Concurrent Collectors Martin T. Vechev1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation and Evaluation of Concurrent Collectors Martin T. Vechev1 , David F. Bacon2 , Perry garbage collection algorithm, and show how existing snapshot and incremental update collectors, can that reduces floating garbage while terminating quickly. We have implemented a concurrent collector framework

Grove, David

103

The Dalhousie Student Guide to Materials Management on Campus We currently divert over 60% of materials from landfill; with your help we can reach our goal of 75%!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Foams & soft # 6 plastics (garbage) Broken glass (garbage) What belongs: Dry & clean paper (white Milk containers Glass bottles and containers Tin, steel, and aluminum cans Tetra juice packs & mini coffee cups Aerosol cans (empty non- hazardous) Floor sweepings Broken glass (must be boxed & taped

Brownstone, Rob

104

Access to water in a Nairobi slum: women's work and institutional learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lack of pumping capacity and a “tendency to divert available waterlack one or more of the following: durable housing, suf?cient living area, access to improved water,lack of sewerage. They offered to engage in a series of initiatives to regularize connections, pay water

Crow, Ben; Odaba, Edmond

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Revision received March 13, 2000. Open for discussion till April 30, 2002. JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC RESEARCH, VOL. 39, 2001, NO. 4 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a sewerage outlet into a rapidly flowing river can have consequences for the water supply in a neighbouring heavy by the addition of a soluble compo- nent ­ a salt in water for example. We analyse both CB3 9EW, U.K., email: heh1@esc.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT We consider the fate of a cloud of heavy

Hogg, Andrew

106

VAT STATUS -SALES Please find below a list of expenditure types with the relevant VAT codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory Equipment BS Leaflets BZ Lectureship Fee BE Library Fines 0 Live animal for human consumption BZ Periodicals BZ Pet Food Canned, Biscuits and meal BS Photocopying - Other than student BS Photocopying for propogation of plants for human or animal consumption BZ Sewerage services and water BZ Sponsorships BS SRS

Glasgow, University of

107

VAT STATUS -PURCHASES Please find below a list of expenditure types with the relevant VAT codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for human consumption AZ Maps, charts and topographical plans AZ Medical Equipment used in Medical AS 0 Penalties 0 Periodicals AZ Pet Food Canned, Biscuits and meal AS Photocopying - Other than student for human or animal consumption AZ Sewerage services and water AZ Sponsorships AS Sterilising Equipment used

Glasgow, University of

108

OTHER APPROACHES TO MANAGING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements Include minimum separations between wells and conventional/alternative onsite sewage treatment systems Supplement public sanitary sewerage systems primarily in rural areas Legal Approaches ConstructionOTHER APPROACHES TO MANAGING POLLUTANT SOURCES Laws and Land Use [Chapter 10.2] Rules of Thumb Rule

109

Corporate Overview Founded on Values  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturing Petroleum Maintenance Pipeline Design Sewer/Wastewater Design Sewerage and Solid Waste Site Assessment and Compliance Wastewater Treatment Plants Water Treatment and Desalination Plants Working participating in EWB-USA trips. To date we have awarded 92 grants totaling US$350,000 Created a CH2M HILL EWB

Subramanian, Venkat

110

Admissions 2011 M.Tech. in Technology and Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adjunct Faculty: S. Wagle-Policy and Governance Bakul Rao -Environment Analysis and Assessment P. Modak;The T&D core values Concrete beneficiary/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households, hamlets, gram. Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal budget and so on. Skills: GIS, simulations, social

Sohoni, Milind

111

Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faculty: S. Wagle-Policy and Governance Bakul Rao -Environment Analysis and Assessment P. Modak #12;The T&D core operational values Concrete beneficiary/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal budget Skills: GIS

Sohoni, Milind

112

The emerging role of the developmentalist Milind Sohoni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis and Assessment P. Modak -Environment and Natural Resource Mgt. S. Agnihotri -Governance and Govt/stake-holder-the bottom 80%, households, hamlets, gram-panchayats, villages, towns and cities Basic areas-soil, water Municipal Council to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal

Sohoni, Milind

113

Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

Almendarez, Maria Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

New and emerging bioenergy technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rohstoffe e.V. Germany Consultant Charles Butcher Science Journalist Risø Energy Report 2 #12;1. Preface 3 2 or fisheries. Examples of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol

115

Sustainable Development & Land Use Committee Meeting Meeting 2009-2010 #5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to improve recycling and composting on campus. One of the things that they have asked to change is to remove the black garbage bags from the composting containers in The Grill as the composting containers look like

116

Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

accumulate pollen principally: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ing brood cells or for storage in colony pollen pots (Roubik by analysis of garbage pellets: a new method Thomas ELTZa*, Carsten A. BR?HLa, Sander VAN DER KAARSb, K sampling...

118

Plastic Recycling Toter -ORANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microfuge tubes - beakers - flasks - bottles - jars - Plastic disposable pipettes with cotton plugsPlastic Recycling Toter - ORANGE Glass Recycling Toter - TEAL Garbage Yellow sharps container Categories - All Plastic except Styrofoam - rinsed 3 times - may have contained Biohazard level 1 bacteria

Toronto, University of

119

FOR EMERGENCY CABIN REPAIRS REPORT ITFOR EMERGENCY CABIN REPAIRS REPORT IT IMMEDIATELYIMMEDIATELY TO THE MAINTENANCE SHOP OR ONE OFTO THE MAINTENANCE SHOP OR ONE OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& EMPTY GARBAGE INTO TRASH BINS LOCATED OUTSIDE.LOCATED OUTSIDE. RECYCLE BINS ARE ACROSS FROMRECYCLE BINS IF NOT SURE! NO PETS ARE ALLOWED ON THE STATION!NO PETS ARE ALLOWED ON THE STATION! CAMPFIRES MAY BE BUILT

Minnesota, University of

120

Computer with surge protection power bar Earplugs (recommended)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Garbage bags and recycling bags Slippers for walking around residence Reusable coffe/tea mug Reusable. Mattresses Pets Pipes,hookahs and bongs Subwoofers and amps Traditional Residences: Kitchen appliances

Haykin, Simon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A sanitary board is established to deal with long-term serious problems relating to water pollution and solid waste disposal in the area. The district can set regulations regarding garbage...

122

Reducing Waste and Saving Energy with Composting | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

garden, but to avoid sending the food through the garbage disposer and then via the wastewater pipe to the water treatment plant. It may not be obvious, but communities use a lot...

123

Monadic Regions: Formal Type Soundness and Correctness Matthew Fluet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- agement [9, 6], it is not possible to manage particular data by one scheme or the other. Cyclone [12 garbage collection and a simple type system. A separate line of research has investigated mechanisms

Fluet, Matthew

124

Spending Plan Worksheet Instructions: 1.Calculate monthly net income in box 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, insurance premiums, auto servicing, tires, license, birthdays and holidays, educational costs, vacations/Taxes* $_______ Utilities Telephone $_______ Heating $_______ Electricity` $_______ Trash/garbage $_______ Water and repairs $_______ Other transportation $_______ $_______ Personal/MedicalCare $_______ Education

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - areca-a food waste Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

greeted staff and took... the cafeteria to find out if it can be used to generate biogas or for compost. They separated food waste from... other garbage and measured an...

126

This is a General University (G.U.) Classroom Audio-Visual assistance & information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2111 ext. 82222 Classroom Management Group http://www.ipb.uwo.ca/cmg/ A/V system guidance conditions & Building systems: 519 661-2111 ext. 83304 Facilities Management http Lighting, electrical controls & outlets Ambient temperature & air quality · Cleanliness, garbage

Lennard, William N.

127

Your Guide to 1912 SW 6th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Laundry Laundry facilities are located on every other floor (starting on the 3rd floor) on the South wing-recyclable garbage in recycling areas. If you leave trash, abandoned furniture, and other goods in common areas

Latiolais, M. Paul

128

Role models V.S. Sunder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste matter (such as the wrapper of an ice cream cone or an empty plastic bag which once contained potato chips) out of a car window, and in the extreme case, throwing domestic garbage over the wall

Sunder, V S

129

RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of Water Supply and Sanitation Facility in The Rural Areas of Nepal: An Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for irrigation and drinking water were separated and the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) was created. At that time, the Ministry of Panchayat and Local Development (MPLD) had been given the responsibility for small-scale village level water supply... . The notion of people's participation in drinking water supply was initiated by MPLD, which had taken responsibility of the construction of small-scale drinking water supply projects like others such as roads, suspension bridges, and foot-trials. However...

Prasain, Jiba Nath

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

133

Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROXIDE RECOVERY DATA. . . . . . 135 138 142 . . . . . 148 . . . . . 150 . . . . . 153 156 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Methods used for pretreatment of lignocellulosics. . . . . . . . 15 2. Ammoniation conditions used by previous workers...C-pH diagram for a carbonate solution. 32 12. Flow diagram for continuous calcium hydroxide recovery. . . 13. A tree of possible experimental conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Sugar yields obtained from ammoniated bagasse...

Nagwani, Murlidhar

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into second generation biofuels using sugar cane bagasse, it's still at an experimental level but is expected/7/2010 GAIN Report Number:TH0098 Thailand Biofuels Annual Annual 2010 Approved By: Orestes Vasquez Highlights: The report discusses the effects of Thailand's biofuel policy on production, supply and demand

135

Ris Energy Report 2 Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Risø Energy Report 2 Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally derived of bioenergy resources are fuel wood, bagasse, organic waste, biogas and bioethanol. Bioenergy is the only action on climate change have all served to increase interest in bioenergy. Technological advances

136

BIODEGRADATION OF COMPOSITE NONWOVENS MADE OF NATURAL FIBERS AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 BIODEGRADATION OF COMPOSITE NONWOVENS MADE OF NATURAL FIBERS AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS Ioan I Research Center, New Orleans, LA ABSTRACT Composite nonwovens have been prepared from bagasse and cotton-co-terephthalate) and poly(hydroxy butyrate). Some nonwoven compositions have been treated with flame retardants containing

137

Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhanced the 72-h glucan digestibility of several promising biomass feedstocks: bagasse (74.0), corn stover (92.0), poplar wood (94.0), sorghum (71.8), and switchgrass (89.0). Highly digestible lignocellulose can also be used as ruminant animal feed. Shock...

Falls, Matthew David

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

138

HAWAII NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTEwww.hnei.hawaii.edu Bioenergy Products from Fiber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pathways #12;HAWAII NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTEwww.hnei.hawaii.edu Biomass Resources in Hawaii Manure Bagasse for transportation, greater power generation efficiency, greater number of potential end uses ­ Gasification quality standards (e.g. ash chemistry) to meet requirements of pyrolysis and gasification technologies

139

Risoe Energy Conference Copenhagen, Denmark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zambia Ltd (CEEEZ) Private Bag E721, Lusaka ZAMBIA Tel/Fax: +260 - 1 - 240267 Email: yamba Cane Molasses/Juice Crop Residues (Bagasse) Sugar/Solids Raw Sugar Industrial Uses Steam & Electricity%) Biomass (0%) Other/Nuclear (1.9%) Figure: SAPP Installed Electricity Capacity for 2000 (Total Energy 45 GW

140

Overview of Renewables for Power Rangan Banerjee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Wind Solar Small Hydro Biomass Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Solar Gasifier 69 70% 423 Bagasse Cogeneration 379 60% 1992 Small Hydro 1603 50% 7021 Waste to Energy 41 70% 251 Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Biomass PV Hydro-electric Wind CO2 g/kWh 960 -1300 800-860 690-870 460-1230 9

Banerjee, Rangan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Renewable Energy in Rangan Banerjee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Renewable Energy Options Wind Solar Small Hydro Biomass Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Power 376 70% 2306 Biomass Gasifier 69 70% 423 Bagasse Cogeneration 540 60% 2838 Small Hydro 1826 50 #12;2005 data : 2006 Update Martinot #12;Source:Martinot(2006) #12;#12;#12;Small Hydro Power

Banerjee, Rangan

142

Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(MSW) such as fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), leaf litter, paddy straw, cane bagasse, cane trash for decentralized biogas plants to be operated in the vicinity. We characterized the fermen- tation potential of six of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using

Columbia University

143

Urban solid waste in southern countries: from a blurred object to common pool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, sanitary landfills are imposed, separate collection and recycling schemes are beginning to be implemented. Through our two case studies of one-million inhabitants from emerging countries ­ Coimbatore in India. We demonstrate that there exists an inextricable link between garbage landfilling and resource

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Birds That Go Wild for the City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with it massive environmental damage, in- cluding garbage and air pollution. "Noise is a big problem, too," says with Henrik Brumm are conducting field studies and experiments in acoustic laboratories to investigate how birds adapt their singing to the environment. 1 Mathias Ritschard records birdsong in noise-polluted

145

Community Voices in Sustainable Slum-Upgrading Processes: The Nairobi People Settlement Network (NPSN)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infections, lack of health facilities; (4) water and sanitation (lack of water sources, high costs of purchasing water) and (5) environment (overcrowding, lack of garbage disposal sites, poor drainage systems improved tenure; · Provision or improvement of technical services e.g., water, waste and waste water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Hurricane/Disaster Checklist Stockpile Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with water, including heavy contractor garbage bags o Purchase bottled water for drinking o Fill the (clean1 Hurricane/Disaster Checklist · Stockpile Water!! o Fill up as many containers as possible) bath tubs and sinks with fresh water · Get $cash, enough for food and flights out of Oahu, etc. · Gas

Wang, Yuqing

147

Usage Analysis with Natural Reduction Types David A. Wright  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Usage Analysis with Natural Reduction Types David A. Wright Department of Computer Science be required several times. If a usage analysis can determine how many times it will be required, certain­time garbage collection and in­place update. This paper presents a method for deducing usage information

Baker-Finch, Clem

148

Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management By Evridiki Bersi -Kathimerini  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management rules By Evridiki Bersi but that day has already come in Germany. On June 1, 2005, Germany imposed a ban on traditional garbage dumps, replacing them with one of the most advanced waste-management systems in the world. In the 1970s, Germany

Columbia University

149

FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY ARE YOU READY? 13  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY ARE YOU READY? 13 Shelter T aking shelter is often a critical in your home for sev- eral days without electricity or water services following a winter storm. We also an emergency toilet, if necessary. · Use a garbage container, pail or #12;14 ARE YOU READY? FEDERAL EMERGENCY

Tullos, Desiree

150

If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

so that we could convert our non-recycled waste to alternative energy instead of landfilling it, we-recycled waste into energy instead of landfilling it, we could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by nearly our roads. The Power of Waste GARBAGE ENERGY REDUCES 123M TONS CO2 = 23M LESS CARS PLASTICS 5.7B

151

TR-CS-03-01 Building and Testing the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this series: TR-CS-02-06 Stephen M Blackburn and Kathryn S McKinley. Fast garbage collection without a long the SHYSTER-MYCIN Hybrid Legal Expert System Thomas A. O'Callaghan tom@tom-ocallaghan.com> James Popple in this technical report is available in [21] and [22], and at tom/>. 1 #12

McCreath, Eric Charles

152

Final Report-Lux Greeners GO GREEN!! SAVE EARTH!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, even people separate plastic, it is only restricted to plastic bottles (water bottles, soft drink a regular practice in our residence that people separate the total garbage into plastic, paper, glass in every kitchen from all the floors. In some kitchens some people separate plastic from other waste

van der Torre, Leon

153

Roommate Agreement Most first year spaces at the University of Windsor accommodate two residents. In order to be successful  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

but not immaculate c) relaxed and sloppy How will we keep this suite clean (create schedule, garbage and recycling/overnight? What hours do you like to go to sleep/get up? How late is too late for noise? Behaviour and Pet Peeves pet peeves that really bother you? (ie music or lights left on) I promise to: lock the door whenever I

154

A self-powered piezotronic strain sensor based on single ZnSnO3 microbelts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate to fabricate a strain sensor and a single-nanobelt nanogenerator, the production and disposal of current designs can produce non-recyclable garbage that contains toxic heavy terephthalate (PET) substrate. Due to a spontaneous polarization that is generated along the z-axis in ZnSnO3

Wang, Zhong L.

155

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH RESIDENCE HANDBOOK 2012-2013 Welcome Home 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facilities 24 Garbage, Composting & Recycling 26 Cleaning & Maintenance 28 Residence Admissions 30 Parking 31 Policy Pet Policy Roller Blades & Skateboards Screens #12;UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH RESIDENCE OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH RESIDENCE HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12;Recycling Recycling Tips #12;UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

Boonstra, Rudy

156

Population and Climate Change:Population and Climate Change: Coupling Population Models withCoupling Population Models with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon over the next 40 years as adopting low-carbon technologies Concluded: Family planning is cost / Capita Outputs: 1. Emissions CO2, Methane, etc 2. Waste Products Garbage, Toxics, etc 3. Surface Changes are needed to: · Stabilize population and · Stabilize industrial production per person · Adopt technologies

Kalnay, Eugenia

157

Storage Systems for Non-volatile Memory Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. Benefit From Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3. Sensitivity Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 a. Impact of Migration Threshold Parameter ? . . . 20 b. Impact of Chunk Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3. Space Pre-allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4. Modifications to Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5. Garbage Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 6. File System Consistency...

Wu, Xiaojian

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

158

Office for Off Campus Living Program Housing Safety Checklist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: stable with handrail Porch: railing is over 3 ft. from ground No lead paint if children under the age, electricity, and gas must be on at all times except during actual repair Transportation Driveway, off street included? Stove & oven clean and in good repair? Turn on stove ­ do all burners work? Garbage disposal run

Mahon, Bradford Z.

159

Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector Tomas Kalibera garbage collectors must update all references to ob- jects they move. Updating is a lengthy operation references have been updated which, in a real-time collector, must be done incrementally. One solution

Kent, University of

160

Dalhousie Neighbourhood Conversation: Boundary -Part 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, faculty and neighbours Concerns over exhaust vents outside of Risley Hall Balance neighbourhood? Need for good city planning for urban density Garbage blowing through neighbourhoods Lack of privacy Mobility (pedestrian, transit) Vibrancy/energy Vitality and youth Learning and academic excellence

Brownstone, Rob

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

NEWS RELEASE LOCAL STUDENTS PRESENT TOY DESIGN AT TOYchallenge EAST NATIONAL SHOWCASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the TOYchallengeTM 2005 East Coast National Showcase. The team, led by Cliff Lissenden and Christine Masters. Bonus cards feature recycling facts and special directions. At the end of the game, the players sort their trash and bring it to the dump or recycling plant. Points are given for the amount of garbage collected

Demirel, Melik C.

162

KRT Wire | 07/19/2004 | 'Wonderbug' changes waste into power News | Business | Sports | Entertainment | Living/FYI | Classifieds | Jobs | Cars | Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lovely, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts, discovered Geobacter, a class of bacteria. 'Wonderbug' changes waste into power By ROBERT S. BOYD Knight Ridder Newspapers WASHINGTON - Geobacter, generate electricity from rust and garbage, and even run a toy car. It's a lot to expect from an invisible

Lovley, Derek

163

at the Weizmann Institute We are launching a new cardboard recycling e ort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cardboard Recycling at the Weizmann Institute We are launching a new cardboard recycling e ort and brought to the Weizmann warehouse for reuse. Damaged boxes will be compressed and recycled by the by the recycling company (Kamam). Why do it? Re-using and recycling saves garbage burial space and frees space

Shapiro, Ehud

164

Updated 9/23/2010 HOW TO RECYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Copiers · Garbage · Gas Cylinders · Glass Bottles & Jars · Grease · Halogen Bulbs · Hardbound Books · Hazardous Waste · Helium Tanks · Imaging Units for Printers/Copiers · Incandescent Bulbs · Ink Jet Printer · Newspapers & Newsprint #12;Updated 9/23/2010 · Office Supplies · Oil · Packing Peanuts · Paint · Pallets

Clark, John

165

13. Sustainability in Practice: Exploring Innovations in Domestic Solid Waste Management in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental conditions, particularly through solid waste management. Solid waste is defined as the organic waste management to reduce waste, in terms of minimising waste, maximising re-use and recycling of garbage collection and transportation; and ii. Inviting private sector to install waste recycling plants

Columbia University

166

Ports for Objects in Concurrent Logic Programs Sverker Janson Johan Montelius Seif Haridi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ports for Objects in Concurrent Logic Programs Sverker Janson Johan Montelius Seif Haridi Swedish Institute of Computer Sciencey . July 13, 1993 Abstract We introduce ports, an alternative to streams a pragmatic point of view ports provide e cient many-to- one communication, object identity, means for garbage

Janson, Sverker

167

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Computer memory management system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)] [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Newsfront 19-25 February 2007, Issue 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bagmati's degradation. As a resident of Asia's 'most polluted city', it is hideous to live amidst uncollected garbage, sewage-laden rivers, and encroachment on public space. The costs to health, civic order and tourism are incalculable. Air and water pollution... of Rs 3 billion. Others include Sahani Group, Mangatu Ram Group, Sarraf Group, NECON Air, Mittal Group, Rohit Group, Annapurna Textile, Pashupati Textile, Cross Country Hotels and Mahalakshmi Sugar mills. Birendra Kumar Kanaudia, a member of the Ruling...

Ghimire, Yubaraj

171

Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using the bathroom ? After changing a diaper or assisting a child in the bathroom ? After handling uncooked foods (meat, poultry or fish) ? After caring for a sick person ? After blowing your nose, sneezing or coughing ? After touching garbage... tissues to cover coughs and to blow your nose. Step Three: Maintaining a clean living space ? Sanitize high risk surfaces. Examples are food preparation areas, diaper changing tables and surfaces soiled with body fluid (flood, feces and vomit...

Norman, Lisa

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Recommendations for Sustaining Sustainability Initiatives in City Government  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associations GreenPrint Green Buildings/ Governance Other Partnership with Businesses Company Donation GreenPrint Incentives Offered by Companies to Users (e.g., utility companies) Solid Waste Xcel Energy Green Buildings/ Governance Discount... the state’s energy come from alternative fuels is an example where local utility companies were encouraged to cooperate with Denver’s efforts to decrease the City’s overall energy use. Solid waste programs are another area prone to government interest. At its core, garbage...

Boxumm-Debolt, Krystal; Edson, Greg; Holtzman, Karina; Jackson, Melissa; McCurdy, Nancy; Miller, David; Profaizer, Richard; Reinert, Doug; Wilburn, Sonta; Williams, Carla

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Helpful Hints for Operating Schools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

student, has resulted in significantly increased costs for schools. Before this tripling of the outside air required, most IAQ related problems observed by the author were caused by maintenance personnel completely closing outside air dampers. Owners... are home to many varieties of bacteria. Most bacteria are friendly, playing key roles in beneficial activities like waste and garbage decomposition, carbon dioxide production, digestion, fermentation, crop nutrition, and toxic waste cleanup. Disease...

McClure, J. D.; Schreppler, S.; Cliver, R. E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Spotlight, April 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oread. The board hopes to revive this tradition by working with students on annual planting and tree inventory projects. Students fro m the Enviro nmental Law Society help plant a redb ud tree. Sou rce: KU Scho ol of Law. You can help fund...: Sarah Link Left: Garbage - mostly plastic - accumulates on the Damon Slough Beach in Oakland, CA. Right: Manuel Mansylla from Plastic Pollution Coalition displays the plastic waste he collected in about an hour at the beach. Source: Sarah Link...

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

176

Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

Hively, Lee M [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

Unknown

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2002 time period.

Archie Robertson

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE(PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the January 1--March 31, 2003 time period.

Archie Robertson

2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

180

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

Archie Robertson

2003-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

Archie Robertson

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1-September 30, 2002 time period.

A. Robertson

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

A. Robertson

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Biomass Feedstocks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

186

Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Jennings Demonstration PLant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

Russ Heissner

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Health assessment for Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, Palm Beach County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD001447952. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pratt and Whitney Government Engine Business Division has been in operation as a division of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC) plant since 1958. In the past, materials disposed of in the landfill/incineration trenches at the plant included construction debris, discarded equipment, unknown solid waste from Air Force Plant Number 74, solvents and solvent sludges, asbestos, fuels, paints, pesticide and herbicide container residues, benzonitrite and solvent-contaminated soils, mercury (from bulbs and thermometers), discarded equipment from metal finishing operations, commercial and laboratory chemicals, garbage, and sewage sludge. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via chemicals in the groundwater and air (wind-blown) and possibly through ingestion of contaminated wildlife.

Not Available

1989-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

190

Municipal solid waste energy conversion study on Guam and American Samoa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Pacific Islands of Guam and Tutuila in American Samoa, conversion of municipal solid waste to useable energy forms - principally electricity but possibly steam - may hold promise for reducing economic dependence on imported petroleum. A secondary benefit may be derived from reduction of solid waste landfill requirements. At the preliminary planning stage, waste-to-energy facilities producing electricity appear technically and environmentally feasible. Economically, the projects appear marginal but could be viable under specific conditions related to capital costs, revenue from garbage collection and revenue from the sale of the energy generated. Grant funding for the projects would considerably enhance the economic viability of the proposed facilities. The projects appear sufficiently viable to proceed to the detailed planning stage. Such projects are not viable for the islands now emerging from the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Not Available

1984-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Application of holographic neural networks for flue gas emissions prediction in the Burnaby incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the development of a parametric prediction system (PPS) for various emission species at the Burnaby incinerator. The continuous emissions monitoring system at the Burnaby incinerator is shared between three boilers and therefore actual results are only available 5 minutes out of every 15 minutes. The PPS was developed to fill in data for the 10 minutes when the Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) is measuring the other boilers. It bases its prediction on the last few actual readings taken and parametrically predicts CO, SO2 and NOx. The Burnaby Incinerator is located in the commercial/industrial area of South Burnaby, British Columbia. It consists of three separate lines, each burning ten tonnes of garbage per hour and producing about three tonnes of steam for every tonne of garbage burned. The air pollution control system first cools the combustion products with water injection and then scrubs them with very fine hydrated lime. Carbon is added to the lime to enhance the scrubbing of the combustion products. The CEM monitors the levels of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and opacity. In 1996, an expert system was installed on one of boilers at the Burnaby Incinerator plant to determine if it could improve the plant=s operations and reduce overall emission. As part of the expert system, the PPS was developed. Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT), developed by AND Corporation of Toronto, Ontario, is a novel neural network technology using complex numbers in its architecture. Compared to the traditional neural networks, HNeT has some significant advantage. It is more resilient against converging on local minima; is faster training and executing; less prone to over fitting; and, in most cases, has significantly lower error. Selection of independent variabs, training set preparation, testing neural nets and other related issue will be discussed.

Zheng, L.; Dockrill, P.; Clements, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, Ontario (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. Under this contract a series of pilot plant tests are being conducted to ascertain PGM performance with a variety of fuels. The performance and economics of a PGM based plant designed for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity will also be determined. This report describes the work performed during the April-June 30, 2004 time period.

Archie Robertson

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

195

Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

Moreau, J.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with a soybean-based alternative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the best preventative measures, ruptured hoses, spills and leaks occur with use of all hydraulic equipment. Although these releases do not usually produce a RCRA regulated waste, they are often a reportable occurrence. Clean-up and subsequent administrative procedure involves additional costs, labor and work delays. Concerns over these releases, especially related to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) vehicles hauling waste on public roads prompted Fleet Services (FS) to seek an alternative to the standard petroleum based hydraulic fluid. Since 1996 SNL has participated in a pilot program with the University of Iowa (UNI) and selected vehicle manufacturers, notably John Deere, to field test hydraulic fluid produced from soybean oil in twenty of its vehicles. The vehicles included loaders, graders, sweepers, forklifts and garbage trucks. Research was conducted for several years at UNI to modify and market soybean oils for industrial uses. Soybean oil ranks first in worldwide production of vegetable oils (29%), and represents a tremendous renewable resource. Initial tests with soybean oil showed excellent lubrication and wear protection properties. Lack of oxidative stability and polymerization of the oil were concerns. These concerns were being addressed through genetic alteration, chemical modification and use of various additives, and the improved lubricant is in the field testing stage.

Rose, B.; Rivera, P.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

Lee, C.H. [Da-Yeh Univ., Chang-Hwa (Taiwan, Province of China)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

New designs of reversible sequential devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A clear protocol for synthesis of sequential reversible circuits from any particular gate library has been provided. Using that protocol, reversible circuits for SR latch, D latch, JK latch and T latch are designed from NCT gate library. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule). It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities, lower number of garbage bits, lower quantum cost and lower number of feedback loops compared to the earlier proposals. For a fair comparison, the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same after converting the earlier proposed circuits into equivalent NCT circuits. Further, we have shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an artifact and if it is allowed then every reversible circuit block can be reduced to a single gate. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have been addressed. A protocol for minimization of quantum cost of reversible circuit has also been proposed here.

Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "garbage bagasse sewerage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

On the Synthesis of Sequential Reversible Circuit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible circuits for SR flip flop, JK flip flop, D flip flop, T flip flop, Master Slave D flip flop and Master Slave JK flip flop have been provided with three different logical approaches. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule) and the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same. It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities and lower number of garbage bits compared to the earlier proposals. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an \\textcolor{black}{artifact} and if it is allowed then every circuit block (unless there is a measurement) can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that a reversible flip flop can be constructed even without a feedback. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have also been addressed.

Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2007-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

Dreicer, M.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Waste-to-energy plants face costly emissions-control upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One treatment method of municipal solid waste, incineration, has fallen in and out of public favor. In the 1970s, emerging consciousness of the threat to groundwater posed by leaking landfills made incineration an attractive option. Prompted by disrupted energy supplies and steeply rising prices, more than 100 municipalities began to generate electricity from the heat produced by burning trash. In the 1990s, the pendulum of public enthusiasm has swung away from incineration. Energy prices have declined dramatically, and safety and siting concerns complicate new projects. A recent Supreme Court decision ruled that municipal incinerator ash must be tested as hazardous waste and disposed accordingly if levels of such pollutants as cadmium and lead exceed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limits. So-called flow control regulations, which allowed municipalities to apportion garbage disposal to ensure steady supplies to incinerators, also have been struck down. EPA is tackling the issue of air emissions from waste-to-energy and non-energy-producing municipal waste combustors. Emissions guidelines for MWCs and new-source performance standards for new units, proposed Sept. 20 under Sec. 129 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, are the culmination of a stalled and litigated initiative dating back to the CAA Amendments of 1977.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Engineering/design of a co-generation waste-to-energy facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five hundred fifteen thousand tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is being generated every day in America. At present 68% of this trash is dumped into landfill operations. As the amount of garbage is increasing daily, the amount of land reserved for landfills is diminishing rapidly. With the sentiment of the public that you produce it, you keep it, the import-export of waste between the counties and states for the landfills, no longer appears to be feasible, especially when combined with expensive disposal costs. One method of reducing the quantity of waste sent to landfills is through the use of waste-to-energy facilities - the technology of resource recovery - the technology of today INCINERATION. All cogeneration projects are not alike. This paper examines several aspects of the electrical system of a particular municipal solid waste-to-energy project at Charleston, S.C. which includes plant auxiliary loads as well as a utility interconnection through a step-up transformer.

Bajaj, K.S.; Virgilio, R.J. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

208

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

None

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Waste-to-energy in the United States: Socioeconomic factors and the decision-making process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion with energy recovery, commonly called waste-to-energy (WTE), was adopted by many US communities during the 1980s to manage their growing quantities of MSW. Although less than one percent of all US MSW was burned to retrieve its heat energy in 1970, WTE grew to account for 16 percent of MSW in 1990, and many experts forecasted that WTE would be used to manage as much as half of all garbage by the turn of the century. However, the growth of WTE has been reduced in recent years by project cancellations. This study takes an in-depth look at the socioeconomic factors that have played a role in the decisions of communities that have considered WTE as a component of their solid waste management strategies. More specifically, a three-pronged approach is adopted to investigate (1) the relationships between a municipality`s decision to consider and accept/reject WTE and key socioeconomic parameters, (2) the potential impacts of recent changes in financial markets on the viability of WTE, and (3) the WTE decision-making process and the socioeconomic parameters that are most important in the municipality`s decision. The first two objectives are met by the collection and analysis of aggregate data on all US WTE initiatives during the 1982 to 1990 time frame. The latter objective is met by way of four in-depth case studies -- two directed at communities that have accepted WTE and two that have cancelled WTE projects.

Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.; Kelsay, M.P.; Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU, it will soon be possible to provide other technical information for the development of process flow diagrams (PFD’s) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID’s). This information can be used for the equipment layout and general arrangement drawings for the proposed process and eventual plant. An efficient bio-butanol pilot plant to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock from bagasse and wood chips will create significant number of green jobs for the Orangeburg, SC community that will be environmentally-friendly and generate much-needed income for farmers in the area.

Chowdhury, Kamal

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small production rates, because the labor costs are a much larger fraction of the production cost. The goal for further research and development work is to scale up the KDS technology incorporating findings from Phase I into a machine that has superior performance characteristics.

Sokhansanj, S.

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

Rocheleau, Richard E.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

GTI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys. design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

GTI

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

Shih, Chien-Ju

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

Francis Lau

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z