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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE-sponsored research on copper indium gallium diselenide [Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2], or CIGS, solar cells focuses on developing better film qualities, and thus, higher efficiencies. A list of current...

3

Long-Term Performance Data and Analysis of CIS/CIGS Modules Deployed Outdoors (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term performance data of copper indium diselenide (CIS) and gallium-alloyed CIS (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules are investigated to assess the reliability of this technology.

del Cueto, J. A.; Kroposki, B.; Rummel, S.; Anderberg, A.

2008-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cell is zinc oxide (ZnO). The problem is that unprotected Zn is a lifetime-limiting problem that is currently addressed solely through encapsulation. Fundamentally improving

5

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum gallium indium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics, Portland State University Collection: Physics 2 Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power Summary: CIGS - Copper - Indium - Gallium - diSelenide Cd-Te -- Cadmium...

6

Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effects of Metastabilities on CIGS Photovoltaic Modules  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This poster describes a SunShot Initiative solar project led by a team from Nexcis Photovoltaic Technology entitled "Effects of Metastabilities on CIGS Photovoltaic Modules." The team studied the driving force of the mechanisms which governs the different observed phases during storage, light exposition and annealing. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of this phenomenon and hence a better evaluation of its impact on solar panel reliability.

8

Stress Induced Degradation Modes in CIGS Mini-Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that the method of encapsulation can affect the long-term stability of CIGS modules, principally through interactions with the ZnO.

Kempe, M. D.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Tarrant, D.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

Ramanathan, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method of junction formation for CIGS photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur is used to improve the performance of CIGS devices prepared by the evaporation of a single source ZIS type compound to form a buffer layer on the CIGS. The sulfur may be evaporated, or contained in the ZIS type material, or both. Vacuum evaporation apparatus of many types useful in the practice of the invention are known in the art. Other methods of delivery, such as sputtering, or application of a thiourea solution, may be substituted for evaporation.

Delahoy, Alan E.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

12

Commercialization of High Efficiency Low Cost CIGS Technology Based on Electroplating: Final Technical Progress Report, 28 September 2007 - 30 June 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes SoloPower's work as a Photovoltaic Technology Incubator awardee within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program. The term of this subcontract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was two years. The project focused on SoloPower's electrodeposition-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) technology. Under this subcontract, SoloPower improved the quality of its flexible metal substrates, increased the size of its solar cells from 0.5 cm2 to 120 cm2, increased the small-area cell efficiencies from near 11% to near 14%, demonstrated large-area cells, and developed a module manufacturing process.

Basol, B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

14

Manufacturing-Friendly Advance Seen in CIGS Solar Cell Processing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists developed a robust, high-performance amorphous InZnO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.

Not Available

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A. Consequently specific baseline parameters for CIGS and CdTe are proposed. The modeling results important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION

Sites, James R.

16

NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Explanation of Light/Dark Superposition Failure in CIGS Solar Cells Markus Gloeckler, Caroline R. Jenkins, and James R. Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Explanation of Light/Dark Superposition Failure in CIGS Solar Cells Markus Gloeckler, Caroline R ABSTRACT CIGS solar cells in many cases show a failure of light/dark superposition of their current feature in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells is the lack of superposition between light and dark current

Sites, James R.

18

Sandia National Laboratories: fundamental physics of CIGS solar module  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia,evaluatingfull module characterization HelioVoltphysics of CIGS

19

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) in the United States is the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. MOX fuel fabricated in this way must be compatible with currently used nuclear fuel components. Since US WGPu contains... that gallium may have on zircaloy cladding during reactor operation. As a result of the reprocessing of spent fuel used in European nuclear programs, many studies have been conducted on the production and behavior of MOX fuel in traditional reactors [5...

West, Michael Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Analysis of Alternate Methods to Obtain Stabilized Power Performance of CdTe and CIGS PV Modules (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation outlines an analysis of alternate methods to obtain stabilized power performance of CdTe and CIGS PV modules.

del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

H I ASYMMETRIES IN THE ISOLATED GALAXY CIG 292  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) D-array observations of the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H I) of CIG 292, an isolated SA(s)b galaxy at a distance of {approx}24.3 Mpc. From previous H I single dish observations the galaxy was known to have a mildly asymmetric H I profile (A {sub flux} = 1.23 {+-} 0.3). Our EVLA observations show there is {approx}12% more H I projected south of the optical center (approaching velocities) than in the north (receding velocities), despite the H I extending {approx}16% further to the north than the south. The H I projected within the optical disk must have been perturbed within the H I relaxation time ({approx}10{sup 8} yr) which implies that this cannot have been caused by any of the three nearest companions, as their distance ({approx}0.5 Mpc) is too large. Neither H I-rich companions nor tidal tails were found within our field of view and velocity range covered. Our kinematical data suggest that the inner part harbors an oval distortion whereas the outer regions show signs of a modest warp. The mild asymmetry in the H I global profile thus actually masks stronger asymmetries in the two-dimensional distributions of gas and star-forming regions in this galaxy. Since the galaxy is isolated, this must predominantly be due to processes related to its formation and secular evolution.

Portas, Antonio; Scott, Tom C.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Sulentic, Jack; Sengupta, Chandreyee [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de AstronomIa s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker [Centre for Astrophysics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), UMR6110, CNRS/Universite de Provence/CNRS, Technopole de Marseille Etoile, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, 13388 Marseille CEDEX 13 (France); Espada, Daniel [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Verley, Simon [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

22

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

Cadwallader, L.C.

2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

In-depth analysis of CIGS film for solar cells, structural and optical characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements performed on gradient-etched CuIn$_{1-x}$Ga$_x$Se$_2$ (CIGS) solar cells provide information about stress and texture depth profiles in the absorber layer. An important parameter for CIGS layer growth dynamics, the absorber thickness-dependent stress in the molybdenum back contact is analyzed. Texturing of grains and quality of the polycrystalline absorber layer are correlated with the intentional composition gradients (band gap grading). Band gap gradient is determined by space-resolved photoluminescence measurements and correlated with composition and strain profiles.

Slobodskyy, A; ~Ulyanenkova, T; ~Doyle, S; Powalla, M; ~Baumbach, T; ~Lemmer, U

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72.

Phillips, D.R.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

30

CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal DepositionCX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1Date: 05/19/2010Location(s): St. Paul, MinnesotaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

31

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium...

32

Developing Market Opportunities for Flexible Rooftop Applications of PV Using Flexible CIGS Technology: Market Considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a recent upsurge in developments for building-integrated phototovoltaics (BiPV) roof top materials based on CIGS. Several new companies have increased their presence and are looking to bring products to market for this application in 2011. For roof-top application, there are significant key requirements beyond just having good conversion efficiency. Other attributes include lightweight, as well as moisture-proof, and fully functionally reliable. The companies bringing these new BIPV/BAPV products need to ensure functionality with a rigorous series of tests, and have an extensive set of 'torture' tests to validate the capability. There is a convergence of form, aesthetics, and physics to ensure that the CIGS BiPV deliver on their promises. This article will cover the developments in this segment of the BiPV market and delve into the specific tests and measurements needed to characterize the products. The potential market sizes are evaluated and the technical considerations developed.

Sabnani, L.; Skumanich, A.; Ryabova, E.; Noufi, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Hasoon, Falah S. (Arvada, CO); Wiesner, Holm (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Golden, CO)

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: Annual Technical Report, 24 May 2006 - 25 September 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy has enhanced module reliability, reduced cost and improved performance of its CIGS deposition process, and reduced cost of materials and processes for contacts.

Weideman, S.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Selenium speciation in ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

Atalay, A.

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Chemical factors influencing selenium atomization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomization. (August 1980) Mary Sue Buren, B, S. , Angelo State University Chairman of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Thomas M. Vickrey Selenium in an acid1c matrix was analyzed using graphite furnace atom1c absorption with Zeeman-effect background correct1on.... Nickel(II} and lanthanum( III) were introduced as matrix modifiers to determine their effect on interferences 1n selenium atom1zation. In add1tion to matr1x mod1ficat1on, surface coating the graphite furnace with z1rconium and tantalum salts was also...

Buren, Mary Sue

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ZnMgO by APCVD Enabling High-Performance Mid-bandgap CIGS on Polyimide Modules: October 2009--October 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Pre-Incubator project was designed to increase the 'real world' CIGS based photovoltaic module performance and decrease the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of systems utilizing those modules compared to our traditional CIGS based photovoltaic modules. This was enabled by a) increasing the CIGS bandgap and b) developing better matched device finishing layers to the mid-bandgap CIGS based photovoltaics; including window and buffer layers (and eventually the TCO). Incremental progress in the novel device performance was demonstrated throughout the program, and ultimately achieved performance results that exceeded the milestones ahead of schedule. Metal-oxide buffer layer devices with mid-bandgap CIGS alloys on polyimide substrates were produced with efficiencies of over 12%. Corresponding mid-bandgap devices with CdS buffers produced over 13% efficient devices. Furthermore, no obvious degradation in the device performance has been observed to date, after proper storage ambient of the different types of unencapsulated devices were identified.

Woods, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sandia National Laboratories: thin-film PV materials (Si CIGS CdTe)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNational SolartSSLPV materials (Si CIGS CdTe) Sandians

39

Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Advances in Thin Film PV: CIGS & CdTe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Photovoltaics Thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductor absorbers: CIGS and CdTe High efficiency and Photovoltaics Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology Key issues in high efficiency CIGSTe Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics Empa- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science

Canet, Léonie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Aquatic chemistry of selenium: evidence of biomethylation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical species of dissolved selenium were examined in surface waters from three sites in the San Joaquin and Imperial Valleys of California. Six dissolved selenium species were identified: the inorganic species selenate and selenite; nonvolatile organic selenides, including seleno amino acids and a dimethylselenonium ion; and the volatile methylated forms dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide. The occurrences of methylated selenium species in the aquatic environment has important implications regarding the biogeochemical behavior of selenium in natural aqueous systems. Laboratory studies indicate that the nonvolatile dimethylselenonium ion can be transformed into volatile dimethyl selenide at neutral pH, providing a pathway for the in situ production of dimethyl selenide in natural waters. Geochemical flux calculations indicate that outgassing of dimethyl selenide may be an important removal mechanism for dissolved selenium from aqueous systems. 22 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Cooke, T.D.; Bruland, K.W.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Au-free Ohmic Contacts to Gallium Nitride and Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with Au-free contact metallization schemes for gallium nitride (GaN) and graphene semiconductors. Graphene and gallium nitride are promising materials that can potentially be integrated together in the near future for high frequency...

Ravikirthi, Pradhyumna

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Characterizing organometallic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown indium gallium nitride islands on gallium nitride for light emitting diode applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The indium-gallium-nitride on gallium-nitride (InGaN/GaN) materials system is a promising candidate for providing a high intensity, high efficiency solution to the yet unsolved problem of… (more)

Anderson, Kathy Perkins Jenkins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

GALLIUM--2000 30.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 63% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 32% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

45

GALLIUM--1998 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 45% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

46

GALLIUM--1999 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (IC's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

47

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short. 2 figures.

Phillips, D.R.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

50

Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ? 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ? 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH ? 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1...

54

Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

Serkan Akkoyun; Tuncay Bayram

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

55

Selenium speciation in ground water. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

Atalay, A.

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

56

PROPERTIES OF Cd and Zn PARTIAL ELECTROLYTE TREATED CIGS SOLAR CELLS K. Ramanathan, F.S. Hasoon, S. Smith, A. Mascarenhas, H. Al-Thani, J. Alleman, H.S. Ullal and J. Keane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPERTIES OF Cd and Zn PARTIAL ELECTROLYTE TREATED CIGS SOLAR CELLS K. Ramanathan, F.S. Hasoon, SS/CIGS interface has been treated as a "non- interacting," or abrupt junction. There are a few reports [3 changes such as those mentioned above have not been adequately treated in further analysis of the junction

Sites, James R.

57

Examination of Na-Doped Mo Sputtering for CIGS Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-375  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work has investigated the use of Na doped Mo (MONA) sputtering targets for use in preparing CIGS devices. The Mo:Na material is doped to about 3% Na by weight, implying that a 40 nm layer on top of the standard Mo contact contains sufficient Na to dope a 2.5 ..mu..m CIGS film. The ability to control Na doping independent of both CIGS processing conditions and adhesion is an important gain for industry and research. Manufacturers gain a route to increased manufacturability and performance, while NREL researchers gain a tightened performance distribution of devices and increased process flexibility. Our immediate partner in this work, the Climax Molybdenum Technology Center, gains validation of their product.

Repins, I.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Standard Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard Gregory F. Strouse NIST Special Publication 260-157 #12;#12;NIST Special Publication 260-157 XXXX Standard Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard Gregory F. Strouse Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory Process Measurements

59

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

ZnO:Al Doping Level and Hydrogen Growth Ambient Effects on CIGS Solar Cell Performance: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) cells require a highly conducting and transparent electrode for optimum device performance. ZnO:Al films grown from targets containing 2.0 wt.% Al2O3 are commonly used for this purpose. Maximum carrier mobilities of these films grown at room temperature are ~20-25 cm2V-1s-1. Therefore, relatively high carrier concentrations are required to achieve the desired conductivity, which leads to free carrier absorption in the near infrared (IR). Lightly doped films (0.05 - 0.2 wt.% Al2O3), which show less IR absorption, reach mobility values greater than 50 cm2V-1s-1 when deposited in H2 partial pressure. We incorporate these lightly doped ZnO:Al layers into CIGS PV cells produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Preliminary results show quantum efficiency values of these cells rival those of a past world-record cell produced at NREL that used 2.0 wt.% Al-doped ZnO films. The highest cell efficiency obtained in this trial was 18.1%.

Duenow, J. N.; Gessert, T. A.; Wood, D. M.; Egaas, B.; Noufi, R.; Coutts,T. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

STAR FORMATION IN THE EXTENDED GASEOUS DISK OF THE ISOLATED GALAXY CIG 96  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law and efficiency in the gaseous disk of the isolated galaxy CIG 96 (NGC 864), with special emphasis on its unusually large atomic gas (H I) disk (r{sub Hmathsci}/r{sub 25} = 3.5, r{sub 25} = 1.'85). We present deep Galaxy Evolution Explorer near- and far-UV observations, used as a recent star formation tracer, and we compare them with new, high-resolution (16''or 1.6 kpc) Very Large Array H I observations. The UV and H I maps show good spatial correlation outside the inner 1', where the H I phase dominates over H{sub 2}. Star-forming regions in the extended gaseous disk are mainly located along the enhanced H I emission within two (relatively) symmetric, giant gaseous spiral arm-like features, which emulate an H I pseudo-ring at r {approx_equal} 3'. Inside this structure, two smaller gaseous spiral arms extend from the northeast and southwest of the optical disk and connect to the previously mentioned H I pseudo-ring. Interestingly, we find that the (atomic) Kennicutt-Schmidt power-law index systematically decreases with radius, from N {approx_equal} 3.0 {+-} 0.3 in the inner disk (0.'8-1.'7) to N = 1.6 {+-} 0.5 in the outskirts of the gaseous disk (3.'3-4.'2). Although the star formation efficiency (SFE), the star formation rate per unit of gas, decreases with radius where the H I component dominates as is common in galaxies, we find that there is a break of the correlation at r = 1.5r{sub 25}. At radii 1.5r{sub 25} < r < 3.5r{sub 25}, mostly within the H I pseudo-ring structure, regions exist whose SFE remains nearly constant, SFE {approx_equal} 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}. We discuss possible mechanisms that might be triggering the star formation in the outskirts of this galaxy, and we suggest that the constant SFE for such large radii (r > 2r{sub 25}) and at such low surface densities might be a common characteristic in extended UV disk galaxies.

Espada, D.; Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa, CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de la Complutense, s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Boissier, S.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Verley, S. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Leon, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory/ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Yun, M., E-mail: daniel.espada@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: despada@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

Korte, N.E.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

amorphous selenium detectors: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The atomic processes leading to calcite growth are still debated. The presence Montes-Hernandez, German 65 Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the...

64

Predicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell interfaces and implications for improving performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and in- deed the global operating capacity for solar photovoltaics is increasing steadily.1 CurrentlyPredicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 083906

Goddard III, William A.

65

Trajectory-Oriented and Fault-Tolerant-Based Intelligent Process Control for Flexible CIGS PV Module Manufacturing; Final Technical Report, 13 May 2002--30 May 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ITN Energy Systems, Inc., and Global Solar Energy, Inc., assisted by NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D program, have continued to advance CIGS production technology by developing trajectory-oriented predictive/control models, fault-tolerance control, control platform development, in-situ sensors, and process improvements. Modeling activities included developing physics-based and empirical models for CIGS and sputter-deposition processing, implementing model-based control, and applying predictive models to the construction of new evaporation sources and for control. Model-based control is enabled by implementing reduced or empirical models into a control platform. Reliability improvement activities include implementing preventive maintenance schedules; detecting failed sensors/equipment and reconfiguring to tinue processing; and systematic development of fault prevention and reconfiguration strategies for the full range of CIGS PV production deposition processes. In-situ sensor development activities have resulted in improved control and indicated the potential for enhanced process status monitoring and control of the deposition processes. Substantial process improvements have been made, including significant improvement in CIGS uniformity, thickness control, efficiency, yield, and throughput. In large measure, these gains have been driven by process optimization, which in turn have been enabled by control and reliability improvements due to this PV Manufacturing R&D program.

Simpson, L.; Britt, J.; Birkmire, R.; Vincent, T.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary (crude, unrefined) gallium was recovered in 2013. Globally,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the gallium consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes of the remaining gallium consumption. Optoelectronic devices were used in aerospace applications, consumer goods

67

arsenide gallium nitride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been with a larger number of vacancies, that facilitates...

68

Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8?×?10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(?/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0?×?10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5??m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2??30?kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488?MHz.

Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E., E-mail: pbarclay@ucalgary.ca [Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Hryciw, Aaron C. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

Pesic, B.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Gallium based low-interaction anions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

King, Wayne A. (Santa Fe, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

Hogan, S.J.

1983-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project�¢����s target of 50 ���µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all �¢����new�¢��� selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

Searcy, K.; Richardson, M.; Blythe, G.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Interaction of a Liquid Gallium Jet with ISTTOK Edge Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages in the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaust from fusion devices. Presently the most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state range when compared, for example, with gallium that has essentially better thermal properties and lower vapor pressure. To explore further these properties, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying, fully formed liquid gallium jet with the plasma. The interacting, 2.3 mm diameter, jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and has a 2.5 m/s flow velocity. The liquid metal injector has been build to allow the positioning of the jet inside the tokamak chamber, within a 13 mm range. This paper presents the first obtained experimental results concerning the liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction. A stable jet has been obtained, which was not noticeably affected by the magnetic field transients. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with the gallium jet without degradation of the discharge or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. This observation is supported by spectroscopic measurements showing that gallium radiation is limited to the region around the jet. Furthermore, the power deposited on the jet has been evaluated at different radial locations and the surface temperature increase estimated.

Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Porugal (Portugal); Sarakovskis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I. [Association EURATOM/University of Latvia, Institute of Solid State Physics, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063 Riga (Latvia)

2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: May 24, 2006 -- July 31, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global Solar Energy rapidly advances the cost and performance of commercial thin-film CIGS products using roll-to-roll processing on steel foil substrate in compact, low cost deposition equipment, with in-situ sensors for real-time intelligent process control. Substantial increases in power module efficiency, which now exceed 13%, are evident at GSE factories in two countries with a combined capacity greater than 75 MW. During 2009 the average efficiency of cell strings (3780 cm2) was increased from 7% to over 11%, with champion results exceeding 13% Continued testing of module reliability in rigid product has reaffirmed extended life expectancy for standard glass product, and has qualified additional lower-cost methods and materials. Expected lifetime for PV in flexible packages continues to increase as failure mechanisms are elucidated, and resolved by better methods and materials. Cost reduction has been achieved through better materials utilization, enhanced vendor and material qualification and selection. The largest cost gains have come as a result of higher cell conversion efficiency and yields, higher processing rates, greater automation and improved control in all process steps. These improvements are integral to this thin film PV partnership program, and all realized with the 'Gen2' manufacturing plants, processes and equipment.

Wiedeman, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

van Hest, M.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

GALLIUM--1997 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As is manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LED's, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and integrated consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 44% of domestic consumption, and the remaining 7% was used by imports, primarily high-purity gallium from France and low-purity material from Russia. Optoelectronic

78

Selenium induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissues of chick embryos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past three decades research has been carried out to elucidate the role of free radicals and reactive oxygen species play in various pathophysiological processes. Membranes of subcellular organelles contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated lipids as well as hemoproteins which are strong catalysts of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxides (LPO) destroy membrane integrity and decrease membrane fluidity and elasticity. Selenium is known both as an important essential trace element and an environmental pollutant. Selenium has many uses in the industries. The main source of selenium for the mammalian organism is food (from the soil into the vegetables and grain) and to a lesser extent, drinking water. A number of syndromes of selenium toxicity in animals have been described. Selenium is regarded as the most important biological antioxidant. The antioxidant function of selenium is linked to the activity of seleno enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which catalyses the reduction of hydroperoxides. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduce superoxide radicals to H[sub 2]O[sub 2] which inturn is preferential oxidation of glutathione by peroxides is catalysed by GPx. The oxidized glutathione is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) and maintains the reduced glutathione levels in the system in a cyclic manner. Further, glutathione transferase (GST) catalyses the transformation of a wide variety of electrophilic compounds to less toxic compounds by conjugating them to GSH. The present study evaluated the biochemical basis of selenium induced lipid peroxidative damage to heart tissues in check embryos and the role of antioxidant enzymes like GPx, GST, GR, SOD and CAT. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Padmaja, K.; Somasekharaiah, B.V.; Prasad, A.R.K. (S.V. Univ., Tirupati (India))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

Nicols, Samuel Piers

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Tony [SUNY-SB; Chen, Jiuhua [SUNY-SB; Ehm, Lars [SUNY-SB; Guo, Quanzhong [SUNY-SB; Parise, John [SUNY-SB

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From 1985 to the present we have studied the behavior of selenium in various habitats and environments at Kesterson reservoir, shifting emphasis as remedial actions altered the physical setting. Investigations have evaluated the efficacy of several remedial alternatives, from innovative techniques relying on the complex geochemical behavior of selenium alternatives, from innovative techniques relying on the complex geochemical behavior of selenium in aquatic environments to conventional excavation schemes. Results of these studies supported two cost-effective remedial measures; drain water deliveries were terminated in 1986 and, in 1988, 1 million cubic yards of soil were imported and used to fill the low lying areas of the former Kesterson Reservoir. To date, these two actions appear to have eliminated the aquatic habitat that caused waterfowl death and deformity at Kesterson from the early 1980's to 1987. Biological, surface water and groundwater monitoring data collected by the USBR indicate that Kesterson is now a much safer environment than in past years when drainage water containing 300{mu}g/l of selenium was delivered to the Reservoir. The continued presence of a large inventory of selenium within the upper portions of unfilled areas of Kesterson Reservoir and immediately below the fill material requires that a continued awareness of the status of this inventory be maintained and improved upon. 83 refs., 130 figs., 19 tabs.

Benson, S.M.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Zawislanski, P.; Yee, A.W.; Daggett, J.S.; Oldfather, J.M.; Tsao, L.; Johannis, P.W.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide- gallium instrument Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of gallium arsenide, a semiconductor, which is used in advanced optoelectronics, lasers, microwave circuits... , and solar cells. To determine material...

85

Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: ttnakan@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

Zhou, Yaoqi

88

JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with methylmercury or mercury exposures, mercury-selenium ratios appear to be far more accurate and effective in identifying risk and protecting human and environmental health. This study also finds that methylmercury toxicity can be effectively treated by dietary selenium, preventing the death and progressive disabilities that otherwise occur in methylmercury-treated subjects. Remarkably, the positive response to selenium therapy was essentially equivalent regardless of whether or not toxic amounts of methylmercury were still administered. The findings of the Physiologically Oriented Integration of Nutrients and Toxins (POINT) models of the effects of mercury and selenium developed in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that mercury toxicity arises because of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium availability in brain and endocrine tissues. This appears to occur through synergistic effects of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium transport to these tissues and selective sequestration of the selenium present in the tissues. Compromised transport of selenium to the brain and endocrine tissues would be particularly hazardous to the developing fetus because the rapidly growing tissues of the child have no selenium reserves. Therefore, maternal consumption of foods with high mercury-selenium ratios is hazardous. In summation, methylmercury exposure is unlikely to cause harm in populations that eat selenium-rich diets but may cause harm among populations that consume certain foods that have methylmercury present in excess of selenium.

Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A. Rockettb , M. Edoffa , L. Stolta a A°ngstro¨m Solar Center, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been

Rockett, Angus

90

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jeff Chiles,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jichi Ma,1 Jeff Chiles,1 Yagya D. Sharma,2 214669); published September 4, 2014 The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium; (230.0250) Optoelectronics; (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (130.4310) Nonlinear. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL

Fathpour, Sasan

91

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics A. V penetration of gallium into an aluminum film. These composite films form mirrorlike interfaces with silica optics and active plasmonics. The material is a polycrystalline aluminum film on a silica sub- strate

Zheludev, Nikolay

92

Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption--Gallium arsenide, nanospheres, photovoltaic systems, whispering gallery modes (WGMs). I. INTRODUCTION THE route as the active layer is thinned [2]. Thin-film photovoltaics offer the possibility to significantly reduce

Grandidier, Jonathan

94

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Nitrides of Aluminum and Gallium," J. Electrochem.1) 24 (1962). G. Long and L. M. Foster, "Aluminum Nitride, aRefractory for Aluminum to 2000°C," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium

96

E-Print Network 3.0 - auranofin disrupts selenium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 13 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa on Development, Survival, Feeding, Summary: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effect...

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium flat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science ; Physics 87 A technique optimization protocol and the potential for dose reduction in digital mammography Summary: to evaluate a direct-conversion amorphous selenium...

98

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium digital Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 55 Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR Summary: of pure amorphous selenium and is...

99

Study of Highly Selective and Efficient Thiol Derivatization using Selenium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin

100

Gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high-temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for goethermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p/sup +/n/sup -/pp/sup +/ structure was fromed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The gallium phosphide BJT is observed to have a common-emitter current gain peaking in the range of 6 to 10 (for temperatures from 20/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C) and a room-temperature, punchthrough-limited, collector-emitter breakdown voltage of approximately -6V. Other parameters of interest include an f/sub/ = 400 KHz (at 20/sup 0/C) and a collector base leakage current = 200 ..mu..A (at 350/sup 0/C).

Zipperian, T.E.; Dawson, L.R.; Caffin, R.J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with...

102

Specific interaction of fluoride ions with aluminum and gallium solvates in an ethylene glycol solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of aluminum chloride and gallium chloride with KF in ethylene glycol solutions with F:M/sup 3 +/ mole ratios approximately equal to 2 includes a step involving the formation of fluorine-containing species, in which the fluoride ions are held in the outer sphere of ethylene glycol solvates of aluminum and gallium. Complexes based on hexacoordinate solvates predominate in the solutions of aluminum, while in the case of gallium, in contrast to aluminum, the coexistence of tetra- and hexacoordinate complexes is characteristic. The configurational equilibrium in the solutions of gallium is one of the causes of the structurization of the solutions, i.e., polymerization due to the formation of H bonds between the fluoride ions and the coordinated ethylene glycol molecules.

Petrosyants, S.P.; Tsabel', E.R.; Buslaev, Yu.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

GALLIUM--2002 29.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices application for gallium, with 46% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic

104

Fabrication of optoelectronic microwave linear and ring resonators on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Approved as to style and content by: Mark...

Yeh, Chun-Liang

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

First Results of the Testing of the Liquid Gallium Jet Limiter Concept for ISTTOK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages to the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaustion from fusion devices. Presently the most promising materials are Lithium and Gallium. ISTTOK, a small size tokamak, will be used to test the behavior of a liquid Gallium jet in the vacuum chamber and its influence on the plasma. This paper presents a description of the conceived setup as well as experimental results. The liquid Gallium jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and injected in a radial position close to a moveable stainless steel limiter. Both the jet and the limiter positions are variable allowing for a controlled exposure of the liquid Gallium to the edge plasma. The main components of the Gallium loop are a MHD pump, the liquid metal injector and a filtering system. The MHD pump is of the induction type, based on rotating permanent magnets. The injector is build from a stainless steel pipe ended by a shaping nozzle. A setup has been developed to introduce oxide-free Gallium inside the loop's main supply tank. Raw liquid metal is placed inside a chamber heated and degassed under high vacuum while clean Gallium is extracted from the main body of the liquefied metal. Prior to installation on the tokamak, the experimental rig has been implemented using a Pyrex tube as test chamber to investigate the stability of the Gallium jet and its break-up length for several nozzle sizes. Results are presented in this paper. This rig was also useful to assess the behavior of the overall implemented apparatus.

Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Borba, D.; Carvalho, B.; Varandas, C. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de FuSao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Mikelsons, A.; Platnieks, I. [Association EURATOM/University of Latvia, Institute of Physics, 32 Miera Str., Salaspils, LV-2169 (Latvia)

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using ?-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. ?-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ? Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ? Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ? Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China)] [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

By Deborah A. Kramer No gallium production was reported in the McDonnell Douglas Corp. reportedly will world producers were Australia, Germany, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facility in optoelectronic devices [light-emitting diodes France from stockpiled crude gallium produced, and in 1994. Although the total quantity of gallium used in optoelectronic devices increased, its percentage

111

Removal of Selenium from Wastewater using ZVI and Hybrid ZVI/Iron Oxide Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than 10 ug/L is possible within four month long time. Koren et al. also validated the effectiveness of P. stutzeri to convert selenium to elemental selenium (Koren et al., 1992). Maximum reduction rates were demonstrated to happen in pH of 7 to 9.5.../L was loaded together with solutions containing both Se(IV) and Se(VI). The removal rate of Se(IV) can be higher than 95% while that of Se(VI) is about 80%. Absorbing selenium onto a lanthanum oxide substrates was also investigated by researchers (Adutwum...

Yang, Zhen

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research relevant to selenium specification, fractionation, physical redistribution, reduction and oxidation, and spatial distribution as related to Kesterson Reservoir. The work was carried out by scientists and engineers from the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory over a two year period from October 1992 to September 1994. Much of the focus of these efforts was on the effects of two above-average rainfall years (1991/1992 and 1992/1993). These events marked a departure from the previous six years of drought conditions, under which oxidation of Se in the soil profile led to a marked increase in soluble Se. Evidence from the last two years show that much of the re-oxidized Se was once more reduced due to increased soil moisture content. Also, in areas of high hydraulic conductivity, major vertical displacement of selenium and other solutes due to rainfall infiltration was observed. Such observations underscore the dependence of the future of Se speciation and distribution on environmental conditions.

Zawislanski, P.T.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Benson, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.] [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ? AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ? Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ? Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ? The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p?p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p?p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, Marzieh, E-mail: m-bayati@tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinirad, Somayeh [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Foroumadi, Alireza [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gilani, Kambiz [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

The distribution of selenium and other trace elements in Texas waters and soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instrumental and chemical conditions for selenium analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . 40 10 Summary of method detection limits (MDL), SRM recoveries, spike recoveries, RPD between duplicates and samples in the ICP analysis for 22...

Jiang, Desheng

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity selenium speciation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the world. Selenium is a COPC as a result of activities conducted by a wide variety of industrial sectors... refineries); it is found in organic-rich shales that are source...

119

Field-Measured Oxidation Rates of Biologically Reduced Selenium in Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced Selenium in Sludge Sally M. Benson, John Daggett andCalifornia 94720 U.S.A. Sludge generated during surface-Finding safe and economical sludge disposal methods requires

Benson, Sally M.; Daggett, John; Zawislansi, Peter

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. All groundwater that recharges on the disposal site is slightly saline and flows east, probably discharging into the Gibbons Creek Reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, boron, iron, manganese, and sulfate in the lignite waste effluent exceed either EPA... ( 1975) drinking water standards or EPA (1973) recommended livestock water standards. Since the natural groundwater contains higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and sulfate than the waste effluent, only arsenic and boron should...

Hall, Steven Douglas

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Change in the current-carrier concentration upon doping PbTe with gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Upon doping PbTe with gallium, both high-resistivity samples with intrinsic conductivity and low-resistivity samples with electronic conductivity (n/sub e/ = 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/) are produced on the PbTe-GaTe section. A thorough investigation of the dependence of the thermo-emf of Pb/sub 1-x/Ga/sub x/Te on the excess Pb and Te side showed the presence of a wide region with intrinsic conductivity. The experimental data can be explained by the fact that impure gallium in PbTe has negative Hubbard energy and stabilizes the Fermi level almost at the center of the forbidden band. At high gallium concentrations, Ga/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ precipitates at first, and then GaTe precipitates as well. The lead forming in excess transforms Ga/sup 3 +/ to Ga/sup +/, which produces the electronic conductivity in the material.

Bushmarina, G.S.; Gruzinov, B.F.; Drabkin, I.A.; Lev, E.Ya.; Moizhes, B.Ya; Suprun, S.G.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel [Reaction Engineering International, 77 W. 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Some effects of selenium on the growth and survival of larval stages of the american oyster, Crassostrea virginica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-seleniferous areas, selenium 1s present in detectable amounts: in Oregon, Had?-:i- markos and Bonhorst (1961) reported a selenium content of . 317 ppm in eggs and . 034 ppm in milk, with sim1lar figures being reported for products from other areas. In b1rds... that selenium is accumu!ated to re'latively h1gh levels in marine biota (Robertson et al. , 1972; Sandholm et al. , 1973), Recent reports indicate that . 1-. 5 pg/1 of selenium may be considered a representative range for polluted vdaters (Fowler...

Smith, Wendy S

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Percolation of gallium dominates the electrical resistance of focused ion beam deposited metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal deposition through focused ion beam (FIB) based systems is thought to result in material composed of the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor in addition to carbon, oxygen, and gallium. We determined, through electrical resistance and chemical composition measurements on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum and tungsten lines, that the gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) concentration in the metal lines plays the dominant role in controlling the electrical resistivity. Effective medium theory, based on McLachlan's formalisms, was used to describe the relationship between the Ga{sup +} concentration and the corresponding resistivity.

Faraby, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); DiBattista, M. [Qualcomm Technologies Incorporated, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Bandaru, P. R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

127

Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

Morris, R.N.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ?-iron oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60?GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ?-iron oxides (?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AND DIETARY ENERGY MANIPULATION ON MARES AND THEIR FOALS: SELENIUM CONCENTRATIONS, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY, FOALING PARAMETERS AND FOAL PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quarter Horse mares (n=28, 465-612 kg BW, 6-19 yrs of age) were used to investigate the effect of organic selenium (Se) supplementation (Selenosource, Diamond V Mills, Inc. Cedar Rapids, IA (SeM)) and DE manipulation on plasma, muscle, and colostrum...

Karren, Brady

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

130

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire, and will aid in the design and optimization of nanowire-based systems for solar energy-conversion applications, and the photoelectrochemical energy-conversion properties of GaAs nanowire arrays were evaluated in contact with one

Zhou, Chongwu

131

GALLIUM--2003 28.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LEDs, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and ICs. ICs and optoelectronic devices each accounted for 41) and optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light- emitting diodes (LEDs)]. Estimated crude gallium

132

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the Southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from. Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet­19; cadmium, 14­42; copper, 1.5­3.6; zinc, 0.77­2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake

Canberra, University of

133

Bulk measurement of copper and sodium content in CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) solar cells with nanosecond pulse length laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we show that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a nanosecond pulse laser can be used to measure the copper and sodium content of CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) thin film solar cells on molybdenum. This method has four significant advantages over methods currently being employed: the method is inexpensive, measurements can be taken in times on the order of one second, without high vacuum, and at distances up to 5 meters or more. The final two points allow for in-line monitoring of device fabrication in laboratory or industrial environments. Specifically, we report a linear relationship between the copper and sodium spectral lines from LIBS and the atomic fraction of copper and sodium measured via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), discuss the ablation process of this material with a nanosecond pulse laser compared to shorter pulse duration lasers, and examine the depth resolution of nanosecond pulse LIBS.

Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; DeAngelis, Alexander; Kaneshiro, Jess; Mallory, Stewart A; Chang, Yuancheng; Gaillard, Nicolas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

R. Han; R. Wada; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; X. Liu; S. Zhang; P. Ren; B. Jia; G. Tian; F. Luo; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. Huang; X. Ruan; J. Ren; Z. Zhou; H. Huang; J. Bao; K. Zhang; B. Hu

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

135

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Ren, P; Jia, B; Tian, G; Luo, F; Lin, W; Liu, J; Shi, F; Huang, M; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Zhou, Z; Huang, H; Bao, J; Zhang, K; Hu, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisks Cavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest ...

Woolf, Alexander; Aharanovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A; Hu, Evelyn L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa on Development, Survival, Feeding,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa on Development, Survival 92521 Environ. Entomol. 31(6): 953Ð959 (2002) ABSTRACT We examined the effect of irrigating alfalfa. Alfalfa was grown in sand cultures under three levels of sodium selenate irrigation: (1) control

Trumble, John T.

139

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought.H. Pilon-Smits, and John L. Freeman2 Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture published report of these detrimental effects, which have also occurred in other Se-rich areas (Ohlendorf et

140

ORIGINAL PAPER Liver and kidney concentrations of selenium in wild boars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Liver and kidney concentrations of selenium in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from in wild boars from the northwest part of Poland, depending on season of the year, age, sex, and body weight. Altogether, samples of livers and kidneys from 172 wild boars that were shot in 2005­2008 were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of selenium species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.

K. Ladwig

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Selenium nutrition of Morone hybrids including dietary requirements, bioavailability, toxicity and effects on immune responses and disease resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhance immunocompetence and disease resistance of HSB. In the first experiment, purified and practical diets were supplemented with ?-glucan and selenium in a factorial arrangement and fed to juvenile HSB for 6 wk followed by a S. iniae challenge...

Jaramillo, Francisco , Jr

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

(Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Gallium Lighting, LLC, Accepts Inaugural Position on the Industry Advisory Board of UC-Light Center to Help Bring Wireless Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium Lighting, LLC, Accepts Inaugural Position on the Industry Advisory Board of UC-Light Center to Help Bring Wireless Data Communications Capabilities to LED Lights Fayetteville, GA ­ February 10, 2011 ­Gallium Lighting, LLC, announced today it has accepted an inaugural position

146

Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10?nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050?°C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V?s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

148

NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cereals are an important source of selenium (Se) to humans and many people have inadequate intakes of this essential trace element. Conversely, arsenic (As) is toxic and may accumulate in rice grain at levels that pose a health risk. Knowledge of the localization of selenium and arsenic within the cereal grain will aid understanding of their deposition patterns and the impact of processes such as milling. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used to determine the localization of Se in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and As in rice (Oryza sativa). Combined synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and NanoSIMS analysis utilized the strengths of both techniques. Selenium was concentrated in the protein surrounding the starch granules in the starchy endosperm cells and more homogeneously distributed in the aleurone cells but with Se-rich hotspots. Arsenic was concentrated in the subaleurone endosperm cells in association with the protein matrix rather than in the aleurone cells. NanoSIMS indicated that the high intensity of As identified in the S-XRF image was localized in micron-sized hotspots near the ovular vascular trace and nucellar projection. This is the first study showing subcellular localization in grain samples containing parts per million concentrations of Se and As. There is good quantitative agreement between NanoSIMS and S-XRF.

Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. (Rothamsted); (UCopenhagen); (Oxford)

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

149

Anionic Gallium-Based Metal;#8722;Organic Framework and Its Sorption and Ion-Exchange Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gallium-based metal-organic framework Ga{sub 6}(C{sub 9}H{sub 3}O{sub 6}){sub 8} {center_dot} (C{sub 2}H{sub 8}N){sub 6}(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 26} [1, Ga{sub 6}(1,3,5-BTC){sub 8} {center_dot} 6DMA {center_dot} 3DMF {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O], GaMOF-1; BTC = benzenetricarboxylate/trimesic acid and DMA = dimethylamine, with space group I{bar 4}3d, a = 19.611(1) {angstrom}, and V = 7953.4(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, was synthesized using solvothermal techniques and characterized by synchrotron-based X-ray microcrystal diffraction. Compound 1 contains isolated gallium tetrahedra connected by the organic linker (BTC) forming a 3,4-connected anionic porous network. Disordered positively charged ions and solvent molecules are present in the pore, compensating for the negative charge of the framework. These positively charged molecules could be exchanged with alkali-metal ions, as is evident by an ICP-MS study. The H{sub 2} storage capacity of the parent framework is moderate with a H{sub 2} storage capacity of {approx}0.5 wt % at 77 K and 1 atm.

Banerjee, Debasis; Kim, Sun Jin; Wu, Haohan; Xu, Wenqian; Borkowski, Lauren A.; Li, Jing; Parise, John B. (Kwangju); (Rutgers); (SBU)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

Dynamics of formation of photoresponse in a detector structure made of gallium arsenide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of capture effects on the characteristics of detectors of the ionizing radiation based on semi-insulating gallium arsenide is considered. Generation of nonequilibrium electrons and holes along the entire thickness of the active region was performed under illumination with an infrared light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 0.9 {mu}m. In this case, the situation emerging in the device structure under the effect of X-ray radiation or a high-energy electron beam was simulated. It is shown that the variation in the shape of the output signal with time in this case is caused by variation in the electric field profile due to the capture of holes at deep centers in gallium arsenide. An absolutely different distribution of the electric field emerges in the structure under irradiation of a semitransparent cathode of the structure with a red light-emitting diode, emission of which penetrates into the active region for mere 1 {mu}m. In this case, the transformation of the electric field is caused by the capture of electrons. Under the prolonged effect of such radiation, a space-charge-limited current mode emerges in the device.

Ayzenshtat, G. I., E-mail: ayzen@mail.tomsknet.ru; Lelekov, M. A.; Tolbanov, O. P. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Simulation assisted design of a gallium phosphide np photovoltaic junction Charles R. Allen, Jong-Hyeok Jeon , Jerry M. Woodall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, 1205 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 27 February 2010 Keywords: Gallium phosphide Solar cell Multi-junction CPV Simulation a b s t r a c with measurements of the dark and light response. The light current was measured under an illumination of air mass

Woodall, Jerry M.

152

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride to examine the effects of carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature on the morphology of carbon with increasing carbon tetrachloride concentration. Step bunching and pinning was observed at a IV/III ratio

Li, Lian

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spectrum Poly-Si CdTe CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) Organic and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 12;Cd... ;Light Concentration using Nanoparticle Plasmon Resonances 12;Dye...

154

Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

Olsen, L. C.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDH’s), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDH’s is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Catalytic and physicochemical properties of aluminoplatinum catalysts modified with indium and gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminoplatinum catalysts (APC) are widely used in transformations of hydrocarbons, particularly in reforming of gasoline fractions and dehydrogenation of higher normal paraffins. Promotion of APC with indium and gallium increases their activity and stability in the dehydrogenation of paraffins. Introduction of group III elements in APC inhibits coke formation during dehydrogenation and prevents blocking of the surface of the Pt. The change in the catalytic properties of APC modified with In is due to the partial transfer of the electron density from Pt to In. Both APC with In and Ga additives and monometallic catalysts were studied in the present article by the methods of IR spectroscopy and adsorption. In addition to traditional transmission IR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy in diffusely scattered light was used, which permits conducting both spectral and adsorption measurements on the same samples.

Zaitsev, A.V.; Tyupaev, A.P.; Borovkov, V.Yu.; Timofeeva, E.A.; Isatulyants, G.V.; Kazanskii, B.B.

1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

157

The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Structure and electrical characterization of gallium arsenide nanowires with different V/III ratio growth parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires were grown vertically on GaAs(111)B substrate by gold-assisted using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductivity atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of V/III ratio on structural properties and current-voltage changes in the wires. Results show that GaAs NWs grow preferably in the wurtzite crystal structure than zinc blende crystal structure with increasing V/III ratio. Additionally, CAFM studies have revealed that zincblende nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic compared to oscillation current occurred for wurtzite structures. The GaAs NWs with high quality structures are needed in solar cells technology for trapping energy that directly converts of sunlight into electricity with maximum capacity.

Muhammad, R.; Ahamad, R. [Sustainability Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z. [Physic Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

160

Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Methods for the speciation and determination of arsenic and selenium in coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of sample preparation for the determination of total selenium, and selenite, selenate, arsenite, and arsenate in coal fly ash materials were evaluated. The measurement methods use atomic spectroscopy for the determination of total concentrations and ion chromatography (IC) for the determination of individual ionic species. Sample preparation procedures which minimize the loss or alteration of the species of interest was explored and defined. The utility of the sample preparation methods can be sample dependent, so caution is advised in their use. IC conditions were established for the determination in extract solutions of selenite, selenate, arsenite, and arsenate with minimal interference from common anions.

Schabron, J.F.; Hart, B.K.; Niss, N.D.; Brown, T.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Lemly, A.D. 1995. A Protocol for Aquatic Hazard Assessment of Selenium. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 32, No. 280B288 Lemly, A.D. 1996. Assessing the Toxic Threat of Selenium to Fish and Aquatic Birds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessmen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

References Lemly, A.D. 1995. A Protocol for Aquatic Hazard Assessment of Selenium and Environmental Defense. The Project is subject to a Waste Discharge Requirement that strictly limits the load and the overall hazard of selenium to the ecosystem continued to be high according to Lemly's index (Lemly 1995

165

A field-shaping multi-well avalanche detector for direct conversion amorphous selenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A practical detector structure is proposed to achieve stable avalanche multiplication gain in direct-conversion amorphous selenium radiation detectors. Methods: The detector structure is referred to as a field-shaping multi-well avalanche detector. Stable avalanche multiplication gain is achieved by eliminating field hot spots using high-density avalanche wells with insulated walls and field-shaping inside each well. Results: The authors demonstrate the impact of high-density insulated wells and field-shaping to eliminate the formation of both field hot spots in the avalanche region and high fields at the metal-semiconductor interface. Results show a semi-Gaussian field distribution inside each well using the field-shaping electrodes, and the electric field at the metal-semiconductor interface can be one order-of-magnitude lower than the peak value where avalanche occurs. Conclusions: This is the first attempt to design a practical direct-conversion amorphous selenium detector with avalanche gain.

Goldan, A. H.; Zhao, W. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species Compared to Seed-Meals Produced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard shoots of several Brassica species, canola (Brassica napus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white

167

Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada L. L. Miller · J. B. Rasmussen · V. P. Palace · G. Sterling · A to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout

Hontela, Alice

168

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination (Cieminski and Flake The absence of Se in brine ?brine ?y larvae Ephy- dra cinerea Jones. Archives of Environmental Contaminationbrine shrimp tis- sue Se levels in the same range as those observed here, selenium contamination

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual report, October 1, 1995--December 31,1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium geochemistry in tidal wetlands is a topic of continuing study at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The program of studies described in this report was initiated in the fall of 1994 in response to concerns about elevated Se concentrations in waters, sediments, and biota in the Carquinez Strait. Processes by which selenium is introduced and potentially released from the sediment system have been the focus of research in 1996.

Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M. [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Crystal structure and electron microprobe analyses of a lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-crystal electron microprobe analysis of a lanthanum lutetium gallium garnet has resulted in a composition of La{sub 2.37}Nd{sub 0.07}Pb{sub 0.01}Lu{sub 2.54}Cr{sub 0.01} Ga{sub 3.00}O{sub 12}. This composition gives better agreement between observed and calculated total dielectric polarizabilities than previously reported compositions (La{sub 2.26--2.32}Nd{sub 0.04}Lu{sub 2.57--2.63}Ga{sub 3.07}O{sub 12} by x-ray fluorescence and La{sub 2.655}Nd{sub 0.027}Lu{sub 2.656}Ga{sub 2.655}O{sub 12} by inductively coupled plasma analyses), and does not imply the crystal-chemically improbable presence of Lu{sup 3+} in the tetrahedral site. X-ray and neutron crystal-structure analyses have confirmed that little or no Lu resides in this site.

Parise, J.B.; Harlow, R.L.; Shannon, R.D. (Central Research and Development Department, E. I. DuPont De Nemours and Co., Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0228 (United States)); Kwei, G.H. (LANSCE, MS-H805, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Allik, T.H. (Science Applications International Corporation, 1710 Goodridge Dr., P.O. Box 1303, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)); Armstrong, J.T. (Department of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States))

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

None

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2?kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1??J arrival, the structure with thickness of 650??m reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (?4?kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ?4?kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

Hu, Long, E-mail: hulong-1226@126.com [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1?cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5?nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2?Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5?eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9?eV.

Allen, T. G., E-mail: thomas.allen@anu.edu.au; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

Partitioning and chemical speciation of mercury, arsenic, and selenium during inert gas oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were retorted in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg bench-scale retort at 1 to 2C/min and at 10C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic aabsortion spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate the the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 23 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Elastic properties of sulphur and selenium doped ternary PbTe alloys by first principles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lead telluride (PbTe) is an established thermoelectric material which can be alloyed with sulphur and selenium to further enhance the thermoelectric properties. Here, a first principles study of ternary alloys PbS{sub x}Te{sub (1?x)} and PbSe{sub x}Te{sub (1?x)} (0?x?1) based on the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) is presented for different ratios of the isoelectronic atoms in each series. Equilibrium lattice parameters and elastic constants have been calculated and compared with the reported data. Anisotropy parameter calculated from the stiffness constants showed a slight improvement in anisotropy of elastic properties of the alloys over undoped PbTe. Furthermore, the alloys satisfied the predicted stability criteria from the elastic constants, showing stable structures, which agreed with the previously reported experimental results.

Bali, Ashoka, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Chetty, Raju, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

176

High-pressure behavior of amorphous selenium from ultrasonic measurements and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-pressure behavior of melt-quenched amorphous selenium (a-Se) has been investigated via ultrasonic measurements and Raman scattering at room temperature. The ultrasonic measurements were conducted on a-Se in a multi-anvil apparatus with two different sample assemblies at pressures of up to 4.5 and 4.8?GPa. We discovered that similar kinks occur in the slopes of the pressure dependence characteristics of the travel time and the sound velocity in both shear and longitudinal waves in the 2.0–2.5?GPa range. These kinks are independent of the sample assemblies, indicating an intrinsic transformation of the a-Se. Additionally, we deduced the pressure-volume relationship of a-Se from the sound velocity characteristics using the Birch–Murnaghan equation of state, and the results agreed well with those of previous reports. In situ high-pressure Raman scattering measurements of a-Se were conducted in a diamond anvil cell with an 830?nm excitation line up to a pressure of 4.3?GPa. We found that the characteristic band of a-Se at ?250?cm{sup ?1} experienced a smooth shift to a lower frequency with pressure, but a sharp slope change in the band intensity versus pressure occurred near 2.5?GPa. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate that the samples remain in their amorphous states after decompression. Thus, we proposed that the abnormal compression behavior of a-Se in the 2.0–2.5?GPa range can be attributed to pressure-induced local atomic reconfiguration, implying an amorphous-amorphous transition of the elementary selenium.

He, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Hong, S. M., E-mail: hpswjtu@gmail.com, E-mail: smhong@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Z. G. [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, H. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, J. P. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping ({micro}XRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). {micro}XRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a 'free' nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. {micro}XRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers.

Banuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Shear strain mediated magneto-electric effects in composites of piezoelectric lanthanum gallium silicate or tantalate and ferromagnetic alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shear strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling is studied in composites of piezoelectric Y-cut lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) or tantalate (LGT) and ferromagnetic Fe-Co-V alloys. It is shown that extensional strain does not result in ME effects in these layered composites. Under shear strain generated by an ac and dc bias magnetic fields along the length and width of the sample, respectively, strong ME coupling is measured at low-frequencies and at mechanical resonance. A model is discussed for the ME effects. These composites of Y-cut piezoelectrics and ferromagnetic alloys are of importance for shear strain based magnetic field sensors.

Sreenivasulu, G.; Piskulich, E.; Srinivasan, G., E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48409 (United States); Qu, P.; Qu, Hongwei [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Petrov, V. M. [Institute of Electronic Information Systems, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Fetisov, Y. K. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Moscow 19454 (Russian Federation); Nosov, A. P. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 S. Kovalevskaya St, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

integrative www.unil.ch/cig  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on plant growth and development 12 Paul Franken Genetics and energetics of sleep homeostasis and circadian the acquisition of new technologies or the development of new research and educational activities or services

Kaessmann, Henrik

180

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H. Qi, and R. F. Hicksa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H, California 90095 Received 26 June 1997; accepted for publication 30 December 1997 Carbon tetrachloride of steps during the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of III­V compound semiconductors.3,4 Carbon tetrachloride

Li, Lian

183

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

186

Surface reactivity and oxygen migration in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide films annealed in humid atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An isotope tracer study, i.e., {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange using {sup 18}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, was performed to determine how post-deposition annealing (PDA) affected surface reactivity and oxygen diffusivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. The oxygen tracer diffusivity was very high in the bulk even at low temperatures, e.g., 200?°C, regardless of PDA and exchange conditions. In contrast, the isotope exchange rate, dominated by surface reactivity, was much lower for {sup 18}O{sub 2} than for H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. PDA in a humid atmosphere at 400?°C further suppressed the reactivity of O{sub 2} at the a-IGZO film surface, which is attributable to –OH-terminated surface formation.

Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Hee [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)] [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

187

Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently being channeled in the study related to improvements of these two parameters high bias operation and lifetime improvement for switches used in pulsed power applications. The contact material and profiles are another important area of study. Although these problems are being pursued through the incorporation of different contact materials and introducing doping near contacts, it is important that the switch properties and the conduction mechanism in these switches be well understood such that the basic nature of the problems can be properly addressed. In this paper the authors report on these two basic issues related to the device operation, i.e., mechanisms for increasing the hold-off characteristics through neutron irradiation, and the analysis of transport processes at varying field conditions in trap dominated SI GaAs in order to identify the breakdown mechanism during device operation. It is expected that this study would result in a better understanding of photoconductive switches, specifically those used in high power operation.

ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

189

Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: Photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cmx40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system.

Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Abbas [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

JOUKNAI, OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 98. NO. D7. PAGES 12.673-12.685, JULY 20. 1993 Aerosol Selenium at Bermuda and Barbados  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and methane sulfonate(MSA), but the intercept of the Se versusSb regression indicated that a marinebiogenic identification studies [Rahn and Lowenthal, 1984, 1985; Lowenthal et 01.. 1988; Lowenthal and Rahn, 1988). Coal for selenium is not well understood, C o o k andBruland [I9871suggest a similar mechanism where Se

Prospero, Joseph M.

192

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

193

Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of a bench-scale, inert-gas, oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heating rates and maximum temperatures on the redistribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium into the shale oil, retort water, and offgas of a 6-kg bench-scale retort. A Green River shale (western) from Colorado and a New Albany shale (eastern) from Kentucky were heated at 1-2{degree}C/min to a maximum temperature of 500{degree}C. The eastern and western shales were also heated at 2{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C and at 10{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C. Real-time monitoring of the offgas stream for mercury was accomplished with Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy or a microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy. Microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy was also used to monitor for arsenic in the offgas during retorting; little or no arsenic was observed in the offgas. Mass balance calculations for arsenic and selenium accounted for essentially 100% of those elements in the spent shale, shale oil, and retort water. The mass balance calculations suggest little offgas component for arsenic and selenium. This agrees with the results of the MPD monitoring of the offgas. These results indicate the potential pathway for mercury to enter the environment is from the offgas. Arsenic and selenium preferential redistribution into the shale oil may present problems during the upgrading process.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Fruchter, J.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine Pesticides from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to San2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine 1.6 and 6.1%, respectively. Also monitored were PAHs, PBDEs (two years of19 data), and dioxins) pesticides (DDT, chlordanes, and dieldrin), polybrominated32 diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dioxins are highly

195

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, January 1996--March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1996. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including some x-ray spectroscopy data related to the characterization of the sediment Eh-pH regime. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the rationale, design, and preliminary results of a plant-Se study. Chapter 6 presents the design of a recently initiated sediment dynamics study. The leader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A. [and others

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, April 1996--June 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between 4/1/96 and 6/30/96. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including Se fractionation data from Martinez Regional Park. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the recent developments in low-level Se analytical methods. Chapter 6 presents preliminary sedimentation rate data from the Martinez field site. Exciting new developments in x-ray spectroscopy of clams are presented in Chapter 7. The reader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.; Chau, S. [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Photon self-induced spin-to-orbital conversion in a terbium-gallium-garnet crystal at high laser power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present experimental evidence of a third-order nonlinear optical process, self-induced spin-to-orbital conversion (SISTOC) of the photon angular momentum. This effect is the physical mechanism at the origin of the depolarization of very intense laser beams propagating in isotropic materials. The SISTOC process, like self-focusing, is triggered by laser heating leading to a radial temperature gradient in the medium. In this work we tested the occurrence of SISTOC in a terbium-gallium-garnet rod for an impinging laser power of about 100 W. To study the SISTOC process we used different techniques: polarization analysis, interferometry, and tomography of the photon orbital angular momentum. Our results confirm, in particular, that the apparent depolarization of the beam is due to the occurrence of maximal entanglement between the spin and orbital angular momentum of the photons undergoing the SISTOC process. This explanation of the true nature of the depolarization mechanism could be of some help in finding novel methods to reduce or to compensate for this usually unwanted depolarization effect in all cases where very high laser power and good beam quality are required.

Mosca, S.; De Rosa, R.; Milano, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Canuel, B.; Genin, E. [EGO, European Gravitational Observatory, Via E. Amaldi, 56021 S. Stefano a Macerata, Cascina (Italy); Karimi, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Piccirillo, B.; Santamato, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNISM-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Marrucci, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

CO{sub 2} laser-based dispersion interferometer utilizing orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for plasma density measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dispersion interferometer based on the second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide has been developed for measuring electron density in plasmas. The interferometer includes two nonlinear optical crystals placed on opposite sides of the plasma. This instrument has been used to measure electron line densities in a pulsed radio-frequency generated argon plasma. A simple phase-extraction technique based on combining measurements from two successive pulses of the plasma has been used. The noise-equivalent line density was measured to be 1.7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup ?2} in a detection bandwidth of 950 kHz. One of the orientation-patterned crystals produced 13 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 13 W of peak power. Two crystals arranged sequentially produced 58 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 37 W of peak power.

Bamford, D. J.; Cummings, E. A.; Panasenko, D. [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Fenner, D. B.; Hensley, J. M. [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage ? to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ?. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of ?. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ? on ? that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

Wissman, J., E-mail: jwissman@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Finkenauer, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Deseri, L. [DICAM, Department of Mechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77 38123 Trento (Italy); TMHRI-Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin St., MS B-490 Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mechanics, Materials and Computing Center, CEE and ME-CIT, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Majidi, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Robotics Institute and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Draft annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research aimed at gaining a better understanding of selenium cycling in marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait is being performed by scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and collaborators from the University of California at Davis. This work was initiated in the Fall of 1994 and is scheduled to continue through the Fall of 1996. This report summarizes the results of the effort to date.

Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M.; Mountford, H.S. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

Quinn, N.W.T.

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir. Progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research relevant to selenium (Se) speciation, fractionation, physical redistribution, reduction and oxidation, and spatial distribution as related to Kesterson Reservoir. The work was carried out by scientists and engineers from the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory over a two year period from October 1994 to September 1996. Much of the focus of this research was on long-term, Reservoir-wide changes in Se concentrations and distribution; estimation and prediction of the physical extent ephemeral pools; and the quantification and prediction of Se levels in ephemeral pools waters and underlying sediments. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of field monitoring of soil processes. In Section 2.1, elevated Se concentrations observed in groundwater in the northern part of Pond 9 are investigated. The past removal of the original surface soil in the northern Pond 9 area resulted in the enhancement of Se transport into the shallow groundwater in this area. Removal of the most organic-rich surface soil horizon left the remaining profile with a lower capacity to generate and sustain reducing conditions needed to immobilize Se. Furthermore, removal of the lower permeability surface soil left the remaining profile more hydraulically conductive since sands are encountered at fairly shallow depths. These conditions result in Se remaining oxidized down to the 2.00 m depth throughout the year.

Zawislanski, P.; Tokunaga, T.; Benson, S.M. [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

2006 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for flexible thin film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS's Letters from Japan Ltd., 2007). Mainstream LCDs were also trending toward larger panel sizes, which construction of the first 8th generation LCD fabrication (8G) line at the Tangjeong production complex located

205

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sandia National Laboratories: gallium nitride  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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211

Metal articles having ultrafine particles dispersed therein  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a metal article of manufacture. It comprises: a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, iron, cadmium, chromium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, mercury, tungsten arsenic, manganese, iridium, indium, ruthenium, rhenium, rhodium, molybdenum, palladium, osmium and platinum; and a plurality of ultrafine particles.

Alexander, G.B.; Nadkarni, R.A.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

212

PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CLIMATE IMPACTS GROUP http://www.cses.washington.edu/cig/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Tualatin, Oregon · King County, Washington (County Council, Office of the Executive, Department of Natural · Tacoma Power and Light · Thurston County, Washington State Level · Alaska Department of Fish and Game

Colorado at Boulder, University of

213

Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

M. P. Heinrich; Z-H. Zhang; Y. Zhang; O. Kiowski; M. Powalla; U. Lemmer; A. Slobodskyy

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

Heinrich, M P; Zhang, Y; Kiowski, O; Powalla, M; Lemmer, U; Slobodskyy, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Post-Deposition Treatment Boosts CIGS Solar Cell Performance (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL's use of potassium fluoride process improves the open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency.

Not Available

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Degradation of ZnO Window Layer for CIGS by Damp-Heat Exposure: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes our work with more details and an emphasis on the DH-induced degradation of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO alloys. The other two TCOs, ITO and F:SnO2, are not included here.

Pern, F.J.; To, B.; DeHart, C.; Li, X.; Glick, S. H.; Noufi, R.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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218

CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite-- Energy, science, and technology - C L A

219

NREL: Awards and Honors - Lightweight, Flexible, Thin-Film CIGS PV Modules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements of Women |hits 21Species.4ElectroexplodedLightweight,

220

Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electronic properties of gallium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a systematic study of the electrical transport in GaN nanowires. Particularly, the effect of the surrounding dielectric on the conductivity of GaN nanowires is experimentally shown for the first time. ...

Yoon, Joonah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Interactions of gallium with zircaloy cladding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The accepted options for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) are immobilization or conversion to a mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. There are two benefits of conversion, one, the plutonium can't be converted back... into a viable weapon and two, the material could be used as an energy producing natural resource. Typical reactors use uranium dioxide enriched with about 3'le U-235. The proposed MOX fuel would consist of depleted uranium with WGPu. In order...

Mitchell, Lee Josey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5, 265 (1957). S. Glasstone, K . Laidler, H . Eyring, Thequantity D . Henry Eyring [Glasstone, Eyring (1941)] was the

Nicols, Samuel Piers

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Designing Asynchronous Circuits in Gallium Arsenide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.2.2 Super Buffered Fet Logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 4 A New Logic Family 21 4.1 Input Stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 21 4.1.1 Inverter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 34 5.2.2 Output stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 36 5.2.3 Delay model and power

Martin, Alain

226

Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Syntheses, crystal structures and optical properties of the first strontium selenium(IV) and tellurium(IV) oxychlorides: Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3})(Se{sub 2}O{sub 5})Cl{sub 2} and Sr{sub 4}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 8})Cl{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new quaternary strontium selenium(IV) and tellurium(IV) oxychlorides, namely, Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3})(Se{sub 2}O{sub 5})Cl{sub 2} and Sr{sub 4}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 8})Cl{sub 4}, have been prepared by solid-state reaction. Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3})(Se{sub 2}O{sub 5})Cl{sub 2} features a three-dimensional (3D) network structure constructed from strontium(II) interconnected by Cl{sup -}, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} as well as Se{sub 2}O{sub 5}{sup 2-} anions. The structure of Sr{sub 4}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 8})Cl{sub 4} features a 3D network in which the strontium tellurium oxide slabs are interconnected by bridging Cl{sup -} anions. The diffuse reflectance spectrum measurements and results of the electronic band structure calculations indicate that both compounds are wide band-gap semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: Solid-state reactions of SrO, SrCl{sub 2}, and SeO{sub 2} or TeO{sub 2} in different molar ratios and under different temperatures lead to two new strontium selenium(IV) or tellurium(IV) oxychlorides with two different types of structures, namely, Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3})(Se{sub 2}O{sub 5})Cl{sub 2} and Sr{sub 4}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 8})Cl{sub 4}. Both compounds are wide band-gap semiconductors based on the diffuse reflectance spectra and the electronic band structures.

Jiang Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Mao Jianggao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)], E-mail: mjg@fjirsm.ac.cn

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

269Maher: Selenium in macroalgae Botanica Marina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

specimenswere washed with distilled water to re- movesaltsand smallinvertebrates.After homogeni- zation usinga blender, subsampleswere freezedried and ground to passa 200 11mseive. Sampleswere thenstored in air for macroal- gae (Fries 1982) while biochemical fractionation of two microalgae (Wrench 1978) and a macroalga

Canberra, University of

230

Selenium containing molecules from Astragalus racemosus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Ether (reagent grade), ammonium formate (99. 6X purity), hydrochloric acid (technical grade), oxalic acid, sucrose and glucose were purchased from the Fisher Scientific Company. (2) Formic acid (90?) and aniline were purchased from Matheson Coleman... by diluting 70 ml of the concentrated acid to 210 ml. (6) Reagent A, used to color the sugar spots on the paper chromatograms, was prepared by dissolving 2. 52 g of oxalic acid in 100 ml of ethanol and mixing 1. 86 ml of aniline in 100 ml of ethanol...

Price, Jeanine Ekelund

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

TOWARDS CIGS SOLAR CELLS WITH REDUCED FILM THICKNESS: A STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OF PHOTONIC STRUCTURES FOR LIGHT TRAPPING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The electro-optical simulations are performed using Silvaco International, Inc. ATLAS software package

232

High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights of the Technologies Challenges (Presentation)  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FORRemarksHEATING DISTRIBUTIONS INDOBEH

233

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

FTIR and FT-PL Spectroscopic Analysis of TPV Materials and Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 102 micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Olson, M. R.; Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M. W.; Jones, K. M.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Procedure Sample Analysis 3 3 . 9 . 11 HI THEORY. . IH. 1 Backscattering Principles HI. 2 The RBS Spectrum IH. 3 The Surface Energy Approximation . . . HI. 4 Stainless Steel 316. . IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . 13 . 13 15... for the disposition of weapons grade (WG) plutonium (Pu) in the United States: MOX fuel conversion and immobilization. The first option uses nuclear reactors to transmutate WG Pu and the second imbeds the WG Pu in glass logs for deep burial. Due to the large amount...

Ortensi, Javier

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

amorphous indium gallium: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on which all indium abundance studies are based, both for the quiet-sun and the sunspot umbra spectrum, employing standard atmosphere models and accounting for hyperfine structure...

238

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) EDWARD D. PALIK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constants of pure (semi-insulating) GaAs are derived from a number of papers including the far-infrared at. [4]; the near-IR work of Pikhtin and Yas'kov [5]; the calorim- etry work of Christensen et al. [6 reflection work of Philipp and Ehrenreich [9]; and the synchrotron transmission work of Cardona et al. [10

Pulfrey, David L.

239

Broadband electrooptic modulators based on gallium arsenide materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation (OAWG) combines frequency combs and frequency-by- frequency pulse shapers to synthesize optical waveforms. The OAWG technique has a wide variety of applications, ranging from high ...

Shamir, Orit A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Formation mechanisms of spatially-directed zincblende gallium nitride nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the spatially selective formation of GaN nanocrystals embedded in GaAs. Broad-area N{sup +} implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing leads to the formation of nanocrystals at the depth of maximum ion damage. With additional irradiation using a Ga{sup +} focused ion beam, selective lateral positioning of the nanocrystals within the GaAs matrix is observed in isolated regions of increased vacancy concentration. Following rapid thermal annealing, the formation of zincblende GaN is observed in the regions of highest vacancy concentration. The nucleation of zincblende nanocrystals over the wurtzite phase of bulk GaN is consistent with the predictions of a thermodynamic model for the nanoscale size-dependence of GaN nucleation.

Wood, A. W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Collino, R. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Cardozo, B. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Naab, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wang, Y. Q. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Self-aligned submicron gate length gallium arsenide MESFET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-biaserl saturation currents of 396. 67 + 83. 984 IzA were obtained for the transistors. Built- in voltages of 0. 8198 6 0. 007 V and ideality factors of 1. 456 6 0. 0079 were obtained for the Schottky diodes. The effect of gate length on transcond ictance... Geometrical and physical origins for the small signal equivalent circuit of FET Developed fabrication process for submicron gate length GaAs MESFET Transistor and Schottky diode mask patterns 10 13 15 16 18 19 21 23 23 25 25 32 34 18. Process...

Huang, Hsien-Ching

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

Neutron irradiation effects on metal-gallium nitride contacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the effect of fast and thermal neutrons on GaN Schottky barriers and ohmic contacts using current–voltage and transmission line method electrical techniques, optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy morphological techniques, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy chemical techniques. These studies reveal a 10{sup 15}?n/cm{sup 2} neutron threshold for Schottky barrier ideality factor increases, a 10{sup 15}?n/cm{sup 2} fast plus thermal neutron threshold for ohmic contact sheet and contact resistance increases, and 10{sup 16}?n/cm{sup 2} neutron fluence threshold for major device degradation identified with thermally driven diffusion of Ga and N into the metal contacts and surface phase changes. These results demonstrate the need for protecting metal-GaN contacts in device applications subject to neutron radiation.

Katz, Evan J.; Lin, Chung-Han; Zhang, Zhichun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Brillson, Leonard J., E-mail: brillson.1@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

243

Neutron irradiation effects on gallium nitride-based Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS), time-resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and current-voltage measurements together show that fast versus thermal neutrons differ strongly in their electronic and morphological effects on metal-GaN Schottky diodes. Fast and thermal neutrons introduce GaN displacement damage and native point defects, while thermal neutrons also drive metallurgical reactions at metal/GaN interfaces. Defect densities exhibit a threshold neutron fluence below which thermal neutrons preferentially heal versus create new native point defects. Scanning XPS and DRCLS reveal strong fluence- and metal-dependent electronic and chemical changes near the free surface and metal interfaces that impact diode properties.

Lin, Chung-Han; Katz, Evan J.; Zhang, Zhichun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Brillson, Leonard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States) [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

244

Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

superconductor, with an onset at T-C approximate to 3.3 K. For x=10 and higher, no superconductivity was observed down to T=1.8 K. This represents a strong suppression of superconductivity with increasing Ga content, compared to Ba8Si46 with T-C approximate to 8...

Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallization process ivas required because separate potentials must be apphed to the top and base ol' the defined mesas. A potent&al is apphed to the top of the mesas to inject carriers for tunneling through the douhle barrier heterostructures A. rectifying... was a demetal/degrease cleanup process which re- moved any contamination that may have been nn the wal'er. This process ivas followed by deposition of AuGe/Ni on the ivafer's backside which ivill provide an ohmic contact after annealing. The backside...

Kinard, William Brian

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry-leading uptime enabled in part by a novel in-situ cleaning process developed in this program.

Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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248

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in

249

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure

250

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire

251

Sandia National Laboratories: BES Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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252

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlongUpdates byUserUtility-Scale SolarProgram

253

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,Local Correlations and Multi-FractalLocalhydroxides

254

Sandia National Laboratories: copper-indium-gallium-[di]selenide-based  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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255

Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles as Selective Sorbents . | EMSL forInnovation

256

High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGHBraytonMaterials

257

Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslie Pezzullo:

258

Hydrological and Geochemical Investigations of Selenium Behavior at Kesterson Reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cambridge. Cutter, G.A. , and K.W. Bruland. 1984. The marinesediments (Cutter and Bruland, 1984; Weres et al. , 1989a).

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Supporting Information Formation and Properties of Selenium Double-Helices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: Experiment and Theory Toshihiko Fujimori, Renato Batista dos Santos,,§ Takuya Hayashi-helix structures with long unit cells undergo a small axial offset. #12;S3 Figure S3. Simulated TEM images of Se,5) carbon nanotube. (c) Se double-helix with a pitch length of 0.5 nm inside a (5,5) carbon nanotube. (d) Se

Tománek, David

260

Using Cytochrome c3 To Make Selenium A. Abdelouas,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

´mica Fina e Biotecnologia, Departamento de Qui´mica, Faculdade de Cie^ncias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova- tional Laboratories. | Departamento de Qui´mica, Faculdade de Cie^ncias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova

Shelnutt, John A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Selenium an Essential Micronutrient. Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of agricultural drainage water with sewage sludge or industrial activities such as fly ash from coal plants, oil with muscle lesions observed in lambs and calves at birth. This congenital type of white muscle disease may

Watson, Craig A.

262

amorphous selenium studied: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the potential energy landscape explored during a compression-decompression cycle for the SPCE (extended simple point charge) model of water. During the cycle, the system changes...

263

Development of a small selenium barrier layer photovoltaic cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, sad ths ealsnisn ooatad disk oae yXsood 1a the occccco oolsaton nyysrnoeto to snnssX fsr ay~ate+ tcca Certahc yrsosntLcas bsd -te be obsorro4 in preparing tho soisccion Neither the mission neo ths ~ plate shoCcLd bo tso hot daring the first etage...

Pruett, George Richard

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Determination of Selenium in Seleno Compounds and Marine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Journalof Analytical I Atomic I Spectrometry M. DEAKER AND W. MAHER determination; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry; seleno compounds; marine biological tissues; chemical modijcation Electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spec- trometry (ETAAS

Canberra, University of

265

acute selenium toxicosis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in rats Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Andrew J. Dalrymple and Bennett C. Calef, Jr. Department of Psychology McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada...

266

Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between Nickel and Selenium in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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267

Post-Deposition Treatment Boosts CIGS Solar Cell Performance (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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268

Epitaxial growth of Cu,,In,Ga...Se2 on GaAs,,110... and A. Rockett  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION The Cu(In, Ga)Se2 CIGS absorber layer in a recent record-efficiency CIGS solar cell1 has a 220.13 Commercially supplied ``epi-ready'' liquid- encapsulated Czo

Rockett, Angus

269

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1996. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used

270

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2006. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

271

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1998. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

272

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2000. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

273

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2003. One company in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

274

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2012. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace, consumer goods, industrial equipment, medical

275

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2008. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

276

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2001. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as consumer goods

277

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2005. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

278

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2007. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

279

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2009. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

280

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2010. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1999. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

282

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2011. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

283

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1997. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

284

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2004. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

285

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

74 (19) 2821 (1999). F. H. Spedding, Rare-earth Elements, inby the use of rare- earth elements as color emitters inpowders activated with rare-earth elements Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential lighting using incandescent lights [2], as shownenergy used for the incandescent lamp is wasted as infraredlight source to replace incandescent lighting [1]. Figure

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

RealReal heterojunctionsheterojunctions Schottky barrier current  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the forward-bias current? #12;33 HeterostructureHeterostructure, thin film, cells: a lower, thin film, cells-EFFICIENCY CDTE AND CIGS THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: HIGHLIGHTS AND CHALLENGES. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. #12;44 HJ2:HJ2: CdSCdS/CIGS/CIGS EC EV Wide bandgap window, but what happens at the interfaces

Pulfrey, David L.

288

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Bioforti?ed Foods Garyavonoids found in Opuntia fruit can enhance the function ofof total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is

Banuelos, Gary S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

SAGE Collaboration

292

Non-Destructive Spent Fuel Characterization with Semi-Conducting Gallium Arsinde Neutron Imaging Arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High resistivity bulk grown GaAs has been used to produce thermal neutron imaging devices for use in neutron radiography and characterizing burnup in spent fuel. The basic scheme utilizes a portable Sb/Be source for monoenergetic (24 keV) neutron radiation source coupled to an Fe filter with a radiation hard B-coated pixellated GaAs detector array as the primary neutron detector. The coated neutron detectors have been tested for efficiency and radiation hardness in order to determine their fitness for the harsh environments imposed by spent fuel. Theoretical and experimental results are presented, showing detector radiation hardness, expected detection efficiency and the spatial resolution from such a scheme. A variety of advanced neutron detector designs have been explored, with experimental results achieving 13% thermal neutron detection efficiency while projecting the possibility of over 30% thermal neutron detection efficiency.

Douglas S. McGregor; Holly K. Gersch; Jeffrey D. Sanders; John C. Lee; Mark D. Hammig; Michael R. Hartman; Yong Hong Yang; Raymond T. Klann; Brian Van Der Elzen; John T. Lindsay; Philip A. Simpson

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

The marine geochemistry of dissolved gallium: A comparison with dissolved aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissolved Ga concentrations in the pacific Ocean range from 2 to 30 picomolar: they are low in surface waters (2-12 pM), with a subsurface maximum at 150-300 m (6-17 pM), a mid-depth minimum from 500 to 1,000 m (4-10 pM) and increasing values with depth to a maximum in the bottom waters (12-30 pM). The highest concentrations are in the central gyre, with lower values toward the north and east where productivity and particle scavenging increase. Dissolved Ga concentrations in the surface waters of the northwest Atlantic are nearly an order of magnitude higher than in the central North pacific, with higher values in the Gulf Stream than in the continental slope boundary region. The vertical distributions and horizontal transects indicate three sources of dissolved Ga to the oceans. The surface distribution reflects an eolian source with no net fluvial input to the open ocean; the subsurface maximum (a feature not seen for North Pacific dissolved Al) is attributed to vertical exchange processes; the source for the deep waters of the North Pacific is from a sediment surface remineralization process or a pore water flux. Scavenging removal throughout the water column is evident in the vertical profiles for both dissolved Ga and Al, with intensified removal in the boundary regions where productivity and particle scavenging are at a maximum. Residence times of dissolved Ga in surface waters are nearly an order of magnitude longer than the corresponding values for Al.

Orians, K.J.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. The structure and optical properties of W-incorporated Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrophotometric measurements. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and optical properties of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The bandgap of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films without W-incorporation was {approx}5 eV. Red-shift in the bandgap was noted with increasing W-concentration indicating the electronic structure changes in W-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. A functional relationship between W-concentration and optical property is discussed.

Rubio, E. J.; Ramana, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

295

Radiation-Hardened Gallium Nitride Detector and Arrays for Fusion Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This poster reports testing to confirm that GaN devices exhibit the extreme radiation hardness needed for use at the NIF, functioning properly after 1x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} proton irradiation in one year.

Sun, K. X., and MacNeil, L.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

296

Process development for the fabrication of monolithic optoelectronic resonators on gallium arsenide substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss microwave structure, were electroplated on the uncovered regions of the Au-Ge and Ni. After photoresist removal, the Au-Ge and Ni layers were removed from the unwanted regions. A backside metal was deposited and the sample was annealed. The four... D. Electron Bes. m Evaporation E. Fabrication of Photolithographic Masks 1, Plain Ring Resonator Mask 2. Notched Resons. tor Mask 3. Linear Resonator Mask 4. Slit Ring Resonator Mask F. Photolithography G. Electroplating H. Layer Removals I...

Fairchild, Brock Wilson

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium gallium indium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An advanced diffusion model to identify emergent research issues: the case of optoelectronic devices Summary: Aluminium arsenides Ge-Si alloys Avalanche photodiodes Indium...

298

The determination of titanium, germanium and gallium by charged particle activation analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V FWHM for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray of Co; Peak-to-Compton ratio: 20. 1; 60 Efficiency relative to a 3 x 3 inch NaI (Tl) detector for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray measured at 25 cm distance: 3 05%%d Data Ac uisition and Processin Data was acquired via a 4096... of the reaction had to be sufficiently high to make measurements of ppm level concentrations feasible. The thick target yields were calculated by correlating the activities of the particular Y-rays 16 back to the time at the end of the irradiation...

Novak, Leo Robert

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The equilibrium state of hydrogen in gallium nitride: Theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation energies and vibrational frequencies for H in wurtzite GaN were calculated from density functional theory and used to predict equilibrium state occupancies and solid solubilities for p-type, intrinsic, and n-type material. The solubility of deuterium (D) was measured at 600--800 C as a function of D{sub 2} pressure and doping and compared with theory. Agreement was obtained by reducing the H formation energies 0.2 eV from ab-initio theoretical values. The predicted stretch-mode frequency for H bound to the Mg acceptor lies 5% above an observed infrared absorption attributed to this complex. It is concluded that currently recognized H states and physical processes account for the equilibrium behavior of H examined in this work.

MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Diffusion, Uptake and Release of Hydrogen in p-type Gallium Nitride: Theory and Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diffusion, uptake, and release of H in p-type GaN are modeled employing state energies from density-function theory and compared with measurements of deuterium uptake and release using nuclear-reaction analysis. Good semiquantitative agreement is found when account is taken of a surface permeation barrier.

MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Applications, edited by T. M. Tritt, ( Kluwer Academic /and Applications, edited by T. M. Tritt, ( Kluwer Academic /and Applications, edited by T. M. Tritt, ( Kluwer Academic /

Bickford, Justin Robert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Growth Kinetics and Doping of Gallium Nitride Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thomas H. Myers, Ph.D., Chair Larry E. Halliburton, Ph.D. Nancy C. Giles, Ph.D. Charter D. Stinespring Giles, Dr. Charter Stinespring, Dr. Larry Halliburton, and Dr. Mohindar Seehra. In addition, I would

Myers, Tom

303

Fabrication of an optically driven 10 GHz ring resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/D converters, optical detectors, dc to rf converters, and millimeter-wave or microwave generators. Photoconductors can be easily integrated with microelectronic devices as well as microwave circuits. Recently, an optically excited photoconductive switch... is the barrier height and y, is the electron affinity for the semiconductor. Current flow at a metal-semiconductor barrier is due mainly to majority carriers. The four major current transport methods are thermionic emission over the barrier, quantum...

McGregor, Douglas Scott

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Gallium-68 Bioorthogonal Tetrazine Polymers for the Multistep Labeling of Cancer Biomarkers /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M, Fox JM (2008) Tetrazine ligation: fast bioconjugationR, Hilderbrand SA (2008) Tetrazine-Based Cycloadditions:of Cancer Cells through a Tetrazine/trans- Cyclooctene

Nichols, Brandon Edward

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is limited by the cold-wall chamber design and the porousrepeatability. The cold-wall chamber design also limits the

Bickford, Justin Robert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim of this contract is the achievement of a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed is metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs and for the two-junction case is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include the following: (1) a 17.6% efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5% efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D{sub 0}?=?0.53(×2.1±1) cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1} that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

308

Heat treatment of bulk gallium arsenide using a phosphosilicate glass cap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n-type bulk GaAs crystals, capped with chemically vapor-deposited phosphosilicate glass, were heat treated at temperatures in the range of 600 to 950 /sup 0/C. Measurements on Schottky diodes and solar cells fabricated on the heat-treated material, after removal of a damaged surface layer, show an increase in free-carrier concentration, in minority-carrier-diffusion length, and in solar-cell short-circuit current. The observed changes are attributed to a removal of lifetime-reducing acceptorlike impurities, defects, or their complexes.

Mathur, G.; Wheaton, M.L.; Borrego, J.M.; Ghandhi, S.K.

1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Synthesis, characterization, and biotemplated assembly of indium nitride and indium gallium nitride nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low-temperature, ambient pressure solution synthesis of colloidal InN nanoparticles is presented. This synthesis utilizes a previously dismissed precursor and results in individual, non-aggregated nanoparticles with ...

Hsieh, Jennifer Chia-Jen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: alloy of composition correspond- ing to the metallic components of the superconduct- ing oxides respectivement. Abstract. - Previous quenching experiments on 2212...

311

The Hall mobility measurement of Liquid Phase Epitaxy grown aluminum gallium arsenide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allows lasing action at or above room temperature. The utility of AI?Ga& ?As is based on the close latti&e match to GaAs over a range of Al mole fraction between zero and one(Fig. 1)IS). This is significant since heterojunctions between s...-type by occupying the site normally orc?pi& d by th& gro?p V element, ar?l acting as a donor. For the p-type of AI?Ga& ?As. %1g was used as an i&np?ri&y. Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 show I he r&'lal ionship bet wc?n th& in&p?r&I& & o???& r?t ?&n??&l t he alorr&i& weight...

Choi, Young-Shig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gallium Arsenide-Based Readout Electronics Thomas J. Cunningham and Eric R. Fossum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

susceptible to radiation and hot carrier damage than are MaS-based structures. This should result in increased;among these has been the construction of optical emitters such as LEDs and lasers, since efficient

Fossum, Eric R.

313

E-Print Network 3.0 - abdominal gallium-67 citrate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the Mg2+ Summary: Chapter iii Impact of the Mg2+ -citrate transporter CitM on heavy metal toxicity in Bacillus... M that is specific for the complex of citrate and Mg2+ but is...

314

Commercialization of gallium nitride nanorod arrays on silicon for solid-state lighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One important component in energy usage is lighting, which is currently dominated by incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, due to potentially higher efficiencies and thus higher energy savings, solid-state lighting ...

Wee, Qixun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dependence of carrier mobility on an electric field in gallium selenide crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the mobility of charge carriers on voltage has been studied in undoped GaSe single crystals and crystals doped with gadolinium; the latter crystals have exhibited various values of dark resistivity ({rho}{sub d.r} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 8} {Omega} cm at 77 K) and of the doping level (N = 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2}, and 10{sup -1} at %). It is established that the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on the electric field applied to the sample E {<=} 10{sup 2} V/cm is observed in undoped high-resistivity GaSe crystals ({rho}{sub d.r} {>=} 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm) and in lightly doped GaSe crystals (N {<=} 10{sup -2} at %) in the region of T {<=} 150 K. It is found that this dependence is not related to heating of the charge carriers by an electric field; rather, it is caused by elimination of drift barriers as a result of injection.

Abdinov, A. Sh., E-mail: abdinov_axmed@yahoo.com; Babaeva, R. F., E-mail: Babaeva-Rena@yandex.ru; Rzayev, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many| Department HIGHImageDepartmentEnergy

317

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects ofAbout ScienceAbout OakMeasurement

318

Nanovoid Formation and Annihilation in Gallium Nanodroplets under Lithiation-Delithiation Cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, United States Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing-to-solid phase transition, forming a crystalline phase (LixGa) with 160% volume expansion. Owing to the uneven Li delithiation, the reverse phase transition occurred, accompanied with the nucleation and growth of a nanosized

Chen, Long-Qing

319

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATEDOEFinal R eport

320

Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLE FRUITYear 1MATERIALSTiO2(110).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis gallium-67 lung Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ILD... , interstitial lung disease, texture analysis, co-occurrence matrix, computed tomography I. INTRODUCTION Computer... %. The aim of our work is to develop a novel texture ......

322

Gallium solar neutrino experiments: Absorption cross sections, neutrino spectra, and predicted event rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar neutrino sources with standard energy spectra, and for laboratory sources of 51 Cr and 37 Ar; the calculations include, where appropriate, the thermal energy of fusing solar ions and use improved nuclear the energy spectrum of solar neutrinos. Theoretical uncertainties are estimated for cross sections

Bahcall, John

323

Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and are not con- sidered to be mobile or bioavailable.6 Selenite (SeO3 2 ) and selenate (SeO4 2 ) are more soluble

324

Arsenic and selenium toxicity and their interactive effects in humans Hong-Jie Sun a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China b Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States c Suzhou Health College, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000, China d Soil and Water Science Department, University

Ma, Lena

325

Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plantplant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of S by Se in proteins (Stadtman, 1990). Bioavailable Se in soil occurs primarily in the form of selenate (Se concentrations of > 10 mg kg)1 (Zhu et al., 2009). Despite their apparent lack of a physio- logical requirement

326

Selenium Accumulation in Brassicaceae Plant Species and its Biotransfer to Insect Pollinators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gradient of heavy metal pollution. Special conservationalong gradients of heavy metal pollution. J of Appl Ecol 49:

Hladun, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Validity of batch sorption data to describe selenium transport through unsaturated tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of project for characterizing Yucca Mt. as a potential site for high-level nuclear waste respository, we used UFA {trademark} technology (centifuge-induced flow) to directly measure selenite retardation coefficients and hydraulic conductivity under unsaturated conditions on two tuff samples from Yucca Mt. Retardation factor for the selenite species was 2.5 in both Yucca Mt. vitric tuff at 62.6% saturation and zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G-tunnel at 52.8% saturation. For these column experiments, we prepared a solution, using J-13 well water from NTS, with a Se conc. of 1.31 mg/L(ppM). The retardation factor of 2.5 measured for both tuffs translates into a sorption distribution coefficient K{sub d} of 0.9 mL/g for the vitric tuff and 0.8 mL/g for the zeolitic tuff. For batch sorption experiments, using the same zeolitic tuff as for the column experiments and solutions of J-13 well water with a Se conc. of 1.1 mg/L(ppM), the average K{sub d} was determined to be 0.1{+-}0.2 mL/g. Given the small K{sub d} values for Se sorption, general agreement between batch and column measurements (obtained under unsaturated conditions) was observed. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities during the experiments were 2.5x10{sup -8} cm/s for the Yucca Mt. vitric tuff and 1.2x10{sup -8} cm/s for the zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G- tunnel.

Conca, J.L. [Tri-Cities Univ. Center, Richland, WA (United States); Triay, I.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effects of selenium on arsenic uptake in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Mrittunjai Srivastava a,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and environmental concern in many countries (Smith et al., 2002). Remediation of As-contaminated soil and water Srivastava a,1 , Lena Q. Ma a,*, Bala Rathinasabapathi b , Pratibha Srivastava a,1 a Soil and Water Science is necessary for protecting both human life and agricultural produc- tion. Phytoremediation of As

Ma, Lena

329

Sorption of Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium onto Nanostructured Adsorbent Media and Stabilization via Surface Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as pH increased. In addition, a surface complexation model (SCM) based on the diffuse layer model (DLM) was used to predict arsenic adsorption envelopes by NTAs under various environmental conditions. The SCM for As(III, V) adsorption by NTAs...

Han, Dong Suk

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Selenium-Hyperdoped Silicon: Observation and Origin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hyperdoping has emerged as a promising method for designing semiconductors with unique optical and electronic properties, although such properties currently lack a clear microscopic explanation. Combining computational and ...

Ertekin, Elif

331

The oxidative addition of simple selenium molecules to an unsaturated iridium (I) compound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

addition reactions of Lewis acids such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen selenide, selenols and thiols to Vaska's compound (trans-chlorocarbonylbis(triphenylphosphine)- iridium'(I)) have been described. The addition products, which have a metal-hydrogen... for the organization of transition metal chemistry. Compounds which possess either polar or nonpolar bonds csn 8 react with unsaturated d complexes to form "oxidized" addition products. Examples of "additive oxidizing agents" include 5 6 7 6 8 8 hydrogen, ' oxygen...

Hsieh, Mel-Lin Mary

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium flat-panel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

22 Licensable Technologies Summary: 12;Licensable Technologies Applications: n Solar Cells n Sensors n Flat Panels n IC Circuits... and low-performance, low-cost...

333

Selenium Hyperaccumulator Plants Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus Are Colonized by Se-Resistant, Se-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.pone.0050516 Editor: Martin Heil, Centro de Investigacio´n y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico Received May 16 #IOS-0817748 to EAHP. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Office of Science, Basic Energy

334

Selenium Partitioning and Food-Chain Transfer at the Salton Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into labeled Nalgene plastic bottles filled with deionized (and stored in plastic bottles or branches containingacid- washed Nalgene plastic bottles. Vertical zooplankton

Tobin, Jennifer Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Higher whole-blood selenium is associated with improved immune responses in footrot-affected sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R: Footrot Eradication in Western Australia Published by theof Agriculture Western Australia, Scott Print; 2003. 7.FR in flocks in Western Australia [6], this protocol is

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores Colin F. Quinn1,#  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

author Author email addresses: CFQ: cquinn@lamar.colostate.edu JLF: jlfreema@lamar.colostate.edu RJBR: epsmits@lamar.colostate.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain

337

Selenium Accumulation in Brassicaceae Plant Species and its Biotransfer to Insect Pollinators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

farm drainage systems such as constructed solar andon- farm drainage management systems such as solar or

Hladun, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Growing the Tool Box for Medical Imaging: The Selenium-72/Arsenic-72  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticlesHumanJuneDocumentingFermiGeorge A.Rise | U.S. DOEGenerator

339

Field evidence of selenium bioreduction in a uranium-contaminated aquifer.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityField Office Programs for Workplace DisputesFieldField|

340

Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can

Rocheleau, Richard E.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Novel Materials Development for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 26 July 2004--15 June 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Focus on player interfacial assessment using Schottky barrier and heterojunction theory, and analysis of p-windows for CIGS and CdTe cells.

Keszler, D. A.; Wager, J. F.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Astronomy Observatory Collection: Physics 13 Potential for High Efficiency in CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: A Laboratory Perspective Summary: a summary of our work with the...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Astronomy Observatory Collection: Physics 13 Potential for High Efficiency in CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: A Laboratory Perspective Summary: a summary of our work with the...

344

amiga project quantification: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the isolation of 950 CIG galaxies CERN Preprints Summary: The role of the environment on galaxy evolution is still not fully understood. In order to quantify and...

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment quarterly technical Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Renewable Energy 29 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

346

additional cu layer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PX-CIGS used in photovoltaicphotovoltaic solar cells. The ef?ciency of labora- tory thin-?photovoltaic device. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of polycrystalline...

347

Microsoft Word - FY 2003 Annual Report Rev10 02_10_04.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

formulation, which has been under development at Sandia since 1997. Efficient Photovoltaic Solar Cells Becoming Widely Deployed CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 ) is a...

348

Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

349

The radiation bio-effects of gallum-72 on leukemic cells via a gallium-transferrin complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the beta is about 30'/o to 40'/o of the maximum energy. An anti-neutrino is emitted simultaneously, carrying the remainder of the energy. Values listed for beta energies are the maximum values unless otherwise stated (Cember 1996). Prominent beta...

Forbes, Christen Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

350

The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

friends for their unending support and patience during this project. Thank you so much! NOMENCLATURE Abbreviations and Acronyms WGPu- weapons grade plutonium DOE- Department of Energy MOX- mixed oxide fuel WG MOX- weapons grade MOX fuel LWR- light... to be employed were immobilization and fissioning the WGPu as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial power reactors. Both approaches have many advantages and disadvantages and are currently being studied by scientists and engineers all over the world. The use...

Allison, Christopher Curtis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Organometallic vapor-phase homoepitaxy of gallium arsenide assisted by a downstream hydrogen afterglow plasma in the growth region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the trimeth- ylgallium (TMGa) for homoepitaxial GaAs. They found in direct comparison of the pure thermal-insulating) substrate is loaded into the depo- sition reactor of Fig. 1 without any chemical degreasing or polishing

Collins, George J.

353

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, VoL 71, No..5, 1998 SIMULATION OF A GALLIUM ARSENIDE RUNNING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a single monolithic circuit are the main tendencies in the development of superhigh-frequency solid-GaAs-type semiconductors with transport of electrons between valleys [3 ] along with works in the field of creating HHT this constitutes the subject matter of this work. Model and Basic Relations. As was shown in a number of our works

Harilal, S. S.

355

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED PULSE MODULATED S-BAND POWER AMPLIFIER IN GALLIUM NITRIDE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of power amplifiers in any semi-conductor process is not a trivia exercise and it is often encountered that the simulated solution is qualitatively different than the results obtained. Phenomena such as oscillation occurring either in-band or out of band and sometimes at subharmonic intervals, continuous spectrum noticed in some frequency bands, often referred to as chaos, and jumps and hysteresis effects can all be encountered and render a design useless. All of these problems might have been identified through a more rigorous approach to stability analysis. Designing for stability is probably the one area of amplifier design that receives the least amount of attention but incurs the most catastrophic of effects if it is not performed properly. Other parameters such as gain, power output, frequency response and even matching may suitable mitigation paths. But the lack of stability in an amplifier has no mitigating path. In addition to of loss of the design completely there are the increased production cycle costs, costs involved with investigating and resolving the problem and the costs involved with schedule slips or delays resulting from it. The Linville or Rollett stability criteria that many microwave engineers follow and rely exclusively on is not sufficient by itself to ensure a stable and robust design. It will be shown that the universal belief that unconditional stability is obtained through an analysis of the scattering matrix S to determine if 1 and |{Delta}{sub S}| < 1 is only part of the procedure and other tools must be used to validate the criteria. The research shown contributes to the state of the art by developing a more thorough stability design technique for designing amplifiers of any class, whether that be current mode or switch mode, than is currently undertaken with the goal of obtaining first pass design success.

STEVE SEDLOCK

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Mediated White-Light-Emitting Rhodamine Fluorophore Derivatives-Gamma Phase Gallium Oxide Nanostructures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The global lighting source energy consumption accounts for about 22% of the total electricity generated. New high-efficiency solid-state light sources are needed to reduce the… (more)

Chiu, Wan Hang Melanie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

An experimental study of the solubility of Gallium(III) oxide in HCl-bearing water vapour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 200 °C at a pH of $4. The values are very similar to those estimated from data for geothermal wells

Devernal, Anne

358

GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz-10%) of transition metals such as copper, silver, and chromium (Feinstein et al 1997 and Pyke 1993). High temperature. Introduction Gas sensing and analysis based on gas adsorption on a catalytic metal surface has been extensively

359

Bismuth in gallium arsenide: Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural and electronic properties of cubic GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys with bismuth concentration 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 are studied using the 'special quasi-random structures' (SQS) approach of Zunger along with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA). The lattice constant, bulk modulus, derivative of bulk modulus and energy gap vary with bismuth concentration nonlinearly. The present calculations show that the band gap decreases substantially with increasing bismuth concentration and that spin-orbit coupling influences the nature of bonding at high Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Bowing effect of spin-orbit split-off band values versus Bi content with and without spin-orbit coupling for GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} (at x=0.25, 0.50 and 0.75). Calculations are done with GGA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present results of lattice constant, energy gap, bulk modulus and derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases substantially with increasing Bi concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations of the density of states and charge densities are also presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed calculations without and with spin-orbit coupling.

Reshak, Ali Hussain, E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [School of Complex Systems, FFWP-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Auluck, S. [National Physical Laboratory Dr. KS Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technological University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Physics based analytical modelling of Gallium Nitride(GaN) MESFET considering different ion implantation energy with high temperature annealing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A physics based analytical model of ion implanted GaN MESFET has been presented considering high temperature annealing effects. Choosing appropriate activation energy of impurity atoms,… (more)

Raghavan, Vinay

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn, E-mail: yrwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

Accomplishments | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

water. (NREL) 1991 Gallium Indium PhosphideGallium Arsenide Tandem Solar Cell: A light, highly efficient solar cell that has become the world's standard for powering...

363

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS. Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy...

364

Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films. Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium...

365

Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irrigation of broccoli and canola with boron and selenium-of selenium in animals consuming canola grown for seleniumDis pared to 21 ppm in canola), which is too high to be used

Stapleton, James J; Banuelos, Gary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Characterization of Damp-Heat Degradation of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cell Components and Devices by (Electrochemical) Impedance Spectroscopy: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work evaluated the capability of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (IS, or ECIS as used here) to monitor damp heat (DH) stability of contact materials, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell components, and devices. Cell characteristics and its variation of the CIGS devices were also examined by the ECIS.

Pern, F. J. J.; Noufi, R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Lessons from IT Ecosystems Michael Kster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Transport-Systems Smart-Energy-Systems etc. Smart Airport as a smaller instance of a Smart City Michael Köster · CIG, TU and interact massively. IT Ecosystem: analogue to biological ecosystems based on the balance between and continuously evolving IT Ecosystems requires deep understanding of this balance. Michael Köster · CIG, TU

Zachmann, Gabriel

368

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells have composition was adjusted by physical vapor deposition method. At present, we are fabricating CIGS-based solar). 2 R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 1431

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometric method Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Selenium by Fluorescence Spectrometry Summary: MATERIALS 129 5. Ihnat. M.. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of selenium with carbon furnace... , and...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic fluorescence spectrometric Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Selenium by Fluorescence Spectrometry Summary: MATERIALS 129 5. Ihnat. M.. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of selenium with carbon furnace... I...

371

Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

selenium and sulfur precursors. The more strongly bound the selenium or sulfur is to phosphorous in the precursor, the lower the reactivity. The lower the reactivity, the longer...

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic fluorides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(F), selenium (Se), uranium (U), and radium... : arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and ... Source: Scanlon, Bridget R. - Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of...

373

Final Report for Department of Energy/EERE (for public release)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing CIGS solar cells calls for the understanding of materials and processing in order to translate the record small efficiency to module and the strategy to produce thin cells for materials and processing saving. This project has exploited nanostructuring of CIG solar cells, including nanowires and nanotextured substrates. We showed that nanowires function as well-defined CIGS-CdS p-n junction for understanding the chemical fluctuation, defect formation interface and grain boundary behaviors and the effect of ion diffusion, which are important but complicated issues for solar cell fabrication. We have also demonstrated effective nanoscale photon management on nanotextured substrate to provide opportunity for thin CIGS solar cells. We also developed the scalable methods for producing such nanotextured substrates. The research output in this project helps advancing the CIGS solar cells and broadly other solar cell technologies in cost reduction per unit power.

Yi Cui

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Solid-to-solid phase transformations of nanostructured selenium-tin thin films induced by thermal annealing in oxygen atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural and morphological evolution of nanostructured thin films obtained from thermal evaporation of polycrystalline Sn-Se starting charge as a function of the subsequent annealing temperature in an oxygen flow has been analysed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, small area electron diffraction, digital image processing, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy have been employed in order to investigate the structure and the morphology of the obtained films. The results evidenced, in the temperature range from RT to 500°C, the transition of the material from a homogeneous mixture of SnSe and SnSe{sub 2} nanocrystals, towards a homogeneous mixture of SnO{sub 2} and SeO{sub 2} nanocrystals, with an intermediate stage in which only SnSe{sub 2} nanocrystals are present.

Serra, A. [Physics Applied to Material Science interdepartmental Laboratory (PAMS-Lab) - Dipartimento di Beni Culturali - Università del Salento - Lecce (Italy); Rossi, M. [Dipartimento Scienze di Base ed Applicate all'Ingegneria, and CNIS - Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Buccolieri, A.; Manno, D. [Physics Applied to Material Science interdepartmental Laboratory (PAMS-Lab) - Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali - Università del Salento - Lecce (Italy)

2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ecosystem-scale Selenium Model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

79 p + 9 appendices. Cutter GA. Bruland KW. 1984. The marinerisks are likely (Cutter and Bruland 1984); hence, there are

Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Selenium Fractionation and Cycling in the Intertidal Zone of the Carquinez Strait - October 1995 to December 1995  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the mechanism by which refinery Se enters the food web isIt is also not clear how refinery effluent Se, released asThe analysis of a Shell Refinery effluent sample reported in

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ecosystem-scale Selenium Model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

both agricultural and oil refinery sources of Se (SFBRWQCBSe • hydrodynamics • oil refinery effluent • North Bay •1) internal inputs of oil refinery wastewaters from pro-

Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ecosystem-scale Selenium Model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the rivers to the Golden Gate Bridge is termed the Northernconcentrations near the Golden Gate Bridge (Cutter and

Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Selenium Fractionation and Cycling in the Intertidal Zone of the Carquinez Strait - October 1995 to December 1995  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-B y conventional flame atomic absorption (FLAA) methods,hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Ecosystem-scale Selenium Model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Canal • Sacramento Valley ? Yolo Bypass (drains, west-sideSe effluents* North Bay streams Inflow (import) YoloBypass Yolo Bypass Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta • Los

Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

On the Mass Eigenstate Composition of the 8B Neutrinos from the Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present data of gallium experiments provide indirectly the only experimental limit on the fraction of $\

A. Kopylov; V. Petukhov

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method for the chemical separation of GE-68 from its daughter Ga-68  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a generator apparatus for separating a daughter gallium-68 radioisotope substantially free of impurities from a parent gernanium-68 radioisotope, including a first resin-containing column containing parent gernanium-68 radioisotope and daughter gallium-68 radioisotope, a source of first eluent connected to said first resin-containing column for separating daughter gallium-68 radioisotope from the first resin-containing column, said first eluent including citrate whereby the separated gallium is in the form of gallium citrate, a mixing space connected to said first resin-containing column for admixing a source of hydrochloric acid with said separated gallium citrate whereby gallium citrate is converted to gallium tetrachloride, a second resin-containing column for retention of gallium-68 tetrachloride, and, a source of second eluent connected to said second resin-containing column for eluting the daughter gallium-68 radioisotope from said second resin-containing column.

Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Atcher, Robert W.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Processing Materials Devices and Diagnostics for Thin Film Photovoltaics: Fundamental and Manufacturability Issues; Final Report, 5 September 2001 - 31 May 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The critical issues addressed in this study on CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si modules will provide the science and engineering basis for developing viable commercial processes and improved module performance.

Birkmire, R. W.; Shafarman, W. N.; Eser, E.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.; Dobson, K. D.; Bowden, S.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

Kurtz, S.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - abstracts quarterly update Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 6 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

387

E-Print Network 3.0 - assistance program preliminary Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Biology and Medicine 74 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - assistance program quarterly Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at San Diego Collection: Engineering 3 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - applications quarterly environmental Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at San Diego Collection: Engineering 3 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - applications quarterly technical Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

technical Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: Control FY07 CIG program...

391

Zn3P2 and Cu2O substrates for solar energy conversion.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) are promising and earth-abundant alternatives to traditional thin film photovoltaics materials such as CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si. We… (more)

Kimball, Gregory Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

asi tiina kster: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1|19 12;1 IT Ecosystems IT Ecosystems Michael Kster CIG, TU Clausthal Ga Zachmann, Gabriel 12 Asie du Sud : les amateurs-experts de la violence collective Par Laurent...

393

ALGEBRA HOMOLOGICZNA, WYK#AD 13 Zak#adamy, #e X jest normaln# przestrzeni# topologiczn#.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Wtedy mamy kr#tki ci#gh dok#adny snop#w 0 ! F ! I ! G, kt#ry daje nam d#ugi ci#g dok#adny grup abelowych

Kowalski, Piotr

394

Innovative Characterization of Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon for Improved Module Performance: 28 April 2005 - 15 September 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report focuses on (1) characterizing nc-Si:H from United Solar; (2) studying Si,Ge:H alloys deposited by HWCVD; and (3) characterizing CIGS films and relating to cell performance parameters.

Cohen, J. D.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Preparation of silicon substrates for gallium-arsenide solar cells by electron-beam-pulse processing. Annual technical report, March 15, 1980-March 15, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past year a process has been developed for creating high-quality epitaxial layers of germanium on silicon substrates using rapid heating and cooling with a pulsed electron beam. This single-crystal germanium coating is the key to the production of high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost silicon substrates in an economical manner. Thin (less than or equal to 1 ..mu..m) layers of Ge have been deposited on Si wafers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in single-crystal form or by vacuum evaporation in amorphous or polycrystalline form. The CVD films have given the best results, with good crystallinity and electrical properties as deposited. A persistent problem with surface roughness in the as-deposited films has been overcome by pulsed electron beam melting of the near-surface region in time periods on the order of a microsecond. The brief molten period smooths the surface features without compromising the crystallinity, electrical properties, or interfacial abruptness of the Ge film. These layers are of a quality suitable for further evaluation by GaAs growth and cell processing in the next phase of the program. Pulsed electron beam processing also serves a vital function for the evaporated Ge films, which are melted by the beam and recrystallized on the Si substrates, epitaxial single crystal Ge layers result from amorphous or polycrystalline starting films. To date results have not been as satisfactory as for CVD films; contamination from several sources has been identified as a problem. Many of these sources have been eliminated, so that a decision on the intrinsic limitations of the evaporated film approach should be made in the near future.

Tobin, S.P.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

film photovoltaics [1]. This roughly doubling of efficiencyMJ photovoltaics. MJ solar cells achieve higher efficiencies

Fong, David Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Narrow energy band gap gallium arsenide nitride semi-conductors and an ion-cut-synthesis method for producing the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a semi-conductor material is provided that comprises forming a donor substrate constructed of GaAs, providing a receiver substrate, implanting nitrogen into the donor substrate to form an implanted layer comprising GaAs and nitrogen. The implanted layer is bonded to the receiver substrate and annealed to form GaAsN and nitrogen micro-blisters in the implanted layer. The micro-blisters allow the implanted layer to be cleaved from the donor substrate.

Weng, Xiaojun; Goldman, Rachel S.

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

Synthesis of Germanium-Gallium-Tellurium (Ge-Ga-Te) ceramics by ball-milling and sintering Mathieu Hubert, Elena Petracovschi, Xiang-Hua Zhang and Laurent Calvez*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the semiconductor behavior of CdTe is exploited for the production of solar panels [1, 2], the rapid and reversibleSe3 [21, 22] glasses show a controllable crystallization behavior, enabling the production of glass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 043806 (2010) Photon self-induced spin-to-orbital conversion in a terbium-gallium-garnet crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`a di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli, Italy 2 INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, 80126 Napoli, Italy 3 EGO, European Gravitational Observatory, Via E. Amaldi, 56021 S. Stefano a Macerata, Cascina (PI), Italy 4 CNISM

Marrucci, Lorenzo

400

Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III! V Multijunction Solar Cells,” (2003). J. F. Geisz, etEfficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells A thesis submitted inEfficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells By David Michael Fong

Fong, David Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the display industry as it moves from liquid crystal to organic light emitting diode technology and with requirements for larger areas and higher resolutions. A number of alternative material systems to a-Si:H have emerged, including organic semiconductors...

Flewitt, Andrew J.; Powell, M.J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research. Annual subcontract report, 15 April 1988--14 June 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim of this contract is the achievement of a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed is metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs and for the two-junction case is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include the following: (1) a 17.6% efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5% efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7% efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Gallium arsenide-based ternary compounds and multi-band-gap solar cell research. Final subcontract report, 1 April 1988--31 March 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work to achieve a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell. The basic approach to the problem is centered upon the heteroepitaxial growth of a III-V compound material onto a single-crystal silicon wafer. The growth technique employed throughout this work is metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The silicon wafer may serve as a mechanical substrate and ohmic contact for a single-junction device, or it may contain a p-n junction of its own and form the bottom cell of a two-junction tandem solar cell structure. The III-V material for the single-junction case is GaAs, and for the two-junction case it is either GaAlAs or GaAsP, either material having the proper composition to yield a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. Results achieved in this contract include (1) a 17.6%-efficient GaAs-on-Si solar cell; (2) an 18.5%-efficient GaAs-on-Si concentrator solar cell at 400 suns; (3) a 24.8%-efficient GaAs-on-GaAs solar cell; (4) a 28.7%-efficient GaAs-on-GaAs concentrator solar cell at 200 suns; (5) the measurement of the effects of dislocation density and emitter doping on GaAs cells; and (6) improvements in the growth process to achieve reproducible thin AlGaAs window layers with low recombination velocities and environmental stability.

Vernon, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

IIl-nitride nanowires and heterostructures : growth and optical properties on nanoscale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) nanowires promise potential for further improving the electricity-to-light energy conversion efficiencies in light emitting diodes due to strain relaxation, reduced ...

Zhou, Xiang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As and gallium nitride (GaN) and was used in integrated circuits (ICs) and optoelectronic devices [laser diodes

407

2011 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cs) and optoelectronic devices [laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (lEDs), photodetectors, and solar cells]. Gallium

408

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMONG INVERTEBRATES AND ALGAE OF SOLAR EVAPORATION PONDS INplanktonic invertebrates and algae present along with avianof invertebrates and algae, and avian foraging were examined

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Soluble arsenic and selenium species in fly ash/organic waste-amended soils using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixing coal fly ash with an organic waste increases macronutrient content and may make land application of fly ash a viable disposal alternative. However, trace element chemistry of these mixed waste products warrants investigation. Speciation of As and Se in soil solutions of fly ash-, poultry litter- and sewage sludge-amended soils was determined over a 10-day period by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Detection limits were 0.031, 0.028, 0.051, 0.161, 0.497, and 0.660 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} for dimethylarsinate (DMA), As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI), respectively. Arsenic was highly water-soluble from poultry litter and appeared to be predominantly As(V). Arsenic(V) was the predominant species in soil amended with two fly ashes. Application of fly ash/poultry litter mixtures increased As solubility and led to the prevalence of DMA as the major As species. DMA concentrations of these soil solutions decreased rapidly over the sampling period relative to As(V), suggesting that DMA readily underwent mineralization in the soil solution. Se(VI) was the predominant soluble Se species in all treatments indicating rapid oxidation of Se(IV) initially solubilized from the fly ashes.

Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences] [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual Report. October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1996.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detrmination by atomic absorption spectrometry. Atomichydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-that used on the LBNL atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS),

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual Report. October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1996.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Total Acid Digestion (TAD) Procedure Appendix B. — Qualitycore; Sx, sulfite extract; TAD, total acid digest; OHx,Se from a total acid digest (TAD) of the sample and the sum

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic cadmium mercury Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CARR,AND H. MILLER. 1972. Total... mercury. (Lond.)254:238-239. 12;LUNDE, G. 1970. Analysis of arsenic and selenium in marine raw materials... MERCURY AND SELENIUM IN BLUE...

413

Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe{sub 2} solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 3 May 1991--2 May 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm{sup 2}-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd{sub 0.82}Zn{sub 0.18}S/CuIn{sub 0.80}Ga{sub 0.20}Se{sub 2} cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V{sub oc} = 0.581 V, J{sub sc} = 34.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm{sup 2}.

Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Regulation of October 6, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(TMDLs Completed) · Selenium (No Bay TMDL in progress) · Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin · Dioxins and Furans

415

Supporting Information Supplemental Table 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Se-C Forms A. Canola One multi scan 3.60E-04 ND ND 99 B. Indian mustard Two multi scans 4.02E-04 4.28E-04 ND Seeds RT Min. (Canola) % Soluble Selenium (Canola) Selenium Compounds (Canola) 2.54 ± 0.02 14.11 ± 2Cysteine 11.49 ± 1.03 19.64 ± 4.11% Selenate Seed Meals RT Min. (Canola) % Soluble Selenium (Canola) Selenium

416

In situ chemical sensing in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for real-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; accepted 14 June 2005; published 18 July 2005 Gallium nitride and its alloys promise to be key materials.1116/1.1993616 I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, gallium-nitride GaN - and aluminum- gallium-nitride AlGaN -based are grown at high temperatures e.g., up to 1100 °C using large concentrations of H2 carrier and NH3 N source

Rubloff, Gary W.

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide oxides sr2cro3feas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Microstructures of gallium nitride nanowires synthesized by oxide-assisted method W.S. Shi, Y... synthesized using the recently developed oxide-assisted method by laser...

418

Photonic crystal light emitting diode.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This master's thesis describe electromagnetic simulations of a gallium antimonide (GaSb) light emitting diode, LED. A problem for such devices is that most of… (more)

Leirset, Erlend

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium arsenides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of gallium arsenide, a semiconductor, which is used in advanced optoelectronics, lasers, microwave circuits... , and solar cells. To determine material...

420

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive nitride-based coatings Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DELAUSANNE Summary: AND ELECTRONICS PROF. N. GRANDJEAN 33 III-NITRIDE BASED OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES 34 GALLIUM NITRIDE-BASED 2D... FOR DIVERSE APPLICATIONS 84 HOLE ARRAY...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

2012 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Presentations...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Frank Cerio, Veeco Instruments Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices Vivek Agrawal, Applied Materials Driving Down HB-LED Costs:...

422

The role of screening of the electron-phonon interaction in relaxation of photoexcited electron-hole plasma in semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of screening of the interaction of the electron-hole plasma with optical phonons is analytically evaluated by the example of gallium arsenide.

Kumekov, S. E. [Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropy physics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

physics Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anisotropy physics Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Gallium crystallization: implication for the...

424

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY CREE, INC. FOR AN ADVANCED...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in the design and.manufacture of commercial semiconductor products utilizing silicon carbide and gallium nitride technologies. Cree states it is the owner or licensee to over 500...

425

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY CREE, INC. FOR AN ADVANCED...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in the design and manufacture of commercial semiconductor products utilizing silicon carbide and gallium nitride technologies. In addition Cree has more than 300 domestic patents...

426

High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

temperature gate drive is being developed for use with future wide band gap (silicon carbide and gallium nitride) switching devices. * Universal drive that is capable of driving...

427

J O U R N A L O F C H E M I S T R Y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interactions in inhibiting the efficient widescale commercial utilization of polymeric electro for polymeric electro-optic modulators; however, in with devices fabricated from lithium niobate and gallium

Walba, David

428

Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and 110-oriented lateral facets, respectively. Citation: Wang Z, X Zu, F Gao, and WJ Weber.2007."Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline Wurtzite Gallium...

429

THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

Anderson, T.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum alloys grain Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aluminum... -lithium and aluminum-gallium has been studied. In ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure...

431

Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diffusion kinetics of rare-earth elements in YAG. . . .values for rare- earth elements in YAG. . . . . . . . . .6] D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion

Hollingsworth, Joel Philip

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The conversion of plutonium from a nuclear weapon to nuclear reactor fuel requires an evaluation of the residual gallium as a potential corrosive material within… (more)

O'Kelly, David Sean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates - Karen Waldrip, SNL.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics (PE) Systems...

434

Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia Develops a Synthesis of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science, News, News & Events, Office of Science, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on blue indium-gallium-nitride...

435

aircraft exhaust plumes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

436

aircraft plume model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

437

ablation plume propagation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

438

ablation plume expansion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

439

ablation plume thermalization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

440

ablation plume dynamics: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ocean before descending to the core. We report results of laboratory experiments-forming metals. Single gallium drop experiments and experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Diamonds are an Electronic Device's Best Friend | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

way to combine diamond films with two other materials important for advanced devices, graphene and gallium nitride. Graphene is a rising star of the materials science world, with...

442

Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of SubMIC components, including the proprietary PolyStrata micro-coaxial transformer, Gallium Nitride integrated circuits, and Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductors,...

443

Alta Devices Develops World Record Setting Thin-Film Solar Cell  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

EERE supported the development of Alta Devices' thin film Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic technology that set a world record for conversion efficiency.

444

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 6573 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 65­73 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells Xuege Wanga , Sheng S. Lia,�, C time to modify near- surface defects and related junction properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells

Anderson, Timothy J.

445

The Center for integrative genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Center for integrative genomics Report 2005­2006 #12;Presentation Director's message 4 Scientific advisory committee 6 Organigram of the CIG 7 research The structure and function of genomes and their evolution alexandrereymond ­ Genome structure and expression 10 henrikKaessmann ­ Evolutionary genomics 12

Kaessmann, Henrik

446

Thse prsente pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L'COLE POLYTECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for solar cells 5 2.1 Photovoltaic solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 History initio Calculations of the Electronic Properties of CuIn(S,Se)2 and other Materials for Photovoltaic and technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 CIGS solar cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Toward microscale Cu,,In,Ga...Se2 solar cells for efficient conversion and optimized material usage: Theoretical evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar cells are gaining a growing market share in the photovoltaic field. CIGS thin film solar cells. In this paper, the behavior of microscale thin film solar cells under concen- tration will be studied. We focusToward microscale Cu,,In,Ga...Se2 solar cells for efficient conversion and optimized material usage

Boyer, Edmond

448

Simulation of Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells in Two Dimensions Markus Gloeckler, Wyatt K. Metzger1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that a plausible reason behind highly efficient thin-film CIGS solar cells ( > 17%) is an inherent valenceSimulation of Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells in Two Dimensions Markus Gloeckler, Wyatt K) solar cells and its effects on solar-cell performance. The simulations predict that (1) for device

Sites, James R.

449

The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaics     There  are  two  requirements  for  designing  a  high  efficiency  photovoltaics.    These   modeling  efforts  are  important  not  only  for  future  efficiency  photovoltaics,  typically  made  with  CIGS  and  CdTe   absorber  layers,  are  promising  sources  of  renewable  energy  due  to  their  high   efficiencies  (

Brown, Gregory Ferguson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim7020 www.advmat.de  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation high efficiency photovoltaic architectures, such as photovoltaics with up-converting absorbers[4 conventional inorganic photovoltaic, such as silicon or CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS), to form a higher efficiency for Third Generation Photovoltaics Zach M. Beiley, M. Greyson Christoforo, Paul Gratia, Andrea R. Bowring

McGehee, Michael

451

2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 www.advmat.de  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation high efficiency photovoltaic architectures, such as photovoltaics with up-converting absorbers[4 conventional inorganic photovoltaic, such as silicon or CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS), to form a higher efficiency for Third Generation Photovoltaics Zach M. Beiley, M. Greyson Christoforo, Paul Gratia, Andrea R. Bowring

McGehee, Michael

452

Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, Rossmanith (ed) 0 1995 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 90 54 10 54 7 0 Seismic properties of a general fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7 0 Seismic properties of a general fracture E. Liu British Geological Survey Edinburgh, UK J Inc., Ponca Cig Okla., USA ABSTRACT: In modelling the wave behaviour through fractured and jointed rocks, different models have been proposed to describe the fractures. A fracture can be modelled (1

Edinburgh, University of

453

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 668 @ 2001 Materials Research Society Influence of proton irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power (defined as the ratio of output electrical power to the solar module weight). Thin film solar cells on polymer films can yield more than 2- kW/kg specific power. CIGS solar cells of about 10 to 12 irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide A. Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A

Romeo, Alessandro

454

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2002 Progress Report AAS Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Integrated Storage System CH4 Methane CIDI Compressed Ignition Direct Injection CIGS Copper/Si Aluminosilicate Al2O3 Aluminum Oxides AMS Accelerator Mass Spectrometry ANL Argonne National Laboratory APCI Air a Oxygenase CARB California Air Resources Board CCD Charge-Coupled Device CCM Catalyst Coated Membrane CEM

455

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report Acronyms and Abbreviations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Gas CH2-ISS Compressed Hydrogen Gas Integrated Storage System CH4 Methane Chl Chlorophyll CIGS&D Compression, Storage and Dispensing CSMP Cabot Superior Micropowders CST Compact Stuart Technology Cu Copper-millionth of a centimeter) A/C Air Conditioner ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology AC Alternating

456

Building Integrated Photovoltaics: New trends and Challenges'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AR coating p-type Si Monocrystalline Silicon solar cell Polycrystalline wafer solar cells #12;· Thin crystalline silicon (mono & multi) Dye cell and organic thin film: a-Si, CdTe, CIGS new concepts the optical absorption in thin a-Si layers, texturing of TCO and reflecting mirror are applied Amorphous

Painter, Kevin

457

Transport, Interfaces, and Modeling in Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 11 February 2002 - 30 September 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results for a-Si characteristics/modeling; photocarrier drift mobilities in a-Si;H, ..mu..c-Si:H, CIGS; hole-conducting polymers as p-layer for a-Si and c-Si; IR spectra of p/i and n/i interfaces in a-Si.

Schiff, E. A.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

"ECS Transactions -Boston, MA" Volume 16, "Photovoltaics for the 21st Century 7" to be published in September, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"ECS Transactions - Boston, MA" Volume 16, "Photovoltaics for the 21st Century 7" to be published Ã?/600 Ã? /200 Ã?. The CIGS film with homogeneous and dense surface morphology with large grain size temperature from 99.99% pure source. Figure 1(a) shows the schematic of the E-beam evaporation system used

Dagenais, Mario

459

Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations and exposures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An encapsulated configuration study was conducted on ITO and AZO, exposing samples to the above accel- erated applications, durability concerns arise. The cost and reliability of solar power are often cited as a primary been reported in thin film silicon solar modules123 , CIGS modules456 and OPV technologies78910

Rollins, Andrew M.

460

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2007. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar power. Research was underway to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for flexible CIGS solar collection of scrap to fabrication of secondary indium products. A recycler may have millions of dollars%. Mainstream LCD devices were also trending toward larger panel sizes, which require more indium per unit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO?=?VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}?=?0.3?eV?±?0.1?eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0?eV?±?0.1?eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

462

COMPARISON OF TRAP STATES BETWEEN CIGSS/CdS/ZnO AND Cd PE CIGSS/ZnO CELLS P.K. Johnson, A.O. Pudov, J.R. Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost. The best photovoltaic junctions are produced when a thin CdS layer is deposited by chemical commercial photovoltaic modules. We use current-voltage, quantum efficiency, capacitance Defects - 3 1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CIGS thin film photovoltaic cells are known for their high

Sites, James R.

463

When you think of the film industry, what comes to mind? Entertainment. In this issue you will discover how films not only bring us the latest adventures but also are being sculptured at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. patents. He is a recipient of three Sports Emmy® Awards for Outstanding Technical Team Achievement. 2009 technology. Kraus is focusing on optimization of this layer and process control for high volume CIGS Dr. Christine Masters, Bogniak took an active role in two engineering mechanics classes - Statics

Demirel, Melik C.

464

Biofortifying Brassica with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. NewE. 2008. Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular diseaseShoot calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations differ

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

CY10 ASER TTR_cover final.indd  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

silver, zinc, lead, selenium, and mercury), * Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH), * Oil and grease, and * Tritium, gamma spectroscopy, gross alphabeta. All analytical...

466

CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

467

innovati nNREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

innovati nNREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells Before 1984, many a solar cell can convert into electricity. Olson thought the focus should change to finding materials-winning gallium indium phosphide/gallium arsenide tandem solar cell, which had achieved record efficiencies, con

468

TESLA-FEL 2007-03 Application of low cost GaAs LED as neutron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neutrons in unbiased Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) resulted in a reduction Keywords: COTS components, Displacement damage, Electron Linear Accelerator, GaAs Light emitting diode (LED) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diode (LED) for the assessment of integrated neutron fluence

469

This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell--Gallium arsenide, nanospheres, photovoltaic systems, whispering gallery modes (WGMs). I. INTRODUCTION THE route as the active layer is thinned [2]. Thin-film photovoltaics offer the possibility to significantly reduce

Atwater, Harry

470

Induced Optical Losses in Optoelectronic Devices due to Focused Ion Beam Damages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of damages caused by gallium focused ion beam (FIB) into III-V compounds is presented. Potential damages caused by local heating, ion implantation, and selective sputtering are presented. Preliminary analysis shows that local heating is negligible. Gallium implantation is shown to occur over areas tens of nanometers thick. Gallium accumulation as well as selective sputtering during III-V compounds milling is expected. Particularly, for GaAs, this effect leads to gallium segregation and formation of metallic clusters. Microdisk resonators were fabricated using FIB milling with different emission currents to analyze these effects on a device. It is shown that for higher emission current, thus higher implantation doses, the cavity quality factor rapidly decreases due to optical scattering losses induced by implanted gallium atoms.

Vallini, Felipe; Reis, Elohim Fonseca dos; von Zuben, Antônio Augusto; Frateschi, Newton Cesário

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Removal of selenite from wastewater using microbial fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation Á Microbial fuel cell Á Selenium removal Á Wastewater treatment Introduction Selenium (SeORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Removal of selenite from wastewater using microbial fuel cells Tunc Catal Æ; Lenz T. Catal Á H. Liu (&) Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University

Tullos, Desiree

472

Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech'Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech'Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech'Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

Schubert, Charlene

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

474

Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

Sites, James R.

475

Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

Bhattacharya, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Safe Operating Procedure SAFETY PROTOCOL: URANIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involve the use of natural or depleted uranium. Natural isotopes of uranium are U-238, U-235 and U-234 (see Table 1 for natural abundances). Depleted uranium contains less of the isotopes: U-235 and U-234. The specific activity of depleted uranium (5.0E-7 Ci/g) is less than that of natural uranium (7.1E-7 Ci

Farritor, Shane

477

ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

478

EECE 577 Assignment 2 Due date: October 20, at the beginning of class.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigated for use in low-cost, thin-film solar cells (see, for example, Nanosolar's web-site). CIGS can be p on the course web-site in the file Spectrum.txt. The wavelength is in column 1 and the irradiance is in column 3. Perform a calculation of the dark current for the cell, justifying the equations and para- meter values

Pulfrey, David L.

479

Hydrological, geochemical, and ecological characterization of Kesterson Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes Kesterson Reservoir related research activities carried out under a cooperative program between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of California during FY89. The primary objectives of these investigations are: Predict the extent, probability of the occurrence, and selenium concentrations in surface water of temporary wetland habitat at Kesterson; assess rates and direction of migration of the drainage water plume that seeped into the aquifer under Kesterson; monitor and predict changes in quantity and speciation of selenium in surface soils and vadose zone pore-waters; and develop a comprehensive strategy through soil, water, and vegetation management to safely dissipate the high concentrations of selenium accumulated in Kesterson soils. This report provides an up-date on progress made in each of these areas. Chapter 2 describes results of recent investigations of water table fluctuations and plume migration. Chapter 3 describes results of ongoing monitoring of soil water selenium concentrations and evaporative accumulation of selenium at the soil surface. Chapter 4 describes early results from the soil, water, and vegetation management field trials as well as supporting laboratory and theoretical studies. In Chapter 5, new analytical methods for selenium speciation are described and quality assurance/quality control statistics for selenium and boron are provided. 110 refs., 138 figs., 62 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gallium selenium cigs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Applied Materials Develops an Advanced Epitaxial Growth System to Bring Down LED Costs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

With the help of DOE funding, Applied Materials has developed an advanced epitaxial growth system for gallium nitride (GaN) LED devices that decreases operating costs, increases internal quantum efficiency, and improves binning yields.

482

A compact transport and charge model for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors for RF applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are rapidly emerging as front-runners in high-power mm-wave circuit applications. For circuit design with current devices and to allow sensible future ...

Radhakrishna, Ujwal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

2338 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 Optically Switched-Drive-Based Unified Independent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well. Index Terms--Active gate drive, di/dt, dv/dt, electromagnetic interference (EMI), gallium. However, this leads to higher di/dt and dv/dt, which in turn, causes higher electromagnetic interference

Mazumder, Sudip K.

484

A-15 Superconducting composite wires and a method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Luhman, Thomas S. (Westhampton Beach, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Wrapping process for fabrication of A-15 superconducting composite wires  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.J.; Luhman, T.S.

1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--MINERALS INFORMATION 1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). to produce optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits for Increased demand for GaAs resulted in several U. Consumption Optoelectronic devices continued to be the largest end use for gallium, with 59% of total

487

Calendar | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Application Center 2014-10-16 13:32 Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices 2014-10-16 13:32 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE...

488

2H NMR | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NMR Leads No leads are available at this time. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR...

489

EMSL - 2H NMR  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tags2h-nmr en Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslweb...

490

EMSL - In situ catalysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

situ-catalysis en Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslweb...

491

In situ catalysis | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Leads No leads are available at this time. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR...

492

CX-004937: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transphorm, Inc. -High Performance Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor Modules for Agile Power ElectronicsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/05/2010Location(s): CaliforniaOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

493

Device-level thermal analysis of GaN-based electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium nitride (GaN)-based microelectronics are one of the most exciting semiconductor technologies for high power density and high frequency electronics. The excellent electrical properties of GaN and its related alloys ...

Bagnall, Kevin Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony pyrochlore-type oxides Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 84 (1979). See also... . Wright, S. and Kroemer, H., "Reduction of Oxides on Silicon by Heating in a Gallium Molecular Beam at 800... .' Bean, J....

495

Association between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopants in crystalline and amorphous ZnO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the structure and binding energies of clusters formed between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopant atoms (indium, gallium and aluminium) substituted into zinc oxide. Our results show...

Muñoz Ramo, D.; Chroneos, A.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Bristowe, P .D.

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

496

MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

CX-010873: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ammonothermal Bulk Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Lightning and Power Electronics CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

498

OBSERVATOIRE DE GRENOBLE LABORATOIRE DE GEOPHYSIQUE INTERNE ET TECTONOPHYSIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source d'´energie la plus probable de la g´eodynamo, qui entretient le champ magn´etique de la plan´elisation de l'´ecou- lement convectif sans champ d'un m´etal liquide (le gallium), `a grand for¸cage thermique, and aims at modelling the non-magnetic convective flow of a spherical shell of liquid metal (gallium

Boyer, Edmond

499

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Extended infrared photoresponse and gain in chalcogen-supersaturated silicon photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly supersaturated solid solutions of selenium or sulfur in silicon were formed by ion implantation followed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting. n[superscript +]p photodiodes fabricated from these materials exhibit gain ...

Sullivan, Joseph Timothy