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Sample records for gan island maldives

  1. ARM - AMIE Gan Island - Data Plots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gan Related Links amie.png 34h AMIE Home cindy.png 50h CINDY2011 dynamo.png 34h DYNAMO ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Outreach News & Press Blog Backgrounder (PDF, 1.2MB) Education Flyer (PDF, 2.0MB) Images ARM flickr site Official AMIE Logo AMIE Gear Experiment Planning Steering Committee AMIE-MANUS Proposal Abstract AMIE-GAN Proposal Abstract Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Deployment Operations Science Plan - TWP Manus Site (PDF, 2.1 MB) Science Plan - Gan Island Site (PDF, 2.0

  2. ARM - News from the Gan Island Deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News from the Gan Island Deployment Related Links amie.png 34h AMIE Home cindy.png 50h CINDY2011 dynamo.png 34h DYNAMO ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Outreach News & Press Blog Backgrounder (PDF, 1.2MB) Education Flyer (PDF, 2.0MB) Images ARM flickr site Official AMIE Logo AMIE Gear Experiment Planning Steering Committee AMIE-MANUS Proposal Abstract AMIE-GAN Proposal Abstract Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Deployment Operations Science Plan - TWP Manus Site (PDF, 2.1 MB) Science

  3. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  4. Maldives-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maldives-NREL Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Maldives-NREL Cooperation Name Maldives-NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy...

  5. Maldives: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Maldives Population 393,500 GDP 1,944,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MV 3-letter ISO code MDV Numeric ISO...

  6. Mismatch relaxation by stacking fault formation of AlN islands in AlGaN/GaN structures on m-plane GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Grzegory, Izabella

    2011-08-08

    We study the mismatch relaxation of 2-5 nm thin elongated AlN islands formed during growth of AlGaN on bulk m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy. The relaxation of these m-plane AlN layers is anisotropic and occurs through the introduction of stacking faults in [0001] planes during island coalescence, while no relaxation is observed along the perpendicular [1120] direction. This anisotropy in the mismatch relaxation and the formation of stacking faults in the AlN islands are explained by the growth mode of the AlN platelets and their coalescence along the [0001] direction.

  7. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM field campaigns on Gan Island, Maldives and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea will contribute significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing ...

  8. ARM - ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) ARM field campaigns on Gan Island, Maldives, and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, will contribute significantly to concurrent national and ...

  9. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Instruments : Gan Island, Maldives Active Retired Active instruments...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - AMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island 2011.10.01, Long, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : AMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer 2012.01.01 - 2012.02.10 Lead Scientist : Mariko Oue For data sets, see below. Abstract As part of the AMIE-Gan campaign, an ancillary disdrometer for comparison

  11. ISLANDER

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003251WKSTN00 Genomic Island Identification Software v 1.0 http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/software

  12. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report M Oue April 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. ...

  13. Growth modes of InN(000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen, Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-01-24

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesa-like with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered.

  14. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual ... Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be ...

  15. Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesMobile Facility AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010

  16. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesInstruments AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa

  17. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesInstruments AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa

  18. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs,

  19. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  20. Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for plasmonic applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier...

  1. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  2. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  3. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D'Evelyn, MP

    2014-10-01

    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ferromagnetism in undoped One-dimensional GaN Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeganathan, K. E-mail: jagan@physics.bdu.ac.in; Purushothaman, V.; Debnath, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-05-15

    We report an intrinsic ferromagnetism in vertical aligned GaN nanowires (NW) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy without any external catalyst. The magnetization saturates at ?0.75 emu/gm with the applied field of 3000 Oe for the NWs grown under the low-Gallium flux of 2.4 10{sup ?8} mbar. Despite a drop in saturation magnetization, narrow hysteresis loop remains intact regardless of Gallium flux. Magnetization in vertical standing GaN NWs is consistent with the spectral analysis of low-temperature photoluminescence pertaining to Ga-vacancies associated structural defects at the nanoscale.

  5. US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot Project Jump to: navigation, search Logo: US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot...

  6. Properties of H, O and C in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted into GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.

  7. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  8. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-09-08

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  9. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-04-18

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  10. San Miguel Island, Channel Islands National Park, California | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Miguel Island, Channel Islands National Park, California San Miguel Island, Channel Islands National Park, California Photo of Wind/Photovoltaic Power System at San Miguel Island San Miguel Island is one of five islands that make up Channel Islands National Park on the coast of southern California. The islands comprise 249,353 acres (100,910 hectares) of land and ocean that teems with terrestrial and marine life. The National Park Service (NPS) protects the pristine resources at

  11. Monhegan Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island Jump to: navigation, search Name Monhegan Island Facility Monhegan Island Sector Wind energy Facility Type Offshore Wind Facility Status Proposed Owner Maine State Dept of...

  12. Washington County, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island Bradford, Rhode Island Charlestown, Rhode Island Exeter, Rhode Island Hope Valley, Rhode Island Hopkinton, Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island Narragansett Pier,...

  13. Island Energy Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sixth annual Island Energy Conference will include speakers and panels on Friday, November 6, and a site visit to Star Island, New Hampshire, that hosts Northern New England’s largest offshore...

  14. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Bainbridge Island Data Dashboard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The data dashboard for Bainbridge Island, a partner in the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  16. Island Energy Snapshots

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These energy snapshots highlight the energy landscape of islands in the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the surrounding area.

  17. This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  18. Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M.T.T., 60 (6) (2012) 3 Jon Ihlefeld, Sandia National Laboratories Electronic Materials ... Undoped GaN Undoped AlGaN Doped AlGaN 2D Electron Gas Enhancement Mode (nominally ...

  19. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dislocation confinement in the growth ...

  20. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  1. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok; Jeon, In-Jun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yi, Sam Nyung; Ha, Dong Han

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  3. Island Boundaries, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Outline of Hawaiian islands (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii) generated from the Geologic Map of the State of Hawaii published by the USGS in 2007.

  4. San Clemente Island, Channel Islands National Park, California...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    San Clemente Island, Channel Islands National Park, California Photo of Wind Turbine on ... Management Program (FEMP). A third turbine was installed in 1999, allowing the wind ...

  5. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  6. TWP Island Cloud Trail Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These island cloud trails have been observed from both the islands of Nauru and Manus, Papua New Guinea. Figure 2 shows an island cloud at Manus observed from MTI and from the ...

  7. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  8. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  9. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs) are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was determined

  10. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of GaN and AlGaN semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuppulingam, B. Singh, Shubra Baskar, K.

    2014-04-24

    Hexagonal Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) complex route. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of GaN and Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N nanoparticles. Surface morphology and elemental analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) study shows the near band edge emission for GaN at 3.35 eV and at 3.59 eV for AlGaN nanoparticles. The Aluminum (Al) composition of 20% has been obtained from PL emission around 345 nm.

  11. United States Virgin Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rebate Program (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin Islands - Energy Efficiency Residential Rebates (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin...

  12. Electrical and optical properties of carbon-doped GaN grown by MBE on MOCVD GaN templates using a CCl4 dopant source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, Rob; Yang, Qing; Feick, Henning; Park, Yeonjoon; Weber, Eicke R.

    2002-04-15

    Carbon-doped GaN was grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using carbon tetrachloride vapor as the dopant source. For moderate doping mainly acceptors were formed, yielding semi-insulating GaN. However at higher concentrations p-type conductivity was not observed, and heavily doped films (>5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) were actually n-type rather than semi-insulating. Photoluminescence measurements showed two broad luminescence bands centered at 2.2 and 2.9 eV. The intensity of both bands increased with carbon content, but the 2.2 eV band dominated in n-type samples. Intense, narrow ({approx}6 meV) donor-bound exciton peaks were observed in the semi-insulating samples.

  13. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  14. PSEG Long Island- Renewable Electricity Goal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: As of January 1, 2014, Long Island is served by PSEG Long Island, replacing Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Long Island Renewable Energy goal ended in 2013, and currently does not have...

  15. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing

  16. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  17. Influence of growth temperature and temperature ramps on deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, A. M.; Kelchner, K.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Speck, J. S.

    2013-12-02

    The dependence of deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on bulk m-plane GaN substrates as a function of growth temperature (T{sub g}) and T{sub g} ramping method was investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy. Understanding the influence of T{sub g} on GaN deep level incorporation is important for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) because GaN quantum barrier (QB) layers are grown much colder than thin film GaN to accommodate InGaN QW growth. Deep level spectra of low T{sub g} (800?C) GaN films grown under QB conditions were compared to deep level spectra of high T{sub g} (1150?C) GaN. Reducing T{sub g}, increased the defect density significantly (>50) through introduction of emergent deep level defects at 2.09?eV and 2.9?eV below the conduction band minimum. However, optimizing growth conditions during the temperature ramp when transitioning from high to low T{sub g} substantially reduced the density of these emergent deep levels by approximately 40%. The results suggest that it is important to consider the potential for non-radiative recombination in QBs of LED or LD active regions, and tailoring the transition from high T{sub g} GaN growth to active layer growth can mitigate such non-radiative channels.

  18. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patsha, Avinash E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-09-21

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires.

  19. Island Wide Management Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    9 1986 Island Wide Management Corporation 3000 Marcus Avenue Lake Success, New York 11042 Dear Sir or Madam: I am sending you this letter and the enclosed information as you have been identified by L. I. Trinin of Glick Construction Company as the representatives of the owners of the property that was formerly the site of the Sylvania-Corning Nuclear Corporation in Bayside, New York. The Department of Energy is evaluating the radiological condition of sites that were utilized under the Manhattan

  20. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, E. A.; Shelton, T. C.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D.; Mita, S.

    2012-08-27

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface by stabilizing the {l_brace}111{r_brace} rocksalt facet. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100 Multiplication-Sign reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. These data verify numerous predictions regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of rocksalt crystals.

  1. Anisotropy of two-photon absorption and free-carrier effect in nonpolar GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Yang, Junyi; Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Li, Zhongguo; Song, Yinglin

    2015-03-30

    We reported a systematic study about the anisotropic optical nonlinearities in bulk m-plane and a-plane GaN crystals by Z-scan and pump-probe with phase object methods under picosecond at 532 nm. The two-photon absorption coefficient, which was measured as a function of polarization angle, exhibited oscillation curves with a period of π/2, indicating a highly polarized optical third-order nonlinearity in both nonpolar GaN samples. Furthermore, free-carrier absorption revealed stronger hole-related absorption for E⊥c than for E//c probe polarization. In contrast, free-carrier refraction was found almost isotropic due to electron-related refraction in the isotropic conduction bands.

  2. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; et al

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  3. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Chandan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Chander, D. Sathish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India) [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Ramkumar, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Dhamodaran, S., E-mail: kdams2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs-Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs-Thomson effect for the palladium

  4. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  5. Analysis of the carbon-related 'blue' luminescence in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, R.; Yang, Q.; Weber, E.R.

    2004-09-24

    The properties of a broad 2.86 eV photoluminescence band in carbon-doped GaN were studied as a function of C-doping level, temperature, and excitation density. The results are consistent with a C{sub Ga}-C{sub N} deep donor-deep acceptor recombination mechanism as proposed by Seager et al. For GaN:C grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) the 2.86 eV band is observed in Si co-doped layers exhibiting high n-type conductivity as well as in semi-insulating material. For low excitation density (4 W/cm{sup 2}) the 2.86 eV band intensity decreases as a function of cw-laser exposure time over a period of many minutes. The transient behavior is consistent with a model based on carrier diffusion and charge trapping-induced Coulomb barriers. The temperature dependence of the blue luminescence below 150 K was different for carbon-contaminated GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) compared to C-doped MBE GaN.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Bellotti, Enrico; Rudin, Sergey; Garrett, Gregory A.; Wraback, Michael

    2013-12-21

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the sub-picosecond dynamics of photo-excited carriers in GaN. In the theoretical model, interaction with an external ultrafast laser pulse is treated coherently and to account for the scattering mechanisms and dephasing processes, a generalized Monte-Carlo simulation is used. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We study the effect of different scattering mechanisms on the carrier densities. In the case that the excitation energy satisfies the threshold for polar optical scattering, phonon contribution is the dominant process in relaxing the system, otherwise, carrier-carrier mechanism is dominant. Furthermore, we present the temperature and pulse power dependent normalized luminescence intensity. The results are presented over a range of temperatures, electric field, and excitation energy of the laser pulse. For comparison, we also report the experimental time-resolved photoluminescence studies on GaN samples. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experiment in normalized luminescence intensity results. Therefore, we show that we can explain the dynamics of the photo-excited carriers in GaN by including only carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions and a relatively simple two-band electronic structure model.

  7. Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

  8. Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, Jeramy R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Fischer, Arthur J.; King, Michael P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Kizilyalli, Isik C.; Aktas, Ozgur; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.

    2015-12-07

    Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination (ET) are demonstrated. The GaN p-n junction is formed on a low threading dislocation defect density (104 - 105 cm-2) GaN substrate, and has a 15-μm-thick n-type drift layer with a free carrier concentration of 5 × 1015 cm-3. The ET structure is formed by N implantation into the p+-GaN epilayer just outside the p-type contact to create compensating defects. The implant defect profile may be approximated by a bilayer structure consisting of a fully compensated layer near the surface, followed by a 90% compensated (p) layer near the n-type drift region. These devices exhibit avalanche breakdown as high as 2.6 kV at room temperature. In addition simulations show that the ET created by implantation is an effective way to laterally distribute the electric field over a large area. This increases the voltage at which impact ionization occurs and leads to the observed higher breakdown voltages.

  9. Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dickerson, Jeramy R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Fischer, Arthur J.; King, Michael P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Kizilyalli, Isik C.; Aktas, Ozgur; et al

    2015-12-07

    Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination (ET) are demonstrated. The GaN p-n junction is formed on a low threading dislocation defect density (104 - 105 cm-2) GaN substrate, and has a 15-μm-thick n-type drift layer with a free carrier concentration of 5 × 1015 cm-3. The ET structure is formed by N implantation into the p+-GaN epilayer just outside the p-type contact to create compensating defects. The implant defect profile may be approximated by a bilayer structure consisting of a fully compensated layer near the surface, followed by a 90% compensated (p) layer near the n-type driftmore » region. These devices exhibit avalanche breakdown as high as 2.6 kV at room temperature. In addition simulations show that the ET created by implantation is an effective way to laterally distribute the electric field over a large area. This increases the voltage at which impact ionization occurs and leads to the observed higher breakdown voltages.« less

  10. AMF Deployment, Graciosa Island, Azores

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graciosa Island Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments Satellite Retrievals Experiment Planning CAP-MBL Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Science Questions Science Plan...

  11. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Mn doped GaN epitaxial films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidyasagar, R.; Lin, Y.-T.; Tu, L.-W.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: We report here that micro-Raman scattering spectrum for Mn doped GaN thin film has displayed a new peak manifested at 578 cm{sup −1}, by which it is attributed to interior LVM originated by the incorporation of Mn ions in place of Ga sites. Mn doped GaN thin film also showed the typical negative magnetoresistance up to ∼50 K, revealing that the film showed magnetic ordering of spins below 50 K. Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN and Mn doped GaN single phase wurtzite structures grown by PAMBE. ► The phase purity of the epilayers investigated by HRXRD, HRSEM and EDX. ► The red shift in near band edge emission has been observed using micro-PL. ► A new peak related LVM at 578 cm{sup −1} in micro-Raman scattering measurements confirmed Mn doped into GaN. ► Negative-magnetoresistance investigations have showed that the film has T{sub c} < 50 K. -- Abstract: Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Mn doped GaN, and GaN epitaxial films have been investigated by employing micro-photoluminescence, micro-Raman, and temperature dependent magneto-resistance measurements. The HR-XRD profiles have shown that the epitaxial films are in hexagonal wurtzite structures. Morphology and composition of the films have been examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Micro-photoluminescence spectrum displayed a dominant near band edge emission at 362 nm, which is assigned to near band edge transition within the hexagonal structure of GaN. Raman scattering profiles showed a new vibrational mode at 578 cm{sup −1}, which is attributed to the vacancy-related local vibrational mode of Mn occupying the Ga site. Temperature dependent negative magnetoresistance measurements provide a direct evidence of magnetic ordering below 50 K for the Mn doped GaN thin film.

  12. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  13. Utilization of native oxygen in Eu(RE)-doped GaN for enabling device compatibility in optoelectronic applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Timmerman, D.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Zhu, W.; Lee, D.; Wakamatsu, R.; Takatsu, J.; Matsuda, M.; Guo, Wei; Lorenz, K.; et al

    2016-01-04

    The detrimental influence of oxygen on the performance and reliability of V/III nitride based devices is well known. However, the influence of oxygen on the nature of the incorporation of other co-dopants, such as rare earth ions, has been largely overlooked in GaN. Here, we report the first comprehensive study of the critical role that oxygen has on Eu in GaN, as well as atomic scale observation of diffusion and local concentration of both atoms in the crystal lattice. We find that oxygen plays an integral role in the location, stability, and local defect structure around the Eu ions thatmore » were doped into the GaN host. Although the availability of oxygen is essential for these properties, it renders the material incompatible with GaN-based devices. However, the utilization of the normally occurring oxygen in GaN is promoted through structural manipulation, reducing its concentration by 2 orders of magnitude, while maintaining both the material quality and the favorable optical properties of the Eu ions. Furthermore, these findings open the way for full integration of RE dopants for optoelectronic functionalities in the existing GaN platform.« less

  14. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  15. Island Energy Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Island Energy Solutions Place: Kailua, Hawaii Zip: 96734 Product: Island Energy Solutions, Inc. is an electrical contracting company, based out of Kailua, Oahu,...

  16. Island Energy Snapshots | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    islands around the globe, the featured islands are heavily reliant on fossil fuels for electricity generation, leaving them vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations that...

  17. Fox Islands Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fox Islands Electric Cooperative Location Vinalhaven Island ME Coordinates 44.088391, -68.857802 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":...

  18. University of Rhode Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Testing Facilities Name University of Rhode Island Address Department of Ocean Engineering, Sheets Building, Bay Campus Place Narragansett, Rhode Island Zip 02882 Sector...

  19. Hainan Green Islands Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Islands Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hainan Green Islands Power Place: Hainan Province, China Sector: Solar Product: China-based JV developing on-grid solar...

  20. Grey Island Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grey Island Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grey Island Energy Inc Address: Suite 3003 Inco Innovation Centre Memorial University of Newfoundland PO Box 4200 Place: St...

  1. MWRA Deer Island Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name MWRA Deer Island Wind Facility MWRA Deer Island Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner MWRA Deer...

  2. Ab initio study on noncompensated CrO codoping of GaN for enhanced solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Hui; Gu, Baohua; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2010-03-01

    We describe a novel photocatalyst obtained by codoping GaN with CrO, according to a new "noncompensated" codoping concept based on first-principles calculations. The approach enables controllable narrowing of the GaN band gap with significantly enhanced carrier mobility and photocatalytic activity in the visible light region and thus offers immense potential for application in solar energy conversion, water splitting, and a variety of solar-assisted photocatalysis. Our calculations indicate that the formation energy for the cation doping is greatly reduced by noncompensated codoping with an anion. Although Cr doping alone can split the band gap with the formation of an intermediate band, the mobility is low due to carrier trapping by the localized states. The first-principles calculations also demonstrate that CrO codoping of GaN shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band resulting in high carrier density and mobility.

  3. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  4. Properties of radio-frequency-sputter-deposited GaN films in a nitrogen/hydrogen mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyazaki, Takayuki; Takada, Kouhei; Adachi, Sadao; Ohtsuka, Kohji

    2005-05-01

    GaN films have been deposited by reactive sputtering in nitrogen gas at pressures from 0.08 to 2.70 Pa with and without the addition of hydrogen gas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been used to characterize the sputter-deposited GaN films. The XRD pattern reveals that the GaN films deposited in nitrogen gas at pressures lower than 0.53 Pa are polycrystals with the (0001) texture ({alpha}-GaN), while those deposited at or above 1.07 Pa display mixed crystalline orientations or an amorphous-like nature. The GaN:H films deposited in nitrogen/hydrogen mixed gas, on the other hand, show an amorphous or amorphous-like nature. The FTIR spectra indicate that the GaN:H films show peaks arising from hydrogen-related bonds at {approx}1000 and {approx}3200 cm{sup -1}, in addition to the GaN absorption band at {approx}555 cm{sup -1}. The optical absorption spectra at 300 K indicate the fundamental absorption edges at {approx}3.38 and {approx}3.7 eV for the highly oriented {alpha}-GaN and amorphous GaN:H films, respectively. PL emission has been observed from sputter-deposited {alpha}-GaN films at temperatures below 100 K. The GaN:H films also show strong band-edge and donor-acceptor pair emissions. The PL emission in the GaN:H film may arise from crystalline GaN particles embedded in the amorphous GaN matrix.

  5. Electroreflectance study of the effect of {gamma} radiation on the optical properties of epitaxial GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, A. E.; Klyui, N. I. Konakova, R. V.; Lukyanov, A. N.; Danilchenko, B. A.; Sveshnikov, J. N.; Klyui, A. N.

    2012-03-15

    Experimental data on the electroreflectance spectra of {gamma}-irradiated epitaxial GaN films on sapphire are reported. The irradiation doses are 10{sup 5}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} rad. The theoretical electroreflectance spectra calculated on the basis of a model of three types of transitions are in agreement with experimental data with reasonable accuracy. The energies and broadenings of the transitions derived in the context of the model give grounds to infer that, in the GaN films, there are internal stresses dependent on the {gamma}-irradiation dose.

  6. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamand, S.M.; Omar, M.S.; Muhammad, A.J.

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  7. EIS-0006: Wind Turbine Generator System, Block Island, Rhode Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of installing and operating a large experimental wind turbine, designated the MOD-OA, which is proposed to be installed on a knoll in Rhode Island's New Meadow Hill Swamp, integrated with the adjacent Block Island Power Company power plant and operated to supply electricity to the existing utility network.

  8. Impact of the GaN nanowire polarity on energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogneau, Noelle Galopin, Elisabeth; Guilet, Stephane; Travers, Laurent; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Chrétien, Pascal; Houzé, Frédéric

    2014-05-26

    We investigate the piezoelectric generation properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) by atomic force microscopy equipped with a Resiscope module for electrical measurements. By correlating the topography profile of the NWs with the recorded voltage peaks generated by these nanostructures in response to their deformation, we demonstrate the influence of their polarity on the rectifying behavior of the Schottky diode formed between the NWs and the electrode of measurement. These results establish that the piezo-generation mechanism crucially depends on the structural characteristics of the NWs.

  9. Mechanism of the GaN LED efficiency falloff with increasing current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochkareva, N. I.; Voronenkov, V. V.; Gorbunov, R. I.; Zubrilov, A. S.; Lelikov, Y. S.; Latyshev, F. E.; Rebane, Y. T.; Tsyuk, A. I.; Shreter, Y. G.

    2010-06-15

    The quantum efficiency of GaN LED structures has been studied at various temperatures and biases. It was found that an efficiency falloff is observed with increasing current density and, simultaneously, the tunnel component of the current through the LED grows and the quasi-Fermi levels reach the mobility edge in the InGaN active layer. It is shown that the internal quantum efficiency falloff with increasing current density is due to the carrier leakage from the quantum well as a result of tunnel transitions from its band-tail states to local defect-related energy levels within the energy gaps of the barrier layers.

  10. Island Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: W1J 7BU Sector: Renewable Energy Product: UK-based coal bed methane company, Island Gas was the subject of a reverse takeover by KP Renewables in...

  11. Lessons Learned in Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transition Initiative » Lessons Learned in Islands Lessons Learned in Islands Hawai'i, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and other island communities have successfully implemented renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to decrease their reliance on fossil fuels and achieve sustainability, economic development, and other goals. Read how in these lessons learned, which are also featured in the Islands Energy Playbook. Assessing Pathways in Aruba Learn how Aruba developed an actionable

  12. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Elisibeth A.; Shelton, T C; Mita, S; Gaddy, Brian E.; Irving, D L; Christen, Hans M; Sitar, Z; Biegalski, Michael D; Maria, Jon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface due to stabilizing the {111} rocksalt facet. MBE growth of MgO in water terminates after several monolayers, and is attributed to saturation of surface active sites needed to facilitate the Mg oxidation reaction. MgO films prepared by PLD grow continuously, this occurs due to the presence of excited oxidizing species in the laser plasma eliminate the need for catalytic surface sites. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly two order of magnitude reduction in leakage current density for the smoother surfactant-assisted samples. Collectively, these data verify numerous predictions and calculations regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of MgO crystals.

  13. The effect of N-polar GaN domains as Ohmic contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, J.; Mita, S.; Collazo, R.; Rice, A.; Tweedie, J.; Sitar, Z.

    2010-09-20

    Transfer line method measurements revealed that if the Ohmic contact regions were replaced by N-polar GaN, the contact resistance could be reduced from 0.71 {Omega} mm (or {rho}{sub c}=4x10{sup -6} {Omega} cm{sup 2}) to 0.24 {Omega} mm for a {approx}200 nm thick Si-doped GaN layer. The reduction in contact resistance was largely due to the {approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} free carriers in N-polar source/drain regions as measured by Hall effect. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy confirmed that oxygen doping in the N-polar region was more than three orders of magnitude greater than that in the Ga-polar region that was explained by the large difference in the adsorption energy for oxygen ({approx}1.3 eV/atom) between the N- and Ga-polar surfaces during the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Enhanced UV detection by non-polar epitaxial GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Roul, Basanta; Shetty, Arjun

    2015-12-15

    Nonpolar a-GaN (11-20) epilayers were grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution x-ray diffractometer confirmed the orientation of the grown film. Effect of the Ga/N ratio on the morphology and strain of a-GaN epilayers was compared and the best condition was obtained for the nitrogen flow of 1 sccm. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology while the strain in the film was quantitatively measured using Raman spectroscopy and qualitatively analyzed by reciprocal space mapping technique. UV photo response of a-GaN film was measured after fabricating a metal-semiconductor-metal structure over the film with gold metal. The external quantum efficiency of the photodetectors fabricated in the (0002) polar and (11-20) nonpolar growth directions were compared in terms of responsivity and nonpolar GaN showed the best sensitivity at the cost of comparatively slow response time.

  15. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; McLaren, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.

    2015-10-26

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er{sup 3+} ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  16. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in

  17. Rhode Island Offshore Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island Offshore Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Rhode Island Offshore Wind Farm Facility Rhode Island Offshore Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Offshore...

  18. Newby Island I Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newby Island I Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Newby Island I Biomass Facility Facility Newby Island I Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Santa...

  19. Long Island Power Authority Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Facility Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Sector Solar...

  20. Mustang Island Offshore Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island Offshore Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mustang Island Offshore Wind Farm Facility Mustang Island Offshore Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Offshore...

  1. Newport County, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 Climate Zone Subtype A. Registered Energy Companies in Newport County, Rhode Island Forbes Energy LLC Places in Newport County, Rhode Island Jamestown, Rhode Island Little...

  2. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals Highlights a solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands ...

  3. Saint Paul Island Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paul Island Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Saint Paul Island Wind Farm Facility Saint Paul Island Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In...

  4. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  5. Tellurium n-type doping of highly mismatched amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, S. V.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Martin, R. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we report our study on n-type Te doping of amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have used a low temperature PbTe source as a source of tellurium. Reproducible and uniform tellurium incorporation in amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been successfully achieved with a maximum Te concentration of 9×10²⁰ cm⁻³. Tellurium incorporation resulted in n-doping of GaN1-xAsx layers with Hall carrier concentrations up to 3×10¹⁹ cm⁻³ and mobilities of ~1 cm²/V s. The optimal growth temperature window for efficient Te doping of the amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been determined.

  6. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  7. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  8. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  9. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  10. ARM - News from the Ascension Island deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govNews from the Ascension Island deployment News from the Ascension Island deployment Media Coverage Features ClimateWire "Do clouds + smoke = climate change? Africa may have answers" *Subscription required. June 16, 2016

  11. Market Update: New England Islanded Grids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Islanded Grid Resource Center (IGRC) for our upcoming webinar highlighting the islanded grid communities along the New England coast that are exploring their options for reducing high...

  12. REAP Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by Renewable Energy Alaska Project, this three-day conference will show attendees how to learn, network, and share information on wind systems in island and islanded grid environments through expert panel discussions, stakeholder dialogue, and training.

  13. REAP Islanded Grid Wind Power Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hosted by Renewable Energy Alaska Project, this three-day conference will show attendees how to learn, network, and share information on wind systems in island and islanded grid environments...

  14. Bainbridge Island Data Dashboard | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The data dashboard for Bainbridge Island, a partner in the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. Bainbridge Island Data Dashboard (301.2 KB) More ...

  15. Highly c-axis oriented GaN films grown on free-standing diamond substrates for high-power devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, J.M., E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qin, F.W.; Wang, J.; Pan, L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, J.M. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Y.; Bai, Y.Z. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Du, G.T. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} GaN films are deposited on diamond substrates by ECR-PEMOCVD. {yields} Influence of deposition temperature on the properties of samples is investigated. {yields} Properties of GaN films are dependent on the deposition temperature. -- Abstract: GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are deposited on free-standing thick diamond films by low temperature electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PEMOCVD). The TMGa and N{sub 2} are applied as precursors of Ga and N, respectively. The quality of as-grown GaN films are systematically investigated as a function of deposition temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Hall Effect measurement (HL), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the dense and uniformed GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are successfully achieved on free-standing diamond substrates under optimized deposition temperature of 400 {sup o}C, and the room temperature PL spectra of the optimized GaN film show a intense ultraviolet near band edge emission and a weak yellow luminescence. The obtained GaN/diamond structure has great potential for the development of high-power semiconductor devices due to its excellent heat dissipation nature.

  16. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  18. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - Wind Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Tribal Energy Program Review November 18, 2008 By Bruce Wright Connie Fredenberg Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association "The Birthplace of the Wind" Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. * 150 mph gusts * Extreme Turbulence Potential * Corrosive Salt Spray World Class Wind: A Mixed Blessing Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. LOGISTICS * Anchorage to Nikolski is 916 air miles for $1,316 rt. * During the fishing season a refundable ticket

  19. Islands and Our Renewable Energy Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Gevorgian, V.; Kelley, K.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    Only US Laboratory Dedicated Solely to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. High Contribution Renewables in Islanded Power Systems.

  20. Influence of the adatom diffusion on selective growth of GaN nanowire regular arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotschke, T.; Schumann, T.; Limbach, F.; Calarco, R.; Stoica, T.

    2011-03-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si/AlN/Si(111) substrates was used to obtain regular arrays of uniform-size GaN nanowires (NWs). The silicon top layer has been patterned with e-beam lithography, resulting in uniform arrays of holes with different diameters (d{sub h}) and periods (P). While the NW length is almost insensitive to the array parameters, the diameter increases significantly with d{sub h} and P till it saturates at P values higher than 800 nm. A diffusion induced model was used to explain the experimental results with an effective diffusion length of the adatoms on the Si, estimated to be about 400 nm.

  1. Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Junseok; Guo Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-01-10

    Optically pumped lasing at room temperature in a silicon based monolithic single GaN nanowire with a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is demonstrated. Catalyst-free nanowires with low density ({approx}10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}) are grown on Si by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the nanowires are of wurtzite structure and they have no observable defects. A single nanowire laser fabricated on Si is characterized by a lasing transition at {lambda}=371.3 nm with a linewidth of 0.55 nm. The threshold is observed at a pump power density of {approx}120 kW/cm{sup 2} and the spontaneous emission factor {beta} is estimated to be 0.08.

  2. Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Park, Pil Sung; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-12-05

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of GaN interband tunnel junction showing forward tunneling characteristics. We have achieved very high forward tunneling currents (153 mA/cm{sup 2} at 10 mV, and 17.7 A/cm{sup 2} peak current) in polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunction diodes grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We also report the observation of repeatable negative differential resistance in interband III-Nitride tunnel junctions, with peak-valley current ratio of 4 at room temperature. The forward current density achieved in this work meets the typical current drive requirements of a multi-junction solar cell.

  3. Resonant energy transfer between Eu luminescent sites and their local geometry in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timmerman, Dolf; Wakamatsu, Ryuta; Tanaka, Kazuteru; Lee, Dong-gun; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2015-10-12

    Eu-doped GaN is a solid state material with promising features for quantum manipulation. In this study, we investigate the population dynamics of Eu in ions in this system by resonant excitation. From differences in the emission related to transitions between the {sup 5}D{sub 0} and {sup 7}F{sub 2} manifold in the Eu ions, we can distinguish different luminescence sites and observe that a resonant energy transfer takes place between two of these sites which are in proximity of each other. The time constants related to this energy transfer are on the order of 100 μs. By using different substrates, the energy transfer efficiency could be strongly altered, and it is demonstrated that the coupling between ions has an out-of-plane character. Based on these results, a microscopic model of this combined center is presented.

  4. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Creighton, J. Randall

    2010-06-29

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  5. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Island Energy Playbook provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  7. Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-13

    Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

  8. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  9. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; Nie, H.; Disney, D.; Wierer, Jr., J.; Allerman, A. A.; Moseley, M. W.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remain superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.

  10. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  11. Elimination of surface band bending on N-polar InN with thin GaN capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmík, J. Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Dobročka, E.; Adikimenakis, A.; Mičušík, M.; Gregor, M.; Plecenik, A.; Georgakilas, A.

    2015-11-09

    0.5–1 μm thick InN (0001) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with N- or In-polarity are investigated for the presence of native oxide, surface energy band bending, and effects introduced by 2 to 4 monolayers of GaN capping. Ex situ angle-resolved x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy is used to construct near-surface (GaN)/InN energy profiles, which is combined with deconvolution of In3d signal to trace the presence of InN native oxide for different types of polarity and capping. Downwards surface energy band bending was observed on bare samples with native oxide, regardless of the polarity. It was found that the In-polar InN surface is most readily oxidized, however, with only slightly less band bending if compared with the N-polar sample. On the other hand, InN surface oxidation was effectively mitigated by GaN capping. Still, as confirmed by ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy and by energy band diagram calculations, thin GaN cap layer may provide negative piezoelectric polarization charge at the GaN/InN hetero-interface of the N-polar sample, in addition to the passivation effect. These effects raised the band diagram up by about 0.65 eV, reaching a flat-band profile.

  12. GaN nanowires with pentagon shape cross-section by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Yong; Leung, Benjamin; Li, Qiming; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-07-14

    In this study, ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) was used to grow catalyst-assisted GaN nanowires on (11¯02) r-plane sapphire substrates. Dislocation free [112¯0] oriented nanowires are formed with pentagon shape cross-section, instead of the usual triangular shape facet configuration. Specifically, the cross-section is the result of the additional two nonpolar {101¯0} side facets, which appear due to a decrease in relative growth rate of the {101¯0} facets to the {101¯1} and {101¯1} facets under the growth regime in NH3-MBE. Compared to GaN nanowires grown by Ni-catalyzed metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the NH3-MBE grown GaN nanowires show more than an ordermore » of magnitude increase in band-edge to yellow luminescence intensity ratio, as measured by cathodoluminescence, indicating improved microstructural and optical properties.« less

  13. Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors don’t operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levels—increasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

  14. GaN nanowires with pentagon shape cross-section by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yong; Leung, Benjamin; Li, Qiming; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-07-14

    In this study, ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) was used to grow catalyst-assisted GaN nanowires on (11¯02) r-plane sapphire substrates. Dislocation free [112¯0] oriented nanowires are formed with pentagon shape cross-section, instead of the usual triangular shape facet configuration. Specifically, the cross-section is the result of the additional two nonpolar {101¯0} side facets, which appear due to a decrease in relative growth rate of the {101¯0} facets to the {101¯1} and {101¯1} facets under the growth regime in NH3-MBE. Compared to GaN nanowires grown by Ni-catalyzed metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the NH3-MBE grown GaN nanowires show more than an order of magnitude increase in band-edge to yellow luminescence intensity ratio, as measured by cathodoluminescence, indicating improved microstructural and optical properties.

  15. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  16. Electrolysis on an Island Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis on an Island Grid Mitch Ewan Hydrogen Systems Program Manager Hawaii Natural Energy Institute School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa 28 February 2014 High Percentages of As-Available Renewable Resources Creates Problems for Grid Systems 1300MW 75MW 5MW 200MW  Good renewable resource mix;  High electricity costs; and  Grid issues.  Provide unique opportunity for validation and deployment of new renewable and enabling technologies. 200MW

  17. The Three Mile Island crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI.

  18. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  19. Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2012-06-20

    In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

  20. Carrier and photon dynamics in a topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/GaN type II staggered heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Chouksey, S.; Banerjee, D.; Ganguly, S.; Saha, D.

    2015-11-09

    We have demonstrated a type-II band-aligned heterostructure between pulsed laser deposited topological insulator bismuth telluride and metal organic-chemical-vapour deposited GaN on a sapphire substrate. The heterostructure shows a large valence band-offset of 3.27 eV as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is close to the bandgap of GaN (3.4 eV). Further investigation using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrum reveals the stoichiometric and material properties of bismuth telluride on GaN. Steady state photon emission from GaN is found to be modulated by the charge transfer process due to diffusion across the junction. The time constant involved with the charge transfer process is found to be 0.6 ns by transient absorption spectroscopy. The heterostructure can be used for designing devices with different functionalities and improving the performance of the existing devices on GaN.

  1. A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; Poyé, A.; Yagi, M.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  3. NREL: Technology Deployment - Technical Assistance for Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Islands NREL provides technical assistance to help islands reduce dependence on fossil fuels and increase energy security by implementing energy efficiency measures and leveraging indigenous renewable resources. Hawaii NREL Helps Design LEED Platinum Affordable Housing U.S. Virgin Islands Landmark Solar Deal Completed with NREL Support This tailored technical assistance includes: Establishing baseline energy use Measuring available renewable resources Assessing the viability of various energy

  4. Freedom Energy (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Freedom Energy Place: Rhode Island Website: www.freedomenergytechnologies. Facebook: https:www.facebook.comFreedomEnergyTechnologies References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File...

  5. GEXA Corp. (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEXA Corp. Place: Rhode Island Website: www.gexaenergy.com Twitter: @nationalgridus Facebook: https:www.facebook.comnationalgrid Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  6. Block Island Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status Proposed Developer Deepwater Wind Location Offshore from Block Island RI Coordinates 41.1, -71.53 Show Map Loading...

  7. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","102015" ,"Release Date:","12312015" ,"Next...

  8. Prairie Island Indian Community | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prairie Island Indian Community (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications Shipping Radioactive Waste by Rail from Brookhaven National Laboratory Nuclear Fuel Storage and ...

  9. Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have helped make America what it is today. Their histories recall bitter hardships and proud accomplishments -- from the laborers who...

  10. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  11. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  12. Aeromagnetic Survey And Interpretation, Ascention Island, South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Interpretation, Ascention Island, South Atlantic Ocean Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Aeromagnetic Survey And...

  13. Bluewater Wind Rhode Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island Sector Wind energy Facility Type Offshore Wind Facility Status Proposed Owner NRG Bluewater Wind Developer NRG Bluewater Wind Location Atlantic Ocean RI Coordinates...

  14. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  15. Offshore Islands Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Offshore Islands Ltd Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  16. Mountain Island Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Island Energy, LLC Place: Soda Springs, Idaho Zip: 83276 Product: Energy and mining development company focused on next generation "clean technology". References:...

  17. Marshall Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Marshall Islands Population 56,429 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MH 3-letter ISO code MHL Numeric ISO code...

  18. Cayman Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cayman Islands Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KY 3-letter ISO code CYM Numeric ISO code...

  19. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polarsubstrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2006-01-05

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the 'seed' area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity are 10 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  20. Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzn, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2014-09-08

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E{sub C}0.24?eV), D3 (E{sub C}0.60?eV), D4 (E{sub C}0.69?eV), D5 (E{sub C}0.96?eV), D7 (E{sub C}1.19?eV), and D8, were observed. After 2?MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E{sub C}0.12?eV), D5I (E{sub C}0.89?eV), and D6 (E{sub C}1.14?eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  1. Enhanced stability of Eu in GaN nanoparticles: Effects of Si co-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Prabhsharan; Sekhon, S. S.; Zavada, J. M.; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-06-14

    Ab initio calculations on Eu doped (GaN){sub n} (n = 12, 13, and 32) nanoparticles show that Eu doping in nanoparticles is favorable compared with bulk GaN as a large fraction of atoms lie on the surface where strain can be released compared with bulk where often Eu doping is associated with a N vacancy. Co-doping of Si further facilitates Eu doping as strain from an oversized Eu atom and an undersized Si atom is compensated. These results along with low symmetry sites in nanoparticles make them attractive for developing strongly luminescent nanomaterials. The atomic and electronic structures are discussed using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy as well as GGA + U formalism. In all cases of Eu (Eu + Si) doping, the magnetic moments are localized on the Eu site with a large value of 6μ{sub B} (7μ{sub B}). Our results suggest that co-doping can be a very useful way to achieve rare-earth doping in different hosts for optoelectronic materials.

  2. Electrochemical removal of hydrogen atoms in Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, June Key E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr; Hyeon, Gil Yong; Tawfik, Wael Z.; Choi, Hee Seok; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Jeong, Tak; Jung, Eunjin; Kim, Hyunsoo E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr

    2015-05-14

    Hydrogen atoms inside of an Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layer were effectively removed by the electrochemical potentiostatic activation (EPA) method. The role of hydrogen was investigated in terms of the device performance of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The effect of the main process parameters for EPA such as solution type, voltage, and time was studied and optimized for application to LED fabrication. In optimized conditions, the light output of 385-nm LEDs was improved by about 26% at 30 mA, which was caused by the reduction of the hydrogen concentration by ∼35%. Further removal of hydrogen seems to be involved in the breaking of Ga-H bonds that passivate the nitrogen vacancies. An EPA process with high voltage breaks not only Mg-H bonds that generate hole carriers but also Ga-H bonds that generate electron carriers, thus causing compensation that impedes the practical increase of hole concentration, regardless of the drastic removal of hydrogen atoms. A decrease in hydrogen concentration affects the current-voltage characteristics, reducing the reverse current by about one order and altering the forward current behavior in the low voltage region.

  3. High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (202{sup }1{sup }) GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourhashemi, A. Farrell, R. M.; Cohen, D. A.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate a high power blue laser diode (LD) using indium tin oxide as a cladding layer on semipolar oriented GaN. These devices show peak output powers and external quantum efficiencies comparable to state-of-the-art commercial c-plane devices. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated on (202{sup }1{sup }) oriented GaN substrates using InGaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 451?nm at room temperature, an output power of 2.52?W and an external quantum efficiency of 39% were measured from a single facet under a pulsed injection current of 2.34?A. The measured differential quantum efficiency was 50%.

  4. Performance enhancement of GaN metalsemiconductormetal ultraviolet photodetectors by insertion of ultrathin interfacial HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, Burak; Okyay, Ali Kemal E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-03-15

    The authors demonstrate improved device performance of GaN metalsemiconductormetal ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) by ultrathin HfO{sub 2} (UT-HfO{sub 2}) layer on GaN. The UT-HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer is grown by atomic layer deposition. The dark current of the PDs with UT-HfO{sub 2} is significantly reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to those without HfO{sub 2} insertion. The photoresponsivity at 360?nm is as high as 1.42 A/W biased at 5 V. An excellent improvement in the performance of the devices is ascribed to allowed electron injection through UT-HfO{sub 2} on GaN interface under UV illumination, resulting in the photocurrent gain with fast response time.

  5. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Prairie Island

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prairie Island" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,521,"4,655",102.0,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" 2,519,"4,128",90.8,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  7. Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K. M.; Novikov, S. V.; Broesler, R.; Demchenko, I. N.; Denlinger, J. D.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Luckert, F.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2009-08-29

    Alloying is a commonly accepted method to tailor properties of semiconductor materials for specific applications. Only a limited number of semiconductor alloys can be easily synthesized in the full composition range. Such alloys are, in general, formed of component elements that are well matched in terms of ionicity, atom size, and electronegativity. In contrast there is a broad class of potential semiconductor alloys formed of component materials with distinctly different properties. In most instances these mismatched alloys are immiscible under standard growth conditions. Here we report on the properties of GaN1-xAsx, a highly mismatched, immiscible alloy system that was successfully synthesized in the whole composition range using a nonequilibrium low temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. The alloys are amorphous in the composition range of 0.17GaN to ~;;0.8 eV at x~;;0.85. The reduction in the band gap can be attributed primarily to the downward movement of the conduction band for alloys with x>0.2, and to the upward movement of the valence band for alloys with x<0.2. The unique features of the band structure offer an opportunity of using GaN1-xAsx alloys for various types of solar power conversion devices.

  8. United States Virgin Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (CLEAN Partner Activity) Energy Incentives for United States Virgin Islands Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands) Southern States Energy Compact (Multiple...

  9. Verdant-Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Verdant-Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleVerdant-RooseveltIslandTidalEnergy&oldid680702" ...

  10. Islanded Grid Wind Power Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The event will provide an opportunity for attendees to learn, network, and share information on wind systems in island and islanded grid environments through expert panel ...

  11. Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bell Island Sector...

  12. Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Canary Islands Institute of Technology (ITC) Place: Las Palmas, Spain Zip: 35119 Product: Las...

  13. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semipolar GaN (2021) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawicka, M.; Grzanka, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Krysko, M.; Grzanka, E.; Sochacki, T.; Siekacz, M.; Kucharski, R.

    2013-03-18

    Multi-quantum well (MQW) structures and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The In incorporation efficiency was found to be significantly lower for the semipolar plane as compared to the polar one. The semipolar MQWs exhibit a smooth surface morphology, abrupt interfaces, and a high photoluminescence intensity. The electroluminescence of semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) LEDs fabricated in the same growth run peaks at 387 and 462 nm, respectively. Semipolar LEDs with additional (Al,Ga)N cladding layers exhibit a higher optical output power but simultaneously a higher turn-on voltage.

  14. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Transition Initiative: Islands lesson learned detailing work done in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  15. Ar{sup +}-irradiation-induced damage in hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka Ogawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Keiji; Kawakami, Retsuo; Niibe, Masahito

    2015-07-15

    The authors have investigated the electrical characteristics of hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films exposed to Ar{sup +} irradiation, employing Schottky barrier diodes. The Ar{sup +} irradiation tends to largely increase the effective carrier concentration in the near surface region of GaN up to ∼25 nm, due to the generation of donor-type N vacancy defects, compared to the original value before the irradiation. More interestingly, acceptor-type deep-level defects are found to be formed at ∼2.1, ∼2.9, and ∼3.2 eV below the conduction band in the subsequently deeper region, in which Ga vacancies introduced by the Ar{sup +} irradiation are considered to be in-diffused and immediately combined with hydrogen. These N vacancies and hydrogenated Ga vacancies formed are dominantly responsible for changing the depth profiles of the effective carrier concentration via the carrier generation, the carrier trapping, and/or carrier compensation.

  16. Effect of Fe-doping on nonlinear optical responses and carrier trapping dynamics in GaN single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Feng; Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Zhengguo; Song, Yinglin

    2015-08-03

    We presented a quantitative study on the Fe-doping concentration dependence of optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in Fe-doped GaN (GaN:Fe) single crystals using picosecond Z-scan and femtosecond pump-probe with phase object techniques under two-photon excitation. In contrast to the two-photon absorption that was found to be independent on the Fe-doping, the nonlinear refraction decreased with the Fe concentration due to the fast carrier trapping effect of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} deep acceptors, which simultaneously acted as an efficient non-radiative recombination channels for excess carriers. Remarkably, compared to that of Si-doped GaN bulk crystal, the free-carrier refraction effect in GaN:Fe crystals was found to be enhanced considerably since Fe-doping and the effective carrier lifetime (∼10 ps) could be tuned over three orders of magnitude at high Fe-doping level of 1 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}.

  17. Strong geometrical effects in submillimeter selective area growth and light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes on sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Chen, Renjie; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-11-27

    Advanced semiconductor devices often utilize structural and geometrical effects to tailor their characteristics and improve their performance. Our detailed understanding of such geometrical effects in the epitaxial selective area growth of GaN on sapphire substrates is reported here, and we utilize them to enhance light extraction from GaN light emitting diodes. Systematic size and spacing effects were performed side-by-side on a single 2” sapphire substrate to minimize experimental sampling errors for a set of 144 pattern arrays with circular mask opening windows in SiO2. We show that the mask opening diameter leads to as much as 4 times increase in the thickness of the grown layers for 20 μm spacings and that spacing effects can lead to as much as 3 times increase in thickness for a 350 μm dot diameter. We also observed that the facet evolution in comparison with extracted Ga adatom diffusion lengths directly influences the vertical and lateral overgrowth rates and can be controlled with pattern geometry. Lastly, such control over the facet development led to 2.5 times stronger electroluminescence characteristics from well-faceted GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well LEDs compared to non-faceted structures.

  18. Strong geometrical effects in submillimeter selective area growth and light extraction of GaN light emitting diodes on sapphire

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Chen, Renjie; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-11-27

    Advanced semiconductor devices often utilize structural and geometrical effects to tailor their characteristics and improve their performance. Our detailed understanding of such geometrical effects in the epitaxial selective area growth of GaN on sapphire substrates is reported here, and we utilize them to enhance light extraction from GaN light emitting diodes. Systematic size and spacing effects were performed side-by-side on a single 2” sapphire substrate to minimize experimental sampling errors for a set of 144 pattern arrays with circular mask opening windows in SiO2. We show that the mask opening diameter leads to as much as 4 times increase inmore » the thickness of the grown layers for 20 μm spacings and that spacing effects can lead to as much as 3 times increase in thickness for a 350 μm dot diameter. We also observed that the facet evolution in comparison with extracted Ga adatom diffusion lengths directly influences the vertical and lateral overgrowth rates and can be controlled with pattern geometry. Lastly, such control over the facet development led to 2.5 times stronger electroluminescence characteristics from well-faceted GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well LEDs compared to non-faceted structures.« less

  19. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.; Speck, James S.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5–6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration was 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.

  20. Effect of AlN buffer layer properties on the morphology and polarity of GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Matt D.; Rourke, Devin M.; Sanford, Norman A.; Bertness, Kris A.; Bright, Victor M.

    2011-09-01

    Low-temperature AlN buffer layers grown via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) were found to significantly affect the subsequent growth morphology of GaN nanowires. The AlN buffer layers exhibited nanowire-like columnar protrusions, with their size, shape, and tilt determined by the AlN V/III flux ratio. GaN nanowires were frequently observed to adopt the structural characteristics of the underlying AlN columns, including the size and the degree of tilt. Piezoresponse force microscopy and polarity-sensitive etching indicate that the AlN films and the protruding columns have a mixed crystallographic polarity. Convergent beam electron diffraction indicates that GaN nanowires are Ga-polar, suggesting that Al-polar columns are nanowire nucleation sites for Ga-polar nanowires. GaN nanowires of low density could be grown on AlN buffers that were predominantly N-polar with isolated Al-polar columns, indicating a high growth rate for Ga-polar nanowires and suppressed growth of N-polar nanowires under typical growth conditions. AlN buffer layers grown under slightly N-rich conditions (V/III flux ratio = 1.0 to 1.3) were found to provide a favorable growth surface for low-density, coalescence-free nanowires.

  1. Study of the effects of GaN buffer layer quality on the dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Le, Lingcong; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Kim, Byung-Jae; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Lind, Aaron G.; Jones, Kevin S.; et al

    2015-04-21

    Here we studied the effect of buffer layer quality on dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMTs). AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates from two different vendors with the same Al concentration of AlGaN were used. The defect densities of HEMT structures with 2 and 5 μm GaN buffer layer were 7 × 109 and 5 × 108 cm₋2, respectively, as measured by transmission electron microscopy. There was little difference in drain saturation current or in transfer characteristics in HEMTs on these two types of buffer. However, there was no dispersionmore » observed on the nonpassivated HEMTs with 5 μm GaN buffer layer for gate-lag pulsed measurement at 100 kHz, which was in sharp contrast to the 71% drain current reduction for the HEMT with 2 μm GaN buffer layer.« less

  2. March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 1979: Three Mile Island March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island March 28, 1979 A partial meltdown of the core occurs at one of the two reactors at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

  3. Maldives-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (GIZ) Partner Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Low emission...

  4. ALD TiO2-Al2O3 Stack: An Improved Gate Dielectrics on Ga-polar GaN MOSCAPs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Retterer, Scott T.; Meyer, III, Harry M.

    2014-10-15

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga2O3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO2, 7.1 nm Al2O3 and 2 nm Ga2O3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated bymore » thermal oxidation in O2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO2-Al2O3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al2O3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 1011 cm-2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10-8 A/cm2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO2/Al2O3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga2O3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  5. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  6. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) was chartered as a nonprofit organization in 1976 and is a federally recognized tribal organization of the Aleut people. APIA will conduct an...

  7. N. Mariana Islands- Renewables Portfolio Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands enacted its Renewables Portfolio Standard in September 2007, in which a certain percentage of its net electricity sales must come from renewable e...

  8. Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island's PBF is supported by a surcharge on electric and gas customers' bills. Initially, the surcharge was was set at $0.0023 per kilowatt-hour (2.3 mills per kWh) and applied only to...

  9. Community Redevelopment Case Study: Jekyll Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—features photos from a case study about Jekyll Island's community redevelopment project in Georgia.

  10. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Rhode Island | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New England Solar cost-Reduction Challenge Partnership CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08152013 Location(s): Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut ...

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2007, the U.S. Virgin Islands Public Services Commission approved a limited net-metering program for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV), wind-energy or other renewable energ...

  12. Solomon Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Solomon Islands Population 523,000 GDP 840,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SB 3-letter ISO code SLB Numeric ISO...

  13. Faroe Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Faroe Islands Population 48,351 GDP 2,450,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FO 3-letter ISO code FRO Numeric ISO...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds Chargers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Across the State Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds Chargers Across the State to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds Chargers Across the State on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds Chargers Across the State on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds Chargers Across the State on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island EV Initiative Adds

  15. Energy Department Helps Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials Energy Department Helps Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials September 21, 2015 - 4:17pm Addthis Students participating in the NEED Project at Scituate High and Calcutt Middle Schools planted 14 trees in Central Falls, Rhode Island. Students participating in the NEED Project at Scituate High and Calcutt Middle Schools planted 14 trees in Central Falls, Rhode Island. Calcutt Middle School students in Rhode Island played

  16. EERE Success Story-Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials EERE Success Story-Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials December 10, 2015 - 11:24am Addthis Students participating in the NEED Project at Scituate High and Calcutt Middle Schools planted 14 trees in Central Falls, Rhode Island. Photo Courtesy | Rhode Island Public Schools Students participating in the NEED Project at Scituate High and Calcutt Middle Schools planted 14 trees in Central Falls, Rhode Island. Photo

  17. Celebrating Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month at the Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department | Department of Energy Celebrating Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month at the Energy Department Celebrating Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month at the Energy Department May 1, 2014 - 4:22pm Addthis Celebrating Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month at the Energy Department Each May we celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, honoring the accomplishments of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders at the Energy

  18. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami Authors: Ding, B., Wu, H., Xu, W., Zhao, Z., Liu, Y., Yu, H., and Yan, H. Title: Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami Source: Nano Lett. Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Pages: 5065-5069 ABSTRACT: Scaffolded DNA origami has recently emerged as a versatile, programmable method to fold DNA into arbitrarily shaped nanostructures that are spatially addressable, with sub-10-nm resolution. Toward functional DNA nanotechnology, one of the key challenges is to

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced low-cost SiC and GaN wide...

  1. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhata, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.; Rong, X.; Chen, G.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.

  2. Polarity characterization by anomalous x-ray dispersion of ZnO films and GaN lateral polar structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, Christopher T.; Sachet, Edward; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Rajan, Joseph; Collazo, Ramn; Sitar, Zlatko; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-28

    We demonstrate the use of anomalous x-ray scattering of constituent cations at their absorption edge, in a conventional Bragg-Brentano diffractometer, to measure absolutely and quantitatively the polar orientation and polarity fraction of unipolar and mixed polar wurtzitic crystals. In one set of experiments, the gradual transition between c+ and c? polarity of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire as a function of MgO buffer layer thickness is monitored quantitatively, while in a second experiment, we map the polarity of a lateral polar homojunction in GaN. The dispersion measurements are compared with piezoforce microscopy images, and we demonstrate how x-ray dispersion and scanning probe methods can provide complementary information that can discriminate between polarity fractions at a material surface and polarity fractions averaged over the film bulk.

  3. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy on complex mask geometries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks andmore » processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.« less

  4. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy from complex mask geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Thornton, Katsuyo; Coltrin, Michael E.; Han, Jung

    2015-05-21

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. The model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. The model provides a route to optimize masks and processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  5. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey E.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  6. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  7. Sculpting the shape of semiconductor heteroepitaxial islands: fromdots to rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.T.; Walko, D.A.; Arms, D.A.; Tinberg, D.S.; Evans,P.G.; Cao, Y.; Liddle, J.A.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Dubon, O.D.

    2006-06-20

    In the Ge on Si model heteroepitaxial system, metal patterns on the silicon surface provide unprecedented control over the morphology of highly ordered Ge islands. Island shape including nanorods and truncated pyramids is set by the metal species and substrate orientation. Analysis of island faceting elucidates the prominent role of the metal in promoting growth of preferred facet orientations while investigations of island composition and structure reveal the importance of Si-Ge intermixing in island evolution. These effects reflect a remarkable combination of metal-mediated growth phenomena that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems.

  8. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  9. Temperature dependent dielectric function and the E{sub 0} critical points of hexagonal GaN from 30 to 690 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Jung Hwang, Soon Yong; Byun, Jun Seok; Barange, Nilesh S.; Park, Han Gyeol; Dong Kim, Young

    2014-02-15

    The complex dielectric function ? and the E{sub 0} excitonic and band-edge critical-point structures of hexagonal GaN are reported for temperatures from 30 to 690 K and energies from 0.74 to 6.42 eV, obtained by rotating-compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry on a 1.9 ?m thick GaN film deposited on a c-plane (0001) sapphire substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct inversion and B-splines in a multilayer-structure calculation were used to extract the optical properties of the film from the measured pseudodielectric function ???. At low temperature sharp E{sub 0} excitonic and critical-point interband transitions are separately observed. Their temperature dependences were determined by fitting the data to the empirical Varshni relation and the phenomenological expression that contains the Bose-Einstein statistical factor.

  10. Eastern North Atlantic Site, Graciosa Island, Azores

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesEastern North Atlantic ENA Related Links Facilities and Instruments ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site ENA Fact Sheet (PDF, 512KB) Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Eastern North Atlantic This view shows Graciosa Island, Azores, Eastern North Atlantic Facility. Graciosa Island: 39° 5' 29.68" N, 28° 1' 32.34" W Altitude: 30.48 meters The new ENA observations site will be situated near the previous AMF deployment. The

  11. New methanol plant for Kharg Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-08

    Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

  12. Washington Island El Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Island El Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Washington Island El Coop, Inc Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 920-847-2541 Website: wiecoop.com Outage Hotline:...

  13. Prince Edward Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prince Edward Island: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Prince Edward Island, Canada Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 6113358 Coordinates 46.333333, -63.5...

  14. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate From Manus Island, PNG (ARMBE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    From Manus Island, PNG (ARMBE-ATM TWPC1) Title: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate From Manus Island, PNG (ARMBE-ATM TWPC1) The ARM CMBE-ATM Xie, McCoy, Klein et al. data file ...

  15. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Rhode Island) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Rhode Island References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

  16. Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC (Rhode Island) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC Place: Rhode Island Phone Number: 1 877-273-6772 Website: noblesolutions.com Outage Hotline: 1...

  17. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the ...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Island Nations), U.S. Virgin Islands A 448-kW PV system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on St. Thomas in April 2011. Photo by Adam Warren, NREL 18953 U.S. ...

  19. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Ves, S.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.; Christofilos, D.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the M-shape dependence of the (112{sup }0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults, and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  1. A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Month | Department of Energy A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month May 1, 2013 - 9:25am Addthis A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA A PROCLAMATION Each May, our Nation comes together to recount the ways Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) helped forge our country. We

  2. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  3. Island Energy Tools and Trainings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transition Initiative » Island Energy Tools and Trainings Island Energy Tools and Trainings Islands can use the tools below to gather data for decision makers and run scenarios on potential energy investments. Tailored trainings provide in-person, onsite guidance and best practices for implementing clean energy solutions. Tools Island Energy Scenario Tool The ETI Energy Scenario Tool helps communities analyze different pathways to meet a given energy transition goal by modeling the

  4. Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Amchitka Island ......7 2.1.2 Project Personnel ......* Supporting information to help forecast future site surveillance and monitoring ...

  5. Foster-Glocester Regional School District (Rhode Island) - Financing Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-12-01

    This document is an EnergySmart Schools Financing Profile of Foster-Glocester Regional School District in Rhode Island

  6. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  7. Bainbridge Island Summary of Reported Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary of Reported Data Bainbridge Island Summary of Reported Data Summary of data for Bainbridge Island, a partner in the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. Bainbridge Island Summary of Reported Data (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Washington -- SEP Summary of Reported Data NYSERDA Summary of Reported Data Camden, New Jersey Summary of Reported Data

  8. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  10. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A celebration of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. The month of May was chosen to commemorate the immigration of the first Japanese to the United States on May 7, 1843, and to mark the anniversary of the completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869. The majority of the workers who laid the tracks were Chinese immigrants.

  11. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) will conduct on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review in the communities of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, Sand Point, St. George, St. Paul, and Unalaska.

  12. Philippine Islands: a tectonic railroad siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J.J. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    In 1976, significant quantities of oil were discovered offshore northwest of Palawan Island by a Philippine-American consortium led by Philippines-Cities Service Inc. This was the first commercial oil found in the Philippine Islands. Other exploration companies had decided that there was no commercial oil in the Philippines. They fell prey to a situation Wallace E. Pratt, who began his career in 1909 in the Philippines, later described: There are many instances where our knowledge, supported in some cases by elaborate and detailed studies has convinced us that no petroleum resources were present in areas which subsequently became sites of important oil fields. Some explorers are blinded by the negative implications of the same knowledge that successful explorers use to find important oil fields. The Palawan discoveries are examples of successful use of knowledge. Recognition that the Philippine Islands are a tectonic railroad siding may be the key to future exploration success. These islands are continental fragments, each with its own individual geologic characteristics, that have moved from elsewhere to their present positions along a major strike-slip zone. Play concepts can be developed in the Philippines for continental fragments in each of the three major present-day tectono-stratigraphic systems that are dominated by strike-slip, but include subduction and extension tectonics, with both carbonate and clastic sediments.

  13. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-05-06

    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers.

  14. Genomic Island Identification Software v 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Genomic islands are key mobile DNA elements in bacterial evolution, that can distinguish pathogenic strains from each other, or distinguish pathogenic strains from non-pathogenic strains. Their detection in genomes is a challenging problem. We present 3 main software components that attack the island detection problem on two different bases: 1) the preference of islands to insert in chromosomal tRNA or tmRNA genes (islander.pl), and 2) islands? sporadic occurrence among closely related strains. The latter principle is employed in both an algorithm (learnedPhyloblocks.pl) and a visualization method (panGenome.pl). Component islander.pl finds islands based on their preference for a particular target gene type. We annotate each tRNA and tmRNA gene, find fragments of each such gene as candidates for the distal ends of islands, and filter candidates to remove false positives. Component learnedPhyloblocks.pl uses islands found by islander.pl and other methods as a training set to find new islands. Reference genomes are aligned using mugsy, then the ?phylotypes? or patterns of occurrence in the reference set are determined for each position in the target genome, and those phylotypes most enriched in the training set of islands are followed to detect yet more islands. Component panGenome.pl produces a big-data visualization of the chromosomally-ordered ?pan-genome?, that includes every gene of every reference genome (x-axis, pan-genome order; y-axis, reference genomes; color-coding, gene presence/absence etc.), islands appearing as dark patches.

  15. Genomic Island Identification Software v 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Genomic islands are key mobile DNA elements in bacterial evolution, that can distinguish pathogenic strains from each other, or distinguish pathogenic strains from non-pathogenic strains. Their detection in genomes is a challenging problem. We present 3 main software components that attack the island detection problem on two different bases: 1) the preference of islands to insert in chromosomal tRNA or tmRNA genes (islander.pl), and 2) islands’ sporadic occurrence among closely related strains. The latter principlemore » is employed in both an algorithm (learnedPhyloblocks.pl) and a visualization method (panGenome.pl). Component islander.pl finds islands based on their preference for a particular target gene type. We annotate each tRNA and tmRNA gene, find fragments of each such gene as candidates for the distal ends of islands, and filter candidates to remove false positives. Component learnedPhyloblocks.pl uses islands found by islander.pl and other methods as a training set to find new islands. Reference genomes are aligned using mugsy, then the “phylotypes” or patterns of occurrence in the reference set are determined for each position in the target genome, and those phylotypes most enriched in the training set of islands are followed to detect yet more islands. Component panGenome.pl produces a big-data visualization of the chromosomally-ordered “pan-genome”, that includes every gene of every reference genome (x-axis, pan-genome order; y-axis, reference genomes; color-coding, gene presence/absence etc.), islands appearing as dark patches.« less

  16. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islands in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.

  17. Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2014-12-29

    We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (α) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting α to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ∼1 eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14 nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.

  18. InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram E-mail: rajan@ece.osu.edu; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth E-mail: rajan@ece.osu.edu

    2014-10-06

    InGaN/GaN tunnel junction contacts were grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on top of a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown InGaN/GaN blue (450?nm) light emitting diode. A voltage drop of 5.3?V at 100?mA, forward resistance of 2 10{sup ?2} ? cm{sup 2}, and a higher light output power compared to the reference light emitting diodes (LED) with semi-transparent p-contacts were measured in the tunnel junction LED (TJLED). A forward resistance of 5??10{sup ?4} ? cm{sup 2} was measured in a GaN PN junction with the identical tunnel junction contact as the TJLED, grown completely by MBE. The depletion region due to the impurities at the regrowth interface between the MBE tunnel junction and the MOCVD-grown LED was hence found to limit the forward resistance measured in the TJLED.

  19. Design, fabrication, and performance analysis of GaN vertical electron transistors with a buried p/n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeluri, Ramya Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Hurni, Christophe A.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S.; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2015-05-04

    The Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistor (CAVET) combines the high conductivity of the two dimensional electron gas channel at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with better field distribution offered by a vertical design. In this work, CAVETs with buried, conductive p-GaN layers as the current blocking layer are reported. The p-GaN layer was regrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and the subsequent channel regrowth was done by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy to maintain the p-GaN conductivity. Transistors with high ON current (10.9?kA/cm{sup 2}) and low ON-resistance (0.4 m? cm{sup 2}) are demonstrated. Non-planar selective area regrowth is identified as the limiting factor to transistor breakdown, using planar and non-planar n/p/n structures. Planar n/p/n structures recorded an estimated electric field of 3.1 MV/cm, while non-planar structures showed a much lower breakdown voltage. Lowering the p-GaN regrowth temperature improved breakdown in the non-planar n/p/n structure. Combining high breakdown voltage with high current will enable GaN vertical transistors with high power densities.

  20. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Three Mile Island

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Three Mile Island" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,805,"6,634",94.1,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" ,805,"6,634",94.1

  1. Recovery Act State Memos Mariana Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mariana Islands For questions about DOE's Recovery Act activities, please contact the DOE Recovery Act Clearinghouse: 1-888-DOE-RCVY (888-363-7289), Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Eastern Time https://recoveryclearinghouse.energy.gov/contactUs.htm. All numbers and projects listed as of June 1, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS RECOVERY ACT SNAPSHOT................................................................................... 1 FUNDING ALLOCATION

  2. Recovery Act State Memos Rhode Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rhode Island For questions about DOE's Recovery Act activities, please contact the DOE Recovery Act Clearinghouse: 1-888-DOE-RCVY (888-363-7289), Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Eastern Time https://recoveryclearinghouse.energy.gov/contactUs.htm. All numbers and projects listed as of June 1, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS RECOVERY ACT SNAPSHOT................................................................................... 1 FUNDING ALLOCATION

  3. Recovery Act State Memos Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virgin Islands For questions about DOE's Recovery Act activities, please contact the DOE Recovery Act Clearinghouse: 1-888-DOE-RCVY (888-363-7289), Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Eastern Time https://recoveryclearinghouse.energy.gov/contactUs.htm. All numbers and projects listed as of June 1, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS RECOVERY ACT SNAPSHOT................................................................................... 1 FUNDING ALLOCATION

  4. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  5. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szyszka, A. E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-28

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated thatwith respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBRthe insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  6. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islandsmore » in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.« less

  7. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  8. Effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic atomic collisions on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiaber, Ziani S.; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N.; Silva, Jos H. D. da; Leite, Douglas M. G.; Bortoleto, Jos R. R.

    2013-11-14

    The combined effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic particle impingement on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated. Monte-Carlo based simulations are employed to analyze the energies of the species generated in the plasma and colliding with the growing surface. Polycrystalline films grown at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000 C clearly showed a dependence of orientation texture and surface morphology on substrate orientation (c- and a-plane sapphire) in which the (0001) GaN planes were parallel to the substrate surface. A large increase in interplanar spacing associated with the increase in both a- and c-parameters of the hexagonal lattice and a redshift of the optical bandgap were observed at substrate temperatures higher than 600 C. The results showed that the tensile stresses produced during the film's growth in high-temperature deposition ranges were much larger than the expected compressive stresses caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and substrate in the cool-down process after the film growth. The best films were deposited at 500 C, 30 W and 600 C, 45 W, which corresponds to conditions where the out diffusion from the film is low. Under these conditions the benefits of the temperature increase because of the decrease in defect density are greater than the problems caused by the strongly strained lattice that occurr at higher temperatures. The results are useful to the analysis of the growth conditions of GaN films by reactive sputtering.

  9. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101¯0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-03-12

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101¯0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation ofmore » free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O˙⁻ requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101¯0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.« less

  10. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (1010) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-03-12

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (1010) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation of free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of Ga-OH to Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than OH sites. However, proton transfer from OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (1010)water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.

  11. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2012 Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2012 Project Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2012 Project Summary Residents of False Pass have long known the power of the water that rushes daily through Isanotski Pass. A 2009 study funded by the Alaska Energy Authority confirmed the need to study more fully the area's potential for tidal power. To this end, and to address their fossil fuel reduction goal, many Aleut organizations, through the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association Inc. (APIA),

  12. Project Reports for Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2005 Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2005 Project Project Reports for Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2005 Project The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) will conduct an economic and technical feasibility study for six communities on wind-power/diesel-plant development. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. October 2005 status report (5.68 MB) October 2006 status report (13.8 MB) November 2011 status report (3.16

  13. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials Citation Details ... and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. ...

  14. Long Island, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Island, Maine: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.6842491, -70.1711588 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  15. South Jersey Energy Company (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Rhode Island Website: www1.nationalgridus.comRhodeI Twitter: @nationalgridus Facebook: https:www.facebook.comnationalgrid Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  16. Liberty Power Corp. (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Rhode Island Website: www.libertypowercorp.combusin Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  17. Direct Energy Services (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Rhode Island Website: www.business.directenergy.com Twitter: @nationalgridus Facebook: https:www.facebook.comnationalgrid Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  18. Constellation NewEnergy, Inc (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Rhode Island Website: www.constellation.compagesde Twitter: @constellationeg Facebook: https:www.facebook.comConstellationEnergy References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data...

  19. Glacial Energy Holdings (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings Place: Rhode Island Website: www.glacialenergy.com Twitter: @nationalgridus Facebook: https:www.facebook.comnationalgrid Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  20. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  1. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","9302015" ,"Next Release...

  2. Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Initial Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Hunsberger, R.; Visser, C.; Voss, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy.

  3. Rhode Island High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Detailed license and usage information for this dataset Preview Download 50m GIS NREL Rhode Island energy high resoltuion renewable shapefile wind wind data wind...

  4. Tiverton, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Rhode Island.1 References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division population dataset (All States, all geography) Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Barrington, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Rhode Island.1 References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division population dataset (All States, all geography) Retrieved from "http:...

  6. Rhode Island/Wind Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    >> Rhode Island Wind Resources WindTurbine-icon.png Small Wind Guidebook * Introduction * First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient? * Is Wind Energy Practical...

  7. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","102015" ,"Release Date:","12...

  8. MHK Projects/Cape Islands Tidal Energy Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Islands Tidal Energy Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type"...

  9. MHK Projects/Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy RITE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy RITE < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3",...

  10. MHK Projects/Treat Island Tidal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treat Island Tidal < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP"...

  11. ARM - PI Product - Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsNauru Island Effect Detection Data Set ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air

  12. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  13. MHK Projects/Greenwave Rhode Island Ocean Wave Energy Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenwave Rhode Island Ocean Wave Energy Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  14. Rhode Island Energy Group LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rhode Island Energy Group LLC Address: PO Box 340 Place: Portsmouth Zip: 2871 Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  15. Island County, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island County, Washington: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 48.19765, -122.579457 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  16. Project Reports for Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - 2005...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) will conduct an economic and technical feasibility study for six communities on wind-powerdiesel-plant development. Learn more ...

  17. An Audio-Magnetotelluric Investigation In Terceira Island (Azores...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Audio-Magnetotelluric Investigation In Terceira Island (Azores) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Audio-Magnetotelluric...

  18. Rhode Island's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Rhode Island's 2nd congressional district Cookson Electronics Jefferson Renewable Energy Tomorrow BioFuels LLC Retrieved from "http:...

  19. Providence, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Providence, Rhode Island Cookson Electronics References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division...

  20. Providence County, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Companies in Providence County, Rhode Island American Battery Charging Inc Cookson Electronics Evans Capacitor Company Tomorrow BioFuels LLC Energy Generation Facilities in...

  1. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 24, 2016 Title: Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit Authors: White, R....

  2. Chebeague Island, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Incorporated place and minor civil division population dataset (All States, all geography) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleChebeagueIsland,Maine&oldi...

  3. Bay Harbor Islands, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bay Harbor Islands is a town in Miami-Dade County, Florida. It falls under Florida's 20th congressional district.12 References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and...

  4. MHK Projects/Turkey Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkey Island < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoo...

  5. Long Island HTS Power Cable | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Long Island HTS Power Cable This project involves the demonstration of a hightemperature ... HTS Cable Projects High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects ...

  6. MHK Projects/Stradbroke Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Project Details Isolated from the mainland, South Stradbroke Island on the Queensland Gold Coast, Australia, is dependent upon diesel generation for electricity supply. A trial...

  7. MHK Projects/Pike Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMHKProjectsPikeIsland&oldid676758...

  8. Harnessing Sun, Wind and Lava for Islands' Energy Needs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cue in the Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) project - this international ... and is currently conducting a wind forecast to assess the potential of local trade ...

  9. Aeromagnetic study of the Island of Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aeromagnetic study of the Island of Hawaii Abstract NA Authors T.G. Hildenbrand, J. G. Rosenbaum and V. P. Kanalikaua Published Journal Journal of Geophysical Research,...

  10. MHK Projects/Cat Island Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cat Island Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP"...

  11. Comparison of Secondary Islands in Collisional Reconnection to Hall Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, L. S.; Cassak, P. A.

    2010-07-02

    Large-scale resistive Hall-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the transition from Sweet-Parker (collisional) to Hall (collisionless) magnetic reconnection are presented; the first to separate secondary islands from collisionless effects. Three main results are described. There exists a regime with secondary islands but without collisionless effects, and the reconnection rate is faster than Sweet-Parker, but significantly slower than Hall reconnection. This implies that secondary islands do not cause the fastest reconnection rates. The onset of Hall reconnection ejects secondary islands from the vicinity of the X line, implying that energy is released more rapidly during Hall reconnection. Coronal applications are discussed.

  12. Northern Mariana Islands Recovery Act State Memo | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Northern Mariana Islands Recovery Act State Memo The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental ...

  13. Rhode Island Recovery Act State Memo | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rhode Island has substantial natural resources, including wind and biomass. The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's ...

  14. Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act( ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental future. The ...

  15. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

  16. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","102015" ,"Release...

  17. Title list publicly available documents: Three Mile Island Unit...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS THREE MILE ISLAND-2 REACTOR; BIBLIOGRAPHIES; REACTOR LICENSING; DC - 78 - Light Water Reactor Technology Word Cloud More ...

  18. Newby Island II Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Facility Newby Island II Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Santa Clara County, California Coordinates 37.2938907, -121.7195459 Show Map Loading...

  19. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Consumption by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island ...

  20. Rock Island County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Hillsdale, Illinois Milan, Illinois Moline, Illinois Oak Grove, Illinois Port Byron, Illinois Rapids City, Illinois Reynolds, Illinois Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois...

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Dominican Republic, a Caribbean nation that shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti to the west.

  2. Cumberland Hill, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill, Rhode Island: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.9745431, -71.4670043 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  3. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ies","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  4. East Providence, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in East Providence, Rhode Island Evans Capacitor Company References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil...

  5. "New Hampshire"," X"," X" "Rhode Island"," X"," X"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (PADD 1A)" "Connecticut"," X"," X" "Maine"," X"," X" "Massachusetts"," X"," X" "New Hampshire"," X"," X" "Rhode Island"," X"," X" "Vermont"," X"," X" "Central Atlantic (PADD ...

  6. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Net Withdrawals ...

  7. Dominica Island-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island-NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector Energy Focus Area Wind Topics Background analysis Website http:...

  8. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Geothermal","-","-","-","-","-" "Hydro Conventional",6,4,5,5,4 "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-",3 "Wood...

  9. Thermal stability of deep level defects induced by high energy proton irradiation in n-type GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.; Farzana, E.; Sun, W. Y.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; McSkimming, B.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.

    2015-10-21

    The impact of annealing of proton irradiation-induced defects in n-type GaN devices has been systematically investigated using deep level transient and optical spectroscopies. Moderate temperature annealing (>200–250 °C) causes significant reduction in the concentration of nearly all irradiation-induced traps. While the decreased concentration of previously identified N and Ga vacancy related levels at E{sub C} − 0.13 eV, 0.16 eV, and 2.50 eV generally followed a first-order reaction model with activation energies matching theoretical values for N{sub I} and V{sub Ga} diffusion, irradiation-induced traps at E{sub C} − 0.72 eV, 1.25 eV, and 3.28 eV all decrease in concentration in a gradual manner, suggesting a more complex reduction mechanism. Slight increases in concentration are observed for the N-vacancy related levels at E{sub C} − 0.20 eV and 0.25 eV, which may be due to the reconfiguration of other N-vacancy related defects. Finally, the observed reduction in concentrations of the states at E{sub C} − 1.25 and E{sub C} − 3.28 eV as a function of annealing temperature closely tracks the detailed recovery behavior of the background carrier concentration as a function of annealing temperature. As a result, it is suggested that these two levels are likely to be responsible for the underlying carrier compensation effect that causes the observation of carrier removal in proton-irradiated n-GaN.

  10. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association - Wind Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 By Connie Fredenberg Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association 201 East 3 rd Avenue Anchorage, AK 99501 " " The Birthplace of the Wind The Birthplace of the Wind " " PROJECT STATUS Phase Met Tower Status Data Collection Feasibility Study Status Funding Status Construction Planned Sand Point TDX Power Installed 5/04 Complete 20 mph Complete AEA $1.47 million Additional ? Summer 07 St. George City of St. George Installed 8/04 Complete 21.5 mph Complete ? ? King Cove City of King

  11. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 1,782 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 28 1.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 3 0.2 Solar - - Wind 2 0.1 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas 24 1.3 Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net

  12. Rhode Island Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source","Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas" "Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source","Municipal Solid Waste/Landfill Gas" "Capacity (megawatts)","Value","Percent of State Total" "Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity",1782,100 "Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity",28,1.6 " Geothermal","-","-" " Hydro

  13. Long Island New York City Offshore Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Island New York City Offshore Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Long Island New York City Offshore Wind Farm Facility Long Island New York City Offshore Wind Farm...

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a 10 MW limit for aggregate production via feed-in-tariff contracts on the islands of St. Thomas, St. John, Water Island, and other offshore keys and islands and a similar 5 MW limit for...

  15. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, E.; Olsen, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  16. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission Interconnection Project | Department of Energy Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric

  17. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.R. Hudson; D.A. Monticello; A.H. Reiman

    2001-04-30

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain.

  18. Rhode Island Regions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    for your school's state, county, city, or district. For more information, please visit the High School Coach page. Rhode Island Region High School Regional Rhode Island Northeast...

  19. Rhode Island Regions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    state, county, city, or district. For more information, please visit the Middle School Coach page. Rhode Island Region Middle School Regional Rhode Island Massachusetts Regional...

  20. Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN), Partnering to Increase Island Energy Security Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the international partnership for Energy Development in Island nations, including mission, goals, and organization. It also includes background on EDIN's three pilot projects: U.S. Virgin Islands, Iceland-Dominica Collaboration, and New Zealand-Geothermal Potential in the Pacific.

  1. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-30

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be challenging due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  2. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Installing a small wind turbine can sometimes be difficult due to economics, zoning issues, public perception, and other barriers. Persistence and innovation, however, can result in a successful installation. Dani Baker and David Belding own Cross Island Farms, a 102-acre certified organic farm on Wellesley Island in northern New York. In 2009, they took their interest in renewable energy to the next level by researching the logistics of a small wind installation on their land to make their farm even more sustainable. Their renewable energy system consists of one 10-kilowatt Bergey Excel wind turbine, a solar array, and a propane-powered generator. This case study describes funding for the project and the installation process.

  3. Rhode Island Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2011 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2012 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2013 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2014 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2015 8 7 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2016 8 7 8 8 8 8 Feet)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.87 3.77 3.88 7.09 7.09

  4. Subsidence at the Weeks Island SPR Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Weeks Island SPR site over the last 16+ years has been studied and analyzed. The subsidence rate is not constant with time and while the subsidence rate may have increased slightly during the past several years, recently the rate has increased more dramatically. The most recent increase comes at a time when the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage mine had been emptied of oil and was in the process of being refilled with brine. Damage to surface structures that has been observed during the past 12-18 months is attributed to the continued subsidence and dtierential subsidence across structures. The recent greater subsidence rates were unanticipated according to analysis results and will be used to aid further subsidence model development.

  5. OTEC for the islands-A perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craven, J.P.

    1980-12-01

    The potential for OTEC as an energy source for island communities is examined in the context of Pacific communities. It is demonstrated that OTEC development there is interrelated with the OTEC development for the US mainland. It is also demonstrated that this development will be required to meet the demand for hydrogen-rich fuels both for fuel cells and as a raw material for synthetic fuels. It is then shown that the development of OTEC for the Caribbean is an intermediate step, falling between Pacific and mainland requirements. A four-stage strategy is then outlined which should result in a timely and cost-effective development of this important world energy resource.

  6. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The success in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.

  7. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infographic U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic This infographic highlights progress the U.S. Virgin islands has made toward meeting its goal of a 60% reduction in fossil fuel use by 2025. Click on the link below to download a full-resolution version. Download the USVI Infographic. (10.92 MB) More Documents & Publications Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems have popped up throughout the territory since the EDIN-USVI project launched in February 2010,

  9. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  10. Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Wind Case Study: Cross Island Farms, Wellesley Island, New York www.nrel.gov Baker and Belding installed a 10-kW Bergey Excel wind turbine in August 2011. Photo from Cross Island Farms, NREL/PIX 19923 Funding Summary * Total cost of wind turbine, including first developer: $82,000 * Total cost of wind turbine, excluding first developer: $73,000 * Total cost of solar: $40,000 * Propane generator: $8,000; including equipment, installation, and propane: $13,000 * USDA REAP grant:

  11. A Presidential Proclamation - Asian American and Pacific Islander...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... I call upon all Americans to visit www.WhiteHouse.govAAPI andwww.AsianPacificHeritage.gov to learn more about the history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe ...

  12. American Samoa's Rebate Program Brings ENERGY STAR to Island

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Thanks to a grant through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, residents of American Samoa are able for the first time to purchase ENERGY STAR air conditioners – and for 30 percent off - through the Island's first appliance rebate program.

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...em> U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN (Energy ...

  14. Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

  15. Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 5,780 ...

  16. Rhode Island to Build First Offshore Wind Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Block Island, a small town with only 1,000 full-time, residents, is the site for a big project, when it will become home to Rhode Island’s first offshore wind farm.

  17. Eigenmodes of quasi-static magnetic islands in current sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yi; Cai Xiaohui; Chai Lihui; Wang Shui; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chao

    2011-12-15

    As observation have shown, magnetic islands often appear before and/or after the onset of magnetic reconnections in the current sheets, and they also appear in the current sheets in the solar corona, Earth's magnetotail, and Earth's magnetopause. Thus, the existence of magnetic islands can affect the initial conditions in magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we propose a model of quasi-static magnetic island eigenmodes in the current sheet. This model analytically describes the magnetic field structures in the quasi-static case, which will provide a possible approach to reconstructing the magnetic structures in the current sheet via observation data. This model is self-consistent in the kinetic theory. Also, the distribution function of charged particles in the magnetic island can be calculated.

  18. PSEG Long Island- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSEG Long Island offers a variety of incentives for its non-residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of facilities through the Commercial Efficiency Program. Major renovations of...

  19. Dacite Melt at the Puna Geothermal Venture Wellfield, Big Island...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (PGV) well field, on the island of Hawaii, a 75-meter interval of diorite containing brown glass inclusions was penetrated at a depth of 2415 m. At a depth of 2488 m a melt of...

  20. Rhode Island Schools Teach Energy Essentials | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 10, 2015 - 11:24am Addthis Students participating in the NEED Project at Scituate ... Photo Courtesy | Rhode Island Public Schools Students participating in the NEED Project at ...

  1. A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Miocene...

  2. Town of Babylon- Long Island Green Homes Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Long Island Green Homes Program is a self-financing residential retrofit program designed to support a goal of upgrading the energy efficiency of existing homes in the Town of Babylon. The...

  3. Blue Island, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Blue Island is a city in Cook County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 1st congressional...

  4. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Asian Pacific American Heritage Month is a celebration of the culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States. Join the Energy Department for the...

  5. Closing Event- Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Invited speakers from Congress, the federal government, and DOE will speak about Asian American and Pacific Islander programs and policy at the Department, and their contributions to the DOE...

  6. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  7. PSEG Long Island- Solar Initiative Feed-in Tariff

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The PSEG Long Island Feed-in Tariff II (FIT II) program provides fixed payments for electricity produced by approved photovoltaic systems over a fixed period of time. The program operates under a...

  8. DWEA Webinar: Wind-Diesel and Islanded Grids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DWEA is launching a monthly webinar program to discuss new developments in the industry. During the first webinar, experts will provide information on wind systems in the emerging market of island...

  9. PSEG Long Island- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSEG Long Island offers a variety of incentives which help residential customers upgrade to more energy efficient equipment and appliances in their homes. Incentives are available for home energy...

  10. Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

  11. MIE Regional Climate Change Impact Webinar Series: Hawaii & Pacific Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Minorities in Energy Initiative is hosting a webinar on Hawaii and Pacific Islands impacts of climate change on minority and tribal communities featuring...

  12. MIE Regional Climate Change Impact: Hawaii & Pacific Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Minorities in Energy Initiative is hosting a webinar on Hawaii and Pacific Islands impacts of climate change on minority and tribal communities featuring presentations by nationally recognized policymakers, researchers, and educators.

  13. White Island Shores, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. White Island Shores is a census-designated place in Plymouth County, Massachusetts.1...

  14. Northern Mariana Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Northern Mariana Islands 2-letter ISO code MP 3-letter ISO code MNP Numeric ISO code 580 Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 4041468 Advanced Economy1 No References CIA World...

  15. FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Jekyll Island, Georgia | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Jekyll Island, Georgia Logo for the FUPWG Spring 2012 meeting showing a crane, a lake, and wind turbines. The logo reads: Preserving our future with energy ...

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  17. Fisher Island, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Fisher Island is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, Florida.1 References ...

  18. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-27

    To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominica (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Dominica, an island nation located southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles.

  20. Mercer Island, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mercer Island is a city in King County, Washington. It falls under Washington's 8th congressional district.12...

  1. Northern Mariana Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Northern Mariana Islands Population 53,833 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MP 3-letter ISO code MNP Numeric ISO code...

  2. Turks and Caicos Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Turks and Caicos Islands Population 31,458 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TC 3-letter ISO code TCA Numeric ISO...

  3. Bell Island Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Temperature 72.0 C 162.0 F Flow No Data Listed References Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1 Bell Island is...

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rock Island Arsenal - IL...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Rock Island , Illinois IL.09-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.09-2 Site Operations: Site located on a DOD ...

  5. Rhode Island Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",5813,6891,7224,7547,7595 " Coal","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",33,34,26,17,12 " Natural Gas",5780,6857,7198,7530,...

  6. New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1981-10-01

    In New Zealand, new incentives by the government have greatly stimulated interest in exploration. On land, four wells were completed during 1980 at a total depth of 10,120 m. One well was a commercial oil and gas discovery. Offshore, the first exploratory well since 1978 was spudded shortly before the end of 1980. Offshore concession areas have increased over ten-fold, to 107,044 km/sup 2/; on-land licenses, which are all owned by the government company Petrocorp, decreased to 11,591 km/sup 2/. During 1980, the combined output of Kapuni and Maui gas was 1,069,049 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/, a decrease of 18.23%. This reflects the new gas-recycling operation at the Kapuni field, which started in April. Combined condensate production was down only 12.15%, amounting to 418,941 m/sup 3/. Natural gasoline was down 17.44%, to 7093 m/sup 3/, whereas LPG production went up 39.44%, to 27,301 m/sup 3/. In Tonga, 925 km of offshore multichannel seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys run in 1979 have been processed and interpreted. In Fiji, the first two exploratory wells ever drilled were dry. In Vanuatu, the newly independent republic of the former New Hebrides Condominium, no petroleum legislation has so far been introduced. CCOP/SOPAC and ORSTOM jointly ran a 4000-km single-channel reflection seismic survey between the northern islands. Several sedimentary basins with over 2500 m of slightly deformed sediments of Miocene-Pliocene age have been delineated. In the Solomon Islands, there is still no petroleum legislation, but the draft of the Petroleum (Exploration and Development) Act has been completed and will go before Parliament during 1981. In Papua New Guinea, one well was drilled to 3027 m and abandoned as dry. It confirmed the regional stratigraphic interpretation and had encouraging hydrocarbon indications in the Mesozoic part of the sequence. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and

  8. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation MJO Investigation Experiment AMIE on Gan Island, or AMIE-Gan field campaign. Due to the lack of a...

  9. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  10. The Long Island Solar Farm | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In November 2011, a utility-scale solar array became operational in the most unlikely of places: at Brookhaven National Laboratory on densely populated Long Island, New York. Now the largest utility-scale solar power plant in the eastern United States, the Long Island Solar Farm is a remarkable success story whereby very different interest groups capitalized on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. Location Brookhaven National Laboratory 2 Center St

  11. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Women @ Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Women @ Energy Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Women @ Energy May 3, 2013 - 11:49am Addthis Xin Sun 1 of 12 Xin Sun Creativity, insight, and application are the hallmarks of Dr. Xin Sun's applied mechanics and computational materials research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Her advances in lightweight and high-strength materials (including steels) and modeling are vital to energy efficiency and renewable energy and

  12. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both

  13. Tribal Weatherization Training in the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Weatherization Training In the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands Tribal Energy Program Review October 28, 2010 By Bruce Wright Senior Scientist Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association The Tribes & Project Overview: This project entails on-site weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review in the communities of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, Sand Point, St. George, St. Paul and Unalaska, and in support of 13 Tribes in the

  14. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  15. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-07-26

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range (> 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies ({>=}10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact the T

  16. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2011 [Facility News] Team Continues Campaign Planning on Gan Island Bookmark and Share Mike Ritsche, technical operations manager for the AMF2, discusses instrumentation specifics with Gan airport and MMS officials. Mike Ritsche, technical operations manager for the AMF2, discusses instrumentation specifics with Gan airport and MMS officials. For its first international field campaign, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) is scheduled to operate on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean for the ARM

  17. In-plane electric fields in magnetic islands during collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Torbert, Roy B.; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic islands are a common feature in both the onset and nonlinear evolution of magnetic reconnection. In collisionless regimes, the onset typically occurs within ion-scale current layers leading to the formation of magnetic islands when multiple X lines are involved. The nonlinear evolution of reconnection often gives rise to extended electron current layers (ECL) which are also unstable to formation of magnetic islands. Here, we show that the excess negative charge and strong out-of-plane electron velocity in the ECL are passed on to the islands generated therein, and that the corresponding observable distinguishing the islands generated in the ECL is the strongly enhanced in-plane electric fields near the island core. The islands formed in ion-scale current layers do not have these properties of the ECL-generated islands. The above result provides a way to assess the occurrence and importance of extended ECLs that are unstable to island formation in space and laboratory plasmas.

  18. NREL: Technology Deployment - U.S. Virgin Islands Cut Diesel Use for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity and Water Production by 20% U.S. Virgin Islands Cut Diesel Use for Electricity and Water Production by 20% News NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind Resource Data: A Wind Powering America Success Story NREL Helps U.S. Virgin Islands Install Wind Testing Equipment U.S. Virgin Islands Makes Aggressive Energy Pledge at NREL Publications USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road

  19. Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Location U.S. Virgin Islands Partners National Renewable Energy Laboratory Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Virgin Islands Energy Office The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) from 2009 to 2013

  20. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  1. Undersea line planned to transmit to an island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-09

    The electric utility serving Nantucket Island in Massachusetts, which until now has generated its own power, plans to lay 25 miles of transmission cable to connect with New England's mainland grid. The line will allow the utility to purchase less costly power and retire several old generators, improving both reliability and air quality on the island. Nantucket Electric Co. says the 33-Mw submarine link, costing at least $23 million, probably will connect with a line near the elbow on Cape Cod. The undersea cable will be as deep as 60 ft. Nantucket Electric plans to form a partnership within a few months with a mainland utility or private producer that would help finance the project and sell the power. The island utility has preliminary approval by the state Industrial Finance Agency for a tax-exempt bond issue to finance the cable, contingent on its finding a partner.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Snd Sherman Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Snd Sherman Island. Site Description - The Sherman Island site is a 38-ha peatland pasture, west of the Delta, that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. The site is degraded and heavily grazed with ~100 cattle in the area that circumscribes the main field and fetch. The island has been drained and farmed since the late 1800s. The soils of the Delta overlay deep peat that was sequestered over the Holocene period as sea-level rose and flooding of archaic wetlands prevented decomposition of roots and stems. Hence, the upper 10 m of peatland has been lost to decomposition, compaction, and subsidence. Today a mineral soil overlays a peat layer, which coincides with the general depth of the water table.

  3. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  4. The Long Island Solar Farm | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This technical report provides an in-depth look at the one SunShot Initiative success story, the Long Island Solar Farm project, which is a utility-scale solar array located at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Eastern Long Island, New York. Three aspects of this project make it remarkable: first, it is the largest utility-scale solar power plant in the Eastern United States; second, it is a commercial project built on federally administered public lands; and third, the project was very unlikely

  5. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Jerry Davis, Scott Haase, and Adam Warren Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-52308 August 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Jerry

  6. ARM - PI Product - Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Azores ProductsCloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores [ research data - ASR funded ] The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets

  7. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how financial support from DOE and technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MICRE) govCampaignsMacquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Campaign Links Science Plan Backgrounder Baseline Instruments and Data Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) 2016.03.01 - 2018.03.31 Lead Scientist : Roger Marchand Abstract Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model

  9. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-12-15

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Staten Island Warehouse - NY 22

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Staten Island Warehouse - NY 22 FUSRAP Considered Sites Staten Island Warehouse, NY Alternate Name(s): Archer-Daniels Midland Company NY.22-3 Location: 2393 Richmond Terrace, Port Richmond, New York NY.22-2 Historical Operations: Stored pitchblende (high-grade uranium ore), which was purchased by the MED for the first atomic bomb. NY.22-3 Eligibility Determination: Eligible Radiological Survey(s): Assessment Survey NY.22-5 Site Status: Referred by DOE, evaluation in progess by U.S. Army Corps of

  11. Small Changes Help Long Island Homeowner Save Big on Energy Costs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Changes Help Long Island Homeowner Save Big on Energy Costs Small Changes Help Long Island ... of her home while saving money on energy bills. | Photo courtesy of Deborah Wetzel. ...

  12. U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska October 7, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of new boiler at Kodiak Island facility The first delivery order included upgrades to the steam...

  13. NREL: Wind Research - U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind Resource Data: A Wind Powering America Success Story March 25, 2013 In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), electricity is so expensive that ...

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable ...

  15. Energy Department Supports Clean Energy Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) is working with the Energy Department to transition from fossil fuel energy to the renewable resources that are abundant on the islands.

  16. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Kitts & Nevis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federation of St. Christopher (St. Kitts) and Nevis - two islands located in the Leeward Islands in the West Indies.

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 This report summarizes the data collected...

  19. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Jamaica; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-06

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Jamaica, an island nation located in the north Caribbean Sea.

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Amchitka Island Test Center - AK 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Amchitka Island Test Center - AK 01 Site ID (CSD Index Number): AK.01 Site Name: Amchitka Island Test Center Site Summary: Site Link: Amchitka Island Test Center External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Amchitka Island Test Center Alternate Name Documents: Location: Amchitka, Alaska Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Underground nuclear test site Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Remediated by DOE Eligibility Determination Documents:

  1. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into

  2. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA’s Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software “over the air” (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate – without the cost guarantee – at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also

  3. Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios Anderson Hoke, Austin Nelson, Brian Miller and Sudipta Chakraborty National Renewable Energy Laboratory Frances Bell and Michael McCarty SolarCity Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-66732 July 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is

  4. Three-dimensional spectrum mapping of bright emission centers: Investigating the brightness-limiting process in Eu-doped GaN red light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, Masashi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2015-08-24

    A pulse-driven emission-spectroscopy mapping technique is used to investigate the bright emission centers in Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) red light emitting diodes (LED). The LEDs are operated in pulse-driven mode, and the emission spectra are acquired for a range of pulse frequencies. This ensemble of emission spectral data yields a three-dimensional mapping that allows the origin of emission lines to be identified by visual inspection. The identification was achieved even for a weak {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} transition in conventional photoluminescence measurements. A peculiar split is observed in the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} transition for the bright emission center referred to as OMVPE 8. Despite the unique transition at this emission center, the emission efficiencies for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions were identical. This finding indicates that the excitation of the emission centers, rather than the radiative transitions, is the limiting process that determines the GaN:Eu red LED brightness.

  5. Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuters, Benjamin; Finken, M.; Wille, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.; Hollaender, B.; Heuken, M.

    2012-11-01

    Quaternary AlInGaN layers were grown on conventional GaN buffer layers on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy at different surface temperatures and different reactor pressures with constant precursor flow conditions. A wide range in compositions within 30-62% Al, 5-29% In, and 23-53% Ga was covered, which leads to different strain states from high tensile to high compressive. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we determined the compositions, strain states, and crystal quality of the AlInGaN layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed to characterize the surface morphology. A critical strain value for maximum In incorporation near the AlInGaN/GaN interface is presented. For compressively strained layers, In incorporation is limited at the interface as residual strain cannot exceed an empirical critical value of about 1.1%. Relaxation occurs at about 15 nm thickness accompanied by strong In pulling. Tensile strained layers can be grown pseudomorphically up to 70 nm at a strain state of 0.96%. A model for relaxation in compressively strained AlInGaN with virtual discrete sub-layers, which illustrates the gradually changing lattice constant during stress reduction is presented.

  6. Strain relief and Pd island shape evolution on the palladium and palladium hydride (100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The mesoscopic relaxation of small Pd islands on Pd(100) and PdH(100) surfaces is investigated on the atomic scale by performing molecular statics calculations. A strong strain and stress inhomogeneity in islands and topmost layers of the substrate is revealed. An unusual size dependence of the shape of islands is discovered.

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  9. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  10. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattak, Nasir

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  12. Project Reports for Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) will conduct on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review in the communities of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, Sand Point, St. George, St. Paul, and Unalaska.

  13. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  14. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands This report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. waste-to-energy_eval_usvi_nrel_52308_final.pdf (1.68 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands

  15. Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S. -I.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-04

    The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in amore » repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. In conclusion, this report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.« less

  16. Case study of slope failures at Spilmans Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayyal, M.K.; Hasen, M.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents a case study for a dredge disposal site called Spilmans Island, located along the Houston-Galveston Ship Channel, east of Houston. Initially classified as a sand bar in the San Jacinto River, Spilmans Island evolved in recent years with the construction of perimeter levees to contain the flow of materials produced from dredging operations. These levees were often constructed on soft dredged sediments, and as the levees were raised, occasionally slope failures occurred. The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the importance of reconstructing the history of a site as a basis for geotechnical analyses, and to demonstrate the significance of keeping accurate records of past investigations, construction activities, slope failures and subsequent remedial measures. The results of the geotechnical investigation described in this paper offer a clear example of how such data can be used to provide reliable predictions on the stability conditions of raised levees.

  17. Sound cable crossing brings inexpensive electric power to Long Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzan, J. ); Goyette, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that while many electric-utility customers in New York State benefit from inexpensive hydroelectric power from Canada and upstate New York, lack of sufficient transmission connections have prevented this electricity from reaching Long Island. However, a newly constructed underground/underwater link capable of carrying 700-MW now transmits low-cost electricity to the island, saving money for customers. The self-contained fluid-filled cable used for the underwater portion of the project is the largest underwater cable in the world. The use of high-pressure, fluid-filled pipe-type cable on the land portion represents the largest application of paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) insulated cable in the United States. State-of-the-art technologies were implemented in the use of temperature monitoring and leak detection systems, SF{sub 6} gas-insulated substation, and underwater cable laying and embedment techniques.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Twt Twitchell Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Twt Twitchell Island. Site Description - The Twitchell Island site is a rice paddy that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. While Bare Peat field was leveled for rice planting, the tower was installed on April 3, 2009. The rice paddy was converted from corn in 2007. In Summer 2009, Bispyribac-sodium and Pendimethalin herbicides were applied to the fields prior to rice planting and flooding, then pesticide and fertilizer application took place. Each year after rice is planted in the spring by drilling, the field is flooded. Then, the field is drained in early fall, rice is harvested, and the field site is moved.

  19. Maldives-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  20. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Infrastructure Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center Project Partners: -- Guangdong Provincial Academy of Building Research - Guangdong, China -- Chongqing University - Chongqing, China -- Research Institute of Standards and Norms - China -- Chinese Academy of Sciences - Beijing, China DOE Funding: $795,000 Project Term: Jan. 2011 - Dec. 2015 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean

  1. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82 Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan RT Marchand SP Alexander A Protat December 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  2. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective The overarching objective of this field campaign is to make observations of the surface broadband radiative fluxes in combination with other measurements useful in characterizing cloud and aerosol properties. In addition to having large uncertainties, satellite data sets for the Southern Ocean are incomplete because they are not continuous, rarely sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems. This is

  3. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  4. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  5. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1 November 2010, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and EDIN-sponsored renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  6. A review of current anti-islanding methods for photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Byunggyu; Yu, Gwonjong; Matsui, Mikihiko

    2010-05-15

    Islanding phenomenon is undesirable because it leads to a safety hazard to utility service personnel and may cause damage to power generation and power supply facilities as a result of unsynchronized re-closure. Until now, various anti-islanding methods (AIMs) for detecting and preventing islanding of photovoltaic and other distributed generations (DGs) have been proposed. This paper presents an overview of recent anti-islanding method developments for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation, focusing on the concept and operating principle, mainly based on single phase system. For the performance comparison, the experimental results of the various AIMs with 3 kW PV inverter are provided based on the islanding detection capability and power quality. As a result, the active AIMs have better islanding detection capability rather than the passive one. However, the active AIMs have power quality degradation on harmonic distortion or displacement power factor based on the injected active signal type. In addition to the evaluation and comparison of the main anti-islanding methods, this paper also summarizes the related anti-islanding standards to evaluate anti-islanding capability for PV system. This paper can be used as a useful anti-islanding reference for future work in DG like PV, and wind turbine. (author)

  7. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  8. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  9. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection The Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN)-U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) pilot project offers a valuable example of how to translate technical analysis to an effective, effcient regulatory and policy environment that facilitates the integra- tion of renewable energy into the existing electricity system. Faced with electricity prices more than four times higher than the U.S. average, USVI Gov.

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Committing to an Energy Transition U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision Getting the Right People in the Room at the Outset Getting the right people in the room is critical to ensuring buy-in from key stakeholders when setting the vision for an energy project or initiative. Like many island communities, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) was almost 100% depen- dent on imported oil for electricity, water desalinization, and

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan This report, funded by DOE and prepared by EDIN's Transportation Working Group (TWG), aims to build on the "2030 USVI Transportation Master Plan" by describing how its recommended projects can be leveraged toward the 60% by 2025 goal. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan (1.2 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map:

  13. U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska U.S. Coast Guard, Kodiak Island, Alaska October 7, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of new boiler at Kodiak Island facility The first delivery order included upgrades to the steam plant and boilers Jerry Reilley, ERI Services, Inc. Overview By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy-saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at their facility at Kodiak Island,

  14. Development and Testing of an Approach to Anti-Islanding inUtility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Testing of an Approach to Anti-Islanding in Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems ...

  15. Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i In both the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) and Hawai'i, aggressive clean energy goals necessitated establishing an energy baseline to enable more informed energy decision making and provide a way to measure progress toward meeting the goals. The outcome of the energy baseline was then used to develop respective energy road maps to

  16. MHK Projects/Long Island Sound Tidal Energy Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Island Sound Tidal Energy Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  17. MHK Projects/Ward s Island Tidal Power Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    s Island Tidal Power Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type"...

  18. Verification of a magnetic island in gyro-kinetics by comparison with analytic theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarzoso, D. Casson, F. J.; Poli, E.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2015-02-15

    A rotating magnetic island is imposed in the gyrokinetic code GKW, when finite differences are used for the radial direction, in order to develop the predictions of analytic tearing mode theory and understand its limitations. The implementation is verified against analytics in sheared slab geometry with three numerical tests that are suggested as benchmark cases for every code that imposes a magnetic island. The convergence requirements to properly resolve physics around the island separatrix are investigated. In the slab geometry, at low magnetic shear, binormal flows inside the island can drive Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which prevent the formation of the steady state for which the analytic theory is formulated.

  19. MHK Projects/Wavemill Energy Cape Breton Island NS CA | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wavemill Energy Cape Breton Island NS CA < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

  20. Spontaneous healing and growth of locked magnetic island chains in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2012-11-15

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that locked magnetic island chains in stellarator plasmas spontaneously heal under certain conditions, and spontaneously grow under others. A formalism initially developed to study magnetic island dynamics in tokamak plasmas is employed to investigate this phenomenon. It is found that island healing/growth transitions can be caused either by a breakdown in torque balance in the vicinity of the island chain, or by an imbalance between the various terms in the island width evolution equation. The scaling of the healing/growth thresholds with the standard dimensionless plasma parameters {beta}, {nu}{sub *}, and {rho}{sub *} is determined. In accordance with the experimental data, it is found that island healing generally occurs at high {beta} and low {nu}{sub *}, and island growth at low {beta} and high {nu}{sub *}. In further agreement, it is found that island healing is accompanied an ion poloidal velocity shift in the electron diamagnetic direction, and island growth by a velocity shift in the ion diamagnetic direction. Finally, it is found that there is considerable hysteresis in the healing/growth cycle, as is also seen experimentally.

  1. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng Chang, Yuan-Ching; Huang, Hao-Ping; Chen, Nai-Chuan

    2014-03-21

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highly nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.

  2. Early dismantlement of Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, J.; Heisey, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear station ceased commercial operation following the March 1979 accident. Following completion of an extensive cleanup effort that included removal and shipment of the damaged core, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a possession-only license (POL) amendment on September 14, 1993. Postdefueling monitored storage (PDMS) technical specifications were issued on December 28, 1993. Entry into PDMS required that the licensee demonstrate that the plant was in a safe and stable condition and posed no risk to public health and safety.

  3. Indium Growth and Island Height Control on Si Submonolayer Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jizhou

    2009-05-09

    wave length of 13.4nm so it can curve on the surface of an sample to make structure as small as the order of 10nm. however, lithograph usually causes permanent damages to the surface and in many cases the QDs are damaged during the lithograph and therefore result in high percentage of defects. Quantum size effect has attracted more and more interests in surface science due to many of its effects. One of its effects is the height preference in film growing and the resulting possibility of uniformly sized self-assemble nanostructure. The experiment of Pb islands on In 4x1 phase shows that both the height and the width can be controlled by proper growth conditions, which expands the growth dimensions from 1 to 2. This discover leads us to study the In/Pb interface. In Ch.3, we found that the Pb islands growing on In 4x1-Si(111) surface which have uniform height due to QSE and uniform width due to the constriction of In 4x1 lattice have unexpected stability. These islands are stable in even RT, unlike usual nanostructures on Pb/Si surface which are stable only at low temperature. Since similar structures are usually grown at low temperature, this discovery makes the grown structures closer to technological applications. It also shows the unusual of In/Pb interface. Then we studied the In islands grown on Pb-{alpha}-{radical}3x{radical}3-Si(111) phase in Ch.4. These islands have fcc structure in the first few layers, and then convert to bct structure. The In fcc islands have sharp height preference due to QSE like Pb islands. However, the preferred height is different (7 layer for Pb on Si 7x7 and 4 layer for Pb on In 4x1), due to the difference of interface. The In islands structure prefers to be bct than fcc with coverage increase. It is quantitatively supported by first-principle calculation. Unexpectedly, the In islands grown on various of In interfaces didn't show QSE effects and phase transition from fcc and bct structures as on the Pb-{alpha} interface (Ch.6). In g

  4. Rhode Island Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Olis, D.; Warren, A.

    2011-09-01

    This report lays out the strategy envisioned by the stakeholders in the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Interior to achieve the ambitious goal of achieving a 60% reduction in business-as-usual fossil fuel demand by 2025 (60x25) within the electricity sector. This work and supporting analysis provides a framework within which decisions can begin to be made, a concrete vision of what the future might hold, and a guide to determine what questions should follow.

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Caley Johnson Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-52565 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Caley Johnson Prepared

  7. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  8. Project Fact Sheet Long Island HTS Power Cable Superconducting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long Island HTS Power Cable Superconducting Power Equipment www.oe.energy.gov Phone: 202-586-1411 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, OE-1 U.S. Department of Energy - 1000 Independence Avenue, SW - Washington, DC 20585 Plugging America Into the Future of Power What is the status of the Project? The cable was energized April 22, 2008 and serves the equivalent of 300,000 homes. It is the first HTS power cable to operate at transmission voltage in the grid. LIPA plans to retain

  9. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage

  10. Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Additions (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 61 265 243 47 97 147 20 65 174 164 1990's 142 749 796 462 1,156 857 850 1,056 102 162 2000's 174 72 254 1,290 971 850 390 1,093 656 698 2010's 468 430 517 624 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next

  11. Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 316 192 260 55 66 120 36 295 143 202 1990's 188 355 1,216 800 996 908 1,603 1,533 851 139 2000's 986 413 301 1,205 1,058 786 411 1,089 730 954 2010's 698 436 457 645 879 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  12. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,158 1,152 1,122 1990's 1,135 1,107 1,096 1,066 1,064 359 363 336 325 302 2000's 317 283 54 236 223 223 245 256 243 260 2010's 249 245 248 271 266 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  13. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 97 243 137 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of

  14. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Net Withdrawals All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -6 411 541 1990's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Net Withdrawals of Natural

  15. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 91 654 678 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Withdrawals of Natural Gas from Underground Storage - All Operators Rhode

  16. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  18. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  19. Biogas Potential on Long Island, New York: A Quantification Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, D.; Patel, S.; Tonjes, D.

    2011-08-25

    Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of waste, whether occurring spontaneously in landfills or under controlled conditions in digesters. Biogas is viewed as an important energy source in current efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels and dependency on imported resources. Several studies on the assessment of biogas potential have been made at regional, national, and global scales. However, because it is not economically feasible to transport biogas feedstock over long distances, it is more appropriate to consider local waste sources for their potential to produce biogas. An assessment of the biogas potential on Long Island, based on the review of local landfills, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste generation and management, and agricultural waste, found that 234 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of methane (CH{sub 4}) from biogas might be harvestable, although substantial barriers for complete exploitation exist. This number is equivalent to 2.52 TW-h of electricity, approximately 12% of fossil fuel power generation on Long Island. This work can serve as a template for other areas to rapidly create or approximate biogas potentials, especially for suburban U.S. locations that are not usually thought of as sources of renewable energy.

  20. Response of microscale turbulence and transport to the evolution of resistive magnetohydrodynamic magnetic island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jiquan, E-mail: lijq@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wang, Z. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Nonlinear evolution of microscale turbulence interacting with a naturally growing MHD magnetic island is simulated based on a Landau-fluid model. Here, we report on a new short wavelength magnetic-island-induced ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability triggered by a critical threshold of magnetic island width in multiscale turbulence, which is referred to as sw-MITG mode. The sw-MITG mode is characterized by a substantially low stability threshold and a global structure propagating along the ion diamagnetic drift direction. Its generation results from the response of microscale fluctuations to turbulent cross-field heat transport associated with increasing boundary layer width about the island separatrix. An intermittency of heat transport is caused by the sw-MITG mode interacting with dynamical magnetic island and microturbulence.

  1. Nonlinear response of magnetic islands to localized electron cyclotron current injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgogno, D.; Comisso, L.; Grasso, D.; Lazzaro, E.

    2014-06-15

    The magnetic island evolution under the action of a current generated externally by electron cyclotron wave beams is studied using a reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics plasma model. The use of a two-dimensional reconnection model shows novel features of the actual nonlinear evolution as compared to the zero-dimensional model of the generalized Rutherford equation. When the radio frequency control is applied to a small magnetic island, the complete annihilation of the island width is followed by a spatial phase shift of the island, referred as “flip” instability. On the other hand, a current-drive injection in a large nonlinear island can be accompanied by the occurrence of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These effects need to be taken into account in designing tearing mode control systems based on radio frequency current-drive.

  2. Evolution of Florida Bay islands from a supratidal precursor: evidence from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, T.M.; Merriam, D.F.

    1988-05-01

    Cores from the interior portions of westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key document island nucleation from a supratidal precursor developed on a paralic peat deposit; whereas cores from exterior portions of these islands document development of marine mudbanks, progradation or colonization by mangroves, and supratidal sedimentation. The supratidal precursor beneath these islands consists of eroded remnants of coastal tidal flats or local topographic highs that remained supratidal throughout the Holocene sea-level rise. Sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence suggest erosion of mangroves by storms or inundation of mangroves by storm deposits is a common precursor to subsequent sediment aggradation on both islands. If other Florida Bay islands develop from mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks, then data from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key indicate that nucleation from a supratidal precursor and mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks are both viable mechanisms for island initiation. The absence of evidence of a supratidal nucleus beneath an island can result from (a) island migration and subsequent erosion or (b) insufficient sampling density. Stratigraphic data from Florida Bay are insufficient to discriminate between the relative importance of these two models of island evolution; the authors contend that any model of the evolution of Florida Bay islands must incorporate island nucleation from a supratidal precursor as a viable mechanism for island evolution.

  3. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  4. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  5. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Hasse, S.; Warren, A.

    2011-08-01

    This NREL technical report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. In particular, it considers life-cycle impacts of WTE as compared to landfill disposal and various forms of electrical generation, as well as WTE impacts on source reduction or recycling programs. In addition, it evaluates the economics and potential environmental impact of WTE in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) based on existing USVI waste stream characterization data, recycling challenges unique to the USVI, and the results of cost and environmental modeling of four municipal solid waste (MSW) management options, including landfill, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production, recycling, and gassification plus RDF.

  6. Experimentally Determined Coordinates for Three MILS Hydrophones Near Ascension Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harben, P. E.; Hollfelder, J. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    1999-11-19

    We conducted an airgun survey in the waters of Ascension Island in May 1999 to determine new locations and depths for three Missile Impact Location System (MILS) hydrophones (ASC23, ASC24, and ASC26) currently in use by the Prototype International Data Center (PIDC) and the National Data Center (NDC). The nominal and new locations are summarized in Table 1. Although not rigorous, errors in the new locations and depths are conservatively estimated to be less than 100 m. The hydrophones are either on or near the ocean bottom in all three cases. The new depths are consistent with the following: Direct-phase airgun arrivals; Bathymetry determined along the track of the ship used for this airgun survey; Reflected phases from the airgun data; and Depths given in the original hydrophone installation report.

  7. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  8. Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 257 951 718 594 102 130 182 109 391 219 1990's 51 92 155 126 0 27 42 18 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  9. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,128 16,096 16,924 1990's 17,765 18,430 18,607 21,178 21,208 21,472 21,664 21,862 22,136 22,254 2000's 22,592 22,815 23,364 23,270 22,994 23,082 23,150 23,007 23,010 22,988 2010's 23,049 23,177 23,359 23,742 23,934 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  10. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 180,656 185,861 190,796 1990's 195,100 196,438 197,926 198,563 200,959 202,947 204,259 212,777 208,208 211,097 2000's 214,474 216,781 219,769 221,141 223,669 224,320 225,027 223,589 224,103 224,846 2010's 225,204 225,828 228,487 231,763 233,786 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  11. Rhode Island Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 117,707 130,751 118,001 2000's 88,419 95,607 87,805 78,456 72,609 80,764 77,204 87,972 89,256 92,743 2010's 94,110 100,455 95,476 85,537 88,673 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  12. Final report on Weeks Island Monitoring Phase : 1999 through 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2005-05-01

    This Final Report on the Monitoring Phase of the former Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facility details the results of five years of monitoring of various surface accessible quantities at the decommissioned facility. The Weeks Island mine was authorized by the State of Louisiana as a Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage facility from 1979 until decommissioning of the facility in 1999. Discovery of a sinkhole over the facility in 1992 with freshwater inflow to the facility threatened the integrity of the oil storage and led to the decision to remove the oil, fill the chambers with brine, and decommission the facility. Thereafter, a monitoring phase, by agreement between the Department of Energy and the State, addressed facility stability and environmental concerns. Monitoring of the surface ground water and the brine of the underground chambers from the East Fill Hole produced no evidence of hydrocarbon contamination, which suggests that any unrecovered oil remaining in the underground chambers has been contained. Ever diminishing progression of the initial major sinkhole, and a subsequent minor sinkhole, with time was verification of the response of sinkholes to filling of the facility with brine. Brine filling of the facility ostensively eliminates any further growth or new formation from freshwater inflow. Continued monitoring of sinkhole response, together with continued surface surveillance for environmental problems, confirmed the intended results of brine pressurization. Surface subsidence measurements over the mine continued throughout the monitoring phase. And finally, the outward flow of brine was monitored as a measure of the creep closure of the mine chambers. Results of each of these monitoring activities are presented, with their correlation toward assuring the stability and environmental security of the decommissioned facility. The results suggest that the decommissioning was successful and no contamination of the

  13. Secondary island formation in collisional and collisionless kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayton, William S; Roytershteyn, Vadim; Gary, Peter; Yin, L; Albright, B J; Bowers, K J; Karimabadi, H

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic reconnection in large-scale systems often gives rise to extended current layers that are unstable to the formation of secondary magnetic islands. The role of these islands in the reconnection process and the conditions under which they form remains a subject of debate. In this work, we benchmark two different kinetic particle-in-cell codes to address the formation of secondary islands for several types of global boundary conditions. The influence on reconnection is examined for a range of conditions and collisionality limits. Although secondary islands are observed in all cases, their influence on reconnection may be different depending on the regime. In the collisional limit, the secondary islands playa key role in breaking away from the Sweet-Parker scaling and enabling faster reconnection. In the collisionless limit, their formation is one mechanism for controlling the length of the diffusion region. In both limits, the onset of secondary islands leads to a time dependent behavior in the reconnection rate. In all cases considered, the number of secondary islands increases for larger systems.

  14. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  15. WINDExchange: Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Resource

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Map Maps & Data Printable Version Bookmark and Share Land-Based Utility-Scale Maps Potential Capacity Maps Offshore Wind Maps Community-Scale Maps Residential-Scale Maps Installed Capacity Maps Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Resource Map Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands wind resource map. Click on the image to view a larger version. Enlarge image This Puerto Rico wind map and the U.S. Virgin Islands wind map shows the wind resource at 50 meters. Download a printable

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Future | Department of Energy U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future April 3, 2015 - 11:00am Addthis Renewable energy technologies, such as the 5 MW Estate Donor Solar Project located on St. Thomas, have helped the U.S. Virgin Islands reduce its fossil fuel use by 20% over the last five years. | Photo by Jennifer DeCesaro Renewable

  17. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  18. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Setting the Vision Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map The Energy Development in Islands Nations (EDIN)-U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) pilot project offers a valuable example of how to approach vision and goal setting for an energy project or initiative. At the inaugural EDIN-USVI workshop in February 2010, USVI Gov. John P. de Jongh Jr. announced his goal to reduce the territory's dependence on fossil fuel 60% by 2025. To defne and realize the

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mare Island Navy Yard - CA 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mare Island Navy Yard - CA 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MARE ISLAND NAVY YARD (CA.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DoD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Mare Island , California CA.0-01-2 Evaluation Year: 1989 CA.0-01-1 Site Operations: Naval yard and shipping station. CA.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to DOD CA.0-01-1 CA.0-01-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated Primary Radioactive Materials Handled:

  20. DOE Tour of Zero: Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island DOE Tour of Zero: Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island 1 of 14 United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation renovated this 1,436-square-foot home in Patchogue, New York, to the performance criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. 2 of 14 The 1970s-era home had a HERS score of 162 in its pre-renovation condition, as shown here. When

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Project Execution and Quality Control U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), solar energy is helping to alleviate the territory's dependence on fossil fuel while stabilizing and reducing energy costs. Challenge The territory's successes with solar energy started in 2010 when USVI Gov. John P. de Jongh Jr. set an aggressive goal to reduce the USVI's dependence on fossil fuel 60% by 2025. Like many island communities, USVI

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Clifton View Homes, Whidbey Island,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WA | Department of Energy Whidbey Island, WA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Clifton View Homes, Whidbey Island, WA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready home on Whidbey Island, WA, that scores HERS 37 without PV or HERS -13 with 10 kW PV, enough to power the home and an electric car. The two-story custom home has ICF below-grade walls, 6.5-inch SIP above-grade walls, a 10.25-in. SIP roof, and triple-pane windows. The home has a ground-source heat pump provides radiant floor heat

  3. EDIN Announces New Projects in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. pilot project participant will be the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI); Iceland's pilot project will be working with Dominica; and New Zealand will work to assess geothermal ...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Rhode Island.

  5. Bureaucracy in crisis: Three Mile Island, the shuttle Challenger, and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casamayou, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    This book is a study in organizational theory about how technological bureaucracies perceive, communicate about, and respond to potential risks to public safety, using Three mile island and the Challenger accident as examples.

  6. Current and future plans for wind energy development on San Clemente Island, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Cable, S.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Navy is considering possible ways to maximize the use of wind energy technology for power supply to their auxiliary landing field and other facilities on San Clemente Island. A summary of their past analysis and future considerations is presented. An analysis was performed regarding the technical and economic feasibility of installing and operating a sea-water pumped hydro/wind energy system to provide for all of the island`s electric power needs. Follow-on work to the feasibility study include wind resource monitoring as well as procurement and preliminary design activities for a first-phase wind-diesel installation. Future plans include the consideration of alternative siting arrangements and the introduction of on-island fresh water production. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Our Commitment to Asian American and Pacific Islanders at the Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today we were honored to celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) month, recognizing the significant contributions of AAPI individuals in securing our clean energy future, and the work...

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Regions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. Virgin Islands Regions National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About High School High School Students High School Coaches High School Regionals High School Rules, Forms, and...

  9. Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North Island Of New Zealand | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North Island Of New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North...

  10. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In July 2009 the U.S. Virgin Islands enacted legislation creating Act 7075. This legislation requires that all new developments and substantial building modifications install energy efficient solar...

  12. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  13. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This analysis is an update to the Energy Efficiency Potential report completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kaua‘i (KEMA 2005).

  14. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system’s energy source. "Solar or wind-energy system" is...

  16. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing...

  18. Selective growth of Pb islands on graphene/SiC buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. T.; Miao, Y. P.; Ma, D. Y.; Hu, T. W.; Ma, F. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chu, Paul K.; Xu, K. W. E-mail: kwxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-02-14

    Graphene is fabricated by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC) and Pb islands are deposited by Pb flux in molecular beam epitaxy chamber. It is found that graphene domains and SiC buffer layer coexist. Selective growth of Pb islands on SiC buffer layer rather than on graphene domains is observed. It can be ascribed to the higher adsorption energy of Pb atoms on the 6?(3) reconstruction of SiC. However, once Pb islands nucleate on graphene domains, they will grow very large owing to the lower diffusion barrier of Pb atoms on graphene. The results are consistent with first-principle calculations. Since Pb atoms on graphene are nearly free-standing, Pb islands grow in even-number mode.

  19. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...em> U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision A 448-kW PV system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on St. ...

  20. Study and Development of Anti-Islanding Control for Grid-Connected Inverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Garces, L.; Zhou, R.; Li, L.; Wang, T.

    2004-05-01

    This is a report on the development of anti-islanding control for grid-connected inverters from distributed generation sources. Islanding occurs when a distributed generation source continues to provide electricity to a portion of the utility grid after the utility experiences a disruption in service. Since the utility no longer controls this part of the distribution system, islanding can pose problems for utility personnel safety, power quality, equipment damage, and restoration of service. This report proposes a new family of anti-islanding schemes that meet IEEE 1547 interconnection standards, that can detect all disruptions in service, have minimum power-quality impact, require low-cost implementation, work for multiple distributed generators, and work for any multi-phase inverters. It also provides design guidelines for the schemes, and evaluates and validates the proposed schemes for practical applications.