National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for garbage bagasse sewerage

  1. Sewerage service charges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Samuel Robert

    1946-01-01

    of Sewerage Revenues to Water Revenues in 192 Texas Cities. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 56 X. Population Equivalents of Some Industrial Wastes. . . . 71 XI. Population Equivalents of Some Industrial Wastes. . . . 72 XII. Population Equivalents of Some... be severely criticized, yet they often think it quite proper to take the waste products from the industry, transport them away, purify them, and dispose of them at the taxpayers' expense* Many cities have fixed their tax rates at the maximum permitted...

  2. Collecting Cyclic Distributed Garbage by Controlled Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskov, Barbara

    Collecting Cyclic Distributed Garbage by Controlled Migration Umesh Maheshwari Barbara Liskov M distributed across nodes. A common proposal is to migrate all objects on a garbage cycle to a single node due to unnecessary migration of objects. We present solutions to these problems: our scheme avoids

  3. Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

    2005-01-01

    The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

  4. Issues in Performance Modeling of Applications with Garbage Collection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    collector (GC) inside Sun Java Virtual Machine. Although its algorithm is reasonably well documented [9 Vodárenskou vezí 2, 182 07 Prague, Czech Republic ABSTRACT Even though garbage collectors are incorporated in many service oriented systems, service performance models typi- cally treat garbage collector overhead

  5. On Phoenix Garbage Facility [Place Debate: Revisiting the Phoenix Public Art Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connery, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Nancy Connery Years before Phoenix' new garbage facility wason the outskirts of Phoenix's industrial zone. Cascading

  6. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  7. Predicting Performance of Parallel Garbage Collectors on Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting Performance of Parallel Garbage Collectors on Shared Memory Multiprocessors Toshio ENDO Enterprise 10000 Origin 2000 1 (GC) GC GC [4] GC (SMP) (DSM) GC GC Cilk [2] [6] Sun Enterprise 10000 (SMP ) Sl 20 180(ns), 260 500(ns) 3.6.2 Enterprise 10000 Sun Enterprise 10000 ( E10000) 250 MHz Ultra

  8. Garbage Collection for Memory-Constrained Java Virtual Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelrahman, Tarek S.

    the mod- ified collector in the Sun Microsystems JDK 1.2.2 using ap- plications from the SPECjvm98 collector for Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) that al- lows applications to run using less memory. The modified of Java programs, compared to existing GC al- gorithms. The majority of garbage collectors fall

  9. How to integrate Schema Evolution into the Persistent Garbage Collection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    ) knasmueller@bmd.at Abstract. Schema evolution is a very important functionality in object­oriented database shall not require sophisticated schema­evolution capabilities in an object database management systemHow to integrate Schema Evolution into the Persistent Garbage Collection Markus Knasmüller BMD

  10. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  11. Flash Memory Garbage Collection in Hard Real-Time Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chien-An

    2012-10-19

    , B.S., National Taiwan University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Riccardo Bettati Due to advances in capacity, speed, and economics, NAND-based ash memory technology is increasingly integrated into all types of computing systems, ranging from... enterprise servers to embedded devices. However, due to its unpredictable up- date behavior and time consuming garbage collection mechanism, NAND-based ash memory is di cult to integrate into hard-real-time embedded systems. In this thesis, I propose a...

  12. Waste Management: Garbage Displacement and the Ethics of Mafia Representation in Matteo Garrone’s Gomorra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondavalli, Simona

    2011-01-01

    We are all in the waste management business, but we don’tWaste Management: Garbage Displacement and the Ethics ofhearing the phrase “waste management and organized crime,”

  13. Mostly Concurrent Garbage Collection Revisited Katherine Barabash # Yoav Ossia + Erez Petrank #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    's garbage collec­ tion task. The use of this collector is reported for the pro­ duction JVM of IBM [27], SUN collector turned out to be an excellent solution for Java's garbage collection task. The use of this collector is reported for several modern pro­ duction Java Virtual Machines and it has been investigated

  14. An on-the-y Reference Counting Garbage Collector for Java Yossi Levanoni Erez Petrank y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    An on-the- y Reference Counting Garbage Collector for Java Yossi Levanoni #3; Erez Petrank y compete with any tracing algorithm. We have implemented our algorithm on SUN's Java Virtual Machine 1 for realistic benchmarks. Thus, a clever design of eÆcient memory management and garbage collector

  15. Realtime Garbage Collection for a Multithreaded Java Microcontroller S. Fuhrmann, M. Pfeffer, J. Kreuzinger, Th. Ungerer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungerer, Theo

    collection. Java lacks explicit memory release methods and therefore a garbage collector is needed to reclaim of garbage collectors in multithreaded hardware with real­time require­ ments. Current approaches investigate­threaded Alpha processor of DEC/Compaq [9] and Sun's MAJC­5200 processor, which feature two 4­threaded

  16. A Scalable Mark-Sweep Garbage Collector on Large-Scale Shared-Memory Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Scalable Mark-Sweep Garbage Collector on Large-Scale Shared-Memory Machines Toshio ENDO Kenjiro (Ultra SPARC compare&swap R10000 load- linked, store-conditional) 4 Sun Ultra Enterprise 10000 64 Ultra- erational garbage collector for a multithreaded imple- mentation of ML. In Proceedings of ACM SIGPLAN

  17. An On-the-Fly Reference-Counting Garbage Collector YOSSI LEVANONI, Microsoft Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    An On-the-Fly Reference-Counting Garbage Collector for Java YOSSI LEVANONI, Microsoft Corporation (eventually reclaims all unreachable objects). We have implemented our algorithm on Sun Microsystems' Java for realistic programs. Thus, a clever design of eÆcient memory management and garbage collector is an important

  18. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01

    78 due to plastic's lipophilic properties. 79 "Small bits ofis these useful properties of plastics, which can make themPLASTIC, THE GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH electrical insulation properties.

  19. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, G.

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

  20. Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vechakul, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

  1. Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

    2005-02-17

    of bagasse showed two delignification phases: bulk (rapid) and residual (slow). These were modeled by two simultaneous first-order reactions. Treatments with air purging and higher temperatures (50 ? 57oC) delignified more effectively, especially during...

  2. A discussion of sanitary engineering problems in army camps in the United States in relation to water supply, sewerage, and garbage problems from the standpoint of the medical department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haskins, Charles Arthur

    1920-01-01

    ­ ments, hospitals and other stations. Their work at first covered chiefly sanitary and administrative matters of the different camps and cantonments. As the service of hospi­ tals developed their duties were extended to include hospi­ tal inspections... disposal plants of the type developed by the Construction.Division, a study of the quan­ tity of grease in camp sewage andof its value and its ef­ fect on sewage disposal plants, a study of grease removal and the efficiency of grease traps. Officers...

  3. Task-Aware Garbage Collection in a Multi-Tasking Virtual Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    Dayn`es Sun Microsystems Inc. 180 Av. de L'Europe ZIRST de Montbonnot Montbonnot St-Martin 38330, France laurent.daynes@sun.com Chandra Krintz Computer Science Department University of California, Santa investigate and evaluate, novel task-aware ex- tensions to a state-of-the-art MVM garbage collector (GC). Our

  4. COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are currently being utilized in North America as a raw material for manufacturing composite products) for laminated floor applications. #12;MATERIALS AND METHODS Board Manufacturing BPBs with a combination of two panels (6.35 mm x 1.22 m x 2.44 m in size) were manufactured from hammer milled bagasse. A combination

  5. Garbage, society, and environment in a Mexican municipio: The case of Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilburn, Andrew Michael

    2014-05-31

    José Ixtapa 342 Figure A1.3 Another look at Pico Orizaba or Citlaltépetl from the northern Tehuacán Valley near San José Ixtapa during the rainy season 342 xix Figure A1.4 Intermunicipal sanitary landfill outside Ajalpan, Puebla 343 Figure A1... Limpia de Tehuacán is the parastatal organism that the Municipio of Tehuacán charges with managing garbage collection and the operation of the sanitary landfill. Oportunidades : A Mexican federal social welfare, poverty alleviation program administered...

  6. Spitzer should focus on turning garbage into renewable energy By ALYSSAA. LAPPEN and JACK D. LAUBER Eliot Spitzer, listen up.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    disposal system and switch to waste-to-energy, eliminating transport costs and pollution. The New York City energy, New York City taxpayers will continue to export garbage, and pollution risks, at a cost of more energy. Continuing on New York City's current track, though, will generate incalculable costs. Diesel

  7. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  8. Profiles in garbage: Old newspaper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.

    1998-08-01

    Newspapers are printed on newsprint. Newsprint is an uncoated groundwood paper that is made by mechanically grinding wood pulp without first removing lignin and other components of wood pulp. This creates a different product than the chemical pulping process used to make office paper and other grades of paper. Old newspaper (ONP) is the term used for scrap newspapers. More than 64.2 million newspapers are sold every day by the 1,664 daily newspapers in North America. The amount of newspapers generated by increased by 5.2 million tons since 1960, but its market share of solid waste decreased by 27%. Newspaper recycling increased by 4.9 million tons and the recycling rate doubled during that period.

  9. Profiles in garbage: Office paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The primary markets for recycled office paper are tissue mills, printing and writing paper, and paperboard packaging. Other uses include exports and newsprint. As recently as 1990, more than half of recovered office paper was exported, primarily to paper mills in Pacific Rim countries. This decade has seen an increase in the number of mills using deinked market pulp made from office paper. North American capacity to produce deinked market pulp skyrocketed in the first half of this decade. However, oversupply in the end markets for office paper led to financial problems and shutdown for several of these new mills.

  10. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  11. LANL debuts hybrid garbage truck

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N. Shadid,1 SelectLANLLANLLANLHybrid

  12. Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority (BRSA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColorado StateWindInc Jump to:

  13. SEGMENT ORDER PRESERVING COPYING GARBAGE COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarau, Paul

    allows instant reclaiming and in fact, the MALI­ implementation [11] contains a bottom­up copying part reclaiming, but actually can improve it by moving objects to newer segments when this is allowed. MALI has, this property of MALI was never recognized, not even by its authors. Also, due to its data representation, MALI

  14. Verification of Parallel Garbage Collection by Abstract Model Checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagiya, Masami

    Hagiya (corresponding author) 1 , Koichi Takahashi 2 1 Department of Information Science, Graduate School

  15. Life in the Milky Way: A Galactic Garbage Can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettingell, James

    2015-01-01

    such an event are gamma- ray bursts, which could potentiallydensity reduces the risk of gamma-ray bursts causing mass

  16. QUANTIFYING AND IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF GARBAGE COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hertz, Matthew

    of the ALI and PLASMA research groups over the years, especially Steve Blackburn, Alistair Dundas, Yi (Eric

  17. The Return of the Rest of the Garbage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01

    flipped her over onto her hands and knees and positioned himself behind her. "No!" she cried and, giggling, tried to get away, scrambling on allfours. But he caught her ankle and pulled her back to him, belly down on the sand, then quickly covered... her with his body. "Oh, no, you don't," he said. "I haven't finished with my demonstration!" "Stop! Stop!" she cried, not wanting him to stop at all as he held her firmly with one arm and groped for her bikini bottoms with the other hand. He...

  18. Garbage In, Power Out: South Carolina BMW Plant Demonstrates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The plant BMW plant in Greer, South Carolina is home to the world's largest fleet of fuel cell forklifts. | Photo courtesy of BMW Manufacturing. The plant BMW plant in Greer,...

  19. Garbage Collection Based on a Linear Type System Atsushi Igarashi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Graduate School of Arts and Sciences University of Tokyo igarashi@graco.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp Naoki and Linear Type Systems Automatic memory management, one of the important features of modern high expressions are given type Int under the assumption that x is given type Int, written as follows: x: Int ` x

  20. Lab employees don't treat their trash like garbage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResource andfirstDeviceLab captures fiveLab Employees

  1. Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Zhihong

    2009-05-15

    in ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations. Residual calcium salts did not show significant effects on ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations. iv Lake inocula from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, proved to be feasible in ammonium bicarbonate... buffered fermentations. Under mesophilic conditions (40?C), the inoculum from the Great Salt Lake increased the total product concentration about 30%, compared to the marine inoculum. No significant fermentation performance difference, however...

  2. AFEX treatment of coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Jae-Hoon

    1993-01-01

    , and Newspaper. (August 1993) Jae-Hoon Jun, B. S. , Korea University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mark T. Holtzapple The Ammonia Freeze Explosion (AFEX) process pretreats lignocellulose to increase the reactivity toward enzymatic hydrolysis.... The lignocellulose is contacted with high-pressure liquid ammonia that pretreats the fibers and decrystallizes the cellulose. Then the pressure is rapidly reduced causing the ammonia to flash violently and disrupt the fibrous structure. The combined chemical...

  3. Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brooke Ray

    2007-01-01

    The management of sewage and sludge by the water industry insewage Berkeley Planning Journal, Volume 20, 2007 sludge (

  4. Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brooke Ray

    2007-01-01

    Robin W. ed. 1974. Waste-Water Management in the SanMaster Plan for Waste Water Management: Preliminary Summaryfirst San Francisco Waste Water Master Plan was released,

  5. Sweet-Talking the Climate? Evaluating Sugar Mill Cogeneration and Climate Change Financing in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Malini; Haya, Barbara; Kirpekar, Sujit

    2005-01-01

    large bagasse cogeneration plants.   The  prospects  of bagasse  cogeneration  and  wind  power  plants  because 

  6. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    to fund a bagasse cogeneration plant at such a companylong after the bagasse cogeneration plant was installed Theinvested in a bagasse cogeneration plant in one of its mills

  7. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01

    ris-in-land water quality and waste disposal-need to be han-domestic water quality and solid waste disposal laws in

  8. Garbage Collection and Local Variable `Qpe-Precision and Liveness in JavaTMVirtual Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Agesen and David Detlefs Sun Microsystems Laboratories 2 Elizabeth Drive Chelmsford, MA 01824, USA ole.agesen@sun.com, david.detlefs@sun.com J. Eliot B. Moss Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts- ability from a set of root references. Ambiguous roots collectors (commonly called "conservative") can

  9. Garbage on the wharf : a transfer station for the City of Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Phillip Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps because they address processes at the expense of space or have many "conditions" limiting architectural design freedom, infrastructure and particularly the infrastructure of waste, are commonly neglected in ...

  10. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Implication of Plastic Debris in Marineat 2014. Consumption of plastics by marine animals has beenC. Thompson et al. , Our Plastic Age, 364 PhIL. TRANSAc--

  11. Waste Management: Garbage Displacement and the Ethics of Mafia Representation in Matteo Garrone’s Gomorra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondavalli, Simona

    2011-01-01

    waste management. 5 Intermediaries between companies and landowners for the disposal of industrial and

  12. Autonomous Garbage Collection: Resolve Memory Leaks In Long Running Server Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was sponsored by the United States Air Force under Cooperative Agreements No. F30602-97-2-0250 and No. F30602-98-2

  13. Plastic, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and International Misfires at a Cure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harse, Grant A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Impact of Bisphenol A, ENVn.. PiwOi. (Apr.environmental-im- pact-of-bisphenol-a.aspx. 75. See infraTwo EDCs, phthalates and bisphenol A ("BPA"), are relevant

  14. Exact Roots for a Real-Time Garbage Collector Rasmus Pedersen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoeberl, Martin

    . Categories and Subject Descriptors C.3 [Special-Purpose and Application-Based Systems]: Real- time- time system. GC enables automatic dynamic memory manage- ment, which is essential to build large applications. Automatic memory management frees the programmer from complex and er- ror prone explicit memory

  15. Garbage In, Power Out: South Carolina BMW Plant Converts Landfill Gas to Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The largest fuel cell forklift fleet in the world is now being powered with hydrogen produced on-site from biomethane gas at a nearby landfill.

  16. Waste Management: Garbage Displacement and the Ethics of Mafia Representation in Matteo Garrone’s Gomorra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondavalli, Simona

    2011-01-01

    mark on the land: construction and waste disposal. Thewaste disposal as the complementary activity to construction.waste in abandoned stone quarries, just like the corresponding construction

  17. Coordinated Garbage Collection for RAID Array of Solid State Disks - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic MoleculesSpaceIX Power

  18. Garbage In, Power Out: South Carolina BMW Plant Demonstrates Landfill Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcoming eventsFleetFranklinofFind7, 2011,GTTto

  19. For more than half a century, the Ministry of Water, the Dodoma Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DUWASA) and the Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Authority (DUWASA) and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency have been monitoring groundwater abstraction, groundwater levels, and rainfall in central Tanzania at the Makutapora Wellfield (Figure 1

  20. Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China b Department of Soil and Water Science December 2013 Accepted 11 December 2013 Available online 3 January 2014 Keywords: Pyrolysis temperature precipitation was also respon- sible for Pb sorption. Pyrolysis temperature significantly affected biochar

  1. Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98100, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    .Addingligninto Solka Floc delayed enzyme production, suggesting that lignin or other mate- rials in the lignin solids/substrates currently employed commercially for limited high- value specialty markets, would significantly reduce

  2. Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Maxine Janette

    2009-05-15

    to improving product yields. The process uses lime pretreatment, which can be enhanced using new decrystallization pretreatment methods, namely hydrodynamic cavitation and shock tube pretreatment.Previous studies on biomass decrystallization showed an increase...

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to preserve the environment, paper manufacturers and consumers start to search for alternative raw materials ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT..........................................................................2 2.1 Material

  4. Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chang-Ming

    1993-01-01

    raw substrate (or 0.82 g VFA/g dry ash-free substrate or 0.94 g VFA/g dry ash-free, lignin- free substrate). This is greater than yields previously reported in the literature using lignocellulosic substrates, and hence demonstrates the superiority...

  5. A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

  6. Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

    2006-01-01

    In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

  7. Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    , pretreatment must be improved if costs are to compete with conventional products. Innovative pretreatment could, a possible trend toward greater yields was observed at lower solids concentrations, but a paired difference organic fuels that have inherent convenience, infrastructure, cost, and efficiency advantages; no other

  8. Volatile fatty acid fermentation of AFEX-treated newspaper and bagasse by rumen microorganisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blasig, Jorge Dari?o

    1991-01-01

    production vatied between 6. 6 and 8. 2 mmoles/g volatile solids (VS) digested and biogas (approximately 40% methane ranged from 0. 18 and 0. 29 L/g VS digested for organic waste materials of various origin and composition. The loading rates varied between...

  9. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, T. J.

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl?, NO[subscript 3]?, and 20 metals from 10 ...

  10. Sweet-Talking the Climate? Evaluating Sugar Mill Cogeneration and Climate Change Financing in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Malini; Haya, Barbara; Kirpekar, Sujit

    2005-01-01

    2004).   Bagasse  Cogeneration  ??  Global  Review  and ?Promotion  of  biomass  cogeneration  with  power  export WADE  2004.   Bagasse  Cogeneration  –  Global  Review  and 

  11. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    2001. Commercial scale cogeneration of bagasse energy inS. C. Bagasse based cogeneration, India marching ahead .1998. Promotion of biomass cogeneration with power export in

  12. Detailed ads & listings Apartment locator map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    -- 12-month Deposits: $300 refundable deposit Utilities Included: Water, sewer, garbage Restrictions Deposits: $300 refundable deposit Utilities Included: Water, sewer, garbage Restrictions: No pets Security Deposit after you move in.) Utilities Included: Water, sewer and garbage. Restrictions: No pets

  13. An Information Product Approach For Total Information Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Richard

    2003-02-10

    To fight terrorism successfully, the quality of data must be considered to avoid garbage-in-garbage-out. Research has shown that data quality (DQ) goes beyond ...

  14. CCCCoooommmmppppaaaarrrraaaattttiiiivvvveeee PPPPrrrrooooppppeeeerrrrttttiiiieeeessss ooooffff BBBBaaaaggggaaaasssssssseeee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /year in sugar-related products Producing 16 Million tons of bagasse as by- product #12;Harvested Sugar Cane #12;Sugar Extraction #12;Sugar Mill #12;By-Product - Bagasse #12;By-Product - Bagasse #12;About 30 about 65 percent fiber, 25 percent pith cells, and 10 percent water soluble. Bagasse fibers average 1

  15. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000181 Synthesis of Furfural from Xylose and Xylan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    for utilization of impor- tant biomass feedstocks such as bagasse, corn stover, Miscan- thus, switchgrass

  16. Artists and the New Infrastructure [Place Debate: Revisiting the Phoenix Public Art Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Nancy Connery Years before Phoenix' new garbage facility wason the outskirts of Phoenix's industrial zone. Cascading

  17. Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Open-air pits are used to burn garbage and other wastes at bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    /aluminum cans Munitions and other unexploded ordnance Petroleum and lubricant products Plastics and styrofoam across the country have filed numerous lawsuits which have been consolidated in the United States, National Guard personnel, contract employees and others serving our country in Iraq and/or Afghanistan

  18. Sandia Energy - Hoboken, New Jersey, Mayor Zimmer AnnouncesInfrastruc...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dawn Zimmer announced a partnership with North Hudson Sewerage Authority (NHSA) to build Hoboken's second wet-weather flood pump in order to alleviate Hoboken's 200-year...

  19. Sweet-Talking the Climate? Evaluating Sugar Mill Cogeneration and Climate Change Financing in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Malini; Haya, Barbara; Kirpekar, Sujit

    2005-01-01

    case  with  any  bagasse  cogeneration  project  in  India,  use  of  bagasse  as  a  renewable  energy Case Studies and their Sources of Funding  Funding Mechanism  Ministry of Non?Conventional  Energy Sources / Indian Renewable 

  20. Anaerobic fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure to carboxylic acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agbogbo, Frank Kwesi

    2007-04-25

    using ash as a potential pretreatment agent. Ash from raw poplar wood was effective in pretreating poplar wood; however, ash from bagasse fermentation residues was not useful in pretreating bagasse. Previous modeling studies indicate that a conversion...

  1. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Production by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .0 Resource Assessment of Biomass Feedstocks 1.1 Bagasse, Sw itch Grass, and Nut Shell Availability and Cost 1

  2. Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering University of Toronto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    and global, from garbage disposal, car traffic, and air pollution in our cities to water crises, energy

  3. Mothers of the City: The Phyllis Wheatley Club and Home, The Great Migration, and Communal Family in Black Chicago, 1910-1930

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimani Sr., Abraham Carter

    2012-01-01

    drainage, and collecting and disposal of garbage, and the proper inspection of the alleys, the fumigation and general sanitary

  4. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    energy projects (small hydro and bagasse co-generators) andPCF) in Guatemala for a small hydro project assumes that the

  5. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    cogeneration (bagasse and heavy fuel oil), and reciprocatingwhen it is available and heavy fuel oil for supplying powerengines burning heavy fuel oil, whereas prior to that, the

  6. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    projects. Several bagasse cogeneration and hydro projects,In addition, existing cogeneration facilities in the sugardelivered to the grid by cogeneration facilities were

  7. Evaluation of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies in Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knutson, Jason R. (Jason Richard)

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation, and 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged into the environment without any treatment. However, the construction of sewerage ...

  8. Adaptive reuse and revitalization of water heritage in Nicosia, Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Marisa (Marisa May-Lan)

    2012-01-01

    The bi-communal sewerage system developed for the divided capital of Nicosia, Cyprus has been lauded as a rare example of cooperation between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities. The story of how the project ...

  9. Swamp rats, fat cats and soggy suburbs : planners and engineers in south east Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelan, Katherine A., 1971-

    2004-01-01

    U.S. cities continue to physically expand, supported by and creating demand for water supply, road, sewerage, electricity networks. But the relationship between the professional values, education and practices of city or ...

  10. Phosphate and ammonium removal from waste water, using constructed wetland systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drizo, Aleksandra

    1998-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen in waste water from sewerage systems contribute to excessive nutrient enrichment of surface waters, presenting a threat to nature conservation, domestic and industrial water supplies, and recreation. ...

  11. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allgaier, M.

    2010-01-01

    and fungi occurring during composting and self-heatingof Temperature on Composting of Sewage-Sludge. Applied andcommunities in the garbage composting with rice hull as an

  12. Constraint Directed Improvisation in the Construction of New Works

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Giles Stuart

    2015-01-01

    ice cream! Rocky Road. [Blackout. ] Wagoner Residence. Theleaving DORRIS alone. Blackout. In the transition DORRISthrows it in the garbage. [Blackout. ] The lights come up on

  13. Development. Visions for this century: 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhurtyal, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    methods for food production and waste management, convertingtheir food to prevent spoilage and waste. Traditional foodresources, waste, garbage, all reduced Food and meal-based

  14. Area Rental Properties Rents are provided for general information only and may change without notice. Area code 931.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    , dishwasher & garbage, disposal furnished, swim pool, basketball court, playground, tennis courts East Grundy Street Tullahoma, TN 37388 2 BR Townhouses $560 ­ $400 Deposit Dishwasher, Stove

  15. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, VL; Delmas, MA; Kaiser, WJ; Locke, SL

    2015-01-01

    Plug load Refrigerator Dishwasher Other kitchen Std. Dev.Lighting Plug load Fridge Dishwasher Kitchen Average dailymicrowave, stove, dishwasher, and garbage disposal. Except

  16. Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

  17. JavaTM On Steroids: Sun's High-Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hölzle, Urs

    of research (Sun, Stanford, UCSB) #12;13HotChips IX Garbage Collector · accurate garbage collector · fastJavaTM On Steroids: Sun's High-Performance Java Implementation Urs Hölzle Lars Bak Steffen Grarup Robert Griesemer Srdjan Mitrovic Sun Microsystems 2HotChips IX History · First Java implementations

  18. Granting Java Native Interface Developers Their Wishes Martin Hirzel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Robert

    , Sun's original FFI for Java, the Native Method In- terface [52, 53] (NMI), directly exposed Java. Furthermore, it constrains garbage collectors and just- in-time compilers, since changes to the data representation may break native code. In fact, NMI required a conserva- tive garbage collector because direct

  19. Semi-Automatic Region-Based Memory Management for Real-Time Java Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salagnac, Guillaume

    , our system behaves as efficiently as a garbage collector in terms of memory consumption. Our analysis garbage collectors (GC) is further- more hindered by hardware limitations, and embedded sys- tems analysis tool, we provide an environ- ment where all memory operations run in predictable time, 1http://java.sun

  20. Automatic Object Colocation Based on Read Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    matches their access order in the program. We implemented this optimization for Sun Microsystems' Java HotSpotTM VM. The garbage collector, which moves objects during collection, assigns consecutive ad- dresses-called hot-field tables, which are then used by the garbage collector for colocation decisions. Read barriers

  1. 6/22/2001 1 Type-Based Certifying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? N The world is getting more and more net-centric (Sun "the network is the computer"; Microsoft .NET Program JIT Compiler native code Bare HW (disk,net-acc,...) Execute Core Runtime (e.g., garbage collector Runtime (e.g., garbage collector) Core API Proof- carrying codeCertifying Compiler -i( -i(... -r ... load

  2. GREEN GUIDE MAISON AM GROND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    For this task, we took the ideas from Zihomara Matar. Author of the ECO2 practice guides. Task 4 ­ Laundry: GoodGREEN GUIDE MAISON AM GROND One Earth... Once Chance Team Members: Jose Miguel Lopez Becerra ­ Green Guide Task 1 ­ Garbage Separation This task is related to explain the different types of garbage

  3. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 87518761, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/8751/2012/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Center for the Energy and the Environment, La Jolla, CA, USA 2Key Laboratory of Aerosol, SKLLQG capacities for absorbing and reflecting incident solar radiation, with a direct radia- tive forcing of +0­40 % of households burn garbage in their backyards (US EPA, 2006). In developing countries, open garbage burn- ing

  4. This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit http://www.djreprints.com.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .com/articles/does-burning-garbage-for-electricity-make-sense-1447643515 | | Garbage trucks deliver trash to a Florida waste-to-energy plant. Some European countries burn) · Solar Energy and the Tax Credit (http://www.wsj.com/articles/will-solar-energy about half of their solid waste for energy, but in the U.S. the figure is much lower. PHOTO: DANIEL

  5. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01

    under industry" while crude oil lost in refining appearsOther I I :no (Bagasse) Oil Crude & Prod. , Stock 15800 Netto buy all the crude. The Oil Embargo and subsequent price

  6. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    various tree crops, such as eucalyptus and giant koa haole.are several species of eucalyptus, the giant koa haole tree,electricity. Wood chips from eucalyptus mixed with bagasse

  7. Diethylamine and ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holthus, Robert Earl

    1993-01-01

    , residence time, reactor temperature, water loading, and calcium hydroxide loading. Reactor temperature and residence time greatly affected bagasse reactivity, whereas water loading and diethylamine loading had only a minor effect. Adding calcium hydroxide...

  8. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    developing countries, like India, adoption of efficient electricitydeveloping countries the sugar in- dustry uses bagasse and the edible oils industry uses byproduct wastes to generate steam and/or electricity (

  9. 86 communications of the acm | october 2008 | vol. 51 | no. 10 research highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Robert F.

    , digital photo- montage, and light field imaging. ACM SIGGRAPH is at the forefront of this new area. Indeed classification and segmentation algorithms do, too, as the authors argue here. Want to remove a garbage truck

  10. Sustainable Development & Land Use Committee Meeting Meeting 2009-2010 #5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to improve recycling and composting on campus. One of the things that they have asked to change is to remove the black garbage bags from the composting containers in The Grill as the composting containers look like

  11. WaveScript: A Case-Study in Applying a Distributed Stream-Processing Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Ryan

    2008-01-31

    Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel,and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScriptis a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe,garbage-collected ...

  12. Language design for distributed stream processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Ryan Rhodes, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel, and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScript is a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe, garbage-collected ...

  13. : Scalable Memory Management for Multi-Tasking Managed Runtime Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    {sunils,ckrintz}@cs.ucsb.edu 2 Sun Microsystems Inc. laurent.daynes@sun.com Abstract. Multi fragmen- tation using a novel hybrid garbage collector that combines mark-sweep with opportunistic copying

  14. Call for Papers First Workshop on MultiLanguage Infrastructure and Interoperability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Nick

    , analysis tools and garbage collectors can greatly ease the task of producing a high­quality implementation formats such as Sun's Java Virtual Machine, the DRA's ANDF or Microsoft's .NET Common Language Runtime

  15. Scalable Dynamic Memory Management Module on Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    memory multiprocessors. The focus is to achieve scalability; for this purpose, both garbage collector (GC is done on Sun Ultra Enterprise 10000 (symmetric multiprocessor) and Origin 2000 (distributed shared

  16. Object Co-location and Memory Reuse for Java Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Francis C.M.

    : Memory allocator, garbage collector, mutator, Java, object co- location, memory reuse ACM Reference of a runtime system becomes increasingly signif- icant [Sun Microsystems 2003]. Our second goal is to find

  17. Allocating memory in a lock-free manner ? Anders Gidenstam, Marina Papatrianta lou, and Philippas Tsigas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papatriantafilou, Marina

    systems (UMA Sun Enterprise 450 and ccNUMA Origin 3800) and studied its be- haviour. The results show to advanced automatic garbage collectors. In this paper we focus on conventional general purpose memory

  18. Call for Papers First Workshop on Multi-Language Infrastructure and Interoperability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Nick

    infrastructure such as code generators, analysis tools and garbage collectors can greatly ease the task languages to common executable formats such as Sun's Java Virtual Machine, the DRA's ANDF or Microsoft

  19. USENIX Association Proceedings of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :JGC ­ An Application-Specific Benchmark Suite for Evaluating JVM Garbage Collector Performance Xiaolan Zhang and Margo of a particular GC implementation. We evalu- ate our approach on Sun Microsystems's JDK1.2.2 classic JVM

  20. Allocating Memory in a Lock-Free Manner Anders Gidenstam, Marina Papatriantafilou, and Philippas Tsigas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsigas, Philippas

    of multiprocessor sys- tems (UMA Sun Enterprise 450 and ccNUMA Origin 3800) and studied its behaviour. The results allocator to advanced automatic garbage collectors. In this paper we focus on conventional general purpose

  1. FISHERIES OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Willard N. Browne ll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Pollution from dredging, municipal sewage, garbage dumping, a nd oil spills has rendered the marine e by thermal boundaries. Trawling of any sort is impractical because the fish populations are Mr. Brownell

  2. Seymour Marine Discovery Center--Facility Use Guidelines 1. The client is responsible for all clean-up including kitchen area, refrigerator, trash & recycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    scraps, ice, oil, etc. anywhere except the garbage. Liquids must be put. If there is dancing in the La Feliz room, you must rent and use a dance floor. 14

  3. Tribal Consultation and Stakeholder ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on a community scale is already being pursued, but it must be efficient so there isn't air pollution. Everyone is currently burying garbage in tundra, which is a potential...

  4. Region Type Checking for Core-Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Wei Ngan

    Region-based memory management offers several important advantages over garbage-collected heap, including real-time performance, better data locality and efficient use of limited memory. The concept of regions was first ...

  5. Header for SPIE use View-based Method for Relative Orientation in the Pipe1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolesnik, Marina

    of the sewer diameter, must keep its orientation in the entirely dark sewerage. The only a priory information known is the geometrical shape of the sewer (cylindrical, etc). This implies a strong geometrical to be used on-board of the sewer robot. The system has two components: (a) an optical camera and (b) a laser

  6. GIS BASED PLANNING OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN NEW TOWNS THE CASE OF NEW FAYOUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GIS BASED PLANNING OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN NEW TOWNS THE CASE OF NEW FAYOUM M.J.G. Brussel, Egypt trhud@intouch.com, uti@internetegypt.com, www.uti-egypt.org KEYWORDS: Infrastructure planning, site selection, GIS, sewerage systems, new towns. ABSTRACT: The planning and engineering

  7. The emerging role of the developmentalist Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    center herbal oils extraction process Bio-diesel from waste oil () September 25, 2011 3 / 26 #12;Later, Climate Change N. C. Narayanan-Water and Governance, Development Theory N. Shah-Food, Agriculture and Agro Municipal Council to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal

  8. Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Bio-diesel from waste oil () August 22, 2011 3 / 22 #12;Later work 2005: Check-dam at Gudwanwadi, 85m, Development Theory N. Shah-Food, Agriculture and Agro-Industry Milind Sohoni-Water, Rural systems Adjunct to analyse City Development Plan Ongoing work-water, sewerage, solid waste, municipal budget Skills: GIS

  9. Perceived Risk and the Siting of a Controversial Wastewater Treatment Plant in Central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kultgen, Pat Morrison

    2013-08-16

    . The objective was to better understand the role of risk perception in a water policy decision, the issuance of a permit by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to the Waco Metropolitan Regional Sewerage System permitting them to discharge 1.5 million...

  10. CV LIVIO RUGGIERO WORK EXPERIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of geological and technical reports for clearance constraint hydrogeological, construction of sewerage systems the Vomano river and the Salina river (North Abruzzo) May 06 Bachelor Degree in Geological Sciences Sapienza ­ CERI "Fiumicino" and "Ciampino" projects with soil gas research and continuous monitoring of CO2

  11. Family Shelter Planning. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Laura J.; Riney, Bobye J.

    1964-01-01

    , standard water purification methods such as (1) boil- ing, (2) chlorination, (3) purification tab- lets or (4) iodine drops. 8 SANITATION Tightly ,covered cans for garbage (wrap garbage in newspaper before putting in can). Human waste... Sanitation area located near entrance for dis- posal ease. Food and water storage area located above and below food preparatior counter for convenience to serving table. HINGED WALL TABLE Size, 27" x 48" attached to wall so that it can be raised when...

  12. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and benefits. If true, then risk of serious respiratory illness caused by working with bagasse should 3.8 Life-cycle 12 4.0 SOCIAL 13 4.1 Employment and Labour Conditions 13 4.2 Health Effects 13 4

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products. In 1984, over 65% of the paper consumed worldwide was derived from wood pulp and only 25. To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has have been used for their juice in the beverage industry. As of 2009, 5-10% of the paper produced

  15. Developing a fundamental understanding of biomass structural features responsible for enzymatic digestibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Dwyer, Jonathan Patrick

    2006-10-30

    that affect the enzymatic reactivity of biomass. The effects of acetyl content, crystallinity index (CrI), and lignin content on the digestibility of biomass (i.e., poplar wood, bagasse, corn stover, and rice straw) were explored. In this fundamental study...

  16. Refreshments will be served For more information contact Kim Coleman at kcole@wustl.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    experience of using biomass for energy purposes beginning with wood, sugarcane ethanol, and biodiesel. Much research grants: Biorefinery of sugar- cane bagasse hemicellulose and Biore- finery of microalgae-India on by products and Biorefin- ery of microalgae to obtain pigments, protein and bio converted products besides

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    ,5 and J.S. VanderGheynst1,3 1 Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA 2 Earth Sciences Division renewable feedstock that is available for conversion to biofuels that will replace a substantial amount and sugarcane bagasse), woody biomass (poplar, pine) and dedicated energy crops (Miscanthus, switch- grass), has

  18. Cleans UpUTS: Help Reduce Waste and Improve Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang Wai Hung "Ivor"

    will need to take your garbage and food waste to the central bins. Food waste (such as tea bags, coffee grounds, fruit and vegetable peels, bread, meat and rice) will go into a green-lidded bin and general/photocopier). · Cleaners will empty all central red bins on a daily basis and green bins on a twice-daily basis. It doesn

  19. Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to- Energy Industries Perinaz Bhada% of the total solid waste management budget. [28] Ironically, NGO and community groups are opposed and disposal of garbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Another serious

  20. To learn more about AT&T Network Sourcing Solutions, visit www.att.com/network-sourcing or have us contact you.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    Management lacked a standardized IT infrastructure across its hundreds of sites ­ some of which housed only people might imagine. For starters, Waste Management is helping make garbage green. As North America landfill-gas-to-energy production facilities. Using innovative processes to extract energy from the gases

  1. Talking Trash: Oral Histories of Food In/Security from the Margins of a Dumpster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Rachel Ann

    2011-12-31

    . Although the annual generation of garbage alone in the US is staggering at 388 billion tons produced, 64.1% of which is landfilled, this dissertation is particularly focused on the state of food excess and waste in the US—estimated by University...

  2. 1 of 1 DOCUMENT The New Yorker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    , it would rank fifty-first in per-capita energy use. "Anyplace that has such tall buildings and heavy in the extreme: our living space measured just seven hundred square feet, and we didn't have a dishwasher, a garbage disposal, a lawn, or a car. We did our grocery shopping on foot, and when we needed to travel

  3. LaTTe: A Java VM JustinTime Compiler with Fast and Efficient Register Allocation \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Taejeong

    LaTTe: A Java VM Just­in­Time Compiler with Fast and Efficient Register Allocation \\Lambda Byung­Sun model, a lightweight mon­ itor, a fast mark­and­sweep garbage collector, and an on­demand exception that the current LaTTe JVMs achieve performance better than or comparable to the latest SUN JIT compilers (JDK 1

  4. Automatic Feedback-Directed Object Inlining in the Java HotSpotTM Virtual Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    to be replaced by address arithmetic. We implemented this optimization for Sun Microsystems' Java HotSpotTM VM analysis. The garbage collector ensures that groups of colocated objects are not split: it copies groups This work was supported by Sun Microsystems, Inc. c ACM, 2007. This is the author's version of the work

  5. Improving Compiler-Runtime Separation with XIR Ben L. Titzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    Linz Altenbergerstr. 69 4040 Linz, Austria +43 732-2468-7137 wuerthinger@ssw.jku.at Doug Simon Sun Microsystems Laboratories 16 Network Circle Menlo Park, CA 94025 (650) 568-4871 doug.simon@sun.com Marcelo the dynamic compiler and the rest of the runtime system, including the garbage collector, object model

  6. * "Politehnica" University of Bucharest Computer Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotofana, Sorin

    measurements. Thus we can identify the features of an efficient DJP dedicated garbage collector and propose according to which objects are most likely to die very young, suggesting that a collector with two. Sun's picoJava implementation [1] for example directly executes the JVM Instruction Set and also

  7. Efficient Region-Based Memory Management for Resource-limited Real-Time Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salagnac, Guillaume

    , the implementation of efficient garbage collectors (GC) is furthermore hindered by hardware limitations, and embedded collectors can be found in [3]. An appealing solution to the dynamic memory collection issue is to allocate supported by projects DYNAMO (Min. Research, France) and MADEJA (Rh^one-Alpes, France). 1 http://java.sun

  8. Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    collectors do this by splitting objects (Jamaica [37], Sun's RTS [9]), some move objects (Aonix's PERC [30Handles Revisited: Optimising Performance and Memory Costs in a Real-Time Collector Tomas Kalibera garbage collectors must update all references to ob- jects they move. Updating is a lengthy operation

  9. Escape Analysis in the Context of Dynamic Compilation and Deoptimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    to cope with dynamic class loading and deoptimization. It was implemented for Sun Microsystems' Java Hot, Languages, Performance This work was supported by Sun Microsystems, Inc. c ACM, 2005. This is the author on the heap and deallo- cated by the garbage collector, which is invoked once in a while to examine the heap

  10. Hopscotch Hashing Maurice Herlihy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    , Providence, RI 2 Sun Microsystems, Burlington, MA 3 Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel Abstract. We and Sun uni-processor machines, a sequential version of hopscotch consistently outperforms the most allocation typically requires a thread-safe memory manager or garbage collector, adding overhead

  11. PROPERTIES OF AGEBASED AUTOMATIC MEMORY RECLAMATION ALGORITHMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    enthusiasm and encouragement. I owe a debt of gratitude to Steve Heller and his group at Sun Microsystems the garbage collector toolkit and the Smalltalk system I have used. I should also like to acknowledge Corporation (now Compaq), Sun Microsystems, and Hewlett­Packard. vi #12; ABSTRACT PROPERTIES OF AGE

  12. Room Synchronizations Guy E. Blelloch Perry Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blelloch, Guy E.

    have implemented our algorithm on a Sun UltraEnterprise 10000 multiprocessor. We present experimental. The problem arose in the con- text of a real-time parallel garbage collector 3, 5]. In such contexts, whenever the threads access the collector data structures asynchro- nously, in parallel,

  13. 05/14/14 18:31:57 Generational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the speed of the copying collector while they're still wild and prone to die young. Thus, the Sun JVM takes generational garbage collectors, which separate old from new objects. A generational collector has two or more generations, which are like the separate spaces used by copying collectors, except that the generations can

  14. 18:31:57 140 CS61B: Lecture 40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the speed of the copying collector while they're still wild and prone to die young. Thus, the Sun JVM takes generational garbage collectors, which separate old from new objects. A generational collector has two or more generations, which are like the separate spaces used by copying collectors, except that the generations can

  15. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    and Graziano. I would like to thank my mentor and collaborator Laurent Dayn`es at Sun Microsystems for hosting Intern, Sun Microsystems Labs. 2005 ­ 2005 Graduate Intern, Sun Microsystems Labs. 2002 ­ 2007 Research of Application- Specific Garbage Collectors, In Proceedings of the Internation Symposium on Mem- ory Management

  16. Removing GC Synchronisation Andy C. King

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    . In the lat­ ter case, synchronisation is necessary between mutator (ap­ plication) and garbage collector state, i.e. that the location of all references be guaranteed, thus enabling the collector to accurately costly where thou­ sands of threads are involved. Table 1 demonstrates the cost for the Sun Labs Virtual

  17. Taught Masters Module Guide LEC Taught Masters Module Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    ;MODULE NUMBER: BIOL 405 MODULE TITLE: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Number warming, ozone depletion, elevated CO2, tropospheric air pollution) and an in-depth analysis health: impacts, adaptation and mitigation Week 2 Air pollutants: plants as our garbage chutes

  18. Population and Climate Change:Population and Climate Change: Coupling Population Models withCoupling Population Models with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    carbon over the next 40 years as adopting low-carbon technologies Concluded: Family planning is cost / Capita Resource Use / Capita Emissions produced / Capita Waste produced / Capita Economic expansion / Capita Outputs: 1. Emissions CO2, Methane, etc 2. Waste Products Garbage, Toxics, etc 3. Surface Changes

  19. Household Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion of household products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    over a larger area and releases them into the air. Pouring hazardous liquids on the ground can poisonHousehold Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion should be considered hazardous. You cannot treat hazardous wastes like other kinds of garbage

  20. the Catalyst Yellow is the New Green

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    the Catalyst Yellow is the New Green: Dr. Jeff Pyun turns waste sulfur into plastics Chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Going Yellow! From Garbage to Plastics and Beyond . 8 Giving Back: New Tools Using the Graphical Madden BS Chemistry 1970 I am currently working with career and technology education (CTE) teachers

  1. To appear in Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN-2002), IEEE/IFIP, June 23-26, 2002, Washington, DC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyreson, Curtis

    -2002), IEEE/IFIP, June 23-26, 2002, Washington, DC. Mr. Fusion1 : A Programmable Data Fusion Middleware. Fusion is a device from Robert Zemeckis' 1985 movie, Back to the Future, and its sequels. It takes garbage in and produces energy for the time-travelling Delorean car of Doc Brown, the genial but mad

  2. Worming up to composting in Montreal By Yannis Themelis (EEC Jr. Associate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Worming up to composting in Montreal By Yannis Themelis (EEC Jr. Associate) Five years ago, Olivier it was time his fellow urbanites get acquainted with his intimate knowledge on garbage and composting. However, when it came to urban composting, Pelletier had one problem: How would he convince people living

  3. Decaf:MovingDeviceDriverstoa ModernLanguage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Michael

    _pages ­ free_pages_exact ­ free_swap_and_cache ­ hci_free_dev ­ kfree ­ kfree_skb ­ mempool_kfree ­ page_tableTechnicalConference Kernelvs.JavaDevelopment 4 Feature Kernel Java Memory management Manual Garbage collecTon Typesafety Javaclasslibrary Errorhandling Returnvalues ExcepTons #12;2009USENIXAnnualTechnicalConference MoTvaTon

  4. Faculty Pride Pages (login required) RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    . Please do not leave open food containers, empty pop cans, and trash lying around as this will attract pests. There are university funded cleaning personnel who vacuum and empty the trash and recycle containers once a week. All excess garbage-and ALL food-should be disposed of in the corridor waste

  5. Resource Management for Dynamic Reconfigurable Hardware Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huss, Sorin A.

    Resource Management for Dynamic Reconfigurable Hardware Structures Andreas K¨uhn, Felix Madlener|madlener|huss}@iss.tu-darmstadt.de Abstract-- Garbage-Collection for reconfigurable hardware systems is another step to make dynamic reconfigurable hardware usable. By now, dynamic reconfiguration of FPGAs is still based on common hardware design

  6. Taiwanese Trash Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-01-26

    on the street for collection. Instead, the trash truck plays music from a roof-mounted speaker as it passes through, to let people know when to bring out their garbage. It may be an efficient system, but it feels bogus to a hot kid. Poor things. They run out...

  7. Interactive Simulation of Complex Audio-Visual Scenes Kees van den Doel, Dave Knott, Dinesh K. Pai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Doel, Kees

    plates. (b) House with metal roof. (c) Gazebo. (d) Garbage can. Figure 1: Several small scenes We demonstrate a method for efficiently rendering the audio generated by graphical scenes- thesis is linear in the total number active "modes" (or sound sources). However, while this is efficient

  8. MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is to leave them in the ground and mulch them heavily with straw or leaves. They then can be dug throughout radishes can also be stored in plastic bags or other con- tainers for months. Store as close to 32u F as possible (without freezing) and in high relative humidity. Perforated plastic bags or garbage can liners

  9. Cleanly -Trashducation Urban System Half the world's population is expected to live in urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production Rued Langgaards Vej 7, DK-2300, Denmark jdhr@itu.dk Katerina Poteriaykina University of Haifa to address it. The CHI com- munity has looked into related solutions to create awareness about the energy

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Brett Lawton, Emme Lee, Maria Teresa Porter, Mark James Simon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , KELLEEN WISEMAN LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS FACULTY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Business Plan: Waste Wizardry Currently, 40% of the total waste being thrown away is organic/food waste. Instead of sending organic waste that is located directly within communities. We see the value in food waste, and want to turn `garbage

  11. ISSN 2093-3584 MAY-JUNE 2015. Vol.62

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the fish and transmitted by food chain. Considering these issues, policy direction for managing waste to Establish Life Cycle Management System for Waste Styrofoam buoys - Future Vision of Maritime and Fisheries for Waste Styrofoam buoys e discovery of Great pacific Garbage Patch has made the plastic waste entering

  12. Sustainable Development Student Intern Report 2013-2014 Sustainable Development Student Intern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volunteers directed the waste management of several events, organized and executed the BU Sustainability Week behaviour. · Improve waste management options on campus Goal: Remove all waste vesicles from inside classrooms and instead create centralized, well labeled recycling, compost, and garbage bins

  13. disaster@cornell.edu emergencypreparedness.cce.cornell.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    as an alternate method of disposing of food waste or simply dispose of food in the garbage. (Kitchen sink drop per second wastes 2,700 gallons of water per year. · Check all plumbing for leaks and have any with the operating parts. · Replace your showerhead with an ultra-low-flow version. KITCHEN · Start a compost pile

  14. Waste management Stockholm University tries to maintain its environmental certification and we would be happy if you

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    containers in the garbage-room. The remnants in your waste-paper-baskets could be food remnants, fruit peelWaste management Stockholm University tries to maintain its environmental certification and we for new products All waste-paper-baskets in your rooms, the kitchen and the copying

  15. 1526 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2004 Adaptive Stochastic Resonance in Noisy Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosko, Bart

    planes, jet skis, garbage trucks, construction equip- ment, manufacturing processes, lawn mowers, leaf and engineers have largely tried to filter noise or cancel it or mask it out of existence. The Noise Pollution' meaning seasickness. Noise is among the most pervasive pollutants today. Noise from road traffic, jet

  16. Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management By Evridiki Bersi -Kathimerini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    that Germany saves 3.7 billion euros a year thanks to recycling and the production of energy from waste. Proper landfills will be out of operation because by then Germany plans to make use of all garbage and the energyLandfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management rules By Evridiki Bersi

  17. Turning The Web Into An Effective Knowledge Repository INESC-ID / IST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo

    . This includes safely preserving static and dynamic content as well as performing stor- age managementTurning The Web Into An Effective Knowledge Repository Luis Veiga INESC-ID / IST Rua Alves Redol, 9 management, web proxy, detecting distributed cycles, distributed garbage collection. Abstract: To fulfill

  18. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  19. Computer memory management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  20. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)] [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  1. 2005 Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    INL

    2006-09-01

    The report addresses Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5 in relation to wastewater discharges to the soil. In accordance with Contract Data Requirements List F.19, this report addresses the Best Available Technology requirements per Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment", as they apply to radiological discharges to the soil for Calendar Year 2005. The report includes review of discharges for both, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and CH2M WG Idaho, LLC. The Best Available Technology selection process is applicable to wastewater discharges containing process derived radionuclides to surface waters, sanitary sewerages greater than five times the Derived Concentration Guideline (found in DOE Order 5400.5), and to the soil. Wastewater at the Idaho National Laboratory Site is not discharged to surface water (Big Lost River and Birch Creek) nor is it discharged to sanitary sewerages at activity levels greater than five times a Derived Concentration Guideline. Therefore, this report focuses on radiological discharges to the soil.

  2. Environmental Pollution and Awareness in Pokhara City: A Sociological Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parajuli, Biswo Kalyan

    2000-01-01

    , especially in urban areas. The genuine environmental problems of safe drinking water. pollution, sanitary disposal of human excrett: and dOlllcstic garbage is yet to be resolved. Much of the cnvironmental hazard in the urban area is the result of defective... area uncontrolled construction and haphazard development activities have increased (NPC/IUCN: 1995). The rate of urbanization is increasing throughout the city, with some harmful effects on facilities, such as drinking water. roads. open space, drainage...

  3. Social workers and the evaluation of residential institutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehrsson, Barry

    1975-04-01

    garbage heaps-they result from and reinforce our tendency to avoid confronting social and interpersonal probi ems.10 Our ideas about institutionalizing the psychotic, the aged, the retarded, delinquent, criminal, blind, and infirm are based on a... worker to head a commission so as to anesthetize ourselves to reality. This is the nature of our crisis mentality. Thus, our social problems are ghettoized, social conflict diminishes, disorder receded and we again attain a purified identity.12...

  4. Illinois Turning Landfill Trash into Future Cash

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Will County, Illinois officials yesterday formally broke ground on a new $7 million project (that includes $1 million of Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grant funds) to turn methane gas from the Prairie View Landfill into electricity in a partnership with Waste Management. Will County will receive revenue from the sale of the gas created from decomposing garbage which will be harnessed and converted to generate 4.8 megawatts of green electrical power and used to power up to 8,000 homes. The future revenue generated from the sale of the gas and the sale of the electricity could reach $1 million annually.

  5. Achieving Economic Results Through the Climate Wise Energy Management Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraly, K. F.

    1999-01-01

    of time. At one point in the mid-1980s, Cosmair hauled an average of twelve 40-yard compacted garbage containers every month to the local landfill, while producing only 60 million finished goods per year. Production has since more than doubled to 130..., New Jersey. Cosmair's supply chain includes Climate Wise partners Stull Closure Teclmologies and Captive 94 ESL-IE-99-05-14 Proceedings from the Twenty-first National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 Plastics...

  6. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  7. Poultry Pest Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2007-05-18

    in decaying animal and bird carcasses, dog ma- nure, broken eggs and wet garbage. Generally, a good sanitation program and rapid mortality processing will hold these fl ies in check. Other fl ies found on the poultry establish- ment include soldier fl ies... ex- cess water consumption but not to the point of reducing egg lay. 4 ? If your resources allow it, consider adopt- ing a new housing system designed to dry the manure in the pits. Sanitation The most important aid in successful fl y con- trol...

  8. Compiled 11/ 14/ 2011 by OPBA. These assumptions are for modeling purposes only. They are subject to change. Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    .1 Electricity 2% 2% 231.7 3.7 Fuel Oil 9% 8% 240.8 3.9 Natural Gas -25% 0% 253.1 5.1 Lab Gas 0% 0% 260.3 2.8 Water 3% 3% 273.2 5.0 Sewer 6% 5% 279.3 2.2 Garbage 4% 4% 281.8 0.9 *FY13 based on projections dated 6.03% 18.46% 3.33% 5.54% Higher Education Price Index (HEPI)* Utility Assumptions Fiscal Year 2002 3,679 3

  9. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  10. Biomass Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

  11. Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

  12. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  13. Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1994-10-01

    Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

  14. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessa Nisti, Marcelo; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete

    2008-08-07

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5xl0{sup 8} Bq, 5.7x10{sup 8} Bq and 2.7xl0{sup 8} Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  15. Methods of reducing liquid effluent from the OSU TRIGA MKII Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Smith, S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    In 1991, the OSU Radiation Center implemented a program to minimize the liquid effluent generated by the reactor facility. The goal of program is to become a 'zero' release facility with regards to routine liquid discharges. Only two liquid waste streams exist for the OSU reactor facility: discharges resulting from changing resin in the deminerializer and decontamination of equipment, primarily sample loading tubes. This paper describes a system which allows remote resin exchange to performed with the collection of all flush water. This water is then recycled for use as makeup for the primary water system. The service life of the resin is maximized by using a steam distillation unit as the source of makeup water to the deminerializer system instead of water coming directly from the City of Corvallis water supply. The second source of liquid waste water comes from the decontamination of the plastic loading tubes used to encapsulate samples. This process originally involved placing the tubes in a dishwasher and sending the discharge to a hold up tank. If the radionuclide concentrations in the tank were below the maximum permissible concentrations of 10CFR20 then it was released to the sanitary sewerage. This process was replaced in 1991 with a system which involved manual washing and rinsing of the tubes with the liquids being absorbed for disposal as solid waste. This paper will also describe the system which is being built to replace this process. It will use the dishwasher unit again but the liquid discharge will collected for absorption and disposal as solid waste. (author)

  16. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunker silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.

  17. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  18. Victorias energy efficiency and cogeneration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-31

    This report describes a two-phase energy project currently contemplated for joint implementation at the Victorias Milling Company, a large sugar mill and refinery on the island of Negros in the Visayas region of the Philippines. The Energy Efficiency (EE) phase is expected to reduce of eliminate VMC`s fossil fuel consumption, which will have a direct and substantial impact on carbon emissions. Phase I is an EE project which involves the installation of equipment to reduce steam and electricity demand in the factories. Phase II, will involve retrofitting and increasing the capacity of the steam and power generation systems, and selling power to the grid. By increasing efficiency and output, the cogeneration project will allow the factory to use only bagasse sugar cane fiber waste as fuel for energy needs. The cogeneration project will also eliminate VMC`s electricity purchases and supply additional power for the island, which will offset generation capacity expansion on the island and the Visayas region.

  19. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  20. Potential of biomass residue availability; The case of Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S.C.; Shrestha, R.M.; Ngamkajornvivat, S. (Energy Technology Div., Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok 10501 (TH))

    1989-01-01

    An acute shortage of fuel wood and charcoal prevails in many developing countries. A logical approach to the problem places emphasis on the development of alternative energy sources, including use of biomass residues. An assessment of the potential of biomass residues for energy and other uses calls for an estimation of their annual production. Also, because the residues are normally bulky they should be utilized near their place of origin whenever possible to avoid high transportation costs. Thus knowledge of the total national generation of residues per year does not provide enough information for planning residue utilization. This article illustrates a method of residue estimation that takes the case of Thailand as an example. It presents the annual generation of nine agricultural resides (paddy husk, paddy straw, bagasse, cotton stalk, corn cob, groundnut shell, cassava stalk and coconut husk and shell) and one forestry residue (sawdust) in different agroeconomic zones and regions of Thailand. The methodology used for the investigation of crop-to-residue ratios is outlined. The annual generation figures for the different residues along with observations about their traditional uses are presented.

  1. Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

    1981-02-01

    The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

  2. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  3. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  4. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  5. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  6. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  7. Using wastes as resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakasam, T.B.S.; Lue-Hing, C. )

    1992-09-01

    The collection, treatment, and disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater, garbage, and other wastes present considerable problems in urban and semiurban areas of developing countries. Major benefits of using integrated treatment and resource recovery systems include waste stabilization, recovering energy as biogas, producing food from algae and fish, irrigation, improved public health, and aquatic weed control and use. Information and research are needed, however, to assesss the appropriateness, benefits, and limitations of such technology on a large scale. System configuration depends on the types and quantities of wastes available for processing. There must be enough collectable waste for the system to be viable. Information should be gathered to asses whether there is a net public health benefit by implementing a waste treatment and resource recovery system. Benefits such as savings in medical expenses and increased worker productivity due to improved health may be difficult to quantify. The potential health risks created by implementing a resource recovery system should be studied. The most difficult issues to contend with are socioeconomic in nature. Often, the poor performance of a proven technology is attributed to a lack of proper understanding of its principles by the operators, lack of community interest, improper operator training, and poor management. Public education to motivate people to accept technologies that are beneficial to them is important.

  8. Combustion test for RDF and coal in the 1.3 MWth ACFB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajita, A.; Tanaka, T.; Narukawa, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nishiyama, A.; Oide, M.

    1999-07-01

    The diversification of fuel for the generating electricity becomes necessary to secure long-term energy. In this situation, coal is very important fuel resource because of great quantity of reserves under the ground and wide production area over the world. Therefore, the development of the high efficiency burning technology of coal fuel is required. The city garbage is also useful energy resource and it is socially expected the effective utilization technology with renewal energy and good for the environment. In such a background, it becomes important to know the combustion performance of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) in a efficient way with minimizing pollutant emissions. The authors conducted the coal and RDF burn tests using the 1.3 MW{sub th} ACFB (Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized-Bed) combustion test facility. The tests were conducted for both of 100% RDF combustion and combination of coal and RDF combustion with varied Ca contents and varied Cl contents in RDF. During combustion test, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and HCl emissions in flue gas were measured. The result of the tests is reported and discussed in this paper.

  9. Urban Waste Conversion Systems. IGT Project 61030 final report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowen, D.S.; Daniels, E.J.; Novil, M.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the market potential of the various systems available, or under development, for converting urban wastes into synthetic gas or liquids. The primary data base for this assessment is a survey which IGT has sent out to experts in this field. The experts were asked to evaluate various conversion systems by assigning point totals to an evaluation matrix. They were also asked to summarize their work in urban waste conversion, to list critical paths which represent obstacles to be surmounted by R and D, and to assess the effect of those obstacles on the market potential of that process. Critical areas for R and D work focus on materials handling and separation techniques, and protection of equipment from abrasive, caustic, or corrosive chemicals in the wastes. Also, prohibitive capital and operating costs in some existing systems must be cited, since investor confidence is eroded by evidence of such experiences. Downtime has been excessive with many systems, stemming from feed problems brought on by the heterogeneous nature of the feedstock. Systems using homogeneous feeds have shown considerably less problems. Perhaps a critical area from a social impact point of view is, can garbage separation be instituted for the home, factory, etc. If so, the chances for waste converison systems to overcome technical problems on the front end are greatly improved, and so is the potential for market penetration.

  10. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  11. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H; McMahon, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  12. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  13. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  14. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  15. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  16. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  17. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  18. Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Kamal

    2011-07-20

    For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU, it will soon be possible to provide other technical information for the development of process flow diagrams (PFD’s) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID’s). This information can be used for the equipment layout and general arrangement drawings for the proposed process and eventual plant. An efficient bio-butanol pilot plant to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock from bagasse and wood chips will create significant number of green jobs for the Orangeburg, SC community that will be environmentally-friendly and generate much-needed income for farmers in the area.

  19. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-1958 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non-White, not rich, females that did not trust DEP's environmental actions, and thought the state was not doing enough environmentally. There was a high correlation between general environmental concern and the ecological resource variables for the population overall, and for each ethnic group. Overall, only 39% of the subjects were very concerned about the seriousness of environmental problems in New Jersey, yet from 36% to 81% of the people were very concerned about 11 of 12 ecological issues. This indicates that people respond different to the term 'environmental problems' compared to specific 'ecological resource' issues. The greatest concern (81%) was for preserving areas around water supplies and cleaning up garbage in the parks, and the least concern was for the loss of places to hunt and fish (26%). Our results indicate that people distinguish between general environmental concern and ecological concerns, as well as distinguishing ecological services from ecological resources.

  20. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by NDEP/BFF. The generator of permissible waste is responsible for preparing documentation related to waste acceptance criteria, waste characterization, and load verification. Waste and Water (WW) personnel are responsible for operating the disposal site and reviewing documentation to determine if the waste is acceptable.

  1. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  2. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

  3. GTI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTI

    2003-07-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys. design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  4. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.