National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gamma radiation exposure

  1. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J.

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest ?-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one ?-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for ?-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that ?- and ?-radiation exposures have different effects.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports November 17, 2015 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The...

  7. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these. 2. Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. It readily penetrates most materials and is sometimes called "penetrating radiation." 3. X-rays are like gamma rays.

  8. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  9. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  10. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  11. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  12. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for ...

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  16. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of ...

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2014.

  18. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2009 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2009.

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1996 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1996.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2010 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2010.

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2003 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2003 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2003.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1995 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1995 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1995.

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1998 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1998 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1998.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    employees during 1985. May 19, 2006 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor...

  6. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide December 17, 2015 Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System ...

  7. Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile Strain): ... Title: Tensile Testing of Aged TR-55 Silicone Rubber (Gamma Radiation Under Tensile ...

  8. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  9. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  10. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  11. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better estimate the

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1978 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eleventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1978.

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1987 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Twentieth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1987.

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1976 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ninth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1976.

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1988 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Twenty-first Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1988.

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1977 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1977.

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1975 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Eighth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for ERDA & ERDA Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and its contractor employees during 1975.

  6. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all

  7. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification December 17, 2015 Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. These records form the basis for the analysis presented in the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure annual report. In July of 2007,

  8. A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Occupational Radiation Exposure: Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Outreach & Awareness Series ...

  9. 2011 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Summary poster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU

    2012-12-12

    This poster graphically presents data pertaining to occupational radiation exposure in terms of total effective dose (TED), primarily, but also collective dose and average measureable dose.

  10. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 January 29, 2015 OE-3 2015-01: DOE Occupational Radiation...

  11. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1994-08-09

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

  12. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

  13. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  15. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to ... Other Related Sites: Provides links to other DOE and non-DOE web sites for information ...

  17. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems ... Guide. PDF icon Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting ...

  18. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reporting Guide. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information (11.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Radiation Exposure Monitoring ...

  19. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & ...

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2013 Report The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public in controlled areas that are monitored for exposure to radiation. The 105 DOE organizations submitting radiation

  1. Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

  2. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R O N * ELECTRO N * T E D * I N T E R N A L * C E D * G A M M A * B E T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R O N * E L E C TR ON * TE D * IN T E R N A L * C E D * G A M M A * B E T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A September 2015 DOE 2014 OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE This document is available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http://energy.gov/ehss/occupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2006 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 06 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2006 Report The DOE 2006 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2006. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 95 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2006 have been grouped into 34 sites across the complex. This

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1999 Report | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 89 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report The Twenty-second Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1989. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 0 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report The DOE 2000 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2000. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 104 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2000 have been grouped into 28 geographic sites across the complex.

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 1 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report The DOE 2001 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2001. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 107 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2001 have been grouped into 30 geographic sites across the complex.

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 89 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report The Twenty-second Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1989. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 90 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report The Twenty-third Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1990. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees and contractors that are monitored for exposure to radiation. This information has been analyzed and trends over time

  9. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2002 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2002 Report The DOE 2002 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2002. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 102 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2002 have been grouped into 29 geographic sites across the complex.

  10. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report The DOE 2004 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2004. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 96 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2004 have been grouped into 25 geographic sites across the complex. This

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2005 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2005 Report The DOE 2005 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2005. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 101 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2005 have been grouped into 26 geographic sites across the complex.

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2007 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2007 Report The DOE 2007 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2007. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 90 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2007 have been grouped into 29 sites across the complex. This

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 8 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2008. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 92 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2008 have been grouped into 30 sites across the complex. This

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2011 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2011 Report The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2011. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 107 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2011 have been grouped into 32 sites. This information has been

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2012. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The 94 DOE organizations submitting radiation exposure reports for 2012 have been grouped into 32 sites. This information has been analyzed

  16. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  18. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. GAMMA RADIATION DOSAGE-MEASURING GLASSES AND METHOD OF USING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishay, A.M.

    1963-05-14

    A dosimeter glass for gamma radiation characterized by a borate base, a substantial amount of bismuth trioxide and a minor amount of either arsenic or antimony trioxides is presented. (AEC)

  6. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  7. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory Accreditation Program and DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. Title 10, Code of ...

  8. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle (HTGR-SC) unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor (LWR) experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor (GCR) stations.

  9. Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form October 29, 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) form to submit a...

  10. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1992- 1994 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994.

  11. Reporting Occupational Radiation Exposure Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reporting Occupational Radiation Exposure Data Reporting Occupational Radiation Exposure Data IMPORTANT NOTICE: Due to increasing security concerns for the protection of Personnally Identifiable Information (PII), AU-23 has issued a policy statement regarding the submission of radiation exposure records to REMS. This policy should be implemented immediately by all organizations reporting radiation exposure records to REMS in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. DOE sites are required to

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1997 Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7 Report Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1997 Report The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1997 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1997. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of DOE's performance in

  13. Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy Nimi Rao*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Derek Hagemeyer, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Abstract: The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) project began in 1969 under the AEC and has undergone significant evolutions since inception. The system serves as the central repository for occupational radiation exposure records for all

  14. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  15. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  16. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  17. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  18. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reporting | Department of Energy A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting September 2012 This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary of the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program and DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. Title 10, Code of Federal

  19. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-31

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm

  20. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Radiation Exposure Data Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How ORISE is Making a Difference Overview Argonne Electronic Medical Records System Beryllium Testing and Surveillance Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) DOE IISP 10-Year Summary Report Resources Overview Reports Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles Human Subjects Resource Book How to Work With Us Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Radiation Exposure Data Collection ORISE manages large,

  1. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Radiation Exposure Data Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How ORISE is Making a Difference Overview Argonne Electronic Medical Records System Beryllium Testing and Surveillance Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) ...

  2. STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODELING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED ELASTOMERS - RECENT INSIGHTS FROM EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING ...

  3. Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in ... of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in Brain, Cognitive Deficits, ...

  4. 1989 neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry intercomparison study using RADCAL (Radiation Calibration Laboratory) sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.; Patterson, G.R. ); Murakami, H. . Dept. of Health Physics); Liu, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    The fourteenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (i.e., PDIS 14) was conducted during May 1-5, 1989. A total of 48 organizations (33 from the US and 15 from abroad) participated in PDIS 14. Participants submitted by mail a total of 1,302 neutron and gamma dosimeters for this mixed field study. The type of neutron dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD-albedo (40%), direct interaction TLD (22%), track (20%), film (7%), combination (7%), and bubble detectors (4%). The type of gamma dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD (84%) and film (16%). Radiation sources used in the six PDIS 14 exposures included {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm D{sub 2}O, {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm polyethylene (gamma-enhanced with {sup 137}Cs), and {sup 238}PuBe. Neutron dose equivalents ranged from 0.44--2.63 mSv and gamma doses ranged from 0. 01-1.85 mSv. One {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) exposure was performed at a 60{degree} angle of incidence (most performance tests are at perpendicular incidence). The average neutron dosimeter response for this exposure was 70% of that at normal incidence. The average gamma dosimeter response was 96% of that at normal incidence. A total of 70% of individual reported neutron dosimeter measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. If the 0.01 mSv data are omitted, approximately 90% of the individual reported gamma measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Bol, Martine E. Haan, Michiel W. de Zwam, Willem H. van Wildberger, Joachim E. Jeukens, CĂ©cile R. L. P. N.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  6. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  7. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  9. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    information | Department of Energy Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII information ‎December 17, ‎2015 The REMS Program Policy for submitting of PII information in accordance with the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) under DOE Order 231.1B and the REMS Reporting Guide. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Program Policy for Submitting of PII

  10. 2006 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R O N * AEDE * E L E C T R O N * T E D E * I N T E R N A L * C E D E * G A M M A * B E T A * S H I E L D * A L A R A * N E U T R ON * AED E * E L E C T R O N * T E D E * I N T E R N A L * C E D E * G A M M A * B E http://www.hss.energy.gov DOE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE 2006 Report D E P A R T M E N T O F E N E R G Y U N I T E D S T A T ES O F A M E R I C A This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE

  11. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  12. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  13. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  14. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray ...

  15. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  16. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

  17. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trani, Daniela; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Maastricht Radiation Oncology Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht ; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P.; Datta, Kamal; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  18. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  19. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  20. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The...

  1. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  2. Directional gamma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  3. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela; Marsac, Kara; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  4. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  5. Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hondorp, Hugh L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel neutron and gamma radiation elding material consisting of 95 to 97 percent by weight SiO.sub.2 and 5 to 3 percent by weight sodium silicate. In addition, the method of using this composition to provide a continuous neutron and gamma radiation shielding structure is disclosed.

  6. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  8. Calorimetric calibration of pyroelectric gamma-radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strakovskaya, R.Y.; Sras', A.G.

    1985-07-01

    A method has been devised for calibrating a pyroelectric dosimeter, which is based on comparing the readings obtained with it in a gamma-ray beam with the readings of an integral calorimeter under stationary conditions, with the latter previously calibrated from Joule heat. The calorimeter used was in the form of a closed shell, whose overall thermo-emf was independent of the spatial distribution of the heat sources in it, the value being proportional to the integral heat flux through the shell. Measurements were made not only with a quasiisotropic radiation field but also in directed fields. The overall error in calibrating the pyroelectric detectors by this method was less than or equal to plus or minus 10%.

  9. Impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants. Case study: PWR during routine operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Haggard, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present data in support of evaluating the impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposure. To determine quantitatively whether fuel cladding failure contributes significantly to occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure measurements were taken at comparable locations in two mirror-image pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and their common auxiliary building. One reactor, Unit B, was experiencing degraded fuel characterized as 0.125% fuel pin-hole leakers and was operating at approximately 55% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power, while the other reactor, Unit A, was operating under normal conditions with less than 0.01% fuel pin-hole leakers at 100% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power. Measurements consisted of gamma spectral analyses, radiation exposure rates and airborne radionuclide concentrations. In addition, data from primary coolant sample results for the previous 20 months on both reactor coolant systems were analyzed. The results of the measurements and coolant sample analyses suggest that a 3560-megawatt-thermal (1100 MWe) PWR operating at full power with 0.125% failed fuel can experience an increase of 540% in radiation exposure rates as compared to a PWR operating with normal fuel. In specific plant areas, the degraded fuel may elevate radiation exposure rates even more.

  10. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  11. ORISE Video: What is the difference between radiation exposure and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation contamination?

  12. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter in the hyperon radiative decay. Sigma. sup + r arrow p. gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foucher, M.; Albuquerque, I.F.; Bondar, N.F.; Carrigan, R. Jr.; Chen, D.; Li Chengze; Cooper, P.S.; Denisov, A.S.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Dubbs, T.; Endler, A.M.F.; Escobar, C.O.; Tang Fukun; Golovtsov, V.L.; Goritchev, P.A.; Gottschalk, H.; Gouffon, P.; Grachev, V.T.; Shi Huanzhang; Yan Jie; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Kuropatkin, N.P.; Lach, J.; Luksys, M.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Dai Lisheng; Mahon, J.R.P.; McCliment, E.; Morelos, A.; Newsom, C.; Lang Pengfei; Pommot Maia, M.C.; Samsonov, V.M.; Zheng Shuchen; Smith, V.J.; Terentyev, N.K.; Timm, S.; Tkatch, I.I.; Uvarov, L.N.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Zhao Wenheng; Zhong Yuanyuan; Li Yunshan Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo

    1992-05-18

    We have measured the asymmetry parameter ({alpha}{sub {gamma}}) in the hyperon radiative decay {Sigma}{sup +}{r arrow}{ital p}{gamma} with a sample of 34 754{plus minus}212 events obtained in a polarized charged hyperon beam experiment at Fermilab. We find {alpha}{sub {gamma}}={minus}0.720{plus minus}0.086{plus minus}0.045, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  13. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  14. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2015-03-08

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  15. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J.; Cooper, David E.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  16. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. )

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

  17. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  18. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M.

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  19. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  20. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED GAMMA RADIATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamermesh, M.; Hanna, S.S.; Perlow, G.J.

    1964-04-21

    A method of polarizing and resolving the plane of polarization of gamma rays is described. Polarization is produced by positioning a thin disc of ferromagnetic metal, cortaining /sup 57/Co, in a magnetic field. Resolution is accomplished by rotating a thin disc of iron enriched in /sup 57/Fe relative to a second magnetic field and noting the change of gamma absorption at each rotational position. (AEC)

  1. Pure LiF nanophosphors for high exposures of gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Satinder; Dogra, R.; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Ravi

    2012-06-05

    Nanocrystalline lithium fluoride (LiF) phosphors have been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method at different pH values (7.0, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.00). The formation of nanocrystalline structure has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of LiF phosphors irradiated with gamma rays at different doses of 10 Gy - 70 kGy have been further studied. The analysis of TL glow curve revealed the existence of three well resolved glow peaks, first low temperature peak at around 82 deg. C, second at 125 deg. C and third one at higher temperature around 303 deg. C. The LiF nano-crystallites synthesized at 8.00 pH with maximum TL sensitivity at studied gamma doses ranging from threshold to high exposures are potential candidate for dosimetry applications.

  2. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and {approximately}450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem.

  3. Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1989. Twenty-second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. H.; Eschbach, P. A.; Harty, R.; Millet, W. H.; Scholes, V. A.

    1992-12-01

    This report is one of a series of annual reports provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year and identify trends in exposures being experienced over the years.

  4. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  5. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  6. A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occupational Radiation Exposure: Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Outreach & Awareness Series to Advance the DOE Mission Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy September 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure: Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting i Overview One of the priorities of the Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure a safe and secure workplace by integrating safety and

  7. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1994-11-01

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups.

  8. #AskBerkeleyLab: A Pill to Treat Exposure to Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-10-30

    Berkeley Lab chemist, Rebecca Abergel, answers a question from Oakland resident Yelena on how a pill can treat exposure to radiation.

  9. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) and Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS)

  10. THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

  11. Revisit the radiative decays of J/{psi} and {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}({gamma}{eta}{sub c}{sup '})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Gang; Zhao Qiang

    2011-10-01

    With the new measurements of J/{psi} and {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}({gamma}{eta}{sub c}{sup '}) from the CLEO and BES-III collaboration, we reinvestigate the intermediate meson loop (IML) contributions to these radiative decays in association with the quark model M1 transitions in an effective Lagrangian approach. It shows that the ''unquenched'' effects due to the intermediate hadron loops can be better quantified by the new data for J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}. Although the IML contributions are relatively small in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}, they play a crucial role in {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}({gamma}{eta}{sub c}{sup '}). A prediction for the IML contributions to {psi}(3770){yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}({gamma}{eta}{sub c}{sup '}) is made. Such unquenched effects allow us to reach a coherent description of those three radiative transitions, and gain some insights into the underlying dynamics.

  12. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  13. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-02-07

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  14. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  15. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  16. The impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants: Case study, PWR (pressurized-water reactor) during an outage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This report is the second in a series of case studies designed to evaluate the magnitude of increase in occupational radiation exposures at commercial US nuclear power plants resulting from small incidents or abnormal events. The event evaluated is fuel cladding failure, which can result in elevated primary coolant activity and increased radiation exposure rates within a plant. For this case study, radiation measurements were made at a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) during a maintenance and refueling outage. The PWR had been operating for 22 months with fuel cladding failure characterized as 105 pin-hole leakers, the equivalent of 0.21% failed fuel. Gamma spectroscopy measurements, radiation exposure rate determinations, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) assessments, and air sample analyses were made in the plant's radwaste, pipe penetration, and containment buildings. Based on the data collected, evaluations indicate that the relative contributions of activation products and fission products to the total exposure rates were constant over the duration of the outage. This constancy is due to the significant contribution from the longer-lived isotopes of cesium (a fission product) and cobalt (an activation product). For this reason, fuel cladding failure events remain as significant to occupational radiation exposure during an outage as during routine operations. As documented in the previous case study (NUREG/CR-4485 Vol. 1), fuel cladding failure events increased radiation exposure rates an estimated 540% at some locations of the plant during routine operations. Consequently, such events can result in significantly greater radiation exposure rates in many areas of the plant during the maintenance and refueling outages than would have been present under normal fuel conditions.

  17. Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1997-01-14

    Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attenuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power. 4 figs.

  18. Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attentuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  19. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Margutti, Raffaella; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, N.O.

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  1. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

  2. Structure and solid-state reactivity of Sc, Y, and lanthanide complexes of propiolic and tetrolic acid. [gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodkin, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The structure/reactivity relationships for several metal complexes of propynoic and 2-butynoic acid (propiolic and tetrolic acids, referred to as prop and tetr) were studied. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations were carried out for Sc(prop){sub 3}, Lat(tetr){sub 3}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, and two pseudo-polymorphs of La propiolate, La(prop){sub 3}{center dot}3H{sub 2}O and La(prop){sub 3}{center dot}3CH{sub 3}OH. The structures were analyzed for the presence of short (< 4.2 {angstrom}) contacts between {alpha} and {beta}{prime} carbon atoms of neighboring acetylenic functional groups. The existence of a continuous series of such contacts in the structure indicates that the compound has potential to undergo a 1,2-addition reaction leading to the formation of a polymeric product. All of the compounds studied were found to be potentially reactive. The propiolate and tetrolate complexes react in the solid state upon exposure to {gamma}-radiation. The radiation-induced reaction products of both La propiolate derivatives were shown by NMR spectral analysis to be branched polymers. The product resulting from the {gamma}-irradiation of Sc(prop){sub 3} was shown to be polymeric also, however, in this case, not branched. When La(tetr){sub 3}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O was exposed to {gamma}-radiation, the resultant product was not polymeric. The relative orientation of the reactive groups was believed to be a factor in determining whether or not branched polymers would be produced. Thermal analysis of the propiolate complexes indicated that solid state polymerization of these compounds can also occur by thermal induction. However, La(tetr){sub 3}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O is more likely to undergo decomposition than solid-state polymerization when heated. This result is probably associated with the presence of a terminal methyl group on the triple bond.

  3. ORISE: Illness and Injury Surveillance, Radiation Exposure, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fulfill agency requests for customized data, or support the routine review of health assessment programs. A list of ORISE reports focused on occupational exposure and worker...

  4. ORISE: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information and Reporting System (REIRS) The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is required by federal mandate to maintain and evaluate radiation protection data for...

  5. Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    KB) More Documents & Publications DOE F 531 10 CFR 1008, Records Maintained On Individuals (Privacy Act) Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION

  6. Dynamical dipole gamma radiation in heavy-ion collisions on the basis of a quantum molecular dynamics model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H. L.; Tian, W. D.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Chen, J. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Guo, W.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    Dynamical dipole gamma-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions is explored in the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The studies are focused on systems of {sup 40}Ca bombarding {sup 48}Ca and its isotopes at different incident energies and impact parameters. Yields of gamma rays are calculated and the centroid energy and dynamical dipole emission width of the gamma spectra are extracted to investigate the properties of gamma emission. In addition, sensitivities of dynamical dipole gamma-ray emission to the isospin and the symmetry energy coefficient of the equation of state are studied. The results show that detailed study of dynamical dipole gamma radiation can provide information on the equation of state and the symmetry energy around the normal nuclear density.

  7. DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report ALARA Activities...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to a 1 foot. To reduce personnel exposures, lead blankets were used as shielding for hot spots. Approximately 30 to 40 tons of lead blankets and rolling shield walls were...

  8. Features of the action of low-energy gamma radiation on the hydrogen permeability of certain materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Bekman, I.N.; Rudenko, N.V.; Shestakov, V.P.

    1985-07-01

    This paper determines the diffusion coefficients, the constants of permeability, and solubility of hydrogen in palladium, nickel, and Armco iron under the action of low-energy gamma radiation. It was established that without radiation all of the kinetic diffusion curves of hydrogen in palladium and nickel straighten well in a functional scale. In armco iron, some deviations are observed.

  9. A broadband gamma-ray spectrometry using novel unfolding algorithms for characterization of laser wakefield-generated betatron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Jong Ho Nakajima, Kazuhisa Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Yoo, Byung Ju; Shin, Kang Woo; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seung Ku; Choi, Il Woo; Rhee, Yong Joo; Shin, Jung Hun; Jo, Sung Ha; Hojbota, Calin; Cho, Byeoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee

    2015-12-15

    We present a high-flux, broadband gamma-ray spectrometry capable of characterizing the betatron radiation spectrum over the photon energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV with respect to the peak photon energy, spectral bandwidth, and unique discrimination from background radiations, using a differential filtering spectrometer and the unfolding procedure based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. These properties are experimentally verified by measuring betatron radiation from a cm-scale laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven by a 1-PW laser, using a differential filtering spectrometer consisting of a 15-filter and image plate stack. The gamma-ray spectra were derived by unfolding the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values recorded on the image plates, using the spectrometer response matrix modeled with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The accuracy of unfolded betatron radiation spectra was assessed by unfolding the test PSL data simulated with GEANT4, showing an ambiguity of less than 20% and clear discrimination from the background radiation with less than 10%. The spectral analysis of betatron radiation from laser wakefield-accelerated electron beams with energies up to 3 GeV revealed radiation spectra characterized by synchrotron radiation with the critical photon energy up to 7 MeV. The gamma-ray spectrometer and unfolding method presented here facilitate an in-depth understanding of betatron radiation from LWFA process and a novel radiation source of high-quality photon beams in the MeV regime.

  10. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Johnson, Michael D.; Fornace, Albert J.; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC ; Datta, Kamal

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  11. SIMILAR RADIATION MECHANISM IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND BLAZARS: EVIDENCE FROM TWO LUMINOSITY CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Yi, S. X.; Dai, Z. G. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful astrophysical events with relativistic jets. In this Letter, the broadband spectral properties of GRBs and well-observed blazars are compared. The distribution of GRBs is consistent with the well-known blazar sequence including the ?L {sub ?}(5 GHz) – ?{sub RX} and ?L {sub ?}(5 GHz) – ?{sub peak} correlations, where ?{sub RX} is defined as the broadband spectral slope in radio-to-X-ray bands, and ?{sub peak} is defined as the spectral peak frequency. Moreover, GRBs occupy the low radio luminosity end of these sequences. These two correlations suggest that GRBs could have a radiation process, i.e., synchrotron radiation, similar to blazars both in the prompt emission and afterglow phases.

  12. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  13. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  14. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report ALARA Activities at DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Four ALARA Activities at DOE 4 This section on ALARA activities is a vehicle to document successes and to point all DOE sites to those programs whose managers have confronted radiation protection issues and used innovative techniques to solve problems common to most DOE sites. DOE program and site offices and contractors who are interested in benchmarks of success and continuous improvement in the context of Integrated Safety Management and quality are encouraged to provide input to be included

  15. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimme-Smith, C.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Chow, S. )

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  16. Gamma bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1982-12-09

    The origin of cosmic gamma bursts is discussed. Radiation thermalization in magnetic fields, spectral mechanisms, and charge separation and photon heating are discussed. (GHT)

  17. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  18. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants Part I: Quantification of radiation exposure and radiation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Pape, Yann Le; Remec, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A large fraction of light water reactor (LWR) construction utilizes concrete, including safety-related structures such as the biological shielding and containment building. Concrete is an inherently complex material, with the properties of concrete structures changing over their lifetime due to the intrinsic nature of concrete and influences from local environment. As concrete structures within LWRs age, the total neutron fluence exposure of the components, in particular the biological shield, can increase to levels where deleterious effects are introduced as a result of neutron irradiation. This work summarizes the current state of the art on irradiated concrete, including a review of the current literature and estimates the total neutron fluence expected in biological shields in typical LWR configurations. It was found a first-order mechanism for loss of mechanical properties of irradiated concrete is due to radiation-induced swelling of aggregates, which leads to volumetric expansion of the concrete. This phenomena is estimated to occur near the end of life of biological shield components in LWRs based on calculations of estimated peak neutron fluence in the shield after 80 years of operation.

  19. Twenty-second Annual Report Radiation Exposure for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    68P 22 Prepared for: Twenty-second Annual Report Radiation Exposures for DOE DOE Contractor Employees U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health Office of Health December 1992 Special Topic: Assessment of Fetal Exposure and 1989 This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Informa- tion, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from (615)

  20. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  1. Constraining |V(td)|/|V(ts)| Using Radiative Penguin B -> V(K*/rho/omega)gamma Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ping; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-08

    Exclusive radiative penguin B decays, B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}) and B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}, are flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) processes. Studies of these decays are of special interest in testing Standard Model (SM) predictions and searching for other beyond-the-SM FCNC interactions. Using 89 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR, we measure the branching fraction ({Beta}), CP-asymmetry ({Alpha}), and isospin asymmetry ({Delta}{sub 0-}) of B {yields} (K*{sup 0}/K*{sup +}){gamma} as follows: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}{gamma}) = 3.92 {+-} 0.20(stat.) {+-} 0.24(syst.); {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup +}{gamma}) = 3.87 {+-} 0.28(stat.) {+-} 0.26(syst.); {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = -0.013 {+-} 0.36(stat.) {+-} 0.10(syst.); {Delta}{sub 0-}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) = 0.050 {+-} 0.045(stat.) {+-} 0.028(syst.) {+-} 0.024(R{sup +/0}). The 90% confidence intervals for the CP-asymmetry and the isospin-asymmetry in the B {yields} K*{gamma} decay are given as: -0.074 < {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.049, -0.046 < {Delta}{sub 0-} (B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.146. We also search for B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma} decays using 211 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs from BABAR. No evidence for these decays is found. We set the upper limits at 90% confidence level for these decays: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) < 0.4 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup +}{yields} {rho}{sup =}{gamma}) < 1.8 x 10{sup -6}; {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) < 1.0 x 10{sup -6}; {bar {Beta}}(B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}){gamma}) < 1.2 x 10{sup -6}. These results are in good agreement with the SM predictions. The branching fractions of these decays are then used to constrain the ratio |V{sub td}|/|V{sub ts}|.

  2. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  3. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  4. Weak radiative decay [Lambda][r arrow][ital n][gamma] and the radiative capture reaction [ital K][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, K.D.; Noble, A.J.; Bassalleck, B.; Burkhardt, H.; Fickinger, W.J.; Hall, J.R.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Horvath, D.; Jones, P.G.; Lowe, J.; McIntyre, E.K.; Measday, D.F.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Robinson, D.K.; Sakitt, M.; Salomon, M.; Stanislaus, S.; Waltham, C.E.; Warner, T.M.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wolfe, D.M. Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 Central Research Institute for Physics, H-1525 Budapest Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

    1993-02-01

    The branching ratio for the [Lambda] weak radiative decay [Lambda][r arrow][ital n][gamma] has been measured. Three statistically independent results from the same experiment (Brookhaven E811) are reported here. They are combined with a previously published measurement, also from Brookhaven E811, to yield a result of ([Lambda][r arrow][ital n][gamma])/([Lambda][r arrow]anything)=(1.75[plus minus]0.15)[times]10[sup [minus]3], based on 1800 events after background subtraction. This represents a factor of 75 increase in statistics over the previous world total. A comparison with recent theoretical papers shows that no existing model provides a completely satisfactory description of all data on weak radiative decays. A search is also reported for the radiative capture process [ital K][sup [minus

  5. Detection of embedded radiation sources using temporal variation of gamma spectral data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the isotopes present in a measurement. For low energy resolution detectors, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the isotopes present in the measurement. When many isotopes are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many trial solutions by highly skilled spectroscopists. This report investigates the potential of a new analysis method which uses spatial/temporal information from multiple low energy resolution measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other isotopes present. This method is referred to as targeted principal component analysis (TPCA). For radiation portal monitor applications, multiple measurements of gamma spectra are taken at equally spaced time increments as a vehicle passes through the portal and the TPCA method is directly applicable to this type of measurement. In this report we describe the method and investigate its application to the problem of detection of a radioactive localized source that is embedded in a distributed source in the presence of an ambient background. Examples using simulated spectral measurements indicate that this method works very well and has the potential for automated analysis for RPM applications. This method is also expected to work well for isotopic detection in the presence of spectrally and spatially varying backgrounds as a result of vehicle-induced background suppression. Further work is needed to include effects of shielding, to understand detection limits, setting of thresholds, and to estimate false positive probability.

  6. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-20

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  8. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  9. Energy resolution in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors using heterojunctions and methods of use and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Nelson, Art J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2012-09-04

    In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material and a hole blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material, and an electron blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the electron blocking layer resisting passage of electrons therethrough, wherein the electron blocking layer comprises undoped HgCdTe. In another embodiment, a method comprises forming a hole blocking layer adjacent a semiconductor gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  10. Twenty-third Annual Report Radiation Exposure for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees 1990

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    87T 23 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health Twenty-third Annual Report November 1993 Special Topic: New Dose Reporting Quantities Radiation Exposures for DOE and DOE Contractor Employees - 1990 This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE Contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62. Oak Ridge. TN 37831; prices available from (615) 576-8401. Available

  11. Gamma Radiation Aging Study of a Dow Corning SE 1700 Porous Structure Made by Direct Ink Writing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Ward; Alviso, Cindy T.; Metz, Tom R.

    2015-11-13

    Dow Corning SE 1700 (reinforced polydimethylsiloxane) porous structures were made by direct ink writing (DIW). The specimens (~50% porosity) were subjected to a compressive strain of ~25% while exposed to a gamma radiation dose of 1, 5, or 10 Mrad under vacuum. Compression set and load retention of the aged specimens were measured after a ~24 h relaxation period. Compression set (relative to deflection) increased with radiation dose: 11, 35, and 51% after 1, 5, and 10 Mrad, respectively. Load retention was 96-97% for the doses tested. The SE 1700 compared favorably to M9763 cellular silicone tested under the same conditions.

  12. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  13. Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} from the dd{mu} muonic molecule state J = 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baluev, V. V.; Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Mikhailyukov, K. L.; Rudenko, A. I.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Volnykh, V. P.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    2011-07-15

    A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} in the dd{mu} muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for {gamma}-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect {gamma}-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd{mu} state J = 1 was obtained at the level of {eta}{sub {gamma}} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} per fusion.

  14. Transport and noise properties of Si nanowire channels with different lengths before and after gamma radiation treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Vitusevich, Svetlana; Pud, Sergii; Sydoruk, Viktor; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Petrychuk, Mykhailo; Danilchenko, Boris

    2013-12-04

    The transport properties of Si nanowire (NW) structures fabricated on the basis of silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers were studied using noise spectroscopy before and after treatment with small doses of gamma radiation. The total resistance obtained from the I-V characteristics of Si NW structures scaled perfectly with length. Normalized flicker noise demonstrated 1/L{sup 2} dependence, which is a characteristic of dominant noise contribution from near-contact regions. The behavior changed to 1/L dependence after a small dose (1×10{sup 4} Gy) of gamma radiation treatment. Comparison of the random telegraph signal (RTS) noise parameters in the samples with small lengths before and after the treatment revealed a decrease in RTS amplitude and a shift to a lower frequency range after gamma irradiation. These results confirmed that the main changes in the samples were related to strain relaxation near-contact regions. In addition, such treatment resulted in a considerable decrease in the scattering data of device parameters.

  15. Gamma-Ray Signatures for State-Of-Health Analysis and Monitoring of Widely-Arrayed Radiation Portal Monitor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Angel, Linda K.; Wright, Ingrid H.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Pospical, A. Jill; Ellis, John E.

    2008-05-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has deployed a large array of radiation portal monitors for the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. These portal monitors scan incoming vehicles crossing the U.S. border and shipping containers leaving international ports for radioactive material via gamma-ray and neutron detection. Data produced and captured by these systems are recorded for every vehicle related to radiation signature, sensor/system status, and local background, as well as a host of other variables. Within the Radiation Portal Monitor Project at PNNL, state-of-health observation and analysis for the whole RPM system using these data to determine functionality and performance is being developed. (PIET-43741-TM-492)

  16. Effects of chronic gamma radiation on seed production in an oak...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of radiation, but were sporadic in appearance. It more is suggested that many of the radiation damaged acorns abscised from the tree and thus escaped detection. (auth) less...

  17. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure Resulting from Accidental Radioactive Releases to the Hydrosphere.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-11-18

    Version 00 LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-D) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) tomore » body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.« less

  19. PLANNING TOOLS FOR ESTIMATING RADIATION EXPOSURE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verbeke, J; Young, M; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Sitaraman, S

    2010-10-22

    A set of computational tools was developed to help estimate and minimize potential radiation exposure to workers from material activation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). AAMI (Automated ALARA-MCNP Interface) provides an efficient, automated mechanism to perform the series of calculations required to create dose rate maps for the entire facility with minimal manual user input. NEET (NIF Exposure Estimation Tool) is a web application that combines the information computed by AAMI with a given shot schedule to compute and display the dose rate maps as a function of time. AAMI and NEET are currently used as work planning tools to determine stay-out times for workers following a given shot or set of shots, and to help in estimating integrated doses associated with performing various maintenance activities inside the target bay. Dose rate maps of the target bay were generated following a low-yield 10{sup 16} D-T shot and will be presented in this paper.

  20. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure to Man from Routine Release of Nuclear Reactor Liquid Effluents.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1980-02-29

    Version 00 LADTAP II calculates the radiation exposure to man from potable water, aquatic foods, shoreline deposits, swimming, boating, and irrigated foods, and also the dose to biota. Doses are calculated for both the maximum individual and for the population and are summarized for each pathway by age group and organ. It also calculates the doses to certain representative biota other than man in the aquatic environment such as fish, invertebrates, algae, muskrats, raccoons, herons,more » and ducks using models presented in WASH-1258.« less

  1. Perspective on occupational radiation exposures at a hypothetical fusion power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easterly, C.E.; Cannon, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    If current technology were used, several major sources of potential occupational radiation exposure at fusion power stations would be quite similar to those at current light water reactor power stations. Based upon this similarity, crude estimates of doses received from various maintenance operations at fusion power reactors are made. The dose estimates reinforce the need for concurrent development of sophisticated remote maintenance devices and low-activation materials for fusion reactors. It is concluded that minimization of occupational doses can be best achieved by developing an overall maintenance strategy that combines the best features of remote techniques and low activation materials as opposed to developing one or the other exclusively.

  2. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by {gamma}-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-05

    Core shell type nanoparticle Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} systems with x=0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the {gamma}-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} source for different time intervals.

  4. Semiconductor Radiation Detectors with Frisch Collars and Collimators for Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas McGregor; Alireza Kargar; Mark Harrison; Adam Brooks; Walter McNei; Rans Lowell; Adam Graebner

    2006-12-04

    To study CdZnTe as a high energy resolution gamma ray detector with a novel new design, and to build a detector array from the new detector design

  5. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; Powerski, Maciej J.; Mueller, Johann-Christoph; Kroencke, Thomas J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  6. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  7. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  8. THE RADIATIVE X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY EFFICIENCIES OF ROTATION-POWERED PULSARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev and Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the {gamma}-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient {gamma}-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young ({tau}{sub c} < 1.7 x 10{sup 4} yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and {gamma}-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L{sub X}{proportional_to} P-dot{sup 3}/P{sup 6}. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency {eta}{identical_to}L{sub X}/ E-dot{sub rot}{approx}8x10{sup -5}. For the {gamma}-ray luminosity we confirm that L{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to} {radical}E-dot{sub rot}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  9. Data integration reveals key homeostatic mechanisms following low dose radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Morgan, William F.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-05-15

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time — with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24–72 h). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress was measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 was experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation. - Highlights: • Low dose ionizing radiation altered homeostasis in 3D skin tissue model. • Global gene/protein/metabolite data integrated using complementary statistical approaches • Time and location-specific change in matrix regulation

  10. An apparatus for the study of high temperature water radiolysis in a nuclear reactor: Calibration of dose in a mixed neutron/gamma radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Eric J.; Wilson, Paul P. H.; Anderson, Mark H.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Bartels, David M.

    2007-12-15

    The cooling water of nuclear reactors undergoes radiolytic decomposition induced by gamma, fast electron, and neutron radiation in the core. To model the process, recombination reaction rates and radiolytic yields for the water radical fragments need to be measured at high temperature and pressure. Yields for the action of neutron radiation are particularly hard to determine independently because of the beta/gamma field also present in any reactor. In this paper we report the design of an apparatus intended to measure neutron radiolysis yields as a function of temperature and pressure. A new methodology for separation of neutron and beta/gamma radiolysis yields in a mixed radiation field is proposed and demonstrated.

  11. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  12. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  13. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1992; Twenty-fifth annual report, Volume 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raddatz, C.T.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC`s Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1992. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10CFR20.408. The 1992 annual reports submitted by about 364 licensees indicated that approximately 204,365 individuals were monitored, 183,927 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.30 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 74,566 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 364 covered licensees during 1992. Some 71,846 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 9,724 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.50 rem (cSv).

  14. Sub-photospheric, radiation-mediated shocks in gamma-ray bursts: Multiple shock emission and the band spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keren, Shai; Levinson, Amir, E-mail: Levinson@wise.tau.ac.il [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-07-10

    We compute the time-integrated, thermal emission produced by a series of radiation-mediated shocks that emerge from the photosphere of a gamma-ray burst outflow. We show that for a sufficiently broad distribution of shock strengths, the overall shape of the time-integrated spectral energy distribution below the peak is a power law, ?E{sub ?}??{sup ?}, with a slope of 1 < ? < 2. A substructure in the spectral energy distribution (SED) can also be produced in this model for certain choices of the shock train distribution. In particular, we demonstrate that our model can reproduce the double-peak SED observed in some bursts, in events where a strong shock is followed by a sequence of sufficiently weaker ones.

  15. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.

  16. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limitedmore » number of animal studies.« less

  17. Gamma ray measurements with photoconductive detectors using a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND TECHNOLOGY; ARGON; BREMSSTRAHLUNG; DEUTERIUM; DIAMONDS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; GAMMA DETECTION; GAMMA RADIATION; HYDROGEN; MEV RANGE; NEON; PHOTOCONDUCTORS; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS;...

  18. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  19. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-02-19

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. The following nine appendices are presented: signals monitored at GGNS; definition of characterized spectral values; instructions for alignment and balance programs; machine diagrams; FFT program; software module descriptions; sample radiation survey forms used for exposure study; radiation exposure compared to other plants; and a technical section instruction for the vibration monitoring program at GGNS.

  20. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  1. A Simple and Efficient Methodology To Improve Geometric Accuracy in Gamma Knife Radiation Surgery: Implementation in Multiple Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaiskos, Pantelis; Moutsatsos, Argyris; Pappas, Eleftherios; Georgiou, Evangelos; Roussakis, Arkadios; Torrens, Michael; Seimenis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To propose, verify, and implement a simple and efficient methodology for the improvement of total geometric accuracy in multiple brain metastases gamma knife (GK) radiation surgery. Methods and Materials: The proposed methodology exploits the directional dependence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-related spatial distortions stemming from background field inhomogeneities, also known as sequence-dependent distortions, with respect to the read-gradient polarity during MRI acquisition. First, an extra MRI pulse sequence is acquired with the same imaging parameters as those used for routine patient imaging, aside from a reversal in the read-gradient polarity. Then, “average” image data are compounded from data acquired from the 2 MRI sequences and are used for treatment planning purposes. The method was applied and verified in a polymer gel phantom irradiated with multiple shots in an extended region of the GK stereotactic space. Its clinical impact in dose delivery accuracy was assessed in 15 patients with a total of 96 relatively small (<2 cm) metastases treated with GK radiation surgery. Results: Phantom study results showed that use of average MR images eliminates the effect of sequence-dependent distortions, leading to a total spatial uncertainty of less than 0.3 mm, attributed mainly to gradient nonlinearities. In brain metastases patients, non-eliminated sequence-dependent distortions lead to target localization uncertainties of up to 1.3 mm (mean: 0.51 ± 0.37 mm) with respect to the corresponding target locations in the “average” MRI series. Due to these uncertainties, a considerable underdosage (5%-32% of the prescription dose) was found in 33% of the studied targets. Conclusions: The proposed methodology is simple and straightforward in its implementation. Regarding multiple brain metastases applications, the suggested approach may substantially improve total GK dose delivery accuracy in smaller, outlying targets.

  2. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  3. Gamma watermarking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  4. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update Presented at the 32nd Annual International Dosimetry and Records Symposium, June 3-6, Scottsdale, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    This slide-show presents the 2012 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure, compares those data with last year and the last five years, and clarifies reporting data.

  5. TU-C-18A-01: Models of Risk From Low-Dose Radiation Exposures: What Does the Evidence Say?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushberg, J; Boreham, D; Ulsh, B

    2014-06-15

    what dose level are risk vs. benefit discussions with patients appropriate, 3) at what dose level should we tell a pregnant woman that the baby’s health risk from a prenatal radiation exposure is “significant”, 4) is informed consent needed for patients undergoing medical imaging, and 5) at what dose level is evacuation appropriate after a radiological accident. Examples of the tremendous impact that choosing different risks models can have on the answers to these types of questions will be given.A moderated panel discussion will allow audience members to pose questions to the faculty members, each of whom is an established expert in his respective discipline. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamental principles, strengths and limitations of radiation epidemiology and radiation biology for determining the risk from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation Become familiar with common models of risk used to describe the dose-response relationship at low dose levels Learn to identify strengths and weaknesses in studies designed to measure the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation Understand the implications of different risk models on public policy and health care decisions.

  6. Influence of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons on the photoluminescence of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te crystals preliminarily subjected to the intense radiation of a neodymium laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glinchuk, K. D.; Medvid', A. P.; Mychko, A. M.; Naseka, Yu. M.; Prokhorovich, A. V.; Strilchuk, O. M.

    2013-04-15

    The effect of the preliminary treatment of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te crystals with high-power pulses of neodymium laser radiation (the power density is {<=}1.8 MW/cm{sup 2}, at a wavelength of 532 nm) on the low-temperature (5 K) photoluminescence induced by {gamma}-ray radiation (the dose was {Phi}{sub {gamma}} = 5 kGy) is studied. The luminescence bands are related to radiation-stimulated donor-acceptor pairs, which include shallow neutral donors and neutral cadmium vacancies stimulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation, the transition of free electrons to neutral cadmium vacancies formed by radiation, and the annihilation of excitons bound to the above vacancies. It is shown that, in the crystals preliminarily treated with laser radiation, the intensity of the {gamma}-ray-stimulated luminescence bands is significantly lower than in crystals not subjected to laser radiation. This fact is accounted for by a decrease in the concentration of cadmium vacancies generated by the {gamma}-ray radiation as a result of their annihilation during the course of their interaction with laser-stimulated defects, in particular, as a consequence of their recombination at laser-stimulated interstitial cadmium atoms.

  7. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suplido, M.L.; Ong, C.N.

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socio-economic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers when compared to radiator workers and unexposed adults. Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 {micro}g/dL for males and 30 {micro}g/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels compared to radiator shop children and unexposed children. For workers with PbB > 40 {micro}g/dL, 90% were anemic. Linear regression showed a correlation between Hb level and log{sub 10}PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children. The authors conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  8. Measurement of the branching ratio and asymmetry parameter for the {Sigma}{sup +}{r_arrow}{ital p}{gamma} radiative decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timm, S.; Albuquerque, I.F.; Bondar, N.F.; Carrigan, R. Jr.; Chen, D.; Cooper, P.S.; Lisheng, D.; Denisov, A.S.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Dubbs, T.; Endler, A.M.F.; Escobar, C.O.; Foucher, M.; Golovtsov, V.L.; Gottschalk, H.; Gouffon, P.; Grachev, V.T.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Kuropatkin, N.P.; Lach, J.; Lang Pengfei; Langland, J.; Li Chengze; Li Yunshan; Luksys, M.; Mahon, J.R.P.; McCliment, E.; Morelos, A.; Newsom, C.; Pommot Maia, M.C.; Samsonov, V.M.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Shi Huanzhang; Smith, V.J.; Tang Fukun; Terentyev, N.K.; Tkatch, I.I.; Uvarov, L.N.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Yan Jie; Wenheng, Z.; Zheng Shuchen; Zhong Yuanyuan

    1995-05-01

    We have measured the branching ratio for the hyperon radiative decay {Sigma}{sup +}{r_arrow}{ital p}{gamma} using the Fermilab polarized charged hyperon beam. This measurement and our previously published result on the asymmetry parameter in the same decay are part of Fermilab experiment E761. We find {ital B}({Sigma}{sup +}{r_arrow}{ital p}{gamma})/{ital B}({Sigma}{sup +}{r_arrow}{ital p}{pi}{sup 0}) to be [2.32{plus_minus}0.11(stat){plus_minus}0.10(syst)]{times}10{sup {minus}3} with a sample of 31 901 events. The higher statistics and careful attention to systematic uncertainties make these significant improvements over previous measurements. We describe how our measurements were performed and briefly review the theoretical implications of these results.

  9. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  10. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  11. SU-E-I-49: The Evaluation of Usability of Multileaf Collimator for Diagnostic Radiation in Cephalometric Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S; Kim, K; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Park, S; Choi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated usability of Multileaf collimator (MLC) for diagnostic radiation in cephalometric exposure using optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) Methods: The MLC material was made alloy tool steel (SKD-11) and the density of it is 7.89g/m3 that is similar to it of steel (Fe, 7.85 g/m3) and the MLC was attached to general radiography unit (Rex-650R, Listem Inc, Korea) for cephalometric exposure. The OSLDs that used were nanoDotTM Dosimeter (Landauer Inc, Glenwood, USA) and we read out OSLDs with micro star system (Landauer Inc, Glenwood, USA). The Optical annealing system contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ?780 nm). To measure absorbed dose using OSLDs, was carried out dosimetric characteristics of OSLDs. Based on these, we evaluated dose reduction of critical organ (Eyes, Thyroids) with MLC in cephalometric exposure Results: The dosimetric characteristics were following that batch homogeneity was 1.21% and reproducibility was 0.96% of the coefficient of variation The linearity was that the correlation of between dose and count was fitted by linear function (dose,mGy = 0.00029 × Count, R2 =0.997). The range of angular dependence was from ?3.6% to 3.7% variation when each degree was normalized by zero degree. The organ dose of Rt. eye, Lt eye, thyroids were 77.8 ?Gy, 337.0 ?Gy, 323.1?Gy, respectively in open field and the dose reduction of organ dose was 10.6%(8.3?Gy), 12.4 %(42 ?Gy), 87.1%(281.4?Gy) with MLC Conclusion: We certified dose reduction of organ dose in cephalometric exposure. The dose reduction of Eye was 11% because of reduction of field size and it of thyroids was 87% by primary beam shielding.

  12. An analysis of interplanetary space radiation exposure for various solar cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badhwar, G.D.; O`Neill, P.M.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1994-05-01

    The radiation dose received by crew members in interplanetary space is influenced by the stage of the solar cycle. Using the recently developed models of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment and the energy-dependent radiation transport code, we have calculated the dose at 0 and 5 cm water depth; using a computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, we have calculated the skin, eye and blood-forming organ (BFO) doses as a function of aluminum shielding for various solar minima and maxima between 1954 and 1989. These results show that the equivalent dose is within about 15% of the mean for the various solar minima (maxima). The maximum variation between solar minimum and maximum equivalent dose is about a factor of three. We have extended these calculations for the 1967-1977 solar minimum to five practical shielding geometries: Apollo Command Module, the least and most heavily shielded locations in the U.S. space shuttle mid-deck, center of the proposed Space Station Freedom cluster and sleeping compartment of the Skylab. These calculations, using the quality factor of ICRP 60, show that the average CAM BFO equivalent dose is 0.46 Sv/year. Based on an approach that takes fragmentation into account, we estimate a calculation uncertainty of 15% if the uncertainty in the quality factor is neglected. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E

    2008-05-30

    Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

  14. Electroreflectance study of the effect of {gamma} radiation on the optical properties of epitaxial GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, A. E.; Klyui, N. I. Konakova, R. V.; Lukyanov, A. N.; Danilchenko, B. A.; Sveshnikov, J. N.; Klyui, A. N.

    2012-03-15

    Experimental data on the electroreflectance spectra of {gamma}-irradiated epitaxial GaN films on sapphire are reported. The irradiation doses are 10{sup 5}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} rad. The theoretical electroreflectance spectra calculated on the basis of a model of three types of transitions are in agreement with experimental data with reasonable accuracy. The energies and broadenings of the transitions derived in the context of the model give grounds to infer that, in the GaN films, there are internal stresses dependent on the {gamma}-irradiation dose.

  15. Data Integration Reveals Key Homeostatic Mechanisms Following Low Dose Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, Susan C.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Stenoien, David L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Morgan, William F.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to define pathways regulated by low dose radiation to understand how biological systems respond to subtle perturbations in their environment and prioritize pathways for human health assessment. Using an in vitro 3-D human full thickness skin model, we have examined the temporal response of dermal and epidermal layers to 10 cGy X-ray using transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic platforms. Bioinformatics analysis of each dataset independently revealed potential signaling mechanisms affected by low dose radiation, and integrating data shed additional insight into the mechanisms regulating low dose responses in human tissue. We examined direct interactions among datasets (top down approach) and defined several hubs as significant regulators, including transcription factors (YY1, MYC and CREB1), kinases (CDK2, PLK1) and a protease (MMP2). These data indicate a shift in response across time - with an increase in DNA repair, tissue remodeling and repression of cell proliferation acutely (24 – 72 hr). Pathway-based integration (bottom up approach) identified common molecular and pathway responses to low dose radiation, including oxidative stress, nitric oxide signaling and transcriptional regulation through the SP1 factor that would not have been identified by the individual data sets. Significant regulation of key downstream metabolites of nitrative stress were measured within these pathways. Among the features identified in our study, the regulation of MMP2 and SP1 were experimentally validated. Our results demonstrate the advantage of data integration to broadly define the pathways and networks that represent the mechanisms by which complex biological systems respond to perturbation.

  16. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan; Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona; Zhang Bing

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem).

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  19. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore » using fewer photons. As a result, this can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  20. The potential benefits of nicaraven to protect against radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with relative low dose exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Haytham; Galal, Omima; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Luo, Lan; Abdelrahim, Eman; Ono, Yusuke; Mostafa, Emtethal; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Nicaraven mitigated the radiation-induced reduction of c-kit{sup +} stem cells. • Nicaraven enhanced the function of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. • Complex mechanisms involved in the protection of nicaraven to radiation injury. - Abstract: Nicaraven, a hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger has been demonstrated to attenuate radiation injury in hematopoietic stem cells with 5 Gy ?-ray exposures. We explored the effect and related mechanisms of nicaraven for protecting radiation injury induced by sequential exposures to a relatively lower dose ?-ray. C57BL/6 mice were given nicaraven or placebo within 30 min before exposure to 50 mGy ?-ray daily for 30 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy). Mice were victimized 24 h after the last radiation exposure, and the number, function and oxidative stress of hematopoietic stem cells were quantitatively estimated. We also compared the gene expression in these purified stem cells from mice received nicaraven and placebo treatment. Nicaraven increased the number of c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with a recovery rate around 60–90% of age-matched non-irradiated healthy mice. The potency of colony forming from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as indicator of function was completely protected with nicaraven treatment. Furthermore, nicaraven treatment changed the expression of many genes associated to DNA repair, inflammatory response, and immunomodulation in c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. Nicaraven effectively protected against damages of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by sequential exposures to a relatively low dose radiation, via complex mechanisms.

  1. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  2. Semiquantitative Analysis Using Thallium-201 SPECT for Differential Diagnosis Between Tumor Recurrence and Radiation Necrosis After Gamma Knife Surgery for Malignant Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi; Takase, Hajime; Ohtake, Makoto; Tomura, Nagatsuki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Sonoda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Semiquantitative analysis of thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl SPECT) was evaluated for the discrimination between recurrent brain tumor and delayed radiation necrosis after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The medical records were reviewed of 75 patients, including 48 patients with metastatic brain tumor and 27 patients with high-grade glioma who underwent GKS in our institution, and had suspected tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis on follow-up neuroimaging and deteriorating clinical status after GKS. Analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT data used the early ratio (ER) and the delayed ratio (DR) calculated as tumor/normal average counts on the early and delayed images, and the retention index (RI) as the ratio of DR to ER. Results: A total of 107 tumors were analyzed with {sup 201}Tl SPECT. Nineteen lesions were removed surgically and histological diagnoses established, and the other lesions were evaluated with follow-up clinical and neuroimaging examinations after GKS. The final diagnosis was considered to be recurrent tumor in 65 lesions and radiation necrosis in 42 lesions. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated significant differences in DR (P=.002) and RI (P<.0001), but not in ER (P=.372), between the tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis groups, and no significant differences between metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas in all indices (P=.926 for ER, P=.263 for DR, and P=.826 for RI). Receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that RI was the most informative index with the optimum threshold of 0.775, which provided 82.8% sensitivity, 83.7% specificity, and 82.8% accuracy. Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT provides useful information for the differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis in metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas after GKS, and the RI may be the most

  3. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

  4. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1994. Twenty-seventh annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). Annual reports for 1994 were received from a total of 303 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 303 licensees indicated that 152,028 individuals were monitored, 79,780 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 24,740 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 15% decrease from the 1993 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem) for 1994. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. In 1994, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 198 person-cSv (person-rem). This represents a 18% decrease from the 1993 value of 242 person-cSv (person-rem). The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 327 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 131 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 18,178 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1994, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.28 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem).

  5. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheoud, Roberta; Reschini, Eugenio; Canzi, Cristina; Voltini, Franco; Gerundini, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-three hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine (mean administered activity 414 MBq, range 163-555) were studied to determine if pretreatment dosimetry could be used to give radiation protection advice that could assure compliance with the effective dose constraints suggested by the European Commission. Effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were estimated by integrating the effective dose rate-versus-time curve obtained by fitting the dose rates measured several times after radioiodine administration to a biexponential function. The mean estimated effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were 0.11 mSv (0.05-0.24), 0.24 mSv (0.07-0.52), and 1.8 mSv (0.6-4.1), respectively. The best correlation was found between effective dose (D) in mSv and maximum activity (AU{sub max}) in MBq taken up in the thyroid: D{sub traveler}=0.0005*(AU{sub max})+0.04 (r=0.88,p<0.01); D{sub co-worker}=0.0013*(AU{sub max})+0.03(r=0.89,p<0.01); D{sub sleepingpartners}=0.0105*(AU{sub max})+0.16 (r=0.93,p<0.01). Private/public transports are always allowed. For the co-workers the effective dose constraint of 0.3 mSv is met without restrictions and with 3 days off work if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. For the sleeping partners the effective dose constraint of 3 mSv is met without restriction and with 4 nights separate sleeping arrangements if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. The potential for contamination by the patients was determined from perspiration samples taken from the patient's hands, forehead, and neck and in saliva at 4, 24, and 48 h after radioiodine treatment. The mean highest {sup 131}I activity levels for hands, forehead, neck, and saliva were 4.1 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 1.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 0.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, and 796 kBq/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is minimal risk of contamination from these patients.

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Search for Invisible Decays of a Light Scalar in Radiative Transitions Y(3S)->gamma A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B

    2008-11-05

    We search for a light scalar particle produced in single-photon decays of the {Upsilon}(3S) resonance through the process {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma} + A{sup 0}, A{sup 0} {yields} invisible. Such an object appears in Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, where a light CP-odd Higgs boson naturally couples strongly to b-quarks. If, in addition, there exists a light, stable neutralino, decays of A{sup 0} could be preferentially to an invisible final state. We search for events with a single high-energy photon and a large missing mass, consistent with a 2-body decay of {Upsilon}(3S). We find no evidence for such processes in a sample of 122 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(3S) decays collected by the BABAR collaboration at the PEP-II B-factory, and set 90% C.L. upper limits on the branching fraction {Beta}({Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}A{sup 0}) x {Beta}(A{sup 0} {yields} invisible) at (0.7-31) x 10{sup -6} in the mass range m{sub A{sup 0}} {le} 7.8 GeV. The results are preliminary.

  8. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  9. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  10. Radiation tolerance of the FOXFET biasing scheme for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacchetta, N.; Gotra, Yu. ); Bisello, D.; Da Ros, R.; Giraldo, A. Univ. di Padova . Dipt. di Fisica); Canali, C. Univ. di Modena . Facolta di Ingegneria); Fuochi, P.G. ); Fusaro, G. . Dept. di Elettronica e Informatica); Paccagnella, A. Univ. di Cagliari . Instituto di Elettrotecnica); Verzellesi, G. Univ. di Padova . Dept. di Elettronica e Informatica)

    1993-12-01

    The radiation response of FOXFETs has been studied for proton, gamma and neutron exposures. The punch-through behavior, which represents the normal FET operating conditions in Si microstrip detectors, has been found to be much less sensitive to radiation damage than threshold voltage. The device performance has been elucidated by means of two-dimensional simulations. The main radiation effects have been also taken into account in the numerical analysis and separately examined.