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  1. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde launches at a rate of eight per day for the duration of the deployment. The increased sonde launches for the entire period matches that of the AMIE-Manus campaign and makes possible a far more robust Variational Analysis forcing data set product for the entire campaign, and thus better capabilities for modeling studies and synergistic research using the data from both AMIE sites.

  2. Maldives-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Specific Documents3 Kenya Specific Documents4 Maldives Specific Documents5 Mali Specific Documents6 Nepal Specific Documents7 Overview "The Scaling-Up Renewable...

  3. Last resorts : a tour guide to territorial protection for the Republic of the Maldives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleeper, Buck (Thomas Buck)

    2011-01-01

    A two meter rise in sea levels projected by the end of this century threatens the sovereignty of the Maldivian nation state. While flight from the Maldives to establish a new homeland elsewhere has been proposed, the culture ...

  4. ISLANDER

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003251WKSTN00 Genomic Island Identification Software v 1.0  http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/software 

  5. ARM - News from the Gan Island Deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related Links FacilitiesNewsMedia

  6. Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yen-Ting [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan)] [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan); Palisaitis, Justinas; Persson, Per O. Å.; Olof Holtz, Per; Birch, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Chen, Li-Chyong [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuei-Hsien [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Nanishi, Yasushi [Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan)] [Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (<35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a “narrow-pass” approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

  7. Optimising GaN (1122) hetero-epitaxial templates grown on (1010) sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pristovsek, Markus; Frentrup, Martin; Han, Yisong; Humphreys, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    N (112¯2) hetero-epitaxial templates grown on (101¯0) sapphire process was monitored with a two wavelength Laytec EpiTT reflectometer. Two different approaches have been used for the initial GaN buffer. One is a nucleation of GaN islands which were... annealed and overgrown. This approach is described in [2]. The other approach is AlN nucle- ation, which is performed at 5 kPa reactor pressure with a total flow of 21.7 litres/minute. First the re- actor is heated to 1060?C under hydrogen flow and 150 Pa...

  8. K.K. Gan 1 Summary of Irradiation Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    K.K. Gan 1 Summary of Irradiation Activity September 22, 2010 K.K. Gan The Ohio State University with 300 MeV pions in August VCSEL/PIN Irradiation #12;K.K. Gan TWEPP2010 3 array VCSEL driver Chips Irradiation #12;K.K. Gan TWEPP2010 4 Infinicor SX+: participating institution: SMU

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARM Data DiscoveryIV

  10. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  11. K.K. Gan Transmission Bandwidth 1 Results on Bandwidth Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    K.K. Gan Transmission Bandwidth 1 Results on Bandwidth Measurement April 16, 2008 K.K, Gan The Ohio State University #12;K.K. Gan Transmission Bandwidth 2 Outline Transmission on micro-cables Transmission on TRT micro-cables Transmission on TRT HV micro-coaxs Summary #12;K.K. Gan Transmission

  12. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  13. Ascension Island

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Air Force Space Command - Ascension Island Personnel from the Power Systems Engineering Department, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and other partners,...

  14. symposium summary: Island biogeography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triantis, Kostas A.

    2011-01-01

    aspects of the island systems that were not  considered  in variation across island systems.   However,  island  area system  under  study  is  highly  pre? dictable  from  the  pre?extinction  composition  of  communities,  with  island 

  15. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  16. US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot Project Jump to: navigation, search Logo: US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot...

  17. Ferromagnetism in undoped One-dimensional GaN Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeganathan, K. E-mail: jagan@physics.bdu.ac.in; Purushothaman, V.; Debnath, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-05-15

    We report an intrinsic ferromagnetism in vertical aligned GaN nanowires (NW) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy without any external catalyst. The magnetization saturates at ?0.75 × emu/gm with the applied field of 3000 Oe for the NWs grown under the low-Gallium flux of 2.4 × 10{sup ?8} mbar. Despite a drop in saturation magnetization, narrow hysteresis loop remains intact regardless of Gallium flux. Magnetization in vertical standing GaN NWs is consistent with the spectral analysis of low-temperature photoluminescence pertaining to Ga-vacancies associated structural defects at the nanoscale.

  18. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D'Evelyn, MP

    2014-10-01

    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Properties of H, O and C in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted into GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.

  20. Luminescence properties of defects in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshchikov, Michael A.; Morkoc, Hadis [Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its allied binaries InN and AIN as well as their ternary compounds have gained an unprecedented attention due to their wide-ranging applications encompassing green, blue, violet, and ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors (in photon ranges inaccessible by other semiconductors) and high-power amplifiers. However, even the best of the three binaries, GaN, contains many structural and point defects caused to a large extent by lattice and stacking mismatch with substrates. These defects notably affect the electrical and optical properties of the host material and can seriously degrade the performance and reliability of devices made based on these nitride semiconductors. Even though GaN broke the long-standing paradigm that high density of dislocations precludes acceptable device performance, point defects have taken the center stage as they exacerbate efforts to increase the efficiency of emitters, increase laser operation lifetime, and lead to anomalies in electronic devices. The point defects include native isolated defects (vacancies, interstitial, and antisites), intentional or unintentional impurities, as well as complexes involving different combinations of the isolated defects. Further improvements in device performance and longevity hinge on an in-depth understanding of point defects and their reduction. In this review a comprehensive and critical analysis of point defects in GaN, particularly their manifestation in luminescence, is presented. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of native point defects, the signatures of intentionally and unintentionally introduced impurities are addressed. The review discusses in detail the characteristics and the origin of the major luminescence bands including the ultraviolet, blue, green, yellow, and red bands in undoped GaN. The effects of important group-II impurities, such as Zn and Mg on the photoluminescence of GaN, are treated in detail. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, the effects of other impurities, such as C, Si, H, O, Be, Mn, Cd, etc., on the luminescence properties of GaN are also reviewed. Further, atypical luminescence lines which are tentatively attributed to the surface and structural defects are discussed. The effect of surfaces and surface preparation, particularly wet and dry etching, exposure to UV light in vacuum or controlled gas ambient, annealing, and ion implantation on the characteristics of the defect-related emissions is described.

  1. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-04-18

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  2. Island Energy Snapshots

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    These energy snapshots highlight the energy landscape of islands in the Caribbean and the surrounding area.

  3. Pacific Island Energy Snapshots

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These energy snapshots highlight the energy landscape of islands in the Pacific and the surrounding area.

  4. Caribbean Island Energy Snapshots

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    These energy snapshots highlight the energy landscape of islands in the Caribbean and the surrounding area.

  5. Metal contacts on ZnSe and GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duxstad, K J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the development of blue light emitting materials and devices. The focus has been on GaN and ZnSe, direct band gap semiconductors with bands gaps of 3.4 and 2.6 eV, respectively. To have efficient, reliable devices it is necessary to have thermally and electrically stable Ohmic contacts. This requires knowledge of the metal-semiconductor reaction behavior. To date few studies have investigated this behavior. Much information has accumulated over the years on the behavior of metals on Si and GaAs. This thesis provides new knowledge for the more ionic wide band gap semiconductors. The initial reaction temperatures, first phases formed, and phase stability of Pt, Pd, and Ni on both semiconductors were investigated. The reactions of these metals on ZnSe and GaN are discussed in detail and correlated with predicted behavior. In addition, comparisons are made between these highly ionic semiconductors and Si and GaAs. The trends observed here should also be applicable to other II-VI and III-Nitride semiconductor systems, while the information on phase formation and stability should be useful in the development of contacts for ZnSe and GaN devices.

  6. K.K. Gan 1 Building New Opto-boards by 2012?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    K.K. Gan 1 Building New Opto-boards by 2012? August 3, 2010 K.K. Gan The Ohio State University #12 to fabricate prototype BeO boards by vendor 2 weeks for passive components mounting 2 weeks to fabricate/test new boards 8 weeks to fabricate production BeO boards by vendor 2 weeks for passive components

  7. Inversion of wurtzite GaN(0001) by exposure to V. Ramachandran and R. M. Feenstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    in the growth rate of GaN on different crystallographic planes [8], pointing to a surfactant effect of Mg on Ga in these films and the carrier concentration was therefore very low [1,2]; dopant activa- tion can be achieved of Mg at GaN growth temperatures is an issue and dopant in- corporation may be rather inefficient [5

  8. Island Energy Snapshots

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These energy snapshots highlight the energy landscape of islands in the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the surrounding area.

  9. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  11. Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Hin Hark Gan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Approach Hin Hark Gan and Tamar an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin

  12. Millimeter-wave GaN high electron mobility transistors and their integration with silicon electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Jinwook W. (Jinwook Will)

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the great progress in performance achieved during the last few years, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) still have several important issues to be solved for millimeter-wave (30 ~ 300 GHz) applications. ...

  13. Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8O3)/ carbons with NH3 produced the large-quantity porous GaN nanowires on the iron (Fe)/nickel (Ni

  14. Light extraction in individual GaN nanowires on Si for LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiang

    GaN-based nanowires hold great promise for solid state lighting applications because of their waveguiding properties and the ability to grow nonpolar GaN nanowire-based heterostructures, which could lead to increased light ...

  15. Catalina Island Soapstone Manufacture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wlodarski, Robert J

    1979-01-01

    Catalina Island Soapstone Manufacture ROBERT J. WLODARSKIsome artifact of native manufacture. That stone is a "hard"Peabody Museum. Method and Manufacture of Several Articles

  16. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?°C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?°C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?°C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  17. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  18. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 ?m, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and vertical devices were explored, with the conclusion that lateral devices are superior for fundamental thermal reasons, as well as for the demonstration of future generations of monolithic power circuits. As part of the materials and device investigations breakdown mechanisms in GaN-on-Si structures were fully characterized and effective electric field engineering was recognized as critical for achieving even higher voltage operation. Improved device contact technology was demonstrated, including the first gold-free metallizations (to enable processing in CMOS foundries) while maintaining low specific contact resistance needed for high-power operation and 5-order-of magnitude improvement in device leakage currents (essential for high power operation). In addition, initial GaN-on-Si epitaxial growth was performed on 8”/200 mm Si starting substrates.

  19. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs) are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was determined using optical reflectance and the nucleation density was determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Nomarski microscopy. Dislocation density was measured using X-ray diffraction and AFM after coating the surface with silicon nitride to delineate all dislocation types. The program milestone of producing GaN films with dislocation densities of 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} was met by silicon nitride treatment of annealed sapphire followed by the multiple deposition of a low density of GaN nuclei followed by high temperature GaN growth. Details of this growth process and the underlying science are presented in this final report along with problems encountered in this research and recommendations for future work.

  20. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of surface electronic structure in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of surface electronic structure in GaN grown by hydride vapor Engineering and Program in Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla microscopy is used to image surface potential variations in GaN 0001 grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

  1. Thermal stability of amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys A. X. Levander,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Thermal stability of amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys A. X. Levander,1,2 Z. Liliental-Weber,1 R. Broesler-MBE method.10 Theoretical work has pre- dicted that amorphous GaN could be a technologically useful technological potential, es- pecially in solar energy conversion devices. In this letter we investigate

  2. First-principles studies of beryllium doping of GaN Chris G. Van de Walle* and Sukit Limpijumnong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First-principles studies of beryllium doping of GaN Chris G. Van de Walle* and Sukit Limpijumnong Received 12 October 2000; published 8 June 2001 The structural and electronic properties of beryllium acceptors, and between hydrogen and substitutional beryllium. The results for wurtzite GaN are compared

  3. Thermoelectric effects in wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1-xN alloys and Alexander A. Balandin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric effects in wurtzite GaN and AlxGa1-xN alloys Weili Liua and Alexander A. Balandin have investigated theoretically the thermoelectric effects in wurtzite GaN crystals and AlxGa1-xN-based alloys may have some potential as thermoelectric materials at high temperature. It was found

  4. Island Tools and Trainings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Islands can use the tools below to gather data for decision makers and run scenarios on potential energy investments. Tailored trainings provide in-person, onsite guidance and best practices for implementing clean energy solutions.

  5. Island Wide Management Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    9 1986 Island Wide Management Corporation 3000 Marcus Avenue Lake Success, New York 11042 Dear Sir or Madam: I am sending you this letter and the enclosed information as you have...

  6. Maldives-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5Transport Projects |NIES Low-CarbonMalcolmNREL

  7. Maldives: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards

  8. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Finster. 2000. “The Urban Heat Island, Photochemical Smog,2001. “EPA/NASA Urban Heat Island Pilot Project,” GlobalSystem Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

  9. book review: Everything changes – especially on islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2012-01-01

    forth, affecting different island systems at varying rates.clever choice of islands as model systems for their theoryof insular systems around the globe, they select nine island

  10. Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for plasmonic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Sachet, Edward; Bobea, Milena; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Nenstiel, Christian; Hoffmann, Axel [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut f?r Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09

    Controllable Ge doping in GaN is demonstrated for carrier concentrations of up to 2.4?×?10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}. Low temperature luminescence spectra from the highly doped samples reveal band gap renormalization and band filling (Burstein-Moss shift) in addition to a sharp transition. Infrared ellipsometry spectra demonstrate the existence of electron plasma with an energy around 3500?cm{sup ?1} and a surface plasma with an energy around 2000?cm{sup ?1}. These findings open possibilities for the application of highly doped GaN for plasmonic devices.

  11. A new golden era in island biogeography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Palacios, Jose Maria; Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Insular woodiness on the Canary Islands: a remarkable caseevery five days in the Canary Islands (Martín Esquivel et

  12. PSEG Long Island- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although PSEG Long Island’s net metering policy is not governed by the State’s net metering law, the provisions are similar to the State law. Net metering is available for residential, non-reside...

  13. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  14. Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation Zhe Gan Ricardo Henao David Carlson Lawrence Carin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carin, Lawrence

    Learning Deep Sigmoid Belief Networks with Data Augmentation Zhe Gan Ricardo Henao David Carlson Abstract Deep directed generative models are devel- oped. The multi-layered model is designed by stacking available datasets: MNIST, Caltech 101 Silhouettes and OCR letters. 1 Introduction The Deep Belief Network

  15. FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, Wee Teck

    FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF MODULAR FORMS ON G2 WEE TECK GAN, BENEDICT GROSS AND GORDAN SAVIN Abstract. We develop a theory of Fourier coefficients for modular forms on the split ex- ceptional group G2 on the group SL2(Z) is the wealth of information carried by the Fourier coefficients an(f), for n 0

  16. Atomic-scale studies on the growth of palladium and titanium on GaN(0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castell, Martin

    Atomic-scale studies on the growth of palladium and titanium on GaN(0001) C. No¨renberg a,b,*, M nitride; Palladium; Titanium; Alloys; Epitaxy; Metal­semiconductor interfaces; Nanostructures; Scanning;Here, we have focused on atomic-scale studies of the ini- tial growth stages of palladium and titanium

  17. Importance of strain for green emitters based on (In, Ga)N films of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    , adding more In to lower the energy gap of the active layer for obtaining green-light emissionImportance of strain for green emitters based on (In, Ga)N films of non-polar orientation Sandip for obtaining green-light emitting diodes (LED) and lasers in the wavelength range between 520 and 550 nm

  18. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  19. Lattice Protein Folding With Two and Four-Body Statistical Hin Hark Gan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Lattice Protein Folding With Two and Four-Body Statistical Potentials Hin Hark Gan,1 Alexander/sequence compatibility of proteins,5,6 homology modeling,7 and protein folding simulations.8 ­10 Currently, most structures. Multibody potentials may help improve our understanding of the cooperativity of protein folding

  20. High-Efficiency X-Band MMIC GaN Power Amplifiers Operating as Rectifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    High-Efficiency X-Band MMIC GaN Power Amplifiers Operating as Rectifiers Michael Litchfield, Scott two 10 x 100j.Lm power combined devices. The MMICs exhibit 67% and 56% power added efficiency at VDD a RF-to-DC efficiency of 64%. The output powers of the two MMIC PAs are around 3.2W. In rectifier mode

  1. Design and Experimental Characterization of an Erbium Doped GaN Waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qian

    2012-05-31

    ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to develop an optical amplifier based on Erbium doped GaN waveguides, which can be used in the next-generation of planar integrated optic circuits. This thesis started from the basic concepts of fiber optic...

  2. Integrated Circuit Implementation for a GaN HFETs Driver Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    @engr.sc.edu Abstract- The paper presents the design of an integrated circuit (IC) for a 10MHz low power-loss driver exploit the advantages of GaN devices, such as superior switching speed and operation in high-power the authors focus on the design of the IC and present preliminary results and considerations. The driver

  3. Room temperature hydrogen detection using Pd-coated GaN nanowires Wantae Lim,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ural, Ant

    Room temperature hydrogen detection using Pd-coated GaN nanowires Wantae Lim,1 J. S. Wright,1 B. P vapor deposition were employed as gas sensors for detection of hydrogen at concentrations from 200­1500 ppm in N2 at 300 K. Palladium coating of the wires improved the sensitivity by a factor of up to 11

  4. Geomagnetic observatory GAN Jakub Velimsky K. Chandra Shakar Rao Lars W. Pedersen Ahmed Muslim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    ´imsk´y et al. (ETH,UK,DTU,NGRI,GMO) Geomagnetic observatory GAN 27.4.2011/KG MFF UK 1 / 16 #12;Participating, Univ. Stuttgart) John Riddick (BGS, retired) Vel´imsk´y et al. (ETH,UK,DTU,NGRI,GMO) Geomagnetic Measurements and Observatory Practice, 1996) Vel´imsk´y et al. (ETH,UK,DTU,NGRI,GMO) Geomagnetic observatory

  5. Excitation cross section of erbium-doped GaN waveguides under 980?nm optical pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing; Xie, R.; Feng, I.-W.; Sun, Z. Y.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-08-04

    Excitation cross section of erbium-doped GaN waveguides is measured to be approximately 2.2×10?21cm2 at 980?nm pumping wavelength. This cross section value is found relatively insensitive to the crystalline quality of ...

  6. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop values are in line with the program’s milestones. They demonstrate that bulk non-polar GaN substrates represent a disruptive technology for LED performance. Application of this technology to real-world products is feasible, provided that the cost of GaN substrates is compatible with the market’s requirement.

  7. GREEN HOMES LONG ISLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    energy bill, reduce your carbon footprint... at little or no cost to you. #12;A Message From Supervisor energy-efficient and reduce our community's carbon footprint. Why do we call it Long Island Green Homes to yourevery day. By making basic improvements to yourevery day home, you can reduce your carbon footprint

  8. Assateague Island is Changing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    and longshore currents closing inlets over time, future breaches and new inlets are inevitable as sea level to shape and move Assateague Island. Former US Coast Guard Station Toms Cove Chincoteague Inlet Atlantic To reduce the National Seashore's carbon footprint and demonstrate the use of alternative energy, solar

  9. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and defect selective etching analysis of threading dislocations in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sintonen, Sakari, E-mail: sakari.sintonen@aalto.fi; Suihkonen, Sami; Jussila, Henri; Tuomi, Turkka O.; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Rudzi?ski, Mariusz [Epitaxy Department, Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Knetzger, Michael; Meissner, Elke [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Danilewsky, Andreas [Kristallographie Institut für Geo- und Umweltnaturwissenschaften, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    The crystal quality of bulk GaN crystals is continuously improving due to advances in GaN growth techniques. Defect characterization of the GaN substrates by conventional methods is impeded by the very low dislocation density and a large scale defect analysis method is needed. White beam synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT) is a rapid and non-destructive technique for dislocation analysis on a large scale. In this study, the defect structure of an ammonothermal c-plane GaN substrate was recorded using SR-XRT and the image contrast caused by the dislocation induced microstrain was simulated. The simulations and experimental observations agree excellently and the SR-XRT image contrasts of mixed and screw dislocations were determined. Apart from a few exceptions, defect selective etching measurements were shown to correspond one to one with the SR-XRT results.

  10. Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Highly Mismatched Crystalline and Amorphous GaN 1-x As xrange of 0.17crystalline outside this region.is long enough to form crystalline lattices with uniform

  11. Band alignment between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} formed by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2014-07-14

    The band alignment between Ga-face GaN and atomic-layer-deposited ZrO{sub 2} was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of Ga 3d and Zr 3d core-level positions on the take-off angles indicated upward band bending at GaN surface and potential gradient in ZrO{sub 2} layer. Based on angle-resolved XPS measurements combined with numerical calculations, valence band discontinuity ?E{sub V} of 1?±?0.2?eV and conduction band discontinuity ?E{sub C} of 1.2?±?0.2?eV at ZrO{sub 2}/GaN interface were determined by taking GaN surface band bending and potential gradient in ZrO{sub 2} layer into account.

  12. Influence of growth temperature and temperature ramps on deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, A. M.; Kelchner, K.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Speck, J. S.

    2013-12-02

    The dependence of deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on bulk m-plane GaN substrates as a function of growth temperature (T{sub g}) and T{sub g} ramping method was investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy. Understanding the influence of T{sub g} on GaN deep level incorporation is important for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) because GaN quantum barrier (QB) layers are grown much colder than thin film GaN to accommodate InGaN QW growth. Deep level spectra of low T{sub g} (800?°C) GaN films grown under QB conditions were compared to deep level spectra of high T{sub g} (1150?°C) GaN. Reducing T{sub g}, increased the defect density significantly (>50×) through introduction of emergent deep level defects at 2.09?eV and 2.9?eV below the conduction band minimum. However, optimizing growth conditions during the temperature ramp when transitioning from high to low T{sub g} substantially reduced the density of these emergent deep levels by approximately 40%. The results suggest that it is important to consider the potential for non-radiative recombination in QBs of LED or LD active regions, and tailoring the transition from high T{sub g} GaN growth to active layer growth can mitigate such non-radiative channels.

  13. Photoluminescence study of the 1.047 eV emission in GaN K. Pressela)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    GaN/ AlGaN blue green light emitting diode, which has a much higher quantum efficiency than the SiC blue light emitting diode, became possible.2 Presently the wide bandgap semi- conductor GaN is intensively. Especially the 1.19 eV is very intense. Thus one can think of developing a light emitting diode in the near

  14. Low gap amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys grown on glass substrate K. M. Yu,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1 for the amorphous GaN1-xAsx films suggests that relatively thin films-rich GaN1-xAsx Refs. 6­8 and dilute Te-rich ZnOxTe1-x.9 Recently, we overcame the miscibility gap of GaAs fit to the solar spectrum offering the opportunity to design high efficiency multijunction solar cells

  15. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, E. A.; Shelton, T. C.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D.; Mita, S.

    2012-08-27

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface by stabilizing the {l_brace}111{r_brace} rocksalt facet. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100 Multiplication-Sign reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. These data verify numerous predictions regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of rocksalt crystals.

  16. Influence of oxygen in architecting large scale nonpolar GaN nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patsha, Avinash; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, S

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of surface architecture of semiconducting nanowires with a control in surface polarity is one of the important objectives for nanowire based electronic and optoelectronic devices for commercialization. We report the growth of exceptionally high structural and optical quality nonpolar GaN nanowires with controlled and uniform surface morphology and size distribution, for large scale production. The role of O contamination (~1-10^5 ppm) in the surface architecture of these nanowires is investigated with the possible mechanism involved. Nonpolar GaN nanowires grown in O rich condition show the inhomogeneous surface morphologies and sizes (50 - 150 nm) while nanowires are having precise sizes of 40(5) nm and uniform surface morphology, for the samples grown in O reduced condition. Relative O contents are estimated using electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. Size-selective growth of uniform nanowires is also demonstrated, in the O reduced condition, using different catalyst sizes. Photoluminescen...

  17. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  18. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

  19. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  20. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  1. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  2. WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

  3. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Prairie Island

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prairie Island" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  4. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Chandan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Chander, D. Sathish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India) [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Ramkumar, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Dhamodaran, S., E-mail: kdams2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs-Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs-Thomson effect for the palladium catalyst.

  5. K.K. Gan B Layer Workshop 1 Opto-Link Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    -Link Working Group/common projects #12;K.K. Gan B Layer Workshop 3 Need New Opto-Link for B Layer? opto current pixel opto-link architecture to take advantage of R&D effort and production experience #12;K: 14 x 1015 1-MeV neq/cm2 2.7 x 1015 p/cm2 or 71 Mrad for 24 GeV protons above estimates include 50

  6. GAnGS: Gather, Authenticate 'n Group Securely Chia-Hsin Owen Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    in a scalable, secure, and easy to use fashion. In this paper, we propose GAnGS, a protocol for the se- cure Factors This research was supported in part by the iCAST project under grant NSC96-3114-P-001-002-Y from or any of its agencies. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work

  7. Optimization of ion-atomic beam source for deposition of GaN ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mach, Jind?ich, E-mail: mach@fme.vutbr.cz; Kolíbal, Miroslav; Zlámal, Jakub; Voborny, Stanislav; Bartošík, Miroslav; Šikola, Tomáš [Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Šamo?il, Tomáš [Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    We describe the optimization and application of an ion-atomic beam source for ion-beam-assisted deposition of ultrathin films in ultrahigh vacuum. The device combines an effusion cell and electron-impact ion beam source to produce ultra-low energy (20–200 eV) ion beams and thermal atomic beams simultaneously. The source was equipped with a focusing system of electrostatic electrodes increasing the maximum nitrogen ion current density in the beam of a diameter of ?15 mm by one order of magnitude (j ? 1000 nA/cm{sup 2}). Hence, a successful growth of GaN ultrathin films on Si(111) 7 × 7 substrate surfaces at reasonable times and temperatures significantly lower (RT, 300?°C) than in conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technologies (?1000?°C) was achieved. The chemical composition of these films was characterized in situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and morphology ex situ using Scanning Electron Microscopy. It has been shown that the morphology of GaN layers strongly depends on the relative Ga-N bond concentration in the layers.

  8. Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

  9. Bainbridge Island Data Dashboard | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The data dashboard for Bainbridge Island, a partner in the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. Bainbridge Island Data Dashboard More Documents &...

  10. Issues in Scalable Island Multicast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shueng-Han Gary

    Systems The Scalable Island Multicast protocol integrates Internet Protocol multicast and overlay deliveryDeployment Issues in Scalable Island Multicast for Peer-to-Peer Streaming Xing Jin Oracle USA Ho an important Inter- net application. In a P2P-streaming system, co- operative peers organize into an overlay

  11. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?°C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?°C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?°C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?°C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?°C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  13. Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of free and donor-bound exciton in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of free and donor-bound exciton in GaN grown by hydride and Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215 R in unintentionally doped GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Low temperature (4 K), time-integrated PL spectra

  14. Observation of standing waves at steps on the GaN,,0001... pseudo-,,11... surface by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at room temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Lian

    Observation of standing waves at steps on the GaN,,0001... pseudo-,,1Ã1... surface by scanning August 2006; published online 25 September 2006 Standing waves formed at steps of the GaN 0001 pseudo- 1, reflected elec- tron waves emerge to interfere with incoming waves to pro- duce standing waves, thus

  15. Selective area growth and characterization of GaN nanocolumns, with and without an InGaN insertion, on semi-polar (11–22) GaN templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Albert, S.; Barbagini, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zuñiga-Perez, J.; Mierry, P. de [CRHEA-CNRS, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CRHEA-CNRS, 06560 Valbonne (France); Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09

    The aim of this work is the selective area growth (SAG) of GaN nanocolumns, with and without an InGaN insertion, by molecular beam epitaxyon semi-polar (11–22) GaN templates. The high density of stacking faults present in the template is strongly reduced after SAG. A dominant sharp photoluminescence emission at 3.473 eV points to high quality strain-free material. When embedding an InGaN insertion into the ordered GaN nanostructures, very homogeneous optical properties are observed, with two emissions originating from different regions of each nanostructure, most likely related to different In contents on different crystallographic planes.

  16. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    into helical magnetic islands. Such islands de- grade plasma confinement because heat and particles are ableTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R Phys. Plasmas 12, 122308 (2005); 10.1063/1.2141928 Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry

  17. EIS-0006: Wind Turbine Generator System, Block Island, Rhode Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of installing and operating a large experimental wind turbine, designated the MOD-OA, which is proposed to be installed on a knoll in Rhode Island's New Meadow Hill Swamp, integrated with the adjacent Block Island Power Company power plant and operated to supply electricity to the existing utility network.

  18. Electroreflectance study of the effect of {gamma} radiation on the optical properties of epitaxial GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, A. E.; Klyui, N. I. Konakova, R. V.; Lukyanov, A. N.; Danilchenko, B. A.; Sveshnikov, J. N.; Klyui, A. N.

    2012-03-15

    Experimental data on the electroreflectance spectra of {gamma}-irradiated epitaxial GaN films on sapphire are reported. The irradiation doses are 10{sup 5}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} rad. The theoretical electroreflectance spectra calculated on the basis of a model of three types of transitions are in agreement with experimental data with reasonable accuracy. The energies and broadenings of the transitions derived in the context of the model give grounds to infer that, in the GaN films, there are internal stresses dependent on the {gamma}-irradiation dose.

  19. The impact of nanoperforation on persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching effects in suspended GaN nanomembranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volciuc, Olesea, E-mail: olesea.volciuc@gmail.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen 28334 (Germany) [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen 28334 (Germany); National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau 2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Braniste, Tudor [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau 2004 (Moldova, Republic of)] [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau 2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Tiginyanu, Ion, E-mail: tiginyanu@asm.md [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau 2004 (Moldova, Republic of) [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau 2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau 2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Ebeling, Jakob; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Hommel, Detlef; Gutowski, Jürgen [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen 28334 (Germany)] [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen 28334 (Germany); Ursaki, Veaceslav [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau 2028 (Moldova, Republic of)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau 2028 (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-12-09

    We report on fabrication of suspended ?15?nm thick GaN membranes nanoperforated in an ordered fashion using direct writing of negative charges by focused ion beam and subsequent photoelectrochemical etching of GaN epilayers. Both continuous and nanoperforated membranes exhibit persistent photoconductivity (PPC), which can be optically quenched under excitation by 546?nm radiation. Optical quenching of PPC occurs also under relatively intense intrinsic excitation of nanoperforated membranes by 355?nm radiation at T?

  20. US Department of Energy (DOE)/Gosatomnadzor (GAN) of Russia project at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranov, I.A.; Konoplev, K.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Hauser, G.C. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a summary of work accomplished within the scope of the DOE-Gosatomnadzor (GAN) Agreement to reduce vulnerability to theft of direct-use nuclear materials in Russia. The DOE-GAN agreement concerns the Russian Academy of Science B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), located 45 kilometers from St. Petersburg. The PNPI operates facilities to research basic nuclear physics. Current world conditions require particular attention to the issue of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) of nuclear materials. The long-term plan to increase security at the facility is outlined, including training, physical protection upgrades, and material control and accountability. 4 figs.

  1. High temperature electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN: Nanosecond spin lifetimes far above room-temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buß, J. H.; Schaefer, A.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J. [Arbeitsgruppe Spektroskopie der kondensierten Materie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Schupp, T.; As, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    The electron spin dynamics in n-doped bulk cubic GaN is investigated for very high temperatures from 293?K up to 500?K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. We find extraordinarily long spin lifetimes exceeding 1?ns at 500?K. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time is in qualitative agreement with predictions of Dyakonov-Perel theory, while the absolute experimental times are an order of magnitude shorter than predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of phase mixtures of hexagonal and cubic GaN as well as the impact of localized carriers.

  2. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamand, S.M., E-mail: soran.mamand@univsul.net [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimanyah, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Muhammad, A.J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  3. No Company Is An Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, A.

    1989-01-01

    No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

  4. The macroecology of island floras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigelt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ecology, 58, 445-449. Cabral, J.S. , Weigelt, P. , Kissling,among their islands (?) (Cabral et al. 2014). My colleagues?-diversity of vascular plants (Cabral et al. 2014). In the

  5. Evaluation of GaN substrates grown in supercritical basic ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Makoto; Yamada, Hisashi; Iso, Kenji; Sato, Hitoshi; Hirasawa, Hirohiko; Kamber, Derrick S.; Hashimoto, Tadao; Baars, Steven P. den; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2009-02-02

    GaN crystals grown by the basic ammonothermal method were investigated for their use as substrates for device regrowth. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the substrates contained multiple grains while secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) revealed a high concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium. Despite these drawbacks, the emission from the light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on both the c-plane and m-plane epitaxial wafers was demonstrated. The SIMS depth profiles showed that the diffusion of the alkali metal from the substrate into the epitaxial film was small, especially in the m-direction.

  6. p-type GaN grown by phase shift epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, M.; Steckl, A. J., E-mail: a.steckl@uc.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Systems, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0030 (United States); Roberts, J. [Nitronex Corporation, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States)] [Nitronex Corporation, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States); Kong, W.; Brown, A. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Phase shift epitaxy (PSE) is a periodic growth scheme, which desynchronizes host material growth process from dopant incorporation, allowing independent optimization. p-type doping of GaN with Mg by PSE is accomplished with molecular beam epitaxy by periodic shutter action (in order to iterate between Ga- and N-rich surface conditions) and by adjusting time delays between dopant and Ga shutters. Optimum PSE growth was obtained by turning on the Mg flux in the N-rich condition. This suppresses Mg self-compensation at high Mg concentration and produces fairly high hole concentrations (2.4?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3})

  7. Lattice location of implanted $^{147}$Nd and $^{147*}$Pm in GaN using emission channeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vries, B; Vantomme, A; Correia, J G

    2003-01-01

    The lattice location of $^{147}$Nd and $^{147^{*}}$Pm in thin-film, single-crystalline hexagonal GaN was studied by means of the emission channeling technique. The angular emission yields of $\\beta^{-}$-particles and conversion electrons emitted by the radioactive isotopes $^{147}$Nd and $^{147^{*}}$Pm were measured using a position-sensitive detector following 60 keV room temperature implantation at a dose of 1 $\\times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and annealing at 900°C. The emission patterns around the [0001], [1102], [1101], and [2113] crystal axes give direct evidence that the majority (70%) of Nd and Pm atoms occupy substitutional Ga sites.

  8. Sustaining Sherman Island: A Water Management and Agricultural Diversification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    system for Sherman Island and any Delta system must considera Saltwater Barrier System at Sherman Island. ” May 8. Deltagrown on Sherman Island with this system: artichokes,

  9. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Elisibeth A.; Shelton, T C; Mita, S; Gaddy, Brian E.; Irving, D L; Christen, Hans M; Sitar, Z; Biegalski, Michael D; Maria, Jon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface due to stabilizing the {111} rocksalt facet. MBE growth of MgO in water terminates after several monolayers, and is attributed to saturation of surface active sites needed to facilitate the Mg oxidation reaction. MgO films prepared by PLD grow continuously, this occurs due to the presence of excited oxidizing species in the laser plasma eliminate the need for catalytic surface sites. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly two order of magnitude reduction in leakage current density for the smoother surfactant-assisted samples. Collectively, these data verify numerous predictions and calculations regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of MgO crystals.

  10. Stimulated Emission from As-grown GaN Hexagons by Selective Area Growth Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stimulated Emission from As-grown GaN Hexagons by Selective Area Growth Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Engineering and the Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's St., Boston, MA 02215-2421, USA R hydride vapor phase epitaxy. We found the threshold for bulk stimulated emission to be 3.4 MW cm2

  11. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

  12. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals (Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals U.S. Virgin Islands Signs Solar Deal Worth 65 Million Like many islands around the world, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) is...

  13. REAP Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by Renewable Energy Alaska Project, this three-day conference will show attendees how to learn, network, and share information on wind systems in island and islanded grid environments through expert panel discussions, stakeholder dialogue, and training.

  14. REAP Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by Renewable Energy Alaska Project, this three-day conference will show attendees how to learn, network, and share information on wind systems in island and islanded grid environments...

  15. Market Update: New England Islanded Grids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Join the Islanded Grid Resource Center (IGRC) for our upcoming webinar highlighting the islanded grid communities along the New England coast that are exploring their options for reducing high...

  16. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

  17. Tellurium n-type doping of highly mismatched amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, S. V.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Martin, R. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we report our study on n-type Te doping of amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have used a low temperature PbTe source as a source of tellurium. Reproducible and uniform tellurium incorporation in amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been successfully achieved with a maximum Te concentration of 9×10²? cm?³. Tellurium incorporation resulted in n-doping of GaN1-xAsx layers with Hall carrier concentrations up to 3×10¹? cm?³ and mobilities of ~1 cm²/V s. The optimal growth temperature window for efficient Te doping of the amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been determined.

  18. Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wait, D. Alexander

    Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography the subsidized island biogeography (SIB) hypothesis, which predicts that spatial subsidies may cause insular. Methods To evaluate the SIB hypothesis, we first identified subsidized and unsubsidized islands based

  19. A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  1. Islands and Our Renewable Energy Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Gevorgian, V.; Kelley, K.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    Only US Laboratory Dedicated Solely to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. High Contribution Renewables in Islanded Power Systems.

  2. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42) ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1961 Marine Biological. McKeman, Director ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1961--Fisheries No. 421 Washington, D. C. April 1962 #12;Rock Island Dam, Columbia River, Washington ii #12;CONTENTS

  3. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

  4. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1960 . SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1960 by Paul D. Zimmer and Clifton C. Davidson United States Fish This annual report of fishway operations at Rock Island Dam in 1960 is dedicated to the memory of co

  5. Annual Fish Passage Report -Rock Island Dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By Paul D. Zimmer L. McKeman, Director Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965;#12;Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By PAUL D. ZIMMER, Fishery

  6. Marine Bird Ecology & Conservation: The Farallon Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    11/19/2014 1 Marine Bird Ecology & Conservation: The Farallon Islands Example Some Historical;11/19/2014 2 Charadriformes: gulls, terns Anseriformes: marine ducks, geese and swans Other birds Location of island Distant photo of island #12;11/19/2014 3 Western Gull The gull colony on the marine terrace

  7. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. II. Islands interacting with resistive walls or resonant magnetic perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travelTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. II. Islands interacting with resistive walls-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity Phys. Plasmas 12

  8. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick and Franois L. Waelbroeck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travelTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick.1063/1.4863498 Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity Phys

  9. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  10. Highly c-axis oriented GaN films grown on free-standing diamond substrates for high-power devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, J.M., E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qin, F.W.; Wang, J.; Pan, L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, J.M. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Y.; Bai, Y.Z. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Du, G.T. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} GaN films are deposited on diamond substrates by ECR-PEMOCVD. {yields} Influence of deposition temperature on the properties of samples is investigated. {yields} Properties of GaN films are dependent on the deposition temperature. -- Abstract: GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are deposited on free-standing thick diamond films by low temperature electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PEMOCVD). The TMGa and N{sub 2} are applied as precursors of Ga and N, respectively. The quality of as-grown GaN films are systematically investigated as a function of deposition temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Hall Effect measurement (HL), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the dense and uniformed GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are successfully achieved on free-standing diamond substrates under optimized deposition temperature of 400 {sup o}C, and the room temperature PL spectra of the optimized GaN film show a intense ultraviolet near band edge emission and a weak yellow luminescence. The obtained GaN/diamond structure has great potential for the development of high-power semiconductor devices due to its excellent heat dissipation nature.

  11. Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Junseok; Guo Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-01-10

    Optically pumped lasing at room temperature in a silicon based monolithic single GaN nanowire with a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is demonstrated. Catalyst-free nanowires with low density ({approx}10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}) are grown on Si by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the nanowires are of wurtzite structure and they have no observable defects. A single nanowire laser fabricated on Si is characterized by a lasing transition at {lambda}=371.3 nm with a linewidth of 0.55 nm. The threshold is observed at a pump power density of {approx}120 kW/cm{sup 2} and the spontaneous emission factor {beta} is estimated to be 0.08.

  12. Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Park, Pil Sung; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-12-05

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of GaN interband tunnel junction showing forward tunneling characteristics. We have achieved very high forward tunneling currents (153 mA/cm{sup 2} at 10 mV, and 17.7 A/cm{sup 2} peak current) in polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunction diodes grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We also report the observation of repeatable negative differential resistance in interband III-Nitride tunnel junctions, with peak-valley current ratio of 4 at room temperature. The forward current density achieved in this work meets the typical current drive requirements of a multi-junction solar cell.

  13. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  14. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  15. Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-13

    Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

  16. X-Band MMIC GaN Power Amplifiers Designed for High-Efficiency Supply-Modulated Transmitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    MMICs that utilize 0.15 µm GaN on SiC process technology are presented. Under continuous wave operating. Process Technology and Model The MMICs were fabricated in a 0.15 µm gate length process with an Al are Imax=1.15 A/mm, gm,max=380 mS/mm, and 3.5 V pinch-off at Vds=10 V. Device breakdown voltage exceeds 50

  17. update: The (often ignored) role of vicariance in evolutionary diversification on oceanic islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parent, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    simplicity  of  island systems, the study of their specific  to  island  systems,  the  evolu? tionary history of  islands  and  island? like  systems  for  studying 

  18. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  19. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  20. Cruise the CANARY ISLAND CELEBRATION DAY BY DAY ITINERARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Cruise the CANARY ISLAND CELEBRATION DAY BY DAY ITINERARY: Day 1 ~ Depart for Rome, Italy Day 10 ~ Arrecife, Canary Islands Day 11 ~ Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands Day 12 ~ Madeira and Casablanca, Morocco; Arrecife and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands; and Funchal, Madeira Island

  1. A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345 Marseille (France); France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, LIA 336 CNRS, Marseille (France); Poyé, A. [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Yagi, M. [Plasma Theory and Simulation Gr., JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan); Garbet, X. [IRFM, CEA, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  3. Maldives-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5Transport Projects |NIES

  4. Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Geok Ng, Serene Lay; Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties related to the formation/annihilation of interfacial GaO{sub x} layer of ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN is studied. ZrO{sub 2} films were annealed in N{sub 2} atmospheres in temperature range of 300?°C to 700?°C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio decreases in the samples annealed at temperatures lower than 500?°C, which could be attributed to the thinning of GaO{sub x} layer associated with low surface defect states due to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on GaN. However, further increase in annealing temperature results in deterioration of interface quality, which is evidenced by increase in Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio and the reduction of Ga-N binding energy.

  5. Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Materials Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Najaf (Iraq); Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-20

    In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

  6. San Miguel Island, Channel Islands National Park, California | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectData Dashboard RutlandSTEAB's PrioritiesFuelof Energy Miguel Island,

  7. ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2002 ­ February 28, 2003 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distributions

  8. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  9. WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

  10. Lessons Learned in Islands | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Learn how Barbados successfully overcame market barriers to widespread implementation of solar water heaters. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar...

  11. Island Tools and Trainings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    potential energy investments. Tailored trainings provide in-person, onsite guidance and best practices for implementing clean energy solutions. Tools Island Energy Scenario Tool...

  12. Coastal mesoscale changes on Matagorda Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lariscy, Kevin William

    2001-01-01

    and the dune systems. The data indicates that Matagorda Island is currently experiencing a net aggradational phase, as part of a geomorphic system undergoing dynamic equilibrium....

  13. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Three Mile Island

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Three Mile Island" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  14. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  15. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  16. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  17. Low resistance ohmic contacts on wide band-gap GaN M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Y. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen, and H. MorkoG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    -beam evaporation onto the GaN substrate, and then thermally annealed in a temperature range from 500 to 900 "C as high temperature/high power electrical devices, there still remains much more work to be done on GaN epilayers, Foresi et aL6 used Al and Au contacts with 575 "C anneal cycle. However, the specific

  18. Modeling of electronic transport in GaN n-i-p junctions Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, Facults Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Modeling of electronic transport in GaN n-i-p junctions A. Mayera) Laboratoire de Physique du) We propose a model and an algorithm for computing the transport properties of GaN n-i-p devices as cold cathodes2,3 or thermoelectric coolers.4­8 For applications as electronic emitters, the idea

  19. Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer of the barrier island are analyzed, along with the short-term post-storm recovery of secondary dunes. Results

  20. Rhode Island to Build First Offshore Wind Farm

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Block Island, a small town with only 1,000 full-time, residents, is the site for a big project, when it will become home to Rhode Island’s first offshore wind farm.

  1. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2006-01-01

    the urban heat island and justify countermeasures. Thus, theand southern Europe. The heat island (and air pollution)that reduce the heat island and cool a city make sense

  2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Texas Rookery Islands project would restore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horizon Oil Spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Texas Rookery Islands Galveston Bay and East of the rookery islands would take into consideration methods to protect the islands from land loss associated

  3. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View Alanurban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island.The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one

  4. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  5. The dynamics of genetic and morphological variation on volcanic islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorpe, Roger Stephen

    : volcanism; phylogeography; geographical variation; natural selection; Canary islands; Tarentola 1 and Canary islands). It has been argued that population extinctions, recolonizations and associ- ated a role in shaping geographical variation. The islands of the Canary Archipelago provide an excellent

  6. Contradiction and grammar : the case of weak islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrusán, Márta

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about weak islands. Weak islands are contexts that are transparent to some but not all operator-variable dependencies. For this reason, they are also sometimes called selective islands. Some paradigmatic ...

  7. Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2014-09-08

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E{sub C}–0.24?eV), D3 (E{sub C}–0.60?eV), D4 (E{sub C}–0.69?eV), D5 (E{sub C}–0.96?eV), D7 (E{sub C}–1.19?eV), and D8, were observed. After 2?MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1?×?10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E{sub C}–0.12?eV), D5I (E{sub C}–0.89?eV), and D6 (E{sub C}–1.14?eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  8. Performance enhancement of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors by insertion of ultrathin interfacial HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, Burak; Okyay, Ali Kemal E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-03-15

    The authors demonstrate improved device performance of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) by ultrathin HfO{sub 2} (UT-HfO{sub 2}) layer on GaN. The UT-HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer is grown by atomic layer deposition. The dark current of the PDs with UT-HfO{sub 2} is significantly reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to those without HfO{sub 2} insertion. The photoresponsivity at 360?nm is as high as 1.42 A/W biased at 5 V. An excellent improvement in the performance of the devices is ascribed to allowed electron injection through UT-HfO{sub 2} on GaN interface under UV illumination, resulting in the photocurrent gain with fast response time.

  9. news: Bern Convention group of experts on European island biological diversity: an international network to preserve island biodiversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2009-01-01

    by the Government of Canary Islands at Tenerife (1-3 Octoberthe Gov- ernments of Canary Islands, Azores and Madeira inAzores, Madeira and Canary Islands (Macaronesia), Balearic

  10. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands...

  11. YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    and success of the green industry on Long Island. Thanks to Fred Soviero, this year's Leader's Forum, country sausage, seasoned potatoes, coffee, tea, and assorted fruit juices. Following breakfast, the two, and announcements to New York's green industry. Thanks to the Friends of Long Island Horticulture and the NSLGA

  12. Long Island Solar Farm Project Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    . Project Developer/Owner/Operator: Long Island Solar Farm, LLC (BP Solar & MetLife) Purchaser of Power: Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) purchases 100 percent of the LISF project output Destination to the annual usage of ~ 4,500 homes LISF Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Term with LIPA: 20 years Estimated

  13. ames Kroes University of Rhode Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    and Transportation Systems for Sustainable Communities. What can we learn and how can it be applied in Rhode Island of completed page authorized (art. 5/94) Researching Design and Transportation Systems for Sustainable Island, Dept. of Landscape Architecture, address, Rodman Hall Rm 201, Kingston, RI 02881 (401) 874

  14. Clean Waters of Rhode Island Primary Investigators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Clean Waters of Rhode Island Primary Investigators Harold Knickle Donald Gray #12;Final Report Clean Waters of Rhode Island By Harold Knickle and Donald Gray Department of Chemical Engineering professionals in the clean water field as well as to educate graduate and undergraduate student in the scope

  15. Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K. M.; Novikov, S. V.; Broesler, R.; Demchenko, I. N.; Denlinger, J. D.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Luckert, F.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2009-08-29

    Alloying is a commonly accepted method to tailor properties of semiconductor materials for specific applications. Only a limited number of semiconductor alloys can be easily synthesized in the full composition range. Such alloys are, in general, formed of component elements that are well matched in terms of ionicity, atom size, and electronegativity. In contrast there is a broad class of potential semiconductor alloys formed of component materials with distinctly different properties. In most instances these mismatched alloys are immiscible under standard growth conditions. Here we report on the properties of GaN1-xAsx, a highly mismatched, immiscible alloy system that was successfully synthesized in the whole composition range using a nonequilibrium low temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. The alloys are amorphous in the composition range of 0.17GaN to ~;;0.8 eV at x~;;0.85. The reduction in the band gap can be attributed primarily to the downward movement of the conduction band for alloys with x>0.2, and to the upward movement of the valence band for alloys with x<0.2. The unique features of the band structure offer an opportunity of using GaN1-xAsx alloys for various types of solar power conversion devices.

  16. The Galapagos Islands: a Laboratory for the Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geist, Dennis

    - ...) Kauai Oahu Mauai Hawaii Easter Island Azores (Terceira, Pico) Canaries (Teneri e) Cabo Verde (Fogo

  17. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas. In the U. S. Virgin Islands rain water harvesting and seawater desalination are the principal

  18. Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J. Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J. Jahns Current crowding in mesa-structure GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on insulating and a saturation of the optical output power at high injection currents. It is shown that the optical power

  19. Formation of manganese -doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN Meng Shi, Abhijit Chinchore, Kangkang Wang, Andrada-Oana Mandru, Yinghao Liu et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications The importance of spintronics in general was emphati- cally described by Wolf et al.,1 while the possibility to fabri- cate room-temperature spintronic devices based on GaN was proposed by Dietl et al.2 The idea

  20. Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    -resolution transmission electron microscopy W. Qian, G. S. Rohrer, and M. Skowronski Department of Materials Science. K. Gaskill Laboratory for Advanced Material Synthesis, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC of organometallic vapor phase epitaxy grown -GaN films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

  1. High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Sten Heikman, Alessandro Chini,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Stephen I.

    GaN/GaN HEMT technology. In order to obtain high linearity, a pre-linearization gate diode is added. Introduction. Our previously described single-ended Class B power amplifier design using GaN HEMT technology is biased at exactly the pinch off point (Class B configuration) [1]. In order to further improve

  2. Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yi-Leng

    Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP YANG YANG AND YI-LENG CHEN Department of Meteorology, SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii island-scale circulations over the island of Hawaii during the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP, 11 July

  3. Solar School Program in Reunion Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, M.; Adelard, L.

    2004-01-01

    Because of its particular geographic situation and relatively high altitude (3069 meters), Reunion Island is composed of a very large amount of micro-climates which have a direct impact on buildings' comfort, energy ...

  4. Community Redevelopment Case Study: Jekyll Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—features photos from a case study about Jekyll Island's community redevelopment project in Georgia.

  5. US Virgin Islands renewable energy future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldfield, Brian (Brian K.)

    2013-01-01

    The US Virgin Islands must face drastic changes to its electrical system. There are two problems with electricity production in the USVI-it's dirty and it's expensive. Nearly one hundred percent of the electricity in these ...

  6. Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office Biofuels Feedstocks Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Desktop Study October 2012 Photographs, from left ........................................................................... 11 Options for liquid biofuel feedstock transport ...........................................................................

  7. PSEG Long Island- Renewable Electricity Goal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a municipal utility, the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) is not obligated to comply with the New York Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). The LIPA Board of Trustees has nevertheless decided...

  8. Metromorphosis : evolution on the urban island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezina, Kenrick (Kenrick Freitas)

    2011-01-01

    Cities are very much alive. Like islands, they provide a natural testing ground for evolution. With more than half of the world's population living in urban areas now, the influence cities have on the planet's life is ...

  9. Energy Audits on Prince Edward Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, N. G.; Gillis, D.

    1980-01-01

    High energy costs and uncertain supplies force industrial operators to seek out energy waste to keep costs down. The Enersave for Industry and Commerce program assists Prince Edward Island industries through an energy audit and grant program. A...

  10. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: aAkbari. Energy Impacts of Heat Island Reduction StrategiesSavings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in

  11. Ice flow sensitivity to geothermal heat flux of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larour, E; Morlighem, M; Seroussi, H; Schiermeier, J; Rignot, E; Rignot, E

    2012-01-01

    to geothermal heat flux of Pine Island Glacier, Antarcticato geothermal heat flux of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica,Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica: (a) geothermal heat

  12. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inNational Laboratory -- Heat Island Group Technical Note.Savings Calculations for Heat-Island Reduction Strategies

  13. Historical Biogeography of the Midriff Islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilder, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    predictive, suggesting an island system with ancient humanextinctions seen in island systems around the world. ChapterThese results document an island system with ancient human

  14. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inAkbari. Energy Savings for Heat Island Reduction StrategiesEnergy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: a

  15. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies,”Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced low-cost SiC and GaN wide...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

  18. AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Robin W.

    of the islands of Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai. #12;Baird et al. 2002 2 Baird et al. (2001) estimated that only, Maui/Lanai, and Hawaii, in April and May 2002, and compared photographic identities with dolphins individuals identified off the islands of Oahu (29) and Hawaii (11), none had been previously documented

  19. INVASIVE RODENTS ON ISLANDS Avoiding surprise effects on Surprise Island: alien species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    INVASIVE RODENTS ON ISLANDS Avoiding surprise effects on Surprise Island: alien species control Abstract Eradications of invasive alien species have generally benefited biodiversity. However, without following the sudden removal of an invasive alien that was exerting an ecological force on those species

  20. Novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate containing 6-fold coordinated gallium atoms with unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Amghouz, Zakariae [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García-Granda, Santiago, E-mail: sgg@uniovi.es [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, formulated as Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure, including hydrogen positions, was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, a=9.4886(3) Å, b=6.0374(2) Å, c=10.2874(3) Å, and ?=104.226(3)°, space group Pc) and the bulk was characterized by chemical (Ga–P–C–H–N) and thermal analysis (TG–MS and DSC), including activation energy data of its thermo-oxidative degradation, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SAED/NBD, and STEM BF-EDX). The crystal structure is built up of infinite zig-zag chains running along the c-axis, formed by vertex-shared (PO{sub 4}) and (GaO{sub 2}N{sub 4}) polyhedra. The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds coming from two nonequivalent ethylenediamine molecules and exhibits strong blue emission at 430 nm (?{sub ex}=350 nm) in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of a new ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, were obtained and the structural features presented. This structure is one of the scarce examples of GaPO with Ga–N bonds reported. - Highlights: • A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate was hydrothermally synthesized. • The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds. • Void-volume analysis shows cages and channels with sizes ideally suited to accommodate small molecules. • The new compound exhibits strong blue emission.

  1. spe438-20 page 1 Garrison, N.J., Busby, C.J., Gans, P.B., Putirka, K., and Wagner, D.L., 2008, A mantle plume beneath California? The mid-Miocene Lovejoy flood basalt, northern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busby, Cathy

    spe438-20 page 1 1 Garrison, N.J., Busby, C.J., Gans, P.B., Putirka, K., and Wagner, D.L., 2008-Miocene Lovejoy flood basalt, northern California Noah J. Garrison Cathy J. Busby Phillip B. Gans Department basalt. #12;2 Garrison et al. spe438-20 page 2 INTRODUCTION Mid-Miocene volcanism in the northern Sierra

  2. Sculpting the shape of semiconductor heteroepitaxial islands: fromdots to rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.T.; Walko, D.A.; Arms, D.A.; Tinberg, D.S.; Evans,P.G.; Cao, Y.; Liddle, J.A.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Dubon, O.D.

    2006-06-20

    In the Ge on Si model heteroepitaxial system, metal patterns on the silicon surface provide unprecedented control over the morphology of highly ordered Ge islands. Island shape including nanorods and truncated pyramids is set by the metal species and substrate orientation. Analysis of island faceting elucidates the prominent role of the metal in promoting growth of preferred facet orientations while investigations of island composition and structure reveal the importance of Si-Ge intermixing in island evolution. These effects reflect a remarkable combination of metal-mediated growth phenomena that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems.

  3. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey E.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  4. Polarity characterization by anomalous x-ray dispersion of ZnO films and GaN lateral polar structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, Christopher T.; Sachet, Edward; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Rajan, Joseph; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-28

    We demonstrate the use of anomalous x-ray scattering of constituent cations at their absorption edge, in a conventional Bragg-Brentano diffractometer, to measure absolutely and quantitatively the polar orientation and polarity fraction of unipolar and mixed polar wurtzitic crystals. In one set of experiments, the gradual transition between c+ and c? polarity of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire as a function of MgO buffer layer thickness is monitored quantitatively, while in a second experiment, we map the polarity of a lateral polar homojunction in GaN. The dispersion measurements are compared with piezoforce microscopy images, and we demonstrate how x-ray dispersion and scanning probe methods can provide complementary information that can discriminate between polarity fractions at a material surface and polarity fractions averaged over the film bulk.

  5. Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Guo Wei; Banerjee, Animesh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2010-03-29

    Acceptor doping of GaN with Mg during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, under N-rich conditions and a relatively high growth temperature of 740 deg. C, was investigated. The p-doping level steadily increases with increasing Mg flux. The highest doping level achieved, determined from Hall measurements, is 2.1x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The corresponding doping efficiency and hole mobility are approx4.9% and 3.7 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements confirm good crystalline and optical quality of the Mg-doped layers. An InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diode (lambda{sub peak}=529 nm) with p-GaN contact layers grown under N-rich condition exhibits a low series resistance of 9.8 OMEGA.

  6. TAKE AND AVERfI.GE VALUE OF PRIBILOF ISLANDS FUR SEP~ SKINS, 1956-1960 Year Male Female Total

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breeding grounds of the northern fur seals: Robben Island (Kaihyoto or Tyuleniy Island) off Sakhalin

  7. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division Pelagic Fisheries Ecosystems and Oceanography Division Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries and Oceanography Division Pelagic Fisheries Research Program Motivation · Juvenile & subadult bigeye aggregates

  8. Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division Pelagic Fisheries Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, NOAA #12;Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division Pelagic Fisheries Research Program Materials

  9. Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference March 4, 2015 8:00AM AKST to March 6, 2015 5:00PM AKST Alaska Pacific University 4101 University Drive...

  10. Global isotopic signatures of oceanic island basalts / by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oschmann, Lynn A

    1991-01-01

    Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic analyses of 477 samples representing 30 islands or island groups, 3 seamounts or seamount chains, 2 oceanic ridges and 1 oceanic plateau [for a total of 36 geographic features] are compiled to form ...

  11. BPA Improves hundreds of acres of habitat on Sauvie Island

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Sauvie Island 10202015 12:00 AM Tweet Page Content Crews install a 53-foot-long pedestrian bridge over a slough at the Sauvie Island Wildlife Area. The bridge replaces an old...

  12. Prince Edward Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prince Edward Island: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Prince Edward Island, Canada Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 6113358 Coordinates 46.333333, -63.5...

  13. Foster-Glocester Regional School District (Rhode Island) - Financing Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-12-01

    This document is an EnergySmart Schools Financing Profile of Foster-Glocester Regional School District in Rhode Island

  14. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penn, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house

  15. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to effective ecological balances in island systems. These focus area activities were in addition to its usual

  16. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  17. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  18. Structural properties of free-standing 50 mm diameter GaN waferswith (101_0) orientation grown on LiAlO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinski, Jacek; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maruska, Herbert-Paul; Chai, Bruce H.; Hill, David W.; Chou, Mitch M.C.; Gallagher, John J.; Brown, Stephen

    2005-09-27

    (10{und 1}0) GaN wafers grown on (100) face of {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Despite good lattice matching in this heteroepitaxial system, high densities of planar structural defects in the form of stacking faults on the basal plane and networks of boundaries located on prism planes inclined to the layer/substrate interface were present in these GaN layers. In addition, significant numbers of threading dislocations were observed. High-resolution electron microscopy indicates that stacking faults present on the basal plane in these layers are of low-energy intrinsic I1type. This is consistent with diffraction contrast experiments.

  19. Temperature dependent dielectric function and the E{sub 0} critical points of hexagonal GaN from 30 to 690 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Jung Hwang, Soon Yong; Byun, Jun Seok; Barange, Nilesh S.; Park, Han Gyeol; Dong Kim, Young

    2014-02-15

    The complex dielectric function ? and the E{sub 0} excitonic and band-edge critical-point structures of hexagonal GaN are reported for temperatures from 30 to 690 K and energies from 0.74 to 6.42 eV, obtained by rotating-compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry on a 1.9 ?m thick GaN film deposited on a c-plane (0001) sapphire substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct inversion and B-splines in a multilayer-structure calculation were used to extract the optical properties of the film from the measured pseudodielectric function ???. At low temperature sharp E{sub 0} excitonic and critical-point interband transitions are separately observed. Their temperature dependences were determined by fitting the data to the empirical Varshni relation and the phenomenological expression that contains the Bose-Einstein statistical factor.

  20. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water harvesting are the principal sources of fresh water. Ground water supplies are very limited. WaterVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The Virgin Islands

  1. Azania XLII 2007 East Africa, the Comoros Islands and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Azania XLII 2007 East Africa, the Comoros Islands and Madagascar before the sixteenth century interior and on outlying islands (Comoros, Madagascar) or were composed of lower classes in urban expansion and private enterprise. #12;16 East Africa, the Comoros Islands and Madagascar before

  2. A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    1 A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids Stanton T. Cady, Student in islanded ac microgrids with both synchronous generators and inverter-interfaced power supplies. Although they are smaller and have lower ratings, the generation control objectives for an islanded microgrid are similar

  3. Recommendations for Technologies for Microgrids on the Big Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recommendations for Technologies for Microgrids on the Big Island Prepared for U.S. Department Island microgrids By Sentech, Inc. Bethesda, Maryland And University of Hawaii Hawaii Natural Energy for technologies to be used in future installation of Big Island microgrids Subtask 2.2 Deliverable #4 Prepared By

  4. Bridge-Node Selection and Loss Recovery in Island Multicast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shueng-Han Gary

    Bridge-Node Selection and Loss Recovery in Island Multicast W.-P. Ken Yiu K.-F. Simon Wong S multicast-capable domains (the so-called islands) while overlay connections are used to bridge islands. In the previously proposed scheme, the number of ping measurements to find good bridge-nodes is at least

  5. INV Spring, 2009 1 CANARY ISLANDS (see Atlantic Ocean)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INV Spring, 2009 1 UPD 5/6/15 CANARY ISLANDS (see Atlantic Ocean) 1950 1:100,000 Lanzarote 1950 1:130,000 International travel maps, Canary Islands = Mapas internacionales de viaje, Islas Canarias (bc) - International Nacional 9126/C1/100/1950- 1:100,000 Canary Islands (6 sheets) Mapa Militar: 1 - de la Isla de Hierro 2

  6. Stomach contents of cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands 19962006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Graham

    Stomach contents of cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands 1996­2006 r. fernandez1 , m.b. santos2, Kogiidae and Ziphiidae, stranded between 1996 and 2006 in the Canary Islands. Cephalopod mandibles (beaks teuthophagous whales. Keywords: feeding, Canary Islands, cetaceans, cephalopods, plastic Submitted 5 August 2008

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    ORIGINAL PAPER Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants Jeff Ollerton & Louise Cranmer /Accepted: 29 September 2008 # Springer-Verlag 2008 Abstract The Canary Islands are home to a guild Bird vision . Canary Islands . Mutualism . Pollinator. Tenerife Introduction The endemic flora

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    ORIGINAL PAPER Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants Jeff Ollerton & Louise Cranmer) was an effective pollinator of these species. Keywords Bird vision . Canary Islands . Mutualism . Pollinator. Tenerife Introduction The endemic flora of the Canary Islands, situated off the west coast of North Africa

  9. The maximal body massarea relationship in island mammals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Andrew

    mass­area relationship for four island systems, to test the hypothesis that community relaxationORIGINAL ARTICLE The maximal body mass­area relationship in island mammals Virginie Millien1, 20 islands in the Sea of Corte´s and the seven continents). Replotting their data with area

  10. The Island Metaphor Bill Tomlinson, Eric Baumer, Man Lok Yau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Bill

    , ebaumer, mlyau } @uci.edu Abstract This paper presents an "Island Metaphor" for interactions with systems of a software system. The Island Metaphor is not applicable to, nor appropriate for, every system. HoweverThe Island Metaphor Bill Tomlinson, Eric Baumer, Man Lok Yau University of California, Irvine { wmt

  11. Title: Satellite Streetview: Prince Edward Island Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Satellite Streetview: Prince Edward Island Data Creator / Copyright Owner: DMTI Spatial Inc: N/A Abstract: Satellite images generated for cities and/or regions in Prince Edward Island.. Areas: N/A Keywords (Place): Canada; Prince Edward Island; Charlottetown Keywords (Subject): Aerial Images

  12. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Ves, S.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.; Christofilos, D.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults, and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.

  13. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101?0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Kharche, Neerav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hybertsen, Mark S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tully, John C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Muckerman, James T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-04-03

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101?0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation of free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101?0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.

  14. Comparative study of GaN mesa etch characteristics in Cl{sub 2} based inductively coupled plasma with Ar and BCl{sub 3} as additive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawal, Dipendra Singh, E-mail: dsrawal15@gmail.com; Arora, Henika; Sehgal, Bhupender Kumar; Muralidharan, Rangarajan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India)

    2014-05-15

    GaN thin film etching is investigated and compared for mesa formation in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) of Cl{sub 2} with Ar and BCl{sub 3} gas additives using photoresist mask. Etch characteristics are studied as a function of ICP process parameters, viz., ICP power, radio frequency (RF) power, and chamber pressure at fixed total flow rate. The etch rate at each ICP/RF power is 0.1–0.2??m/min higher for Cl{sub 2}/Ar mixture mainly due to higher Cl dissociation efficiency of Ar additive that readily provides Cl ion/radical for reaction in comparison to Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} mixture. Cl{sub 2}/Ar mixture also leads to better photoresist mask selectivity. The etch-induced roughness is investigated using atomic force microscopy. Cl{sub 2}/Ar etching has resulted in lower root-mean-square roughness of GaN etched surface in comparison to Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} etching due to increased Ar ion energy and flux with ICP/RF power that enhances the sputter removal of etch product. The GaN surface damage after etching is also evaluated using room temperature photoluminescence and found to be increasing with ICP/RF power for both the etch chemistries with higher degree of damage in Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} etching under same condition.

  15. Observation of energetic electrons within magnetic islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    , University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA 2 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2 that energetic electron fluxes peak at sites of compressed density within islands, which imposes a new constraint, show that electrons are primarily accelerated at the X line or separatrices (see Fig. 1) by electric

  16. Philippine Islands: a tectonic railroad siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J.J. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    In 1976, significant quantities of oil were discovered offshore northwest of Palawan Island by a Philippine-American consortium led by Philippines-Cities Service Inc. This was the first commercial oil found in the Philippine Islands. Other exploration companies had decided that there was no commercial oil in the Philippines. They fell prey to a situation Wallace E. Pratt, who began his career in 1909 in the Philippines, later described: There are many instances where our knowledge, supported in some cases by elaborate and detailed studies has convinced us that no petroleum resources were present in areas which subsequently became sites of important oil fields. Some explorers are blinded by the negative implications of the same knowledge that successful explorers use to find important oil fields. The Palawan discoveries are examples of successful use of knowledge. Recognition that the Philippine Islands are a tectonic railroad siding may be the key to future exploration success. These islands are continental fragments, each with its own individual geologic characteristics, that have moved from elsewhere to their present positions along a major strike-slip zone. Play concepts can be developed in the Philippines for continental fragments in each of the three major present-day tectono-stratigraphic systems that are dominated by strike-slip, but include subduction and extension tectonics, with both carbonate and clastic sediments.

  17. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A celebration of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. The month of May was chosen to commemorate the immigration of the first Japanese to the United States on May 7, 1843, and to mark the anniversary of the completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869. The majority of the workers who laid the tracks were Chinese immigrants.

  18. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) will conduct on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review in the communities of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, Sand Point, St. George, St. Paul, and Unalaska.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  20. Will Iceland be an island forever?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    Will Iceland be an island forever? Potential interconnection of the Icelandic power system. Germany and energy security is going to be a bigger issue in energy policy than before. Iceland, Qatar and other countries with stranded power are far off the trend line due to hydro and geothermal in Iceland and gas

  1. PUERTO RICO / U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    of Rhode Island University of Connecticut University of Delaware University of Maryland College Park AMERICAN SAMOA HAWAII ALASKA Northwest Indian College Diné College Navajo Technical College D-Q University Tribal College Haskell Indian Nations University Oglala Lakota College Si Tanka Univ. Sisseton Wahpeton

  2. ROSS ISLAND BRIDGE SW GIBBS ST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    ROSS ISLAND BRIDGE SW GIBBS ST SW PORTER ST SW HOOKER ST SW PORTER ST SW MEADE ST SW ARTHUR STSW ARTHUR ST SW WOODS ST SW WOODS ST GIBBS ST PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE SW LANE ST SW PENNOYER ST SW ABERNETHY ST SW BANCROFT ST SW BANCROFT ST SW THOMAS ST SW ABERNETHY ST SW LOWELL ST SW THOMAS ST SW KELLY AVE SWMOODYAVE

  3. Within-island differentiation and between-island homogeneity: non-equilibrium population structure in the seaweed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the seaweed Cladophoropsis membranacea (Chlorophyta) in the Canary Islands HAN J. VAN DER STRATE1, 2 , LOUIS stone model at larger spatial scales. In the present survey, 23 sites were sampled in the Canary Islands among the Canary Islands regardless of how geographic distances were computed. Only when the Canary

  4. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-05-06

    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers.

  5. Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, New York: EnergyOpenReykjanes Geothermal PowerRezacRhode Island:

  6. Island Energy Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | International Nuclear Energyat Larger Scale|Is aIsland

  7. Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2014-12-29

    We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (?) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting ? to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ?1?eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14?nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.

  8. InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram, E-mail: krishnamoorthy.13@osu.edu, E-mail: rajan@ece.osu.edu; Akyol, Fatih [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth, E-mail: krishnamoorthy.13@osu.edu, E-mail: rajan@ece.osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    InGaN/GaN tunnel junction contacts were grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on top of a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown InGaN/GaN blue (450?nm) light emitting diode. A voltage drop of 5.3?V at 100?mA, forward resistance of 2 × 10{sup ?2} ? cm{sup 2}, and a higher light output power compared to the reference light emitting diodes (LED) with semi-transparent p-contacts were measured in the tunnel junction LED (TJLED). A forward resistance of 5?×?10{sup ?4} ? cm{sup 2} was measured in a GaN PN junction with the identical tunnel junction contact as the TJLED, grown completely by MBE. The depletion region due to the impurities at the regrowth interface between the MBE tunnel junction and the MOCVD-grown LED was hence found to limit the forward resistance measured in the TJLED.

  9. Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity), of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  11. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Powerguidance on operating island systems in these variousof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power

  12. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    guidance on operating island systems in these variousof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Powerof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power

  13. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islandsmore »in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.« less

  14. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  15. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ies","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  16. Celebrating Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month at...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pacific Islanders at the Energy Department, in the energy workforce, and throughout history. Headquarter employees and members of the general public are invited to celebrate on...

  17. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  18. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  19. Rhode Island High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Detailed license and usage information for this dataset Preview Download 50m GIS NREL Rhode Island energy high resoltuion renewable shapefile wind wind data wind...

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Dominican Republic, a Caribbean nation that shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti to the west.

  1. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% Organization Virgin Islands Energy Office www.vienergy.org Industry...

  2. Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylation Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    analysis. In: Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, M.Segal: Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylationpackage and applications to genomics. Bioinformatics and

  3. Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Initial Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Hunsberger, R.; Visser, C.; Voss, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy.

  4. Harnessing Sun, Wind and Lava for Islands' Energy Needs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nations (EDIN) project - this international collaboration between the United States, Iceland and New Zealand is aimed at helping islands adopt clean energy policies, technology...

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean...

  6. Effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic atomic collisions on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiaber, Ziani S.; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N.; Silva, José H. D. da; Leite, Douglas M. G.; Bortoleto, José R. R.

    2013-11-14

    The combined effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic particle impingement on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated. Monte-Carlo based simulations are employed to analyze the energies of the species generated in the plasma and colliding with the growing surface. Polycrystalline films grown at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000 °C clearly showed a dependence of orientation texture and surface morphology on substrate orientation (c- and a-plane sapphire) in which the (0001) GaN planes were parallel to the substrate surface. A large increase in interplanar spacing associated with the increase in both a- and c-parameters of the hexagonal lattice and a redshift of the optical bandgap were observed at substrate temperatures higher than 600 °C. The results showed that the tensile stresses produced during the film's growth in high-temperature deposition ranges were much larger than the expected compressive stresses caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and substrate in the cool-down process after the film growth. The best films were deposited at 500 °C, 30 W and 600 °C, 45 W, which corresponds to conditions where the out diffusion from the film is low. Under these conditions the benefits of the temperature increase because of the decrease in defect density are greater than the problems caused by the strongly strained lattice that occurr at higher temperatures. The results are useful to the analysis of the growth conditions of GaN films by reactive sputtering.

  7. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101¯0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-03-12

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101¯0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation ofmore »free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101¯0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.« less

  8. Influence of stress on optical transitions in GaN nanorods containing a single InGaN/GaN quantum disk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Y. D.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E., E-mail: d.allsopp@bath.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Bruckbauer, J.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-07

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging has been performed on GaN nanorods containing a single InGaN quantum disk (SQD) with controlled variations in excitation conditions. Two different nanorod diameters (200 and 280?nm) have been considered. Systematic changes in the CL spectra from the SQD were observed as the accelerating voltage of the electron beam and its position of incidence are varied. It is shown that the dominant optical transition in the SQD varies across the nanorod as a result of interplay between the contributions of the deformation potential and the quantum-confined Stark effect to the transition energy as consequence of radial variation in the pseudomorphic strain.

  9. Evaluation of growth methods for the heteroepitaxy of non-polar (11-20) GaN on sapphire by MOVPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oehler, F.; Sutherland, D.; Zhu, T.; Emery, R.; Badcock, T. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Dawson, P.; Oliver, R. A.

    2014-09-16

    interlayer. Keywords: A3 Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, B1 Nitrides, A1 Defects, A1 Characterization 1. Introduction Hexagonal gallium nitride (GaN) presents two stable growth directions inclined at 90? angle to the c-direction. Respectively named a... is kept constant at 20 standard litres per minute (SLM) by bal- ancing the flow rates of the carrier gas and NH3. Unless otherwise specified, the total reactor pressure is 100 Torr and H2 is used as the carrier gas. The growth temperatures quoted...

  10. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: aH. Taha. 1990. “Summer Heat Islands, Urban Trees, and WhiteNational Laboratory—Heat Island Group Technical Note. Ber-

  11. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-01-01

    Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: aNational Laboratory - Heat Island Group Technical Note.of the US EPA’s Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) in

  12. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and their Mitigation: A

  13. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-01-01

    National Laboratory - Heat Island Group Technical Note.of the US EPA’s Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) in11. Conclusions Impact of Heat Island Reduction Strategies

  14. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    H. Taha. 1990. “Summer Heat Islands, Urban Trees, and WhiteNational Laboratory—Heat Island Group Technical Note. Ber-Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in

  15. opinion: Political erosion dismantles the conservation network existing in the Canary Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández?Palacios, José María; de Nascimento, Lea

    2011-01-01

    seagrass meadows in the Canary Islands: a mul? tiscaled genetic diversity in the  Canary  Islands:  A  conservation synthesis for the Canary Islands.   Trends in Ecology and 

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a 10 MW limit for aggregate production via feed-in-tariff contracts on the islands of St. Thomas, St. John, Water Island, and other offshore keys and islands and a similar 5 MW limit for...

  17. About Island Press Since 1984, the nonprofit Island Press has been stimulating, shap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnosky, Anthony D.

    Change BARRY W. BROOK AND ANTHONY D. BARNOSKY Millennia before the modern biodiversity crisis-a worldwide, and comm unicating the ideas that are essential for solving envi ronmental problems worldwide. With more, the ecosystems we need to survive, the water we drink, and the air we breathe. Island Press gratefully

  18. Grey Island Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,Solar Jump to:Resources JumpStrategy | OpenGreshamGrey Island

  19. Hainan Green Islands Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,SolarFERCInformation 3.1 -HachijojimaHaddam,Green Islands

  20. Faroe Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbHFarinello Geothermal Power Station JumpFaroe Islands: Energy Resources

  1. Marshall Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland Jump to:Marshall Islands: Energy Resources

  2. University of Rhode Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ ClimateFeed JumpAlbertaUniversity ofRhode Island

  3. Block Island Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass Facility JumpII JumpBlackfeetBlock Island Power

  4. Block Island Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass Facility JumpII JumpBlackfeetBlock Island

  5. The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Alison G.

    & Handley, 2002). Here we test the island rule of body-size evolution in a non- island system, the deep sea

  6. Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Adam Warren, NREL 18953 U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook...

  7. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water is a concern, so too is proper disposal of wastewater. The Virgin Islands Water Resources Research with cistern water quality, treatment of wastewater from aquaponic systems and sediment export from watersheds Program Introduction 1 #12;Water Quality in Virgin Islands Rain Water Collection Cisterns. Basic

  8. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division Characterization Research Program Réka Domokos #12;Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Science Center Ecosystems and Oceanography Division -80 -77 -74 -71 -68 -65 -62 -59 -56 -53 -50 -47 -44 Sv

  9. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of natural potable water for residents in these islands where cisterns are required by law. Seawater desalination plants supply the water distribution networks that are restricted to certain areas in the islands due to the hilly terrain. Dependence on rainfall and the expensive desalinated water makes Virgin

  10. Aboriginal Education Centre-Turtle Island House Aboriginal Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Aboriginal Education www.uwindsor.ca/aec We look forward to meeting you! Available Services UniversityAboriginal Education Centre-Turtle Island House Aboriginal Education The Aboriginal Education Centre (AEC) - Turtle Island was created in 1992 with the mandate of ensuring that services and programs

  11. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.R. Hudson; D.A. Monticello; A.H. Reiman

    2001-04-30

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain.

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gompper, Matthew E.

    ) and dwarf coati (Nasua nelsoni) on Cozumel Island, Mexico, we worked island-wide to identify the presence´a-Vasco Instituto de Ecologi´a, A. C., 91070 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico e-mail: denise.vasco@posgrado.inecol.edu.mx D´n, 77660 Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico A. D. Cuaro´n Multicriteria SC, Unidad Independencia IMSS, Torre

  13. The Tuna Industry in the Pacific Islands Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be at a crossroads. This paper reviews the tuna industry in the Pacific islands region, beginning with the regionThe Tuna Industry in the Pacific Islands Region: Opportunities for Foreign Investment DAVID J. DOULMAN Introduction The international tuna industry is in a state of flux. Since the early 1980's (and

  14. University of Rhode Island Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uht, Augustus K.

    University of Rhode Island Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Kelley Hall 4 East Alumni in Synchronous Systems via Timing Error Toleration Augustus K. Uht Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rhode Island Email: uht@ele.uri.edu Web: www.ele.uri.edu/¸uht March 10, 2000

  15. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Historically, rain water harvesting has been a principal source of potable water for the residents of the USVI such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicableVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Virgin Islands

  16. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are principally of volcanic origin and are consequently relatively mountainous. Historically, rain water such as rain water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigationVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Virgin Islands

  17. Jrgen Richter Hasty Foragers: The Crimea Island and Europe During

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Robert

    Jürgen Richter Hasty Foragers: The Crimea Island and Europe During the Last Interglacial Victor conditions in Europe similar to those of the present time, or even a lile more favourable (overview: Van, comparable environments as they prevail today. Hasty Foragers: The Crimea Island and Europe During the Last

  18. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, T.L. [Timothy L. Olsen Consulting, (United States)

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  19. Photoconduction efficiencies and dynamics in GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy: A comparison study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R. S. [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tsai, H. Y. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y. S. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-10

    The normalized gains, which determines the intrinsic photoconduction (PC) efficiencies, have been defined and compared for the gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By excluding the contributions of experimental parameters and under the same light intensity, the CVD-grown GaN NWs exhibit the normalized gain which is near two orders of magnitude higher than that of the MBE-ones. The temperature-dependent time-resolved photocurrent measurement further indicates that the higher photoconduction efficiency in the CVD-GaN NWs is originated from the longer carrier lifetime induced by the higher barrier height ({phi}{sub B} = 160 {+-} 30 mV) of surface band bending. In addition, the experimentally estimated barrier height at 20 {+-} 2 mV for the MBE-GaN NWs, which is much lower than the theoretical value, is inferred to be resulted from the lower density of charged surface states on the non-polar side walls.

  20. Surface energy calculations from Zinc blende (111)/(-1-1-1) to Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1):a study of ZnO and GaN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    2015-01-01

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. In this study, we used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces, and the result we...

  1. Miocene structure of Mustang Island, Mustang Island East Addition and part of Matagorda Island, Outer Continental Shelf areas, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasande, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the Miocene structure of Mustang Island and the neighboring areas in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico helps to increase knowledge of the geology and hence contribute to petroleum exploration and production in the area. Interpretation...

  2. Total current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S. Krishnan*, N. Tipirneni*, S. Pendharkar* and J. A. del Alamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    observed after OFF-state stress at high voltage. We attribute this to high-field tunneling-induced electron/detrapping dynamics have been extracted. All of our experimental results are consistent with electron trapping insideTotal current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S

  3. Depth dependence of defect density and stress in GaN grown on SiC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, 140 Evans Hall, Newark,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Mark

    of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, 140 Evans Hall, Newark, Delaware 19716 H. Temkin Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 I. Ahmad and M. Holtz 2 107 /cm2 in GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy HVPE on SiC 0001 .16 Despite a number

  4. Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Wave Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Wave Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands Table of Contents Summary p2 Background: Wave Power Conversion p3 Licensing and Permitting p3 Challenges and Barriers p4 Wave Power Resources: Previous Work p5 Wave

  5. Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN), Partnering to Increase Island Energy Security Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the international partnership for Energy Development in Island nations, including mission, goals, and organization. It also includes background on EDIN's three pilot projects: U.S. Virgin Islands, Iceland-Dominica Collaboration, and New Zealand-Geothermal Potential in the Pacific.

  6. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be difficult due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  7. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-30

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be challenging due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  8. Kinematic studies of transport across an island wake, with application to the Canary islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias Sandulescu; Emilio Hernandez-Garcia; Cristobal Lopez; Ulrike Feudel

    2006-05-29

    Transport from nutrient-rich coastal upwellings is a key factor influencing biological activity in surrounding waters and even in the open ocean. The rich upwelling in the North-Western African coast is known to interact strongly with the wake of the Canary islands, giving rise to filaments and other mesoscale structures of increased productivity. Motivated by this scenario, we introduce a simplified two-dimensional kinematic flow describing the wake of an island in a stream, and study the conditions under which there is a net transport of substances across the wake. For small vorticity values in the wake, it acts as a barrier, but there is a transition when increasing vorticity so that for values appropriate to the Canary area, it entrains fluid and enhances cross-wake transport.

  9. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  10. Re-evaluating the general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Dolos, Klara; Field, Richard; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2013-01-01

    oceanic island biogeography integrates temporal changes in ecological circumstances with diversification processes, and has stimulated current

  11. Demographic and genetic structure of fossorial water voles (Arvicola terrestris) on Scottish islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambin, Xavier

    - lations occupying both mainland and island systems are needed. A suitable system in which to compare

  12. Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

  13. Can Microsatellites Be Used to Infer Phylogenies? Evidence from Population Affinities of the Western Canary Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorpe, Roger Stephen

    of the Western Canary Island Lizard (Gallotia galloti) Murielle Richard1 and Roger S. Thorpe2 School of the West- ern Canary Island lacertid (Gallotia galloti) as a model. The geological times of island in 12 populations from four islands (representing five haplotype lineages) was investigated in five

  14. Inferring dispersal: a Bayesian approach to phylogeny-based island biogeography,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Barros, Enrique

    , with special reference to the Canary Islands Isabel Sanmarti´n1 *, Paul van der Mark2 and Fredrik Ronquist2,3 1 set of published phylogenies of Canary Island organisms to examine overall dispersal rates archipelagos with special reference to the Atlantic Canary Islands. Methods The Canary Islands were divided

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER The diet of feral cats on islands: a review and a call for more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavaleta, Erika

    Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain M. Nogales Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group (IPNA-CSIC), Astrofi´sico Francisco Sa´nchez 3, 38206 La Laguna Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain BORIGINAL PAPER The diet of feral cats on islands: a review and a call for more studies E. Bonnaud

  16. Differences in flower visitation networks between an oceanic and a continental island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traveset, Anna

    communities of each of two different island systems: the Canary Islands (oceanic origin) and the BalearicDifferences in flower visitation networks between an oceanic and a continental island ROCÍO CASTRO, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain Received 27 May 2013; revised 28 October 2013; accepted for publication

  17. Cats, rabbits, Myxoma virus, and vegetation on Macquarie Island: a comment on Bergstrom et al. (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebs, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    ). Four mammalian pest species occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island: cats Felis catus L., rabbits

  18. Non Stationary Operator Selection with Island Models Caner Candan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goëffon, Adrien

    Non Stationary Operator Selection with Island Models Caner Candan LERIA - Université d'Angers Angers, France caner.candan@univ-angers.fr Adrien Goëffon LERIA - Université d'Angers Angers, France

  19. A Dynamic Island Model for Adaptive Operator Selection Caner Candan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goëffon, Adrien

    A Dynamic Island Model for Adaptive Operator Selection Caner Candan LERIA - University of Angers Angers, France caner.candan@univ-angers.fr Adrien Goëffon LERIA - University of Angers Angers, France

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTELY SENSED URBAN HEAT ISLAND CLIMATOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Leiqiu

    2014-08-31

    Satellite remotely sensed temperatures are widely used for urban heat island (UHI) studies. However, the abilities of satellite surface and atmospheric data to assess the climatology of UHI face many unknowns and challenges. ...

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominica (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Dominica, an island nation located southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles.

  2. Measuring Edinburgh’s Surface Urban Heat Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackinnon, Kerr A H

    2013-10-27

    This project investigated Edinburgh’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) in relation to land cover and land use. Thermal channels of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery captured between 1999 and 2011 provide land surface temperatures (LST...

  3. American Samoa's Rebate Program Brings ENERGY STAR to Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to a grant through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, residents of American Samoa are able for the first time to purchase ENERGY STAR air conditioners – and for 30 percent off - through the Island's first appliance rebate program.

  4. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0...

  5. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-27

    To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

  6. DWEA Webinar: Wind-Diesel and Islanded Grids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DWEA is launching a monthly webinar program to discuss new developments in the industry. During the first webinar, experts will provide information on wind systems in the emerging market of island...

  7. A Simple Technique for Islanding Detection with Negligible Nondetection Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley Jr, James L.

    Although active islanding detection techniques have smaller nondetection zones than passive techniques, active methods could degrade the system power quality and are not as simple and easy to implement as passive methods. ...

  8. A numerical model simulation of longshore transport for Galveston Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbreath, Stephen Alexander

    1995-01-01

    The shoreline changes, deposition patterns, and longshore transport rates were calculated for the coast of Galveston Island using a numerical model simulation. The model only simulated changes due to waves creating longshore currents. East Beach...

  9. Fish assemblages on coral reefs in Guanaja, Bay Islands, Honduras 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendran, Christopher Kandiah

    1999-01-01

    Species composition and relative abundance of ichthyofaunal assemblages on reefs surrounding Guanaja, Bay Islands, Honduras were censused from June through December 1996. Transect and random swim surveys were used to characterize community structure...

  10. Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

  11. Power Plant Options Report for Thompson Island prepared by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .................................................................... 11 4.1. Hybrid2 ­ A Renewable Power System Model................................................ 11 4.......................................................................... 4 2.3. Thompson Island heating load....................................................................... 7 3. Grid-connected and Autonomous Renewable Power Systems ................................ 9 3

  12. Town of Babylon- Long Island Green Homes Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Long Island Green Homes Program is a self-financing residential retrofit program designed to support a goal of upgrading the energy efficiency of existing homes in the Town of Babylon. The...

  13. PSEG Long Island- Solar Initiative Feed-in Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PSEG Long Island Feed-in Tariff II (FIT II) program provides fixed payments for electricity produced by approved photovoltaic systems over a fixed period of time. The program operates under a...

  14. A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Islanders have prevailed over adversity and risen to the top of their fields -- from medicine to business to the bench. But even now, too many hardworking AAPI families face...

  15. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  17. Rules and Regulations for Sewage Sludge Management (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of these rules and regulations is to ensure that sewage sludge that is treated, land applied, disposed, distributed, stockpiled or transported in the State of Rhode Island is done so in...

  18. Distribution, Growth, and Disturbance of Catalina Island Rhodoliths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Paul Anthony

    2011-01-01

    seasonality. Sedimentology 41: 963-984 Friewald A (1998)Godinez-Orta L (2006) Sedimentology and acoustic mapping ofIsland, New Zealand. Sedimentology 55: 249-274 Orth RJ (

  19. Quaternary morphology and paleoenvironmental records of carbonate islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toomey, Michael (Michael Ryan)

    2014-01-01

    Here I use a simple numerical model of reef profile evolution to show that the present-day morphology of carbonate islands has developed largely in response to late Pleistocene sea level oscillations in addition to variable ...

  20. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

  1. Diversification processes in an island radiation of shrews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esselstyn, Jacob Aaron

    2010-04-22

    , and thus are subjt to phylogenetic study. Whatever the cause, most 16 studis investigang the tempo of diversifcation examine continental raditions and 17 many have inferred t putative density-dependent patern (McPek 2008; Philimore and 18 Price 2008...; Pric 2008). Although island funas have ben the focus of intensive study 19 by evolutionary biologist, i remins an open question wtr declining rats of 20 diversifcation is the norm in island archipelagos, where tre a enormous opportunities 21...

  2. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  3. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

  4. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Rafe M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 35 new amphibian and reptile distribution records for two regions within the southern Sierra Madre Mountain Range, Aurora Province, central Luzon Island, Philippines. Together with results of our previous survey work in Aurora, our new...

  5. Approaching the Island of Inversion: 34P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, P.C.; Hoffman, C.R.; Wiedeking, M.; Allmond, J.M.; Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T.; Bleuel, D.L.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goldblum, B.L.; Hinners, T.A.; Jeppesen, H.B.; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, I.Y.; Lesher, S.R.; Machiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M.A.; Morris, D.; Perry, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tabor, S.L.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.

    2011-06-14

    Yrast states in 34P were investigated using the 18O(18O,pn) reaction at energies of 20, 24, 25, 30, and 44 MeV at Florida State University and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The level scheme was expanded, ray angular distributions were measured, and lifetimes were inferred with the Doppler-shift attenuation method by detecting decay protons in coincidence with one or more rays. The results provide a clearer picture of the evolution of structure approaching the 'Island of Inversion', particularly how the 1 and 2 particle-hole (ph) states fall in energy with increasing neutro number approaching inversion. However, the agreement of the lowest few states with pure sd shell model predictions shows that the level scheme of 34P is not itself inverted. Rather, the accumulated evidence indicates that the 1-ph states start at 2.3 MeV. A good candidate for the lowest 2-ph state lies at 6236 keV, just below the neutron separation energy of 6291 keV. Shell model calculations made using a small modification of the WBP interaction reproduce the negative-parity, 1-ph states rather well.

  6. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  7. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    below: ?Urban Heat Islands and Mitigation Technologies?India ?Urban Heat Islands and Mitigation Technologies?India ?Urban Heat Islands and Mitigation Technologies? India

  8. STRAWBERRY ISLAND PHASE III EROSION CONTROL AND WETLAND HABITAT RESTORATION: A CASE STUDY IN THE SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF IN-LIEU FEE MITIGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spierto, Timothy J.; Lazazzero, Sarah A.; Nelson, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    Corporation. 1988. Strawberry Island Draft Report. Barrow,1996. Bossert, H. D. 1973. Strawberry Island, Theories as to1998. Geologic Study or Strawberry Island, Niagara River,

  9. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01

    from heat island control ..Taha, H. 1990. "Summer Heat Islands, Urban Trees, and WhiteGas Emissions, and Urban Heat- island Effects: Findings from

  10. In-plane electric fields in magnetic islands during collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Torbert, Roy B.; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic islands are a common feature in both the onset and nonlinear evolution of magnetic reconnection. In collisionless regimes, the onset typically occurs within ion-scale current layers leading to the formation of magnetic islands when multiple X lines are involved. The nonlinear evolution of reconnection often gives rise to extended electron current layers (ECL) which are also unstable to formation of magnetic islands. Here, we show that the excess negative charge and strong out-of-plane electron velocity in the ECL are passed on to the islands generated therein, and that the corresponding observable distinguishing the islands generated in the ECL is the strongly enhanced in-plane electric fields near the island core. The islands formed in ion-scale current layers do not have these properties of the ECL-generated islands. The above result provides a way to assess the occurrence and importance of extended ECLs that are unstable to island formation in space and laboratory plasmas.

  11. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  12. Deep acceptors trapped at threading edge dislocations in GaN J. Elsner 1;2 , R. Jones 1 , M. Haugk 2 , Th. Frauenheim 2 , M.I. Heggie 3 , S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert

    Deep acceptors trapped at threading edge dislocations in GaN J. Elsner 1;2 , R. Jones 1 , M. Haugk--fold coordinated in a bridge position. V Ga --O N is found to be a deep double accecptor, V Ga --(O N ) 2 is a deep defects are responsible for a deep acceptor level associated with the mid­gap yellow luminescence band. Ga

  13. 10 Gb/s Radiation-Hard VCSEL Array Driver K.K. Gan, P. Buchholz, S. Heidbrink, H. Kagan, R. Kass, J. Moore, D.S. Smith, M. Vogt, M. Ziolkowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    to enhance the radiation-hardness. Each ASIC contains eight low voltage differential signal (LVDS) receivers10 Gb/s Radiation-Hard VCSEL Array Driver K.K. Gan, P. Buchholz, S. Heidbrink, H. Kagan, R. Kass, JV protons to a dose of 0.92x1015 1-MeV neq/cm2 and remain operational. For the 10 Gb/s VCSEL array driver

  14. * email: nidhi@ece.ucsb.edu phone: +1-805-893-3812 ext 202 Ultra-low contact resistance for Self-aligned HEMT structures on N-polar GaN by MBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    * email: nidhi@ece.ucsb.edu phone: +1-805-893-3812 ext 202 Ultra-low contact resistance for SelfN) are regrown to achieve ultra-low Ohmic contact resistance. All MBE regrowths were done on MOCVD GaN templates of InN. To summarize, ultra-low Ohmic contact resistance of 60 -µm was obtained for a self-aligned devi

  15. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-01-01

    1995). “Mitigation of Urban Heat Islands: Materials, UtilityStreets for Urban Heat-Island Mitigation: Portland CementR. Levinson and B. Pon Heat Island Group Energy Analysis

  16. Evolution in the Canary Islands. I. Phylogenetic Relations in the Genus Echium (Boraginaceae) as Shown by Trichome Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, William E.

    Evolution in the Canary Islands. I. Phylogenetic Relations in the Genus Echium (Boraginaceae-threespeciesofEchiumfromthe Canary Islands and Madeira werestudiedin orderto relate growthformtoevolutionarystatusand ecology hypothesisoftheevolutionofannualplants,and ofitsopposite,thetheoryofinsularwoodiness. Introduction The Canary Islands have long been

  17. COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA) AND PLUM ISLAND SOUND, MA (USA) A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the School of Marine Science............................... 55 DISCUSSION ................................................................... 57 Plum Island

  18. Statistics of the Island-Around-Island Hierarchy in Hamiltonian Phase Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Or Alus; Shmuel Fishman; James D. Meiss

    2014-12-10

    The phase space of a typical Hamiltonian system contains both chaotic and regular orbits, mixed in a complex, fractal pattern. One oft-studied phenomenon is the algebraic decay of correlations and recurrence time distributions. For area-preserving maps, this has been attributed to the stickiness of boundary circles, which separate chaotic and regular components. Though such dynamics has been extensively studied, a full understanding depends on many fine details that typically are beyond experimental and numerical resolution. This calls for a statistical approach, the subject of the present work. We calculate the statistics of the boundary circle winding numbers, contrasting the distribution of the elements of their continued fractions to that for uniformly selected irrationals. Since phase space transport is of great interest for dynamics, we compute the distributions of fluxes through island chains. Analytical fits show that the "level" and "class" distributions are distinct, and evidence for their universality is given.

  19. Undersea line planned to transmit to an island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-09

    The electric utility serving Nantucket Island in Massachusetts, which until now has generated its own power, plans to lay 25 miles of transmission cable to connect with New England's mainland grid. The line will allow the utility to purchase less costly power and retire several old generators, improving both reliability and air quality on the island. Nantucket Electric Co. says the 33-Mw submarine link, costing at least $23 million, probably will connect with a line near the elbow on Cape Cod. The undersea cable will be as deep as 60 ft. Nantucket Electric plans to form a partnership within a few months with a mainland utility or private producer that would help finance the project and sell the power. The island utility has preliminary approval by the state Industrial Finance Agency for a tax-exempt bond issue to finance the cable, contingent on its finding a partner.

  20. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF APOIDEA (ANTHOPHILA) AND THEIR USE OF FLORAL RESOURCES ON THE ISLAND OF MO'OREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejas, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    disharmonic nature of island systems of the Pacific, whereas is the case in many island systems (Barrett et al. 1996,

  1. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  2. Hotspots within hotspots? Hammerhead shark movements around Wolf Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hearn, Alex; Ketchum, James; Klimley, A. Peter; Espinoza, Eduardo; Peñaherrera, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    showing major islands and oceanic currents affecting itsOceanic islands, like seamounts, provide structure to both ocean bathymetry and currentcurrent (Barton 2001). Enhanced primary production downstream of oceanic

  3. A multi-proxy approach to assessing isolation basin stratigraphy from the Lofoten Islands, Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    A multi-proxy approach to assessing isolation basin stratigraphy from the Lofoten Islands, Norway Lofoten Islands Norway This study takes a comprehensive approach to characterizing the isolation sequence source. Methods of characterizing isolation basin stratigraphy traditionally rely on microfossil

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Kitts & Nevis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federation of St. Christopher (St. Kitts) and Nevis - two islands located in the Leeward Islands in the West Indies.

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable...

  7. Modeling Microgrid Islanding Problems as DCOPs Saurabh Gupta, William Yeoh, Enrico Pontelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    Modeling Microgrid Islanding Problems as DCOPs Saurabh Gupta, William Yeoh, Enrico Pontelli, we formulate the microgrid islanding problem as distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP the potential of distributed constraint reasoning paradigm as a candidate for solving common microgrids problems

  8. U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska October 7, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of new boiler at Kodiak Island facility The first delivery order included upgrades to the steam...

  9. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 This report summarizes the data collected...

  10. Distribution and abundance of endangered Florida Key deer on outer islands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, Dominque Elijah

    2007-04-25

    -based survey data. All outer islands exhibited estimated abundances considerably below carrying capacities, with larger populations occurring closer to Big Pine Key. Results indicated that other islands and complexes such as Ramrod Key, Water Key...

  11. Review Article Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Review Article Seismic sequence near Zakynthos Island, Greece, April 2006: Identification of Patras, Seismological Laboratory, Patras, Greece b Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Zakynthos Island The April 2006 earthquake sequence near Zakynthos (Western Greece) is analysed to identify

  12. Management of the coastal zone in Small Island Developing States; coastal defences and sustainable tourism 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Jennifer

    2014-11-27

    Barbados, as with many Small Island Developing States has a tourism-dependent economy. Climate change and its effects pose a great threat to the coastal tourism facilities the island has to offer, particularly vulnerable are beaches. The government...

  13. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map A diverse set...

  14. Tropical Island Invaders: Swamp Harrier (Circus approximans) Behavior and Seabird Predatioin on Moorea, French Polynesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Rebecca C

    2009-01-01

    because it is a model island system (Vitousek 2002) and thePeter. 2002. Oceanic islands as model systems for ecologicalislands where endemism is high and diversity is low. Introduced predatory invasive organisms can damage fragile systems

  15. Small Changes Help Long Island Homeowner Save Big on Energy Costs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Changes Help Long Island Homeowner Save Big on Energy Costs Small Changes Help Long Island Homeowner Save Big on Energy Costs April 16, 2013 - 12:20pm Addthis Located near...

  16. Virus-vectored immunocontraception to control feral cats on islands: a mathematical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    CB2 3EJ, UK Summary 1. Feral cats Felis catus introduced onto oceanic islands pose a major ecological-words: baits, biological control, Felis catus, introduced predator, island conser- vation, mammal pest, VVIC

  17. Island precipitation enhancement and the diurnal cycle in radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    To understand why tropical islands are rainier than nearby ocean areas, we explore how a highly idealized island, which differs from the surrounding ocean only in heat capacity, might respond to the diurnal cycle and ...

  18. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the Mammalian and Vegetative Communities of the Barrier Islands of Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggin, Annaliese K.

    2010-01-14

    The barrier islands of the gulf coast of the U.S. have been shaped and changed by hurricanes for centuries. These storms can alter the vegetation of the barrier islands by redistributing sediments, scouring off vegetation, physical damage...

  19. Maldives-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5Transport Projects |NIES Low-CarbonMalcolmNREL(SREP)

  20. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how financial support from DOE and technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  1. MHK Projects/Willow Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough BendVidal IslandWestWaveWillapaIsland

  2. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Long Island Solar Farm, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-11-15

    5119-SR-01-0 INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR THE LONG ISLAND SOLAR FARM, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  3. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Jamaica; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-06

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Jamaica, an island nation located in the north Caribbean Sea.

  4. Management implications of the Macquarie Island trophic cascade revisited: a reply to Dowding et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebs, Charles J.

    cats Felis catus on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island were exerting top-down control on the feral rabbit

  5. Hypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas R. Fitzpatrick and F. L. Waelbroeck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an island to another by flowing alongHypersonic drift-tearing magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas R. Fitzpatrick and F. L. Waelbroeck of helical magnetic island equilibria in the pedestals of H-mode tokamak plasmas Phys. Plasmas 17, 062503

  6. Exploring the LandOcean Contrast in Convective Vigor Using Islands F. J. ROBINSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    was idealized, with islands represented by regions of uniform surface heat flux without orography, using a rangeExploring the Land­Ocean Contrast in Convective Vigor Using Islands F. J. ROBINSON Department) observations over islands of increasing size to those simulated by a cloud- resolving model. The observed

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of feedback modulated magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas Richard Fitzpatrick and Franois L. Waelbroeck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    because both heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an island chain to the otherNonlinear dynamics of feedback modulated magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas Richard Fitzpatrick-induced magnetic responses during nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands due to resonant magnetic perturbations

  8. Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China in revised form 6 June 2011 Accepted 9 July 2011 Available online 5 August 2011 Keywords: Urban heat island of the ecological consequences of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which leads to higher

  9. 2 Urban heat island in the subsurface 3 Grant Ferguson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2 Urban heat island in the subsurface 3 Grant Ferguson1 and Allan D. Woodbury2 4 Received 11 heat island effect has received significant 7 attention in recent years due to the possible effect that the urban heat island 19 effect has significant and complex spatial variability. In 20 most situations

  10. HEAT ISLAND OF SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS DETECTED BY MODIS/AQUA TEMPERATURE PRODUCT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    HEAT ISLAND OF SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS DETECTED BY MODIS/AQUA TEMPERATURE PRODUCT Hongjie Xie, Huade resolution) of time period June 1 to September 30 from year 2002 to 2005 to study the heat island (HI:30 am, CST) data have been used. The existence of a heat island (HI) of the San Antonio downtown area

  11. Strain relief and Pd island shape evolution on the palladium and palladium hydride (100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The mesoscopic relaxation of small Pd islands on Pd(100) and PdH(100) surfaces is investigated on the atomic scale by performing molecular statics calculations. A strong strain and stress inhomogeneity in islands and topmost layers of the substrate is revealed. An unusual size dependence of the shape of islands is discovered.

  12. Windgenerated eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Click Here for Full Article Windgenerated eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii to clarify the mesoscale eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii, the largest island. In the immediate lee southwest of Hawaii (Region E), eddy signals have a predominant 60 day period and a short

  13. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size

  14. Hybridization in the Catalina Island Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus traskiae):RAPD Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Hybridization in the Catalina Island Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus traskiae):RAPD Evidence LOREN H.S.A. Introduction The Catalina Island mountain mahogany is one of 10 species of shrubs and small trees (Lis 1992 1992). The Catalina Island mountain mahogany (C. traskiae East- wood) is one of the most distinctive

  15. Aalborg Universitet Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids A Networked Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids ­ A Networked Control, Q., Vasquez, J. C., & Guerrero, J. M. (2012). Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids M.; , "Distributed secondary control for islanded MicroGrids - A networked control systems approach

  16. Voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids: a plug-and-play approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    Voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids: a plug-and-play approach Stefano Riverso propose a new decentralized control scheme for Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by the interconnection. INTRODUCTION In recent years, research on Islanded microGrids (ImG) has received major attention. ImGs are self

  17. Aalborg Universitet Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop. C., & Guerrero, J. M. (2015). Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;1 Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids

  18. Plug-and-play voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids with meshed topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    1 Plug-and-play voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids with meshed topology Stefano--In this paper we propose a new decentralized control scheme for Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed proposed in IEEE standards. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, research on Islanded microGrids (ImG) has

  19. Aalborg Universitet Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed

  20. Momentum flux estimates for South Georgia Island mountain waves in the stratosphere observed via satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, M. Joan

    Momentum flux estimates for South Georgia Island mountain waves in the stratosphere observed via observations of mountain wave events in the stratosphere above South Georgia Island in the remote southern important drag forces on the circulation. Small island orography is generally neglected in mountain wave

  1. PLANT ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    PLANT ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE LONG ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE LONG-TERM ECOLOGICAL', small, rounded dunes forming along main dune ridges of the barrier islands. There are distinct plant

  2. Inorganic islands on a highly stretchable polyimide substrate Jeong-Yun Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Inorganic islands on a highly stretchable polyimide substrate Jeong-Yun Sun Department of Material. A polyimide substrate is first coated with a thin layer of an elastomer, on top of which SiNx islands, but SiNx islands on much stiffer polyimide (PI) sub- strates crack and debond when the substrates

  3. Origin and Age of the Marine Stygofauna of Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    Origin and Age of the Marine Stygofauna of Lanzarote, Canary Islands HORSTWILKENS crustaceans, previously known only from the Jameos del Agua marine lava tube in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, November 1986 ISSN 0072-9612 Lanzarote, at the eastern end of the Canary Islands, possesses one

  4. Contradiction in conservation of island ecosystems: plants, introduced herbivores and avian scavengers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donázar, José A.

    scavengers in the Canary Islands LAURA GANGOSO1, *, JOSE´ A. DONA´ ZAR1 , STEPHAN SCHOLZ2 , CE´ SAR J rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus were introduced in the Canary Islands around 500 B.C. Barbary ground. It is urgently necessary to harmonize farming and conservation objectives in the Canary Islands. The impact

  5. Monsoon surges trigger oceanic eddy formation and propagation in the lee of the Philippine Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with eddies that form in the lee of the Cabo Verde and Canary Islands [Chavanne et al., 2002; Sangra et al., 2007]. The Hawaii, Cabo Verde and Canary Islands are located in the trades where winds have typicalMonsoon surges trigger oceanic eddy formation and propagation in the lee of the Philippine Islands

  6. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands J.P. Canalesa of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The experiment was designed as a seismic fan pro®le to detect azimuthal rights reserved. Keywords: seismic structure; P-wave velocity anomaly; Tenerife; Canary Islands 1

  7. Journal of Biogeography (1992)I9,383-390 Habitat distribution of canary chaffinchesamong islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    1992-01-01

    Journal of Biogeography (1992)I9,383-390 Habitat distribution of canary chaffinchesamong islands studied for the Canary Islands (Tenerife and El Hierro). The Common Chaffinch was significantly denser time. Key words. Canary Islands, Chaffinches (Fringilla spp.), habitat preferences, competitive

  8. Following more than 30 years of seismic and volcanic quiescence, the Canary Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleeman, Reinoud

    Following more than 30 years of seismic and volcanic quiescence, the Canary Islands region located History Several eruptions have taken place in the Canary Islands in the last 500 years, all of them, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION PAGES 61,65 Monitoring the Reawakening of Canary Islands'Teide Volcano

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION The possible origin of Zostera noltii in the Canary Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borges, Rita

    SHORT COMMUNICATION The possible origin of Zostera noltii in the Canary Islands and guidelines are declining worldwide. Zostera noltii in the Canary Islands has been drastically reduced, mainly of the Canary Islands (Pavo´n-Salas et al. 2000). Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson is the most abundant

  10. A seismic reflection profile study of lithospheric flexure in the vicinity of the Cape Verde Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    ., 1994], Tuamotu [Ito et al., 1995], Canary Islands [Watts et al., 1997], La Re´union [Charvis et al Islands M. Y. Ali and A. B. Watts Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK I. Hill the stratigraphic ``architecture'' of the flexural moat that flanks the Cape Verde Islands. The moat region

  11. The recycling of marine carbonates and sources of HIMU and FOZO ocean island basalts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, PR

    2015-01-01

    of OIB from Mangaia and Canary islands. The intersections ofoccur in Canary and Cape Verde Islands (Hoernle et al. ,island group, the slope of Pb/ 207 Pb line represents roughly the interval of time (Mangaia, about 3.2 Ga; Canary,

  12. Scatterometer observations of wind variations induced by oceanic islands: Implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scatterometer observations of wind variations induced by oceanic islands: Implications for wind-driven of the Hawaiian and Cabo Verde islands on the mean atmospheric flow. A wake of weak winds, flanked by accelerated winds, appears for each major island of both archipelagos. The resulting wind stress curl displays

  13. Subsidized Island Biogeography Hypothesis: another new twist on an old theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wait, D. Alexander

    the standard species±area curve that explains many larger island systems so well. Our conceptual model (Polis & Hurd 1996). In effect, if islands receive material from the surrounding system, these subsidiesSubsidized Island Biogeography Hypothesis: another new twist on an old theory Abstract We present

  14. Immersive Second Language Acquisition in Narrow Domains: A Prototype ISLAND Dialogue System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Immersive Second Language Acquisition in Narrow Domains: A Prototype ISLAND Dialogue System Ian Mc and imple- mented an ISLAND dialogue system in Mandarin Chinese. Our ISLAND is immersive, in that no content technology in general and spoken di- alogue systems in particular have the potential to bridge this gap

  15. Fluctuations in systemsFluctuations in systems with superconducting islandswith superconducting islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Fluctuations in systemsFluctuations in systems with superconducting islandswith superconducting islands Mikhail A. Skvortsov Mikhail V. Feigel'man Anatoly I. Larkin Landau Institute, Moscow #12;OutlineOutline #12;Uniform materials, grains, islandsUniform materials, grains, islands #12;Two mechanism of

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 MILP Formulation for Islanding of Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grothey, Andreas

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 MILP Formulation for Islanding of Power Networks P. A. Trodden prevented by intentionally splitting the system into islands [10]. By isolating the faulty part formulation for the islanding of power networks is presented. Given an area of uncertainty in the network

  17. Island biogeography from regional to local scales: evidence for a spatially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreft, Holger

    - cies pool. INTRODUCTION Island systems have long played a crucial role in biogeo- graphicalORIGINAL ARTICLE Island biogeography from regional to local scales: evidence for a spatially scaled of this study was to investigate whether the equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) is equally

  18. Sculpting Semiconductor Heteroepitaxial Islands: From Dots to Rods J. T. Robinson,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.

    that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems. DOI: 10 been shown to mediate the growth of high-quality, single-crystalline films in systems in which island island growth. In general, investigations of this system have focused on the characterization of fundamen

  19. size; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Timothy A.

    - systems. Although a growing number of studies have used the concepts developed in island geographysize; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second, our study found diversity, community compo- sition, and ecosystem functioning all responded to island

  20. The Evolution of Ocean Island Systems: A New Community Perspective from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geist, Dennis

    The Evolution of Ocean Island Systems: A New Community Perspective from the Galápagos Report of Oregon #12;2 The Evolution of Ocean Island Systems: A New Community Perspective from the Galápagos and other ocean island systems, such a complete picture of physiographic and ecological evolution has

  1. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into the KIUC grid. General Electric is presently conducting such a study and results of this study will be available in the near future. Another study conducted by Electric Power Systems, Inc. (EPS) in May 2006 took a broader approach to determine the causes of KIUC system outages. This study concluded that energy storage with batteries will provide stability benefits and possibly eliminate the load shedding while also providing positive voltage control. Due to the lack of fuel diversity in the KIUC generation mix, SNL recommends that KIUC continue its efforts to quantify the dynamic benefits of storage. The value of the dynamic benefits, especially as an enabler of renewable generation such as wind energy, may be far greater than the production cost benefits alone. A combination of these benefits may provide KIUC sufficient positive economic and operational benefits to implement an energy storage project that will contribute to the overall enhancement of the KIUC system.

  2. A MESSAGE TO VETERANS The University of Rhode Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    , be entitled to classification as a Rhode Island resident for the purposes of determining tuition and fees. #12 needs. The office will also assist with post-deployment transition issues and transfer credits. The FAFSA is available on-line at www.fafsa.ed.gov or at post offices and libraries. Students may apply (or

  3. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of water for the islands' limited public water distribution systems. Wastewater disposal continues such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicable water quality, sediment generation and control, water use in rice production and climate variability

  4. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and quality issues of water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and non to the public water distribution systems. The islands experience challenges in collecting and disposing in water quality degradation, plant nutrient management in aquaponic systems, anthropogenic impacts

  5. BIRDS OF LAYSAN AND THE LEEWARD' ISLANDS, HAWAIIAN GROUP.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    large members from Hawaii to Niihau and Kauai, and the Leeward Islands or "'chain," comprising. Wilson and Evans's "Aves 769 #12;770 .'BULI..ETTN OF TH E UN fTED STATES FIsH OlfMI 'BION . Hawaii nses

  6. Community-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions vary with climate. For example, while generating power, a photovoltaic system can also increaseCommunity-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island Impacts Buildings End-Use Energy, are not well quantified. Community-scale environmental measures include solar collection technologies

  7. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  10. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore »already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  11. Lightweight Energy Management of Islanded Operated Microgrids for Prosumer Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Michele

    Lightweight Energy Management of Islanded Operated Microgrids for Prosumer Communities Riccardo storage devices with the distribution grid. The UI acts as the control master for the microgrid strategy is tested on a residential microgrid model, 100 kVA rated, which has been developed and utilized

  12. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattak, Nasir

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  13. Desert Island Contribution --ASE Journal Software Engineering --A Human Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gerhard

    Desert Island Contribution -- ASE Journal Software Engineering -- A Human Activity Gerhard Fischer of software engineering? Without a doubt, different people will have very different answers to this question their ideas and visions. Software engineering (especially its upstream activities) is a human-oriented field

  14. New constraints on the Slate Islands impact structure, Ontario, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrick, Robert R.

    New constraints on the Slate Islands impact structure, Ontario, Canada Virgil L. Sharpton Lunar Bernie Schnieders Ontario Geological Survey, 435 South James Street, Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7E 6E3 km south of Terrace Bay, Ontario (Fig. 1). Numerous shatter cones (observed first by R. Sage during

  15. University of Rhode Island inAdvance March 30, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    . More... University Library wins national award for information forum series The University of Rhode with high-tech training The traditional Narragansett Indian culture plays a vital role in Wanda Hopkins Island Library has been selected to receive the 2006 Association of College and Research Libraries

  16. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by generating fewer emissions from electricity production. These benefits, however, are difficult quality planning process. If a model were available to accurately predict the decrease in temperature and detailed manner is important if heat island control strategies are to be viewed as "quantifiable

  17. Spherical deformation of compliant substrates with semiconductor device islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    is a function of the island structure, size, and substrate material properties. Although the substrate semiconductor device materials, such as amor- phous silicon and silicon nitride, are brittle and crack easily and thinning the substrate cannot be used to reduce the strain. Because inorganic semiconductor materials

  18. Marine Iguanas Older Than Their Islands Jeff Mitton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitton, Jeffry B.

    Marine Iguanas Older Than Their Islands Jeff Mitton Natural Selections (Appeared in the Boulder endemic species remain, three land iguanas and the only marine iguana in the world. The marine iguana by a variety of green and red algae. Marine iguanas rely solely on marine algae but they are not restricted

  19. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  20. Wave Energy Resources Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wave Energy Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands Prepared by: Luis A Foreword This report provides wave energy resource information required to select coastal segments for specific wave-energy-conversion (WEC) technology and to initiate engineering design incorporating

  1. Rate of Post-Hurricane Barrier Island Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Brianna

    2015-06-03

    that is reinforced if there is a sufficient recovery period. This study examines the resiliency of Assateague Island National Seashore, MD through its ability to return to its pre-storm condition following a hurricane. The primary hypothesis of this study...

  2. Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuters, Benjamin; Finken, M.; Wille, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.; Hollaender, B.; Heuken, M.

    2012-11-01

    Quaternary AlInGaN layers were grown on conventional GaN buffer layers on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy at different surface temperatures and different reactor pressures with constant precursor flow conditions. A wide range in compositions within 30-62% Al, 5-29% In, and 23-53% Ga was covered, which leads to different strain states from high tensile to high compressive. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we determined the compositions, strain states, and crystal quality of the AlInGaN layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed to characterize the surface morphology. A critical strain value for maximum In incorporation near the AlInGaN/GaN interface is presented. For compressively strained layers, In incorporation is limited at the interface as residual strain cannot exceed an empirical critical value of about 1.1%. Relaxation occurs at about 15 nm thickness accompanied by strong In pulling. Tensile strained layers can be grown pseudomorphically up to 70 nm at a strain state of 0.96%. A model for relaxation in compressively strained AlInGaN with virtual discrete sub-layers, which illustrates the gradually changing lattice constant during stress reduction is presented.

  3. Structural and optoelectronic properties of germanium-rich islands grown on silicon using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nataraj, L.; Sustersic, N.; Coppinger, M.; Gerlein, L. F.; Kolodzey, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cloutier, S. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711 (United States)

    2010-03-22

    We report on the structural and optoelectronic properties of self-assembled germanium-rich islands grown on silicon using molecular beam epitaxy. Raman, photocurrent, photoluminescence, and transient optical spectroscopy measurements suggest significant built-in strains and a well-defined interface with little intermixing between the islands and the silicon. The shape of these islands depends on the growth conditions and includes pyramid, dome, barn-shaped, and superdome islands. Most importantly, we demonstrate that these germanium-rich islands provide efficient light emission at telecommunication wavelengths on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible platform.

  4. Shape evolution of Ge/Si(001) islands induced by strain-driven alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, C. J.; Zuo, Y. H.; Li, D. Z.; Cheng, B. W.; Luo, L. P.; Yu, J. Z.; Wang, Q. M.

    2001-06-11

    The shape evolution of Ge/Si(001) islands grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition were investigated by atomic force microscopy at different deposition rates. We find that, at low deposition rates, the evolution of islands follows the conventional pathway by which the islands form the pyramid islands, evolve into dome islands, and dislocate at a superdome shape with increasing coverage. While at a high deposition rate of 3 monolayers per minute, the dome islands evolve towards the pyramids by a reduction of the contact angle. The presence of the atomic intermixing between the Ge islands and Si substrate at high deposition rate is responsible for the reverse evolution. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Vertical1 Structure of Low-level Clouds from CALIPSO Lidar2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    -top elevation over the windward slopes of the islands of Kauai and Oahu due32 to orographic lifting and daytime island heating. In the nighttime near-island wake of33 Kauai, CALIPSO captures a striking cloud eddy of the mechanical wake behind35 the island of Hawaii favors the formation of low-level clouds

  6. Ar/Ar ages from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic instability timescale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Bradley S.

    Ar/Ar ages from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic the north and south walls of Barranco de los Tilos on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, reveals from transitionally magnetized lavas on La Palma, Canary Islands, and the geomagnetic instability

  7. Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    Palma, Canary Islands, from land magnetotelluric imaging X. Garcia1,2 and A. G. Jones1 Received 9 March on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) provides an ideal setting to address fundamental questions about (2010), Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands

  8. Inferring crustal structure in the Aleutian island arc from a sparse wide-angle seismic data set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shillington, Donna J.

    in the Aleutian islands shed a new light on island arc systems, and the role that magmatic arcs may play G 3 G 3Inferring crustal structure in the Aleutian island arc from a sparse wide-angle seismic data set inversion with static corrections for island stations reduces the data variance of a 1-D starting model

  9. The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, 1, 1 *ALFREDO D. CUARON , MIGUEL ANGEL MARTINEZ-MORALES ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gompper, Matthew E.

    . Introduction The isolation of island systems and the biogeographic factors that contribute to an island's biotaThe status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico 1, 1´ ´*ALFREDO D. CUARON , MIGUEL ANGEL in revised form 9 January 2003 Key words: Conservation, Cozumel, Island endemics, Nasua nelsoni, Potos flavus

  10. Characterization of tropical near-shore fish communities by coastal habitat status on spatially complex island systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    complex island systems Vanessa L. Nero & Kathleen Sullivan Sealey Coastal Ecology Project, Department communities for Andros Island, Bahamas, a complex coastal-reef island system. Benthic assessments and beach available to fishes on island bank systems. Since habitat mapping is often incorpo- rated into marine

  11. S, Afr, ,J, Alltarct, Res" Val, 8, 1978 The mammals of IVIarion Island: a revie,v

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pretoria, University of

    schedules and intra and interspecific relationships had to be obtained, Marion and Prince Edward islands (4635 CVS S, Afr, ,J, Alltarct, Res" Val, 8, 1978 The mammals of IVIarion Island: a revie,v J is typical for sub-Antarctic islands. Marion Island, the larger of the two, is approximately 19 km by 14 km

  12. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Farazmand; George Haller

    2015-03-20

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  13. Polar rotation angle identifies elliptic islands in unsteady dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farazmand, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for elliptic (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal elliptic islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for elliptic structures on several examples.

  14. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  15. Fisheries catch reconstructions: Islands, Part II. Harper and Zeller 15 A BRIEF HISTORY OF FISHING IN THE KERGUELEN ISLANDS, FRANCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    IN THE KERGUELEN ISLANDS, FRANCE1 M.L.D. Palomares and D. Pauly Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, V6T1Z4, Canada m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca; d an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the islands as well as the 1 Cite as: Palomares, M. L. D. and Pauly, D

  16. Frye Island, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistar LLCNorthIdaho:FroniusFruitdale,Frye Island,

  17. Rock Island, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Rock County,SilverIsland,

  18. Scituate, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,SageScheuco International JumpSchuylkillScio,Rhode Island: Energy

  19. Muscle Ridge Islands, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver,Minnesota: Energy Resources JumpRidge Islands,

  20. Pine Island Ridge, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open EnergyPhoenicia,Creek,PilgrimGroveIsland Ridge,

  1. Island Energy Tools and Trainings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | International Nuclear Energyat Larger Scale|IsIsland

  2. Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvesting inServicesRecoveryRhode Island Schools Teach

  3. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  4. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  5. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: aSavings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inof the U.S. EPA’s Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) in

  6. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inof the U.S. EPA’s Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) in49638 Energy Savings of Heat-Island Reduction Strategies in

  7. 31Nano-Islands on Plastically Deformed Substrates with Disclinations Corresponding author: I.A. Ovid'ko, e-mail: ovidko@def.ipme.ru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    is capable of causing preferable spatial positions of nano-islands. The parameters of the substrate/nano-island systems are theoretically revealed that control spatial positions of nano-islands on disclinated

  8. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inof the U.S. EPA’s Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) inEnergy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: a

  9. Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Commander Islands: Summer Feeding Trips, Winter Migrations and Interactions with Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belonovich, Olga Andreevna

    2011-10-21

    The northern fur seal (NFS) population on the Pribilof Islands (PI) is currently declining while the population on the Commander Islands (CI which includes Bering and Medny Islands) is stable. The reasons for the different population trajectories...

  10. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

  11. Recent marine podocopid Ostracoda of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, R. B.

    1966-11-23

    major factors: ( I) inadequate collecting station location density; (2) lack of en- vironmental data obtained at time of sampling; and (3), loss of portions of the sample attributable to leakage of the sampling apparatus. It may be that the third factor... ni. FM 6. Propontocypris edwardsi ( CusHmAN), a-c, RV int., LV hinge, both valves dorsal, X 90. Williams-Podocopid Ostracoda of Narragansett Bay 13 Material.-Specimens 34, of which 29 were articulated. Distribution.-Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island...

  12. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  13. Indium Growth and Island Height Control on Si Submonolayer Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jizhou

    2009-05-09

    Nanotechnology refers any technique that involves about object with nanoscale (10{sup -9} m) or even smaller. It has become more and more important in recently years and has changed our world dramatically. Most of modern electronic devices today should thanks to the miniaturizing driven by development of nanotechnology. Recent years, more and more governments are investing huge amount of money in research related to nanotechnology. There are two major reasons that nanostructure is so fascinate. The first one is the miniaturizing. It is obvious that if we can make products smaller without losing the features, we can save the cost and increase the performance dramatically. For an example, the first computer in the world, ENIAC, which occupied several rooms, is less powerful than the cheapest calculator today. Today's chips with sizes of less than half an inch contain millions of basic units. All these should thank to the development of nanotechnology. The other reason is that when we come to nanoscale, there are many new effects due to the quantum effect which can't be found in large systems. For an example, quantum dots (QDs) are systems which sizes are below 1{micro}m(10{sup -6}m) and restricted in three dimensions. There are many interesting quantum effects in QDs, including discrete energy levels, and interdot coupling. Due to these properties and their small sizes, QDs have varies potential applications such as quantum computing, probe, light emitting device, solar cells, and laser. To meet the requirement of the nanoelectrical applications, the QDs must be grown highly uniformly because their property is highly dependent on their sizes. The major methods to grow uniform QDs include epitaxial, and lithograph. Lithography is a process to make patterns on a thin film by selectively removing certain parts of the film. Using this method, people have good control over size, location and spacing of QDs. For an example, the Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have a wave length of 13.4nm so it can curve on the surface of an sample to make structure as small as the order of 10nm. however, lithograph usually causes permanent damages to the surface and in many cases the QDs are damaged during the lithograph and therefore result in high percentage of defects. Quantum size effect has attracted more and more interests in surface science due to many of its effects. One of its effects is the height preference in film growing and the resulting possibility of uniformly sized self-assemble nanostructure. The experiment of Pb islands on In 4x1 phase shows that both the height and the width can be controlled by proper growth conditions, which expands the growth dimensions from 1 to 2. This discover leads us to study the In/Pb interface. In Ch.3, we found that the Pb islands growing on In 4x1-Si(111) surface which have uniform height due to QSE and uniform width due to the constriction of In 4x1 lattice have unexpected stability. These islands are stable in even RT, unlike usual nanostructures on Pb/Si surface which are stable only at low temperature. Since similar structures are usually grown at low temperature, this discovery makes the grown structures closer to technological applications. It also shows the unusual of In/Pb interface. Then we studied the In islands grown on Pb-{alpha}-{radical}3x{radical}3-Si(111) phase in Ch.4. These islands have fcc structure in the first few layers, and then convert to bct structure. The In fcc islands have sharp height preference due to QSE like Pb islands. However, the preferred height is different (7 layer for Pb on Si 7x7 and 4 layer for Pb on In 4x1), due to the difference of interface. The In islands structure prefers to be bct than fcc with coverage increase. It is quantitatively supported by first-principle calculation. Unexpectedly, the In islands grown on various of In interfaces didn't show QSE effects and phase transition from fcc and bct structures as on the Pb-{alpha} interface (Ch.6). In g(s) curve there is no clear oscillations in the g(s) curve as the In on Pb-{alpha} phase. This

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Olis, D.; Warren, A.

    2011-09-01

    This report lays out the strategy envisioned by the stakeholders in the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Interior to achieve the ambitious goal of achieving a 60% reduction in business-as-usual fossil fuel demand by 2025 (60x25) within the electricity sector. This work and supporting analysis provides a framework within which decisions can begin to be made, a concrete vision of what the future might hold, and a guide to determine what questions should follow.

  15. Grand Island, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia: EnergyGorlitz AGGranby,InformationIsland, New

  16. East Providence, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH Jump to:Providence, Rhode Island: Energy Resources Jump to:

  17. Energy Incentive Programs, Rhode Island | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeCommunication3-EDepartment ofArizona EnergyHampshire EnergyOregon EnergyRhode Island

  18. MHK Projects/Pike Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5 < MHK ProjectsHawaiiInformationIsland <

  19. City of Grand Island, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtdEllsworth, IowaGraettinger, Iowa (Utility Company)Grand Island,

  20. Liberty Power Corp. (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds, UnitedLiberty Power Corp. Place: Rhode Island Website:

  1. Rhode Island/Wind Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewable Energy| Open Energyfault andRhode Island/Wind

  2. Smithfield, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH JumpSlough Heat andCreek GeothermalRhode Island:

  3. Bay Harbor Islands, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources JumpBayHarbor Islands,

  4. Bristol, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine: Energy ResourcesCounty,Wisconsin: EnergyCounty,Rhode Island: Energy

  5. Central Falls, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio: EnergyFalls, Rhode Island:

  6. Kodiak Island Borough School District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanoshKetchikanKlondike III I Wind FarmElectricIsland

  7. MHK Projects/Turnbull Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough Bend <Turnbull Island < MHK

  8. MHK Projects/Vidal Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough BendVidal Island < MHK Projects

  9. Mustang Island Offshore Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation, searchsourceEnergyTexas: Energy ResourcesIsland Offshore

  10. Bell Island Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColoradoBelcher Homes Jump to:OASBell Island Hot

  11. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Rhode Island | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectric powerMeasuresEnergyNewEnergyRhode Island.

  12. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    simulated energy and power savings from HIR strategies byEnergy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies49638 Energy Savings of Heat-Island Reduction Strategies in

  13. The invertebrate fossils of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, and their role in our understanding of the Eocene climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mark A.

    The invertebrate fossils of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, and their role in our;Collins | 2 Cover artwork: Seymour Island ­ Antarctica 2003 By: Kurtis Burmeister National Science Foundation Source: Antarctic Photo Library United States Antarctic Program #12;Collins | 3 TABLE

  14. The effect of cattle grazing on the abundance and distribution of selected macroinvertebrates in west Galveston Island salt marshes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jennifer Lynn

    2004-09-30

    bidentatus) was evaluated over four seasons (summer 2000, fall 2000, winter 2001, and spring 2001) in grazed and ungrazed treatments. A Galveston Island salt marsh adjacent to Snake Island Cove was sampled at five elevations, from the water's edge...

  15. Can Ecotourism Help Achieve Sustainable Development? A SWOT Analysis of the Marine Ecotourism Sector on Andros Island, Bahamas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baller, Joshua

    2014-11-27

    sustainable development in small island states. This will be carried out through an analysis of the marine ecotourism sector on Andros Island, The Bahamas, using SWOT Analysis to determine whether or not ecotourism is viable as a sustainable development option...

  16. Author's personal copy Wading bird guano contributes to Hg accumulation in tree island soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . The mean Hg concentration in surface soils of ghost tree islands was low and similar to marsh soil. For live tree islands, Hg concentrations in the surface head region were considerably greater than those Everglades typically consists of head, middle and tail re- gions (Mason and Valk, 2002). The head is the most

  17. Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia MONICA GOIGEL TURNER Cumberiand Island National !&shore, Georgia,is inhabited by a population of feral horsea an acceptable population size of feral horses. Five-year shnulations indicated a threshold of 2,700 kg

  18. Atomic force microscopy study of the growth and annealing of Ge islands on Si(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Bing; Berrie, Cindy L.; Kitajima, Takeshi; Bright, John; Leone, Stephen R.

    2002-03-01

    "superdome" (named b y W i n . iams et a/ . 1 5 ) . Superdomes will not only consume most o f t h e supersaturation, but also the surrounding small coherent islands. 1 6 This complicates the interpretation of island d e n -sity and size distribution...

  19. RELATIONSHIPS OF THE BLUE SHARK, PRZONACE GLAUCA, AND ITS PREY SPECIES NEAR SANTA CATALINA ISLAND, CALIFORNIA'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    RELATIONSHIPS OF THE BLUE SHARK, PRZONACE GLAUCA, AND ITS PREY SPECIES NEAR SANTA CATALINA ISLAND the major prey for the blue shark, Prionace glauca, near Santa Catalina Island, Calif. The northern anchovy to prey behavior. The blue shark,Prionace glauca (Carcharhinidae) (Figure 11,is a pelagic carnivore

  20. artha's Vineyard Shellfish Group is a public nonprofit located on Martha's Vineyard Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    M artha's Vineyard Shellfish Group is a public nonprofit located on Martha's Vineyard Island in Massachusetts. History The Group was founded over thirty years ago in order to help the six towns on the island per year of extreme heat (over 90° Fahrenheit) in Massachusetts.1 Martha's Vineyard Shellfish Group